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Sample records for hvac control system

  1. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design...... temperature controller, based on airflow control, was designed. Feedback linearisation is used together with an auto-tuning procedure, based on relay feedback. Design of a new CO2 controller was made to achieve a demand controlled ventilation system, in order to save energy. Feedback linearisation was used...

  2. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part I: Modeling and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a work on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The study is performed from the perspective of giving a unitary control method to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. To illustrate the proposed HVAC control technique, in this first part it is considered as benchmark problem a single thermal space HVAC system. The construction of the mathematical model is performed only with a view to obtain a framework of HVAC intelligent control validation by numerical simulations. The latter will be reported in a second part of the study.

  3. Transactive Control of Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Sen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Guopeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    This document details the development and testing of market-based transactive controls for building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. These controls are intended to serve the purposes of reducing electricity use through conservation, reducing peak building electric demand, and providing demand flexibility to assist with power system operations. This report is the summary of the first year of work conducted under Phase 1 of the Clean Energy and Transactive Campus Project. The methods and techniques described here were first investigated in simulation, and then subsequently deployed to a physical testbed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus for validation. In this report, we describe the models and control algorithms we have developed, testing of the control algorithms in simulation, and deployment to a physical testbed. Results from physical experiments support previous simulation findings, and provide insights for further improvement.

  4. Optimal Model-Based Control in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is developed. Then the optimal control structure is designed and implemented. The HVAC system is splitted into two subsystems. By selecting the right set-points and appropriate cost functions for each subsystem controller the optimal control strategy is respected to gaurantee the minimum thermal and electrical......This paper presents optimal model-based control of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger (a rotary wheel heat recovery) and a water-to- air heat exchanger. First dynamic model of the HVAC system...... energy consumption. Finally, the controller is applied to control the mentioned HVAC system and the results show that the expected goals are fulfilled....

  5. HVAC systems design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Thoroughly updated with the latest codes, technologies, and practices, this all-in-one resource provides details, calculations, and specifications for designing efficient and effective residential, commercial, and industrial HVAC systems. HVAC Systems Design Handbook, Fifth Edition, features new information on energy conservation and computer usage for design and control, as well as the most recent International Code Council (ICC) Mechanical Code requirements. Detailed illustrations, tables, and essential HVAC equations are also included. This comprehensive guide contains everything you need to design, operate, and maintain peak-performing HVAC systems.

  6. D0 HVAC System Controls Evaluation of Upgrade Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.; Simon, P.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering note documents three different options for upgrading the Dzero HVAC control system. All three options leave the current field hardware and field devices intact and upgrade the computer control hardware and software. Dzero will be heading into a physics run starting in 2000. This physics run could last several years. The Dzero HVAC system is an integral part of climate control and electronics cooling. The current HVAC control system is based upon a 1985 Johnson Controls System. In order to enter the next long-term physics run with a solid HVAC control system, the current control system needs to be upgraded. This proposal investigates three options: (1) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the Johnson Controls operator interface - FESS; (2) Replacement to the next generation of Johnson Controls Hardware and Software with the FIX32 Operator Interface - FESS/Dzero; and (3) Replacement with a commercially available Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) WITH THE FIX 32 Operator Interface - Dzero.

  7. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  8. Modeling and Control of AHUs in Building HVAC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is a mechanical system that provides thermal comfort and accepted indoor air quality often instrumented for large-scale buildings. The HVAC system takes a dominant portion of overall building energy consumption and accounts for 50% of the energy used in the U.S. commercial and residential buildings in 2012. The performance and energy saving of building HVAC systems can be significantly improved by the implementation of better and smarter contro...

  9. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  10. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  11. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  12. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  13. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  14. Critical control points for the management of microbial growth in HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, S; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Office buildings with HVAC systems consistently report Sick Building Symptoms that are derived from microbial growth. We used the HACCP methodology to find the main critical control points (CCPs) for microbial management of HVAC systems in temperate climates. Desk research revealed relative humidity

  15. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  16. Thermal analysis of an HVAC system with TRV controlled hydronic radiator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis and contr......A model for an HVAC system is derived in this paper. The HVAC system consists of a room and a hydronic radiator with temperature regulating valve (TRV) which has a step motor to adjust the valve opening. The heating system and the room are simulated as a unit entity for thermal analysis...... and controller design. A discrete-element model with interconnected small scaled elements is proposed for the radiator. This models the radiator more precisely than that of a lumped model in terms of transfer delay and radiator gain. This precise modeling gives us an intuition into a regular unwanted phenomenon...... which occurs in low demand situations. When flow is very low in radiator and the supply water temperature and the pressure drop across the valve is constant, oscillation in room temperature occurs. One reason could be the large gain of radiator in low demand conditions compared to the high demand...

  17. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  18. HVAC system operation manual of IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun.

    1997-06-01

    This manual is operation procedures of the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) HVAC(Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) System. General operation procedures and test method of the IMEF HVAC system are described. The manual is as follows; 1. HVAC system operation manual 2. HVAC system management guide 3. HVAC system maintenance manual 4. HVAC system air velocity and flowrate measurement manual 5. HVAC system HEPA filter leak test manual 6. HVAC system charcoal filter leak test manual 7. HVAC system HEPA and charcoal filter exchange manual. (author). 8 tabs

  19. Simulation Study of IMC and Fuzzy Controller for HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheshwari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how the fuzzy logic controller is used to solve the control problems of complex and non linear process and show that it is more robust and their performance are less sensitive to parametric variations than conventional controllers. These systems will yield a linear response when compared to ordinary controllers. The main advantage of Fuzzy control over conventional controllers is regulation can be done without over shoot.

  20. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  1. A novel intelligent control of HVAC system in smart microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hakimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heating systems have played an important role in building energy and comfort management. This paper set forth a novel intelligent residential heating system controller that has smart grid functionality. In smart grid, demand response systems now have the ability to not only engage commercial and industrial customers, but also the individual residential customers. Additionally, the ability exists to have automated control systems which operate on an availability of renewable energy and welfare of customers. In this paper one possible implementation of an active controller will be examined. An active controller operates by responding to a combination of internal set points and external signal from local control entity. The optimization objective of the heating systems management was to minimize the cost of smart microgrid, minimize the size of smart microgrid units, minimize import energy from distribution grid and maximize reliability of smart microgrid. This means that, smart heating system and renewable energy can work well together and their individual benefits can be added together when used in combination. Simulation studies are used to demonstrate the capability on the proposed heating system controller on the planning of a smart microgrid system.

  2. Control of noise - systems for compact HVAC units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    systems affect the performance of implementations. The source pressure and the impedance of a centrifugal fan were measured, and a number of configurations for noise control were investigated. The performance of a simple analogue feedback control was tested in a physical prototype. An adaptive digital...

  3. Control of space HVAC systems. Proceedings. Regelung von raumlufttechnischen Anlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This GMA report presents automation concepts for the control of space HVAC systems using new support methods and means like computer technology and digital simulation methods while considering control problems associated with the application of such methods and means. Both technical and economic aspects are discussed. New findings also concern the structurization and design of control systems, modelling of component and system behaviour for scale-up and simulation of plants. Each of the 10 papers was abstracted for entry into the data base. (HW).

  4. Overview of HVAC system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system modeling and simulation. The categorization of tools for HVAC system design and analysis with respect to which problems they are meant to deal with is introduced. Each categorization is explained and example tools

  5. Control of Variable-Speed Pressurization Fan for an Offshore HVAC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    all the way above the ambient pressure according to safety regulations. Meanwhile, the indoor air needs to be regularly changed in order to guarantee the indoor air quality. Both requirements could be possibly achieved by automatically manipulating either the throttle valve located at the terminal....... This paper proposes a set of control solutions to regulate the variablespeed pressurization fan system such that the energy efficiency of the considered HVAC system can be explicitly considered. A combined feed-forward with a PI-based feedback control solution, and a MPC solution are proposed based...

  6. D0 HVAC System Heat Pump Controller Programming, Networking, and Operating Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering note is to provide the necessary information to setup, program, and network the Electronic Systems USA Heat Pump Controller with the LON network card and Intellution Fix32 to operate properly within the HVAC system at D-Zero. The heat pump controllers are used for local temperature control of the office environments on the fifth and six floors of D-Zero. Heat pump units 1-6 are located in the ceiling of the sixth floor. Heat pump units 7-12 are found in the fifth floor ceiling. Heat pump unit 13 is in the Southeast corner of the fifth floor. Prior to installation the heat pump controller must be properly prepared to operate correctly in the HVAC system. Each heat pump unit must contain firmware (software) version 1.31 to operate properly on the network. Controllers with version 1.30 will not be able to communicate over the LON network. The manufacturer can only update the firmware version. Before installation a series of heat pump setpoints must be manually set using the Intelligent Stat. Connect the Intelligent Stat via the serial cable or wired connection.

  7. Energy efficient model based algorithm for control of building HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, V; Sahu, Chinmay; Radhakrishnan, T K; Sivakumaran, N

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Implementation of Energy Efficiency in HVAC Systems Based on Robust PID Control for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Imal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems is a primary concern in process projects, since the energy consumption has the highest percentage in HVAC for all processes. Without sacrifice of thermal comfort, to reset the suitable operating parameters, such as the humidity and air temperature, would have energy saving with immediate effect. In this paper, the simulation-optimization approach described the effective energy efficiency for HVAC systems which are used in industrial process. Due to the complex relationship of the HVAC system parameters, it is necessary to suggest optimum settings for different operations in response to the dynamic cooling loads and changing weather conditions during a year. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID programming was developed which can effectively handle the discrete, nonlinear and highly constrained optimization problems. Energy efficiency process has been made by controlling of alternative current (AC drivers for ventilation and exhaust fans, according to supplied air flow capacity and differential air pressure between supplied and exhaust air. Supervisory controller software was developed by using programmable controllers and human machine interface (HMI units. The new designed HVAC control system would have a saving potential of about 40% as compared to the existing operational settings, without any extra cost.

  9. An innovative HVAC control system: Implementation and testing in a vehicular cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Povalač, Aleš; Urbanec, Tomáš; Jícha, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel optimization algorithm based on epsilon constraint-RBF neural network for tuning PID controller in decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaran, Seyed Mohammad; Yusof, Rubiyah; Selamat, Hazlina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Decoupling of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system is presented. • RBF models were identified by Epsilon constraint method for temperature and humidity. • Control settings derived from optimization of the decoupled model. • Epsilon constraint-RBF based on PID controller was implemented to keep thermal comfort and minimize energy. • Enhancements of controller parameters of the HVAC system are desired. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system optimized using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) combined with the epsilon constraint (EC) method is reported. The new method adopts the advanced algorithm of RBFNN for the HVAC system to estimate the residual errors, increase the control signal and reduce the error results. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate the EC-RBFNN for a self tuning PID controller for a decoupled bilinear HVAC system to control the temperature and relative humidity (RH) produced by the system. A case study indicates that the EC-RBFNN algorithm has a much better accuracy than optimization PID itself and PID-RBFNN, respectively.

  11. In-the-loop simulation of electronic automatic temperature control systems: HVAC modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domschke, R.; Matthes, M. [Visteon Deutschland GmbH, Kerpen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The Electronic Automatic Temperature Control (EATC) ensures the occupant comfort and provides safety features like rapid defrost and demist protection. Doing this, the EATC controller provides a direct interface to the end consumer and has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction. The In-the-loop (IL) simulation process is an integral part of Visteons model-based development process. It helps to design and calibrate the EATC controller. It consists of several IL simulation techniques like Model-in-the-loop (MIL), Software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). In this article, we will focus on MIL/SIL Simulations. MIL/SIL allows simulation of the EATC controller in a virtual vehicle environment from the early states of and throughout the development process. This ensures a rapid, high quality and robust development process. The MIL/SIL model contains a thermal vehicle model, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) unit model and a model of the EATC controller itself. The thermal vehicle model simulates transient temperature and humidity conditions in the passenger compartment of a vehicle, settings from the controller, heat fluxes through the vehicle shell and windows, solar load and several further boundary conditions. Whereas the thermal vehicle model of a specific vehicle can be adapted from a default data base, one has to pay special attention to the HVAC unit model. Visteon has developed a special, physically based HVAC unit model to be adapted and implemented into the MIL/SIL simulation. This HVAC model enables a straightforward implementation of different HVAC architectures into the MIL/SIL simulation. Moreover, changes in the HVAC settings (i.e. different blower/scroll assemblies) can be assessed and the influence on passenger comfort can be quantified. Examples of the MIL/SIL simulation demonstrate the benefits of this approach. Results are discussed and a further outlook provided. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  13. Real-time performance assessment and adaptive control for a water chiller unit in an HVAC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianbo; Li, Yang; Chen, Jianhao

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an adaptive control method for a water chiller unit in a HVAC system. Based on the minimum variance evaluation, the adaptive control method was used to realize better control of the water chiller unit. To verify the performance of the adaptive control method, the proposed method was compared with an a conventional PID controller, the simulation results showed that adaptive control method had superior control performance to that of the conventional PID controller.

  14. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation.

  15. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  16. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, Harish; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment requires the development of accurate models for testing HVAC control strategies and corresponding energy consumption. In order to make the HVAC control synthesis computationally affordable, such

  17. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  18. Study on HVAC system in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeg, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Oh, Y. O.; Ju, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in nuclear facility should be equipped and constructed more stable and allowable than that in common facility. The purpose of HVAC system is the maintenance of optimum working environment, the protection of worker against a contaminated air and the prevention of atmospheric contamination due to an outward ventilation, etc.. The basic scheme of a safety operation of nuclear facility is to prevent the atmospheric contamination even in low level. The adaptability of HVAC system which is in operation. In this study, the design requirements of HVAC system in nuclear facility and the HVAC systems in foreign countries are reviewed, and the results can be utilized in the design of HVAC system in nuclear facility

  19. D-Zero HVAC Heat Pump Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, Dan

    2004-01-01

    This engineering note documents the integration of Dzero Heat Pump 1 through Heat Pump 15 into the cryo/gas process control system commonly referred to as the cryo control system. Heat pumps 1 through 15 control the ambient air temperature on the 3rd, 5th, and 6th floor office areas at Dzero. The entire Johnson HVAC control system was replaced with a Siemens control system in 1999 leaving behind the 15 heat pumps with stand-alone Johnson controllers. Now, these 15 heat pump Johnson controllers are being replaced with small stand alone Beckhoff BC9000 controllers. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers are network able into the existing Intellution control system. The Beckhoff BC9000 controllers use the cryo private Ethernet network and an OPC driver to get data into the Intellution SCADA node databases. The BC9000 is also programmed over this same Ethernet network.

  20. Maintenance of HVAC-systems and components: How to prevent pollution from HVAC-systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Björkroth, M.; Plitt, U.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies, from seven

  1. Why, when and how do HVAC-systems pollute? Characterisation of HVAC-systems related pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Björkroth, M.; Müller, B.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Roulet, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the beginning of 1998 a three-year European project, AIRLESS, was started to develop strategies, principles and protocols to improve and control the performance of HVAC-systems and its components for incorporation in codes and guidelines. Twelve institutes, universities and companies from seven

  2. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  3. A simplified modeling of mechanical cooling tower for control and optimization of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Guang-Yu; Cai, Wen-Jian; Lu Lu; Lee, Eng Lock; Chiang, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new, simple, yet accurate mechanical cooling tower model for the purpose of energy conservation and management. On the basis of Merkel's theory and effectiveness-NTU method, the model is developed by energy balance and heat, mass transfer analysis. Commissioning information is then used to identified, only three model parameters by Levenberg-Marquardt method. Compared with the existing models, the proposed model has simple characteristic parameters to be determined and without requiring iterative computation when the operating point changes. The model is validated by real operating data from the cooling towers of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a commercial hotel. The testing results show that the performance of the cooling tower varies from time to time due to different operating conditions and the proposed model is able to reflect these changes by tuning its parameters. With this feature, the proposed model can be simply used and accurately predict the performance of the real-time operating cooling tower

  4. Rapid Deployment of Optimal Control for Building HVAC Systems Using Innovative Software Tools and a Hybrid Heuristic/Model Based Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Tutorial. European Journal Of Control. Vol 13/2-3, pp 242–260. Parrish, K., J. Granderson, A. Mercado, P. Mathew. 2013. Improving Energy Efficiency...successfully, the project as a whole was not able to successfully demonstrate the technology. Anecdotal evidence, academic studies, and system simulations...Oceanography Center HVAC heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning NPS Naval Postgraduate School NRL U.S. Naval Research Laboratory NSAM Naval

  5. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  6. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  7. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope” (Italy); Martini, Fabrizio [Green Energy Plus srl (Italy); Pirozzi, Salvatore [SIAT Installazioni spa (Italy); Ubertini, Stefano [School of Engineering (DEIM) University of Tuscia (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  8. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting

  9. System-Level Monitoring and Diagnosis of Building HVAC System

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is an indoor environmental technology that is extensively instrumented for large-scale buildings. Among all subsystems of buildings, the HVAC system dominates the energy consumption and accounts for 57% of the energy used in U.S. commercial and residential buildings. Unfortunately, the HVAC system may fail to meet the performance expectations due to various faults, including not only complete hardware failures, but also non-optimal operations....

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  11. Analog and digital appliance technology for the control and monitoring of space HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoeri, M

    1987-01-01

    Both analog and digital devices are expected to meet the required control functions. The analog control device meets this function by way of a complicated circuitry and wiring technology of varying sophistication. In the digital control by a preprogrammed microprocessor. Digital technology allows to use the copied programme in different devices. Any change in the control of a system can be implemented and met by a programme change in digital technology. In analog technology, this change involves a change in wiring. (orig./HW).

  12. HVAC systems and nuclear plant safety. Final report, May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to provide perspective on the overall risk impact of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system problems. Industry experience with HVAC system problems is documented and analyzed. In addition, the results of 10 plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) were reviewed to determine the contribution of HVAC systems to the risk of core damage. The PRAs included in this review cover a broad range of plant types and operating conditions. The review found that the impact of HVAC systems on risk is plant specific. These results exhibit a broad range of frequencies for HVAC contribution to risk, and the percentage of total core damage due to HVAC problems also had a wide variability. Plant-specific differences in design, environment, operation, and maintenance are the primary factors in determining the risk contribution of HVAC systems. (author)

  13. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  14. An approach to optimised control of HVAC systems in indoor swimming pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eliseu M. A.; Jorge, Humberto M. M.; Quintela, Divo A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indoor swimming pools are recognised as having a high level of energy consumption and present a great potential for energy saving. The energy is spent in several ways such as evaporation heat loss from the pool, high rates of ventilation required to guarantee the indoor air quality, and ambient temperatures with expressive values (typically 28-30°C) required to maintain conditions of comfort. This paper presents an approach to optimising control of heat ventilation and air conditioning systems that could be implemented in a building energy management system. It is easily adapted to any kind of pool and results in significant energy consumption reduction. The development and validation of the control model were carried out with a building thermal simulation software. The use of this control model in the case study building could reduce the energy efficiency index by 7.14 points (7.4% of total) which adds up to an energy cost saving of 15,609€ (7.5% of total).

  15. Integrated dynamic modelling and multivariable control of HVAC components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, H.; Babuska, R.; Baldi, S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rantzer, Anders; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The field of energy efficiency in buildings offers challenging opportunities from a control point of view. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units in buildings must be accurately controlled so as to ensure the occupants' comfort and reduced energy consumption. While the existing HVAC

  16. Development of a computer design system for HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Yotsuya, M.; Hasegawa, M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a computer design system for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system is presented in this paper. It supports the air conditioning design for a nuclear power plant and a reprocessing plant. This system integrates various computer design systems which were developed separately for the various design phases of HVAC. the purposes include centralizing the HVAC data, optimizing design, and reducing the designing time. The centralized HVAC data are managed by a DBMS (Data Base Management System). The DBMS separates the computer design system into a calculation module and the data. The design system can thus be expanded easily in the future. 2 figs

  17. Review of Control Techniques for HVAC Systems—Nonlinearity Approaches Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Behrooz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are the major energy-consuming devices in buildings. Nowadays, due to the high demand for HVAC system installation in buildings, designing an effective controller in order to decrease the energy consumption of the devices while meeting the thermal comfort demands in buildings are the most important goals of control designers. The purpose of this article is to investigate the different control methods for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC & R systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each control method are discussed and finally the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM method is introduced as a new strategy for HVAC systems. The FCM method is an intelligent and advanced control technique to address the nonlinearity, Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO, complexity and coupling effect features of the systems. The significance of this method and improvements by this method are compared with other methods.

  18. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick O' Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests

  19. HVAC system optimisation-in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Cai, W.; Xie, L.; Li, S.; Soh, Y.C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimise in-building section of centralised Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimisation method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  20. HVAC system optimization - in-building section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lu; Wenjian Cai; Lihua Xie; Shujiang Li; Yeng Chai Soh [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method to optimize in-building section of centralized Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which consist of indoor air loops and chilled water loops. First, through component characteristic analysis, mathematical models associated with cooling loads and energy consumption for heat exchangers and energy consuming devices are established. By considering variation of cooling load of each end user, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to model duct and pipe networks and obtain optimal differential pressure (DP) set points based on limited sensor information. A mix-integer nonlinear constraint optimization of system energy is formulated and solved by a modified genetic algorithm. The main feature of our paper is a systematic approach in optimizing the overall system energy consumption rather than that of individual component. A simulation study for a typical centralized HVAC system is provided to compare the proposed optimization method with traditional ones. The results show that the proposed method indeed improves the system performance significantly. (author)

  1. Development of the Aging Management Program for HVAC Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hong Seok; Lee, Dong Min; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Cho, Sang Bum; Choi, Sang Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The HVAC(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems in nuclear power plants are consisted of fan, damper, duct, filter and cooling coil, which is equipped in the safety-related building such as main control room, auxiliary building and containment building. These systems are designed to maintain the required ambient air temperature in all plant areas for the comfort and safety of personnel and for environmental requirement of equipment and to ensure that the gaseous radioactivity emission to the environment is kept below permissible discharge limits. The purpose of this study is to establish the inspection plan to ensure that touch up parts of the duct are sound and to develop the aging management program for maintaining effectively HVAC systems

  2. System solution to improve energy efficiency of HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, L.; Becerra, R.; Salts, N. P.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    According to recent surveys, heating and air conditioning systems account for over 45% of the total energy usage in US households. Three main types of HVAC systems are available to homeowners: (1) fixed-speed systems, where the compressor cycles on and off to match the cooling load; (2) multi-speed (typically, two-speed) systems, where the compressor can operate at multiple cooling capacities, leading to reduced cycling; and (3) variable-speed systems, where the compressor speed is adjusted to match the cooling load of the household, thereby providing higher efficiency and comfort levels through better temperature and humidity control. While energy consumption could reduce significantly by adopting variable-speed compressor systems, the market penetration has been limited to less than 10% of the total HVAC units and a vast majority of systems installed in new construction remains single speed. A few reasons may explain this phenomenon such as the complexity of the electronic circuitry required to vary compressor speed as well as the associated system cost. This paper outlines a system solution to boost the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of a traditional single-speed unit through using a low power electronic converter that allows the compressor to operate at multiple low capacity settings and is disabled at high compressor speeds.

  3. Design and Operation of 3-Pin FTL HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    According to the increasing demand for irradiation tests to develop new fuels, the 3-Pin FTL(Fuel Test Loop for 3 pin test fuel) facility has now been under design to conduct in-core fuel performance tests at the operating conditions, which will be installed at HANARO. The HVAC system of the FTL will be dependent on that of the HANARO. The FTL has three equipments rooms, which are the room 1, room 2 and the control room. The high pressure and high temperature equipments will be installed in the room 1. The atmosphere of the room 1 shall be maintained under the designed condition. This paper describes the design of the FTL HVAC system in the room 1

  4. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  5. Optimal Set-Point Synthesis in HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komareji, Mohammad; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents optimal set-point synthesis for a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This HVAC system is made of two heat exchangers: an air-to-air heat exchanger and a water-to-air heat exchanger. The objective function is composed of the electrical power for different...... components, encompassing fans, primary/secondary pump, tertiary pump, and air-to-air heat exchanger wheel; and a fraction of thermal power used by the HVAC system. The goals that have to be achieved by the HVAC system appear as constraints in the optimization problem. To solve the optimization problem......, a steady state model of the HVAC system is derived while different supplying hydronic circuits are studied for the water-to-air heat exchanger. Finally, the optimal set-points and the optimal supplying hydronic circuit are resulted....

  6. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  7. Review of the Operability for the Components Under the Loss of the HVAC System of the Pump Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang Mee Jeong; Yoon, Churl; Yang, Joon Eon; Park, Joo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we estimated the temperature of the pump rooms and reviewed the operability of the components under the loss of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system. The issues relevant to the HVAC system in the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) FT (Fault Tree) model are as follows: does the loss of the HVAC system bring about a function failure of other components?. Can the operator take action to reduce the temperature of the room in case of a HVAC function failure?. At present we do not know whether a component will lose its function or not under the loss of the HVAC. ASME Standard describes that a recovery action can be credited if the related recovery action is included in the procedure or there are similar recovery experiences in the plant. However, there is no description about the recovery action of the HVAC in the EOP (Emergency Operation Procedure) of the UCN3, 4 under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. Even though we consider this assumption positively, it would be limited to the rooms such as the Switchgear Room, Inverter Room, and Main Control Room etc. where a real recovery action can be performed easily. However, if we consider the HVAC failure in the PSA FT model according to the above background, the problem is that the unavailability induced from the loss of a HVAC is highly unrealistically. From a viewpoint of the PSA, it is not true that the related system always fails even though the HVAC system fails. Therefore, we reviewed the necessity of the HVAC model through the identification of the operable temperature of the components' within the pump room and the change of the temperature of the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC system

  8. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  9. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  10. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  11. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  12. Neural computing thermal comfort index for HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atthajariyakul, S.; Leephakpreeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system within a building is to make occupants comfortable. Without real time determination of human thermal comfort, it is not feasible for the HVAC system to yield controlled conditions of the air for human comfort all the time. This paper presents a practical approach to determine human thermal comfort quantitatively via neural computing. The neural network model allows real time determination of the thermal comfort index, where it is not practical to compute the conventional predicted mean vote (PMV) index itself in real time. The feed forward neural network model is proposed as an explicit function of the relation of the PMV index to accessible variables, i.e. the air temperature, wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, clothing insulation and human activity. An experiment in an air conditioned office room was done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show good agreement between the thermal comfort index calculated from the neural network model in real time and those calculated from the conventional PMV model

  13. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  14. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions.

  15. Minimization of energy consumption in HVAC systems with data-driven models and an interior-point method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Xu, Guanglin; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the energy saving of HVAC systems with a data-driven approach. • We conduct an in-depth analysis of the topology of developed Neural Network based HVAC model. • We apply interior-point method to solving a Neural Network based HVAC optimization model. • The uncertain building occupancy is incorporated in the minimization of HVAC energy consumption. • A significant potential of saving HVAC energy is discovered. - Abstract: In this paper, a data-driven approach is applied to minimize energy consumption of a heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system while maintaining the thermal comfort of a building with uncertain occupancy level. The uncertainty of arrival and departure rate of occupants is modeled by the Poisson and uniform distributions, respectively. The internal heating gain is calculated from the stochastic process of the building occupancy. Based on the observed and simulated data, a multilayer perceptron algorithm is employed to model and simulate the HVAC system. The data-driven models accurately predict future performance of the HVAC system based on the control settings and the observed historical information. An optimization model is formulated and solved with the interior-point method. The optimization results are compared with the results produced by the simulation models

  16. Analysis and control of the effects of over excitation limiters on the stability of the Itaipu HVAC transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, J L; Macedo, N J; Santo, S E; Praca, A S [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effect of over excitation limiters on power system voltage stability is presented in this paper. A linear analysis based on system eigenvalues for various operating conditions shows that voltage collapse is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. Time simulations using digital tools and real-time simulator were performed to verify lin ear results and study large disturbances. A control system designed to keep system in secure region is proposed. (author) 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) HVAC System Component Index; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DICK, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document identities the components, design media, procedures and defines the critical characteristics of Commercial Grade Items necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. This document lists safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) components for the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI), as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item

  18. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  19. Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic thermal interaction between a building and the HVAC systems which service it is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interaction becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly important. It is argued why these need to be based on an

  20. Application of modeling and simulation to HVAC systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of different modelling approaches for design and performance evaluation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for buildings. Merits and drawbacks of the various modelling methods are illustrated by case study

  1. HVAC system simulation: overview, issues and some solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings’ heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. Recognizing this fact, in the last forty years many tools have been developed to help achieving this goal. In this paper

  2. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  3. Multi-objective optimization of HVAC system with an evolutionary computation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Tang, Fan; Xu, Guanglin

    2011-01-01

    A data-mining approach for the optimization of a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system is presented. A predictive model of the HVAC system is derived by data-mining algorithms, using a dataset collected from an experiment conducted at a research facility. To minimize the energy while maintaining the corresponding IAQ (indoor air quality) within a user-defined range, a multi-objective optimization model is developed. The solutions of this model are set points of the control system derived with an evolutionary computation algorithm. The controllable input variables - supply air temperature and supply air duct static pressure set points - are generated to reduce the energy use. The results produced by the evolutionary computation algorithm show that the control strategy saves energy by optimizing operations of an HVAC system. -- Highlights: → A data-mining approach for the optimization of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is presented. → The data used in the project has been collected from an experiment conducted at an energy research facility. → The approach presented in the paper leads to accomplishing significant energy savings without compromising the indoor air quality. → The energy savings are accomplished by computing set points for the supply air temperature and the supply air duct static pressure.

  4. Thermal Components Boost Performance of HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) travels 17,500 miles per hour, normal is having a constant sensation of free-falling. Normal is no rain, but an extreme amount of shine.with temperatures reaching 250 F when facing the Sun. Thanks to a number of advanced control systems onboard the ISS, however, the interior of the station remains a cool, comfortable, normal environment where astronauts can live and work for extended periods of time. There are two main control systems on the ISS that make it possible for humans to survive in space: the Thermal Control System (TCS) and the Environmental Control and Life Support system. These intricate assemblies work together to supply water and oxygen, regulate temperature and pressure, maintain air quality, and manage waste. Through artificial means, these systems create a habitable environment for the space station s crew. The TCS constantly works to regulate the temperature not only for astronauts, but for the critical instruments and machines inside the spacecraft as well. To do its job, the TCS encompasses several components and systems both inside and outside of the ISS. Inside the spacecraft, a liquid heat-exchange process mechanically pumps fluids in closed-loop circuits to collect, transport, and reject heat. Outside the ISS, an external system circulates anhydrous ammonia to transport heat and cool equipment, and radiators release the heat into space. Over the years, NASA has worked with a variety of partners.public and private, national and international. to develop and refine the most complex thermal control systems ever built for spacecraft, including the one on the ISS.

  5. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  6. Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: Control rules for energy saving with lighting and HVAC services

    OpenAIRE

    Aghemo, C.; Virgone, J.; Fracastoro, G.V.; Pellegrino, A.; Blaso, L.; Savoyat, J.; Johannes, Kevyn

    2013-01-01

    The presented work addresses the topic of energy savings in existing public buildings, when no significant retrofits on building envelope or plants can be done and savings can be achieved by designing intelligent ICT-based service to monitor and control environmental conditions, energy loads and plants operation. At the end of 2010 the European Commission, within the Seventh Framework Program, has founded a project entitled “Smart Energy Efficient Middleware for Public Spaces” (SEEMPubS). To ...

  7. An evaluation of damping ratios for HVAC duct systems using vibration test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunyasu, K.; Horimizu, Y.; Kawakami, A.; Iokibe, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01

    The function of Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be maintained including HVAC duct systems to keep the operation of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants during earthquake excitations. Therefore, it is important to carry out seismic design for HVAC duct systems. In the previous aseismic design for HVAC duct systems, the 0.5% damping ratio has been used in Japan. In recent years, vibration tests, held on actual duct systems in nuclear power plants and mockup duct systems were performed in order to investigate damping ratios for HVAC duct systems. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the damping ratio for HVAC duct systems, evaluated from these tests, were much greater than the 0.5% damping ratio used in the previous aseismic design of Japan. The new damping ratio in aseismic design was proposed to be 2.5%. The present paper describes the results of the above mentioned investigation

  8. Designing the controllability of a HVAC-plant by dynamic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Grindal, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper was presented at CLIMA 2000 - The international conference on energy and environmental matters in built environment, London, 1.-3. November 1993. Nowadays, HVAC engineers can use dynamic simulation programs in their everyday work. Such tools provide the ability to analyze different system configurations and to check the obtained states even before the building and plant are constructed. To encourage its wider use, the authors present in this paper the experiences obtained with the simulation program HVAC-DYNAMICS. The program was used to simulate the retrofitting of a heat recovery wheel to a conventional ventilation plant with a hot water heating coil. The effects of different design parameters on the controllability of the plant were investigated. Interestingly, some commonly recommended ``clever`` configurations can lead to unexpected control scenarios. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra

    2014-01-01

    of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user’s preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user’s device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  10. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  11. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool

  12. Filtration effectiveness of HVAC systems at near-roadway schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M C; Ludwig, J F; Brown, S G; Vaughn, D L; Roberts, P T

    2013-06-01

    Concern for the exposure of children attending schools located near busy roadways to toxic, traffic-related air pollutants has raised questions regarding the environmental benefits of advanced heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) filtration systems for near-road pollution. Levels of black carbon and gaseous pollutants were measured at three indoor classroom sites and at seven outdoor monitoring sites at Las Vegas schools. Initial HVAC filtration systems effected a 31-66% reduction in black carbon particle concentrations inside three schools compared with ambient air concentrations. After improved filtration systems were installed, black carbon particle concentrations were reduced by 74-97% inside three classrooms relative to ambient air concentrations. Average black carbon particle concentrations inside the schools with improved filtration systems were lower than typical ambient Las Vegas concentrations by 49-96%. Gaseous pollutants were higher indoors than outdoors. The higher indoor concentrations most likely originated at least partially from indoor sources, which were not targeted as part of this intervention. Recent literature has demonstrated adverse health effects in subjects exposed to ambient air near major roadways. Current smart growth planning and infill development often require that buildings such as schools are built near major roadways. Improving the filtration systems of a school's HVAC system was shown to decrease children's exposure to near-roadway diesel particulate matter. However, reducing exposure to the gas-phase air toxics, which primarily originated from indoor sources, may require multiple filter passes on recirculated air. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Protecting HVAC systems from bio-terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The FBI, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, issued an advisory to state and local law enforcement authorities and the public asking to remain especially alert to any unusual activities around ventilation systems. It noted that while the Bureau possessed no specific threats regarding the release of toxic chemicals into air handling systems, building owners and managers should be well-aware of the potential for contamination of such systems. This article presents recommendations of air-handling experts and associations for operators to consider.

  14. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  15. HVAC SYSTEMS IN THE CURRENT STOCK OF US K-12 SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on heating, ventilating, an air- conditioning (HVAC) systems commonly found in U. S. school buildings and the effect that operating these systems has on indoor radon levels. The report describes the ability of various HVAC systems to pressurize a...

  16. Considerations to Prevent Growth and Spread of Legionella in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the threat posed by the Legionnaire's Disease bacterium and the germ's ability to thrive in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, especially in standing water. Describes ways to minimize disease risk through HVAC system design (such as locating cooling towers away from air intakes) and ways to maintain a clean…

  17. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  18. System optimization for HVAC energy management using the robust evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Hanby, V.I.; Chow, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    For an installed centralized heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, appropriate energy management measures would achieve energy conservation targets through the optimal control and operation. The performance optimization of conventional HVAC systems may be handled by operation experience, but it may not cover different optimization scenarios and parameters in response to a variety of load and weather conditions. In this regard, it is common to apply the suitable simulation-optimization technique to model the system then determine the required operation parameters. The particular plant simulation models can be built up by either using the available simulation programs or a system of mathematical expressions. To handle the simulation models, iterations would be involved in the numerical solution methods. Since the gradient information is not easily available due to the complex nature of equations, the traditional gradient-based optimization methods are not applicable for this kind of system models. For the heuristic optimization methods, the continual search is commonly necessary, and the system function call is required for each search. The frequency of simulation function calls would then be a time-determining step, and an efficient optimization method is crucial, in order to find the solution through a number of function calls in a reasonable computational period. In this paper, the robust evolutionary algorithm (REA) is presented to tackle this nature of the HVAC simulation models. REA is based on one of the paradigms of evolutionary algorithm, evolution strategy, which is a stochastic population-based searching technique emphasized on mutation. The REA, which incorporates the Cauchy deterministic mutation, tournament selection and arithmetic recombination, would provide a synergetic effect for optimal search. The REA is effective to cope with the complex simulation models, as well as those represented by explicit mathematical expressions of

  19. Design and Implementation of Closed-loop PI Control Strategies in Real-time MATLAB Simulation Environment for Nonlinear and Linear ARMAX Models of HVAC Centrifugal Chiller Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate three different approaches of modeling, design and discrete-time implementation of PI closed-loop control strategies in SIMULINK simulation environment, applied to a centrifugal chiller system. Centrifugal chillers are widely used in large building HVAC systems. The system consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a centrifugal compressor and an expansion valve. The overall system is an interconnection of two main control loops, namely the chilled water temperature inside the evaporator, and the refrigerant liquid level control in condenser. The centrifugal chiller dynamics model in a discrete-time state-space representation is of high complexity in terms of dimension and encountered nonlinearities. For simulation purpose the centrifugal chiller model is simplified by using different approaches, especially the development of linear polynomials ARMAX and ARX models. The aim to build linear ARMAX models for centrifugal chiller is to simplify considerable the control design strategies that are investigated in this research paper. The novelty of this research is a new controller design approach, more precisely an improved version of proportional – integral control, the so called Proportional-Integral-Plus control for systems with time delay, based on linear ARMAX models. It is conceived within the context of non-minimum state space control system that “seems to be the natural description of a discrete-time transfer function, since its dimension is dictated by the complete structure of the model”. The effectiveness of this new controller design, its implementation simplicity, convergence speed and robustness are proved in the last section of the paper.

  20. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  1. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  2. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  3. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, N.

    2004-01-01

    A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF

  4. Rapid Deployment of Optimal Control for Building HVAC Systems using Innovative Software Tools and a Hybrid Heuristic/Model Based Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Monitoring and Verification Protocol LCDR Lieutenant Commander ME Mechanical Engineering MPC Model Predictive Control: a model-based system...Activity PE Professional Engineer PG&E Pacific Gas & Electric : a California utility company PI Proportional + Integral: a common software element...INTRODUCTION The Department of Defense (DoD) spends approximately $4 billion per year on facility energy consumption to power and fuel over 500

  5. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Petritchenko, Oxana [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Ringo, Decker [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); McClive, Sam [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) commissioned this characterization and technology assessment of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for commercial buildings. The main objectives of this study: Identify a wide range of technology options in varying stages of development that could reduce commercial HVAC energy consumption; Characterize these technology options based on their technical energy-savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and the ability to compete with conventional HVAC technologies; Make specific recommendations to DOE and other stakeholders on potential research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities that would support further development of the most promising technology options.

  6. Neuro-optimal operation of a variable air volume HVAC and R system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Min; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are some reasons for high energy consumption of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC and R) systems. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC and R systems should be efficiently operated to maintain a desired indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions. This study proposes a neural network based optimal supervisory operation strategy to find the optimal set points for chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and VAV system fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. Simulation results show that compared to the conventional night reset operation scheme, the optimal operation scheme saves around 10% energy under full load condition and 19% energy under partial load conditions.

  7. Small Business Voucher CRADA Report: Natural Gas Powered HVAC System for Commercial and Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Daniel [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Ally, Moonis Raza [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mudiraj, Shyam [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Tilghman, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Graham, Matthew [Be Power Tech, Deerfield Beach, FL (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Be Power Tech is commercializing BeCool, the first integrated electricity-producing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system using a non-vapor compression cycle (VCC), packaged rooftop HVAC unit that also produces base-load electricity, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. BeCool is a distributed energy resource with energy storage that eliminates the tremendous peak electricity demand associated with commonly used electricity-powered vapor compression air conditioning systems.

  8. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  9. Building occupancy diversity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ghahramani, Ali; Becerik-Gerber, Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Approximately forty percent of total building energy consumption is attributed to HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems that aim to maintain healthy and comfortable indoor environments. An HVAC system is a network with several subsystems, and there exist heat transfer and balance among the zones of a building, as well as heat gains and losses through a building's envelope. Diverse occupancy (diversity in terms of when and how occupants occupy a building) in spaces could result in increase of loads that are not actual demands for an HVAC system, leading into inefficiencies. This paper introduces a framework to quantitatively evaluate the energy implications of occupancy diversity at the building level, where building information modeling is integrated to provide building geometries, HVAC system layouts, and spatial information as inputs for computing potential energy implications if occupancy diversity were to be eliminated. An agglomerate hierarchical clustering-based iterative evaluation algorithm is designed for iteratively eliminating occupancy diversity. Whole building energy simulations for a real-world building, as well as virtual reference buildings demonstrate that the proposed framework could effectively quantify the HVAC system energy efficiency affected by occupancy diversity and the framework is generalizable to different building geometries, layouts, and occupancy diversities. - Highlights: • Analyze relationships between occupancy diversity and HVAC energy efficiency. • Integrate BIM for quantifying energy implications of occupancy diversity. • Demonstrate the effectiveness and generalizability of iterative evaluation algorithm. • Improve agglomerative hierarchical clustering process using heap data structure.

  10. Performance Monitoring of Chilled-Water Distribution Systems Using HVAC-Cx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Natascha Milesi; Galler, Michael A; Bushby, Steven T

    2017-01-01

    In this research we develop, test, and demonstrate the newest extension of the software HVAC-Cx (NIST and CSTB 2014), an automated commissioning tool for detecting common mechanical faults and control errors in chilled-water distribution systems (loops). The commissioning process can improve occupant comfort, ensure the persistence of correct system operation, and reduce energy consumption. Automated tools support the process by decreasing the time and the skill level required to carry out necessary quality assurance measures, and as a result they enable more thorough testing of building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper describes the algorithm, developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to analyze chilled-water loops and presents the results of a passive monitoring investigation using field data obtained from BACnet ® (ASHRAE 2016) controllers and presents field validation of the findings. The tool was successful in detecting faults in system operation in its first field implementation supporting the investigation phase through performance monitoring. Its findings led to a full energy retrocommissioning of the field site.

  11. The effects of HVAC system design and operation on radon entry into school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.A.; Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have a greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning systems in houses. If the HVAC system induces a negative pressure relative to the subslab area, radon can be pulled into the building. If the HVAC system pressurizes the building, it can prevent radon entry as long as the fan is running. However, school HVAC systems are normally set back or turned off on evenings and weekends and, even if the HVAC system pressurizes the school during operation, indoor radon levels may build up during setback periods. In this paper many of the historical methods utilized to deliver ventilation air (outdoor air) over the past 40 years are summarized. In addition, for each type of system presented, the possible impact the ventilation system might be expected to have (positive or negative) on the pressure of the building envelope (and subsequent radon levels in the building) is discussed

  12. Simulative Study into the Development of a Hybrid HVDC System Through a Comparative Research with HVAC: a Futuristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Narayan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC is considered a better solution for bulk long distance transmissions. The increased use of HVDC is a result of its advantages over the HVAC systems and especially of its fault stability nature. A better solution is proposed by using a Voltage Source Controlled–HVDC as one of the infeed for the Multi-Infeed HVDC (MIDC or MI-HVDC systems. The main advantage with the VSC converter is its flexible power control which enhances the stability of the MIDC systems. In this paper, the behavior of an HVDC system is compared with that of an HVAC during faults. A Hybrid HVDC system that includes a LCC as a rectifier unit and a VSC converter as the inverter is being proposed. It is considered suitable for MIDC systems and particularly for supplying a weak AC system. The performance of the system during steady state and transient conditions for all the proposed topologies including HVDC, HVAC and Hybrid HVDC are studied in MATLAB/SIMULINK. All of the proposed control strategies are evaluated via a series of simulation case studies.

  13. Energy efficient HVAC control in historical buildings : a case study for the Amsterdam Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompatscher, K.; Seuren, S.; Kramer, R.P.; Van Schijndel, J.A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Museums are often located in historical buildings. To provide suitable housing in a historical building for a museum, these buildings are usually adapted to suit the need for object preservation through HVAC control. Maintaining a strict indoor climate and limiting short fluctuations in indoor

  14. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  15. Review on the HVAC System Modeling Types and the Shortcomings of Their Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Z. Homod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system is a prominent topic because of its relationship with energy savings and environmental, economical, and technological issues. The modeling of the HVAC system is concerned with the indoor thermal sensation, which is related to the modeling of building, air handling unit (AHU equipments, and indoor thermal processes. Until now, many HVAC system modeling approaches are made available, and the techniques have become quite mature. But there are some shortcomings in application and integration methods for the different types of the HVAC model. The application and integration processes will act to accumulate the defective characteristics for both AHU equipments and building models such as nonlinear, pure lag time, high thermal inertia, uncertain disturbance factors, large-scale systems, and constraints. This paper shows types of the HVAC model and the advantages and disadvantages for each application of them, and it finds out that the gray-box type is the best one to represent the indoor thermal comfort. But its application fails at the integration method where its response deviated to unreal behavior.

  16. Transient pattern analysis for fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Yang, Hoon-Cheol; Zaheer-uddin, M.; Ahn, Byung-Cheon

    2005-01-01

    Modern building HVAC systems are complex and consist of a large number of interconnected sub-systems and components. In the event of a fault, it becomes very difficult for the operator to locate and isolate the faulty component in such large systems using conventional fault detection methods. In this study, transient pattern analysis is explored as a tool for fault detection and diagnosis of an HVAC system. Several tests involving different fault replications were conducted in an environmental chamber test facility. The results show that the evolution of fault residuals forms clear and distinct patterns that can be used to isolate faults. It was found that the time needed to reach steady state for a typical building HVAC system is at least 50-60 min. This means incorrect diagnosis of faults can happen during online monitoring if the transient pattern responses are not considered in the fault detection and diagnosis analysis

  17. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  18. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  19. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kilkis, I.B. [Heatway Radiant Floors and Snowmelting, Springfield, MO (United States)]|[Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  20. Selecting HVAC Systems for Schools To Balance the Needs for Indoor Air Quality, Energy Conservation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.; Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    Although poor air quality in a school can have multiple causes, the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system plays a major role. Suggestions that architects, facilities managers, school board members, and administrators can use in selecting HVAC systems are discussed. Focus is on the performance criteria for classroom systems, and…

  1. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  2. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  3. Global optimization for overall HVAC systems - Part I problem formulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lu; Cai Wenjian; Chai, Y.S.; Xie Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the global optimization technologies for overall heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The objective function of global optimization and constraints are formulated based on mathematical models of the major components. All these models are associated with power consumption components and heat exchangers for transferring cooling load. The characteristics of all the major components are briefly introduced by models, and the interactions between them are analyzed and discussed to show the complications of the problem. According to the characteristics of the operating components, the complicated original optimization problem for overall HVAC systems is transformed and simplified into a compact form ready for optimization

  4. Fungal colonization of air filters for use in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R B; Crow, S A

    1995-01-01

    New and used cellulosic air filters for HVAC systems including those treated with antimicrobials were suspended in vessels with a range of relative humidities (55-99%) and containing non-sterile potting soil which stimulates fungal growth. Most filters yielded fungi prior to suspension in the chambers but only two of 14 nontreated filters demonstrated fungal colonization following use in HVAC systems. Filters treated with antimicrobials, particularly a phosphated amine complex, demonstrated markedly less fungal colonization than nontreated filters. In comparison with nontreated cellulosic filters, fungal colonization of antimicrobial-treated cellulosic filters was selective and delayed.

  5. Novel activity classification and occupancy estimation methods for intelligent HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Rajib; Kusy, Brano; Wall, Josh; Hu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) energy consumption can be achieved by limiting heating in the winter or cooling in the summer. However, the resulting low thermal comfort of building occupants may lead to an override of the HVAC control, which revokes its original purpose. This has led to an increased interest in modeling and real-time tracking of location, activity, and thermal comfort of building occupants for HVAC energy management. While thermal comfort is well understood, it is difficult to measure in real-time environments where user context changes dynamically. Encouragingly, plethora of sensors available on smartphone unleashes the opportunity to measure user contexts in real-time. An important contextual information for measuring thermal comfort is Metabolism rate, which changes based on current physical activities. To measure physical activity, we develop an activity classifier, which achieves 10% higher accuracy compared to Support Vector Machine and k-Nearest Neighbor. Office occupancy is another contextual information for energy-efficient HVAC control. Most of the phone based occupancy estimation techniques will fail to determine occupancy when phones are left at desk while sitting or attending meetings. We propose a novel sensor fusion method to detect if a user is near the phone, which achieves more than 90% accuracy. Determining activity and occupancy our proposed algorithms can help maintaining thermal comfort while reducing HVAC energy consumptions. - Highlights: • We propose activity and occupancy detection for efficient HVAC control. • Activity classifier achieves 10% higher accuracy than SVM and kNN. • For occupancy detection we propose a novel sensor fusion method. • Using Weighted Majority Voting we fuse microphone and accelerometer data on phone. • We achieve more than 90% accuracy in detecting occupancy.

  6. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    controller func- tions such as time-of-day, economizer cycles, reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop...control system such as that illustrated in Fig- urc 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and event timing, such as that presented in Figure 6, are...program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily available. Program logi:, setpoint and schedule data, and

  7. Coupling fast fluid dynamics and multizone airflow models in Modelica Buildings library to simulate the dynamics of HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wei [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sevilla, Thomas Alonso [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Zuo, Wangda [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-06-08

    Historically, multizone models are widely used in building airflow and energy performance simulations due to their fast computing speed. However, multizone models assume that the air in a room is well mixed, consequently limiting their application. In specific rooms where this assumption fails, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models may be an alternative option. Previous research has mainly focused on coupling CFD models and multizone models to study airflow in large spaces. While significant, most of these analyses did not consider the coupled simulation of the building airflow with the building's Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. This paper tries to fill the gap by integrating the models for HVAC systems with coupled multizone and CFD simulations for airflows, using the Modelica simul ation platform. To improve the computational efficiency, we incorporated a simplified CFD model named fast fluid dynamics (FFD). We first introduce the data synchronization strategy and implementation in Modelica. Then, we verify the implementation using two case studies involving an isothermal and a non-isothermal flow by comparing model simulations to experiment data. Afterward, we study another three cases that are deemed more realistic. This is done by attaching a variable air volume (VAV) terminal box and a VAV system to previous flows to assess the capability of the models in studying the dynamic control of HVAC systems. Finally, we discuss further research needs on the coupled simulation using the models.

  8. Power Flow Analysis of HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems for Offshore WindParks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Castro, Rui

    2009-01-01

    As the onshore wind resource is running shorter, wind power promoters are paying attention to the offshore resources. As in most cases there is no load offshore, wind power must be transmitted to the main land. To do so, two options are available: HVAC and HVDC transmission systems. In this paper...... that HVAC solution is limited by the distance to shore and by the wind transmitted power. HVDC options do not show these limitations, but are more expensive and more delicate to deal with, because there is a lack of operational experience, so far....

  9. Comparison of co-simulation approaches for building and HVAC/R system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, M.; Wetter, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Jiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    Appraisal of modern performance-based energy codes, as well as heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) system design require use of an integrated building and system performance simulation program. However, the required scope of the modeling library of such integrated tools

  10. 'Consolidation' of HVAC and cooling systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; Pepinster, P; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A â€ワconsolidation” of installations after they have reached the end of their predetermined life-time is part of the life cycle of industrial installations, regardless how well maintained they are. The â€ワconsolidation” plan might cover the replacement of obsolete equipment, partial refurbishment, the work requested to comply with new standards and applicable rules (environmental aspects) until the complete replacement of the whole installation. This â€ワconsolidation” process is all the more critical since the installation dates of the existing cooling and HVAC equipment at CERN spans over a period of 50 years and â€ワconsolidation” in the past has been not been systematic, being most of the time associated with new projects. This paper describes the reasons behind the recent â€ワconsolidation” requests for cooling and HVAC equipment both for the accelerators backbone and in tertiary buildings. A criticality analysis is given, based on the criteria laid down in the p...

  11. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further

  12. Fault ride-through and grid support of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind farms with HVAC and VSC-HVDC transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fault ride-through and grid support of offshore wind farms based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines connected to the onshore AC network through two alternative transmission systems: high voltage AC (HVAC) or high voltage DC (HVDC) based on voltage...... source converters (VSC). The proposed configurations of the PMSG-based offshore wind farm and VSC-based HVDC are given as well as their control strategies under both steady state and fault state. The PMSG-based offshore wind farm is integrated into a test power transmission system via either HVAC or VSC...

  13. Study on the Operating Strategy of HVAC Systems for Nuclear Decommissioning Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-hwan; Han, Sung-heum; Lee, Jae-gon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    According as Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 was determined to be defueled in 2017, various studies on nuclear plant decommissioning have been performed. In nuclear decommissioning plant, HVAC systems with large fan and electric coil have to be operated for long periods of time to support various types of work from defueled phase to final dismantling phase. So, in view of safety and utility costs, their overall operating strategy need to be established prior to defueled phase. This study presents HVAC system operating strategy at each decommissioning phase, that is, defueled plant operating phase, SSCs(systems, structures, components) decontamination and dismantling phases. In defueled plant operating phase, all fuel assemblies in reactor vessel are transferred to spent fuel pool(SFP) permanently. In defueled plant operation phase, reduction of the operating system trains is more practicable than the introduction of new HVAC components with reduced capacity. And, based on the result of the accident analyses for this phase, HVAC design bases such as MCR habitability requirement can be mitigated. According to these results, associated SSCs also can be downgraded. In similar approach, at each phase of plant decommissioning, proper inside design conditions and operating strategies should be re-established.

  14. Energy Performance and CO2 Emissions of HVAC Systems in Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Al-Waked

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy performance of buildings has attracted much attention among building physicists and engineers worldwide. The effects of building heating; ventilation; and air conditioning (HVAC systems’ design upgrade on the building energy performance are the focus of the current study. The adopted HVAC system consisted of chilled ceiling and chilled beam systems served by a centrifugal water chiller. An energy simulation study was undertaken in accordance with the national Australian built environment rating system-rules for collecting and using data. A three-dimensional simulation study was carried out utilizing the virtual environment-integrated environmental solutions software. Results from the current study have shown the importance of utilizing energy-efficient HVAC systems and HVAC strategies for achieving a high building energy star rating. Recommended strategies in order to achieve the nominated star rating; as predicted by the simulation analysis; were presented. Moreover; the effects of solar radiation inside the building atrium were significant; which cannot be overcome by simply installing a low shading coefficient glazing type at the atrium skylight. In addition to providing chilled ceiling technology; a high efficiency chiller and low energy lighting; it is recommended that the building be well tuned during the commissioning period. The current approach could be extended to accommodate higher energy ratings of commercial buildings at different locations worldwide.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC SYSTEM OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...

  16. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Sa; Bonetta, Si; Mosso, S; Sampò, S; Carraro, E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level and composition of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of an Italian office building equipped with a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected in three open-space offices during different seasons. The microbial levels in the outdoor air, supply air diffusers, fan coil air flow and air treatment unit humidification water tank were used to evaluate the influence of the HVAC system on indoor air quality (IAQ). A medium-low level of bacterial contamination (50-500 CFU/m(3)) was found in indoor air. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most commonly found genera, probably due to human presence. A high fungal concentration was measured due to a flood that occurred during the winter. The indoor seasonal distribution of fungal genera was related to the fungal outdoor distribution. Significant seasonal and daily variation in airborne microorganisms was found, underlining a relationship with the frequency of HVAC system switching on/off. The results of this monitoring highlight the role of the HVAC system on IAQ and could be useful to better characterise bacterial and fungal population in the indoor air of office buildings.

  17. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures

  18. A Study on the Determination of Power Supply Class for HVAC System in KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hagtae; Kim, Minjin; Suh, Yong-Suk; Kim, Jun-Yeon; Chae, Hee-Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an appropriate electrical class, power supply class, and operation logic for the major equipment of the HVAC system such as a Confinement Isolation Damper (CID), Fission Molybdenum Isolation Damper (FID), Air Handling Unit (AHU), Air Cleaning Unit (ACU), and Contaminated Air Purification System (CAPS) in light of their functional requirements and importance. The classification for the overall HVAC system of the KJRR is a safety class NNS, Non-Seismic category, quality class S, and electrical class Non-1E. Exceptionally, the CID and FID are safety class 3, seismic category I, and quality class Q. The electrical class for the major equipment of the HVAC system should be determined considering the operation concept during Loss of Normal Electric Power (LOEP) regardless of the safety class. In this paper, the electrical and power supply class is determined and the operation logic is proposed for the major equipment of the HVAC system for the KJRR such as the CID, FID, CAPS, ACU, and AHU. The electrical class Non-1E is determined to implement a fail closed for the enhancement of safety. The power supply class is based on the functional requirements of each equipment. The CID, FID, CAPS, and ACU are Class III, but the AHU is Class IV by reflecting the importance and electrical load. After the recovery of the power supply, there is a difference in the operation concept for the HVAC system between the reactor building and fission molybdenum production building depending on the operator's residence time. The CID and CAPS are operated manually through procedures for checking the accident status, and the FID and ACU are operated automatically without special procedures.

  19. Analysis on energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The paper presents a model-based analysis on the energy saving potential of supermarket HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) and refrigeration systems using multiple subcoolers among the high-temperature HVAC system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principle of energy reduction is to have the higher COP (coefficient of performance) system generate more cooling capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system. The subcooler could be placed between the medium-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the high-temperature and medium-temperature systems, and between the high-temperature and low-temperature systems. All integration scenarios of adding one, two and three subcoolers have been investigated. The energy saving potential varies with the load ratio between high-, medium- and low-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and the ''on-off'' duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding subcoolers is also proposed. (author)

  20. An energy credit based incentive mechanism for the direct load control of residential HVAC systems incorporation in day-ahead planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdinc, O.; Tascikaraoglu, A.; Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing operational complexity of power systems considering the higher renewable energy penetration and changing load characteristics, together with the recent developments in the ICT field have led to more research and implementation efforts related to the activation of the demand side. In

  1. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  2. Contamination control in HVAC systems for aseptic processing area. Part I: Case study of the airflow velocity in a unidirectional airflow workstation with computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M

    2000-01-01

    A unidirectional airflow workstation for processing a sterile pharmaceutical product is required to be "Grade A," according to EU-GMP and WHO-GMP. These regulations have employed the wording of "laminar airflow" for unidirectional airflow, with an unclear definition given. This seems to have allowed many reports to describe discussion of airflow velocity only. The guidance values as to the velocity are expressed in various words of 90 ft/min, 0.45 m/sec, 0.3 m/sec, +/- 20%, or "homogeneous air speed." It has been also little clarified how variation in airflow velocity gives influences on contamination control of a workstation working with varying key characteristics, such as ceiling height, internal heat load, internal particle generation, etc. The present author has revealed following points from a case study using Computational Fluid Dynamics: the airflow characteristic in Grade A area shows no significant changes with varying the velocity of supplied airflow, and the particles generated from the operator will be exhausted outside Grade A area without contamination.

  3. Performance analysis of supply and return fans for HVAC systems under different operating strategies of economizer dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, Nabil [Florida Solar Energy Center, A Research Institute of the University of Center Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    HVAC systems and associated equipment consume a relatively large fraction of total building energy consumption, a significant portion of which is attributed to fan operation. The operation of economizer dampers when installed can cause high energy consumption in fans if they are not functioning in proper and optimal manner. This will mainly be due to the potential high pressure drops through those dampers and associated high total pressures that should be developed by supply and/or return fans. It is then necessary to ensure that a proper strategy to operate optimally the economizer dampers is implemented with minimum fan energy use. The paper examines several operation strategies of the economizer dampers and investigates their effects on the performance of both the supply and return fans in HVAC system. It also discusses a new operating strategy for economizer dampers that can lead to lower fan energy use. The strategies are evaluated by simulations for a typically existing HVAC system. Several factors such as the building locations, system characteristics, resistance in the duct where the dampers are installed, supply air temperature and economizer control, and minimum ventilation requirements are also considered during the evaluations. The results show that the way of the economizer dampers been controlled has a significant effect on fan performance and its energy use. The proposed strategy if properly implemented can provide fan energy saving in the range of 5-30%, depending mainly on the number of hours when the system operates in the free cooling mode, damper characteristics, and minimum outdoor air. (author)

  4. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałaszyńska, Katarzyna; Bandurski, Karol; Porowski, Mieczysław

    2017-11-01

    Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational). The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year - a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool - TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  5. Energy demand and thermal comfort of HVAC systems with thermally activated building systems as a function of user profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pałaszyńska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS are a way to use building structure as a thermal energy storage. As a result, renewable energy sources may be used more efficiently. The paper presents numerical analysis of a HVAC system with TABS energy demand and indoor thermal comfort of a representative room in a non-residential building (governmental, commercial, educational. The purpose of analysis is to investigate the influence of a user profile on system performance. The time span of the analysis is one year – a typical meteorological year. The model was prepared using a generally accepted simulation tool – TRNSYS 17. The results help to better understand the interaction of a user profile with TABS. Therefore they are important for the development of optimal control algorithms for energy efficient buildings equipped with such systems.

  6. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  7. Archtechtual Envilomental and Eequipment Laboratory Issues on HVAC System in a Commercial Kitchen(Educational Practice through Research)

    OpenAIRE

    吉野, 一; Hajime, Yoshino

    2017-01-01

    Generally, large amount of heat, oil fume including chemical substances and exhaust gases were generated during cooking in commercial kitchens. Therefore, it is important to keep highly safe and good hygienic condition by HVAC System. In this paper, health effect of oil fume and fire spread were surveyed based on investigation of previous studies. Lastly, current issues and future prospects of commercial kitchens HVAC system in Japan were described.

  8. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  9. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  10. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  11. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65

  12. HVAC-DYNAMICS - a tool for quality assurance in relation to delivery of air-conditioning systems. [Heating, ventilating and air conditioning]. HVAC-DYNAMICS - et redskap for kvalitetsikring av sluttleveransen i klima-anlegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V [SINTEF Varmeteknikk, Seksjon VVS (NO)

    1990-07-01

    HVAC-DYNAMICS is a computerized tool for quality assurance of the functioning of an air-conditioning system at the time of delivery. The system's efficiency in the case of fluctuating and critical operation is evaluated. The HVAC-DYNAMICS gives an optimal choice for air-conditioning systems regarding indoor climate, efficiency demands and energy consumption. The program can also be use for calibration of regulators, fault-finding, and training purposes. (CLS).

  13. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  14. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J -M

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  15. Development and analysis of sustainable energy systems for building HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main HVAC applications considered in this paper are heating and cooling. Three newly developed systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings are proposed and assessed. Energy and exergy analyses are performed to assess the performance of heating, cooling and overall systems for each case, and the effects of various parameters on the energy and exergy efficiencies are examined. Also, the effect of changing the energy input for each system is also found in terms of overall efficiency. The overall system energy efficiency is found to be highest for the natural gas operated system with a vapour absorption chiller (system 1) at 27.5% and lowest for the photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 19.9%. The overall system exergy efficiency is found to be highest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with vapour compression chiller (system 3) at 3.9% and lowest for the PV and solar thermal operated system with heat pump (system 2) at 1.2%, respectively. - Highlights: • Three HVAC systems for buildings using renewable energy sources are proposed and assessed. • A performance improvement study is undertaken. • Parametric studies are carried out to determine the effects of various parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies

  16. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  17. A Comfort-Aware Energy Efficient HVAC System Based on the Subspace Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proactive heating method is presented aiming at reducing the energy consumption in a HVAC system while maintaining the thermal comfort of the occupants. The proposed technique fuses time predictions for the zones’ temperatures, based on a deterministic subspace identification method, and zones’ occupancy predictions, based on a mobility model, in a decision scheme that is capable of regulating the balance between the total energy consumed and the total discomfort cost. Simulation results for various occupation-mobility models demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  18. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendell, Derek Garth [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables, relocatables, RCs) has increased due to class size reduction initiatives and limited resources. Classroom mechanical wall-mount heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may function improperly or not be maintained; lower ventilation rates may impact indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ). Materials in portables may off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, as a function of age, temperature, and humidity. For a pilot study, public K-12 schools located in or serving target areas within five Los Angeles County communities were identified. In two communities where school districts (SD) consented, 1-3 randomly selected portables, one newer and one older, and one main building control classroom from each participating school were included. Sampling was conducted over a five-day school week in the cooling and heating seasons, or repeated twice in the cooling season. Measurements included passive samplers for VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and air exchange rate (AER) calculation; indoor air temperature and humidity; technician walk-through surveys; an interview questionnaire above HVAC system operation and maintenance (O and M). For an intervention study evaluating advanced HVAC technologies in comparison to the common conventional technology, and materials for source reduction of VOCs, four RC were manufactured and located in pairs at two schools in two recruited Northern California SD in different climate zones. RCs were built with the two HVAC systems, cabinetry and conduit for monitoring equipment, and standard or advanced interior finish materials. Each RC was its own control in a case-crossover design--HVAC systems alternately operated for 1-2 week intervals in the 2001-02 school year, with IEQ monitoring including aldehyde and indoor air temperature and humidity data. Measured classroom AER were low, formaldehyde concentrations were below the state

  19. The necessity of HVAC system for the registered architectural cultural heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Cătălin George; Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    This study is intended to highlight the role of the ventilation and air conditioning system for a theatre. It was chosen as a case study the "Vasile Alecsandri" National Theatre of Jassy. The paper also sought to make a comparison in three distinct scenarios for HVAC Main Hall system - ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall doesn't work; only the ventilation system of the Main Hall works and ventilation and air conditioning system of the Main Hall works. For analysing the comfort parameters, the ANSYS-Fluent software was used to build a 2D model of the building and simulation of HVAC system functionality during winter season, in all three scenarios. For the studied scenarios, the external conditions of Jassy and the indoor conditions of the theatre, when the entire spectacle hall is occupied were considered. The main aspects evaluated for each case were the air temperature, air velocity and relative humidity. The results are presented comparatively as plots and spectra of the interest parameters.

  20. 10 CFR 434.517 - HVAC systems and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... >3 stories 6 Note 6. Restaurant 1 or 3 Note 1. Health: a. Nursing Home (any size) 2 or 7 Note 7. b... restaurants, assembly and retail which are part of a mixed use building which, according to Table 517.4.1... controlled so that it will not be operated during normal operations of the building. The designer shall...

  1. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  2. Modernisation of space HVAC systems with high energy consumption; Sanierung von RLT-Anlagen mit hohen Energieverbraeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, U. [ROM (Rud. Otto Meyer) - Technik fuer Mensch und Umwelt, Hamburg (Germany). Zentralbereich Ingenieurtechnik

    1997-12-31

    For office buildings and similarly used buildings, concepts are developed for the modernization of space hvac systems. The state of work in the following sectors is discussed: optimum comparison processes for space HVAC systems, measurements to assess the performance of alternative dehumidification and cooling systems, heat-physiological space model. (MSK) [Deutsch] Fuer Buerobauten und Gebaeude aehnlicher Nutzung werden Sanierungskonzepte fuer RLT-Anlagen erarbeitet. Im Folgenden wird der Stand der Arbeiten in den Bereichen: optimale Vergleichsprozesse fuer RLT-Anlagen, messtechnische Beurteilung alternativer Entfeuchtungs- und Kuehlsysteme sowie ein waermetechnisches Raummodell erlaeutert.

  3. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  4. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  5. Preliminary CFD Analysis for HVAC System Design of a Containment Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sung Man; Choi, Choengryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jae Ho; Hong, Moonpyo; Kim, Hyungseok [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) system has been mainly designed based on overall heat balance and averaging concepts, which is simple and useful for designing overall system. However, such a method has the disadvantage that cannot predict the local flow and temperature distributions in a containment building. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) preliminary analysis is carried out to obtain detailed flow and temperature distributions in a containment building and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. This approach can be useful for hydrogen analysis in an accident related to hydrogen released into a containment building. In this study, CFD preliminary analysis has been performed to obtain the detailed information of the reactor containment building by using the CFD analysis techniques and to ensure that such information can be obtained via CFD analysis. We confirmed that CFD analysis can offer enough detailed information about flow patterns and temperature field and that CFD technique is a useful tool for HVAC design of nuclear power plants.

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  7. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  8. HVAC system operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in buildings with intermittent occupancy: The case of mosques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaiwi, I.; Abdou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper operational zoning in the early design phase of mosques can lead to up to 30% reduction in the annual cooling energy. • Energy performance index of 71.0 kW h/m 2 yr for an insulated mosque can be realized with A/C proper intermitted operation. • 23% energy saving can be achieved when a properly oversized A/C is operated intermittently for 1 h during each prayer. • 13% reduction in cooling energy use can be achieved when A/C operation precedes worshippers’ occupancy in mosques. • Envelope insulation and A/C intermittent operation with proper operational zoning leads to more than 46% savings in energy. - Abstract: Mosques are places of worship for Muslims with unique functional requirements and operational characteristics. They are partially or fully occupied for about an hour for five intermittent periods during the day. In hot climates, maintaining indoor thermal comfort requires a considerable amount of energy that can be reduced by proper operational zoning and effective HVAC operation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of operational zoning and HVAC system intermittent operation strategies on the energy performance of mosques while thermal comfort is maintained. Energy simulation modeling is used for evaluating alternative zoning and HVAC operation strategies. Results indicate that up to 23% reduction in annual cooling energy is achieved by employing suitable HVAC operation strategy and system over-sizing, and 30% reduction is achieved by appropriate operational zoning. Comparing the cooling energy consumption of HVAC summer continuous operation of an un-insulated mosque with the consumption of the insulated mosque with properly oversized HVAC system operated for 1 h during each prayer, indicated that as much as 46% of cooling energy reduction can be achieved. Furthermore, utilizing proper operational zoning and HVAC operation strategies is expected to bring about an additional significant energy

  9. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom...

  10. The integrated engineering system for the HVAC branch. Annex; Das integrierte Ingenieursystem fuer die Haustechnikbranche; Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, J.; Duppenthaler, A.; Helbling, R.; Kohler, T.; Mantel, R.; Meineke, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, the intention of the former Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research was to initiate a transfer of know-how into practice by launching this project. The increasing need for software engineering tools by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) companies demanded a new tool; to realise it, a joint venture project with private industry should concentrate the individual capabilities of each partner toward this goal. The present report describes the concept of the integrated engineering system, its user interface, the models, graphics, tools, multiuser operation and the system boundary. Results of field tests are presented together with information of the availability of the system. The annex contains the agreement for the usage of the public-domain-version of the system, experience reports of pilot clients and the end user`s and developer`s documentation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. The Energy Implications of Air-Side Fouling in Constant Air Volume HVAC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric J. H.

    2011-12-01

    This thesis examines the effect of air-side fouling on the energy consumption of constant air volume (CAV) heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential and small commercial buildings. There is a particular focus on evaluating the potential energy savings that may result from the remediation of such fouling from coils, filters, and other air system components. A computer model was constructed to simulate the behavior of a building and its duct system under various levels of fouling. The model was verified through laboratory and field testing and then used to run parametric simulations to examine the range of energy impacts for various climates and duct system characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of parameters like duct insulation, duct leakage, duct location, and duct design on savings potential. Duct system pressures, temperatures, and energy consumption for two houses were monitored for one month. The houses' duct systems, which were both in conditioned space, were given a full cleaning, and were then monitored for another month. The flow rates at the houses improved by 10% and 6%. The improvements were primarily due to installing a new filter, as both houses had only light coil fouling. The results indicate that there was negligible change in heating energy efficiency due to the system cleaning. The parametric simulation results are in agreement with the field experiment: for systems in all eight climates, with flowrates degraded by 20% or less, if ducts are located within the thermal zone, HVAC source energy savings from cleaning are negligible or even slightly negative. However, if ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings are in the 1 to 5% range. For systems with flowrates degraded by 40%, if ducts are within the thermal zone, savings from cleaning occurs only for air conditioning energy, up to 8% in climates like Miami, FL. If ducts are outside the thermal zone, savings occurs with both

  12. Integrated analysis of CFD data with K-means clustering algorithm and extreme learning machine for localized HVAC control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongming; Soh, Yeng Chai; Wu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a desired comfort level while minimizing the total energy consumed is an interesting optimization problem in Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system control. This paper proposes a localized control strategy that uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results and K-means clustering algorithm to optimally partition an air-conditioned room into different zones. The temperature and air velocity results from CFD simulation are combined in two ways: 1) based on the relationship indicated in predicted mean vote (PMV) formula; 2) based on the relationship extracted from ASHRAE RP-884 database using extreme learning machine (ELM). Localized control can then be effected in which each of the zones can be treated individually and an optimal control strategy can be developed based on the partitioning result. - Highlights: • The paper provides a visual guideline for thermal comfort analysis. • CFD, K-means, PMV and ELM are used to analyze thermal conditions within a room. • Localized control strategy could be developed based on our clustering results

  13. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  14. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  15. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ''Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.'' The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ''generic'' insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency (∼1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations

  16. HVAC retrofitting and remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford Co., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the pitfalls and problems as well as the benefits of updating a HVAC system. Failures and successes, and the lessons learned working in this dominant portion of the construction market are included as the author describes retrofit projects. The projects have ranged from total replacements in unoccupied buildings to updating systems in occupied buildings.

  17. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV

  18. A Study on the Application of UV Sterilization Method in HVAC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Seo, I. W.; Lim, K. R.; An, W. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this report is to study on the application of UV sterilization method on HVAC system in building. One type of commercial UV lamp was utilized during this research. It was 1,050 mm length, 24.5 mm diameter, 65 w lamp output, single ended lamp intended for insertion into al frame from inside. Twenty six lamps were mounted and operated in cross flow. They were allowed to operate for at least 30 minutes prior to beginning each test. The test rig was operated at 2.5 m/s and 20 .deg. C, and the relatively humidity 21.6 %RH. The effect of UV sterilization are investigated that as the general virus about 94 %, the mold microbe about 64 % and the bacillus about 86 %, respectively. Following this report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the UV.

  19. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Wells, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  20. A review on control system algorithm for building automation systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noubissie-Tientcheu, SI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The building with its components such as Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting constitute a bigger part of energy consumption in Southern Africa. Control system in a building reduced the energy consumption, according to different...

  1. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  2. HVAC retrofit for healthy schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Fisher, G.; Brennan, T.; Turner, W.A.; McKnight, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated the impacts of HVAC systems and building dynamics on radon concentrations in 26 schools across the United States. Diagnostic data indicated that radon was not the only indoor air pollutant in these schools. As a result, an essential step in the School Evaluation Program is determination of the feasibility of using HVAC technology for radon remediation in addition to general indoor air improvement. In 1990, the EPA sponsored the HVAC retrofit of two schools in Maine. This paper presents the information gained by these case studies. First, the extensive pre-retrofit diagnostics and characterizations of the two schools are reviewed. Then follows a discussion of why and how the HVAC systems, including unit ventilators, central air-handling units, and heat recovery ventilation, were retrofitted. Finally, an appraisal of the post-retrofit radon and CO 2 levels is made, along with presentation of related data such as retrofit costs and energy and comfort impacts

  3. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, {open_quotes}Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.{close_quotes} This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop {open_quotes}generic{close_quotes} insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions.

  4. Value-impact assessment for resolution of generic safety issue 143 - availability of HVAC and chilled water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has conducted an assessment of the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, open-quotes Availability of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems.close quotes This assessment was conducted to identify vulnerabilities related to failure of HVAC, chilled water and room cooling systems and develop estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems. This information was used to develop proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue and perform a value/impact assessment to determine their cost-effectiveness. Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for four representative plants from the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Internally-initiated core damage sequences as well as external events were considered. Three proposed resolution strategies were developed for this safety issue and it was determined that all three were not cost-effective. Additional evaluations were performed to develop open-quotes genericclose quotes insights on potential design-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions

  5. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  6. Analysis of the HVAC system's sound quality using the design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Gil; Sim, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Jae Eun; Choi, Byoung Jae; Oh, Jae Eung

    2009-01-01

    Human hearing is very sensitive to sound, so a subjective index of sound quality is required. Each situation of sound evaluation is composed of Sound Quality (SQ) metrics. When substituting the level of one frequency band, we could not see the tendency of substitution at the whole frequency band during SQ evaluation. In this study, the Design of Experiments (DOE) is used to analyze noise from an automotive Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. The frequency domain is divided into 12 equal parts, and each level of the domain is given an increase or decrease due to the change in frequency band based on the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound of the SQ analyzed. By using DOE, the number of tests is effectively reduced by the number of experiments, and the main result is a solution at each band. SQ in terms of the 'loud' and 'sharp' sound at each band, the change in band (increase or decrease in sound pressure) or no change in band will have the most effect on the identifiable characteristics of SQ. This will enable us to select the objective frequency band. Through the results obtained, the physical level changes in arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be determined

  7. Selecting HVAC Systems to Achieve Comfortable and Cost-effective Residential Net-Zero Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Skye, Harrison M; Domanski, Piotr A

    2018-02-15

    HVAC is responsible for the largest share of energy use in residential buildings and plays an important role in broader implementation of net-zero energy building (NZEB). This study investigated the energy, comfort and economic performance of commercially-available HVAC technologies for a residential NZEB. An experimentally-validated model was used to evaluate ventilation, dehumidification, and heat pump options for the NZEB in the mixed-humid climate zone. Ventilation options were compared to mechanical ventilation without recovery; a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) and energy recovery ventilator (ERV) respectively reduced the HVAC energy by 13.5 % and 17.4 % and reduced the building energy by 7.5 % and 9.7 %. There was no significant difference in thermal comfort between the ventilation options. Dehumidification options were compared to an air-source heat pump (ASHP) with a separate dehumidifier; the ASHP with dedicated dehumidification reduced the HVAC energy by 7.3 % and the building energy by 3.9 %. The ASHP-only option (without dedicated dehumidification) reduced the initial investment but provided the worst comfort due to high humidity levels. Finally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) alternatives were compared to the ASHP; the GSHP with two and three boreholes reduced the HVAC energy by 26.0 % and 29.2 % and the building energy by 13.1 % and 14.7 %. The economics of each HVAC configuration was analyzed using installation cost data and two electricity price structures. The GSHPs with the ERV and dedicated dehumidification provided the highest energy savings and good comfort, but were the most expensive. The ASHP with dedicated dehumidification and the ERV (or HRV) provided reasonable payback periods.

  8. Cutting the cost of hospital HVAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Steve Ruddell, head of global marketing, Motors & Generators, at ABB, emphasises the importance of a good motor management and maintenance policy in getting the best performance from, and reducing the energy consumption of, hospitals' HVAC systems, also explaining why investing in energy-efficient, low voltage drives, and high efficiency electric motors, to control such equipment, can pay major dividends for estates and facilities teams.

  9. Breathing Easier: HVAC Specifications for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, C. Curtis; Trent, Warren C.

    1996-01-01

    A major source of indoor air contamination in schools originates within the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems (HVAC), with draw-through systems being the worst offenders. Lists provisions for designing an HVAC system and a set of criteria to adhere to when planning new construction or renovations. (nine references) (MLF)

  10. PROJETO DE UM CONTROLADOR PROPORCIONAL-INTEGRAL PARA O SISTEMA DE CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DO AR E DE UM NOVO SISTEMA DE CONTROLE HVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millene Caroline Albino de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma sala do Perlstein Hall, da Illinois Institute of Techonology, (Chicago, IL, USA possui um sistema de aquecimento, ventilação e ar condicionado (em inglês – HVAC equipado com um sensor de gás carbônico, cujo intuito é regular diretamente a qualidade do ar e assegurar que a sala esteja em condições aceitáveis. Este procedimento, porém, pode colocar uma carga extra no sistema HVAC e aumentar o consumo de energia. Desta forma, o objetivo principal do trabalho foi o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de uma estratégia de controle de temperatura e concentração de CO2 para o sistema em questão, utilizando um controlador Proporcional-Integral (PI. Dados coletados em testes realizados na sala foram utilizados para a estimação dos parâmetros das funções de transferência e dos controladores. Inicialmente, os controladores foram testados separadamente e, em seguida, em conjunto. Pode-se observar que o controlador PI obteve bons resultados, apesar do overshoot e oscilações do sistema já observados pela literatura, conseguindo atingir o set point desejado de temperatura de 70°F e de concentração de CO2 de 150 ppm. Palavras-chave: HVAC, Controle, controlador PI.

  11. Proceedings of the 7th cogeneration and independent power congress, natural gas purchasing '92, HVAC controls and energy conservation '92, 1992 indoor air quality congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Cogeneration and IPP Market Developments; Natural Gas Marketing and Deliverability Strategies; Identifying the Sources of IAQ Problems; User-Owner Cogeneration Systems; Strategies for International Power Development; Strategic Fuel Purchasing; Cogeneration and utility Power Plant Compliance Issues; New HVAC Design Trends; IAQ Practical solutions: Case Studies

  12. Fumigation of a laboratory-scale HVAC system with hydrogen peroxide for decontamination following a biological contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Attwood, B; Clayton, M; Touati, A; Delafield, R

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate hydrogen peroxide vapour (H2 O2 ) for its ability to inactivate Bacillus spores within a laboratory-scale heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct system. Experiments were conducted in a closed-loop duct system, constructed of either internally lined or unlined galvanized metal. Bacterial spores were aerosol-deposited onto 18-mm-diameter test material coupons and strategically placed at several locations within the duct environment. Various concentrations of H2 O2 and exposure times were evaluated to determine the sporicidal efficacy and minimum exposure needed for decontamination. For the unlined duct, high variability was observed in the recovery of spores between sample locations, likely due to complex, unpredictable flow patterns within the ducts. In comparison, the lined duct exhibited a significant desorption of the H2 O2 following the fumigant dwell period and thus resulted in complete decontamination at all sampling locations. These findings suggest that decontamination of Bacillus spore-contaminated unlined HVAC ducts by hydrogen peroxide fumigation may require more stringent conditions (higher concentrations, longer dwell duration) than internally insulated ductwork. These data may help emergency responders when developing remediation plans during building decontamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Direct Digital Control of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    reset, load shedding, chiller optimization , VAV fan synchronization, and optimum start/stop. The prospective buyer of a DDC system should investigate...current and accurate drawings for a conventional, built-up control system such as that illustrated in Fig- ure 4. Data on setpoints , reset schedules, and...are always available in the form of the computer program code (Figure 7). In addition to the control logic, setpoint and other data are readily

  14. Inspection and maintenance of HVAC systems : what you need to know; L'inspection et l'entretien des systemes de CVCA : ce qu'il faut savoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapp, D. [Groupe Gesfor Poirier, Pinchin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    This article described an inspection and maintenance program (IMP) that ensures the cleanliness of building's heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Air quality can be compromised over time as dust accumulates in filters and on internal surfaces of an HVAC. Since mould spores and bacteria are significant components of dust, an excessive accumulation of dust in an HVAC system can lead to microbiological growth issues, particularly in humid conditions. Damaged dampers, missing screens and clogged or inefficient drains can generate indoor air quality issues. As such, preventive inspection of ventilation systems can identify deficiencies as well as future problems. This article also highlighted the integrated services provided by the Gesfor Poirier, Pinchin Group regarding industrial hygiene, health and safety inspection and remediation of HVAC systems and management of asbestos and other hazardous materials in buildings. 4 figs.

  15. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  16. Modelling and adaptive control of small capacity chillers for HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghi, A.; Cecchinato, Luca

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive controller for single and uneven tandem scroll compressor, packaged air-cooled water chillers is described. The designed controller allows to substantially increase the energy performance of the system, as well as to achieve excellent regulation performances in process applications. The controller parameters are adapted on the basis of estimates of the plant thermal load, that are computed by using a Kalman filter. An ad hoc approach is used to define a relay control logic, which is based on a numerical optimization procedure. To support controller design, a detailed simulation environment is developed and validated on an experimental facility. Performance of the algorithm is described with both simulation and experimental data. At low part load ratio values the proposed algorithm grants a 0.6-0.7 K improvement in the regulation performance in terms of supply water temperature standard deviation and mean supply water temperature deviation. The unit energy efficiency improvement with respect to supply water temperature control varies from 7.3% to 3.0% while the experimental seasonal energy efficiency rating improvement is 9.1%. - Research highlights: → Design of an advanced control algorithms for small capacity chillers. → Matlab/Simulink simulation environment development and experimental validation. → Development of an adaptive control algorithm for scroll compressor chillers, which allows to increase both control accuracy and energy performance. → New load estimation scheme based on a Kalman filter.

  17. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  18. Development of a system for detection and diagnosis of errors in the operation of space HVAC systems; Entwicklung eines Systems zur Erkennung und Diagnose von Fehlern beim Betrieb von HLK-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H.; Bauer, M.; Grob, R.F. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Heiz- und Raumlufttechnik

    1997-12-31

    Buildings with heating and space HVAC systems require considerable automatic control effort to ensure engergy-efficient operation. Faults are only to be avoided by the use of automatic fault detection systems. The contribution describes the procedure adopted in operation monitoring, the IKE system for fault detection and diagnosis, and the evaluation of the FDD system. (MSK) [Deutsch] Gebaeude mit heiz-und raumlufttechnischen Anlagen erfordern bei energetisch rationellem Bertrieb einen grossen Aufwand an Steuerungs-und Regelungstechnik. Um ohne Fehler zu arbeiten erfordert diese Steuerungs-und Regelungstechnik den Einsatz von automatischen Fehlererkennungssystemen. Im Folgenden werden die Vorgehensweise bei der Betriebsueberwachung, das IKE-System zur Fehlererkennung und Diagnose sowie die Evaluierung des FDD-Systems (Fault Detection and Diagnosis System) erlaeutert.

  19. HVAC Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Clifton W.; D'Angelo, David

    1999-01-01

    Explains how commissioning can help to ensure that all components in a new heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system will work together as designed. Bowdoin College's experience with commissioning is highlighted. (GR)

  20. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  1. HVAC system modernization and implementation of a new chilled water system; Modernizacion del Sistema de HVAC e implantacion de un nuevo Sistema de Agua Enfriada de CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodlowiec, D.; Perez-Guilarte Moreno, C.

    2011-07-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction managed the implementation of a new ventilation system and cooling in the turbine building at the Laguna Verde NPP, fundamental systems to maintain optimum environmental conditions within the same, to improve and ensure the smooth operation of all electrical equipment, contributing to the achievement of increased power to 120%.

  2. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  3. Application of optimization techniques on lumped HVAC models for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoff, A.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems comprise nearly one third of annual household energy consumption in the United States. HVAC energy use can be reduced by applying controls. This study applies a novel control method on a system with arbitrary steady-state and transient load distributions. The new method uses multi-dimensional interpolation between optimized control configurations for various steady-state load distributions. Demonstration of the new method on a two-room HVAC system predicts power savings for an arbitrary steady load that is nearly equivalent to that using a Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) with chiller modulation. However, the new method provides better energy savings for arbitrary transient loads: 19% energy savings over an uncontrolled system compared to energy savings of 6% for a VAV with chiller modulation. The average transient temperature deviation from setpoint using the new method is slightly better than that using VAV with chiller modulation. (author)

  4. HVAC system modernization and implementation of a new chilled water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodlowiec, D.; Perez-Guilarte Moreno, C.

    2011-01-01

    Iberdrola Engineering and Construction managed the implementation of a new ventilation system and cooling in the turbine building at the Laguna Verde NPP, fundamental systems to maintain optimum environmental conditions within the same, to improve and ensure the smooth operation of all electrical equipment, contributing to the achievement of increased power to 120%.

  5. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A

    2008-06-01

    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  6. Free cooling potential of a PCM-based heat exchanger coupled with a novel HVAC system for simultaneous heating and cooling of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    . In particular, a model of a PCM-based heat exchanger was developed in this work by using the programming language Modelica. This device was designed to store cold energy during night-time and release it during daytime through the water circuit. Results for a typical office building model showed...... that the integration of free cooling devices can significantly reduce the primary energy use of the novel HVAC system. In particular, the thermal plant configuration including the PCM-based heat exchanger made it possible to almost completely avoid the use of mechanical cooling, leading to annual primary energy......This article presents a simulation-based study that estimates the primary energy use of a novel HVAC system for different configurations of a thermal plant. The main characteristic of the system is its ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling to buildings by using a single hydronic...

  7. Analysis of an HVAC system for the molten cuprous chloride pouring operation in an industrial hydrogen production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandehariun, S.; Talimi, M.; Rosen, M.A.; Naterer, G.F. [University of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by thermochemical water decomposition from various heat sources. The copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a potential future cycle that could be linked with nuclear reactors to thermally decompose water into oxygen and hydrogen, through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. Heat is transferred between various processes. Effective heat recovery from the molten CuCl within the cycle is important for achieving high efficiency. This paper described the fundamentals of a preliminary HVAC system design for the molten CuCl pouring operation in an industrial facility, and the use of air cleaning devices to remove contaminants before discharge to the outdoor air. Heat recovery from molten CuCl involves calculating duct diameters to provide the desired duct air velocity through the system. The fan size is determined by evaluating the static pressure. An adequate supply of make-up air must be provided to replace the air exhausted through the ventilation system. This paper described the economics of the ventilation system as well as ways to protect employee health and minimize the costs associated with exhaust ventilation. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. New regulatory requirements of HVAC ventilation systems in nuclear installations Spanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation systems serve a number of functions vital to the safe operation of nuclear facilities: the renewal of air, cooling components, prevent the release of contaminated air into the environment under both normal operating and accident, or ensure habitability of the control rooms in all situations.

  9. Stage 1 performance qualification of heat-ventilation air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the manufacturing of Tc-99m Generator at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen Ng; Noriah Jamal; Rehir Dahalan; Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Noraisyah Yusof; Shaharum Ramli; Jusnan Hashim; Ariff Hamzah; Wan Firdaus Wan Ishak; Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Asmah Mohibat; Shafii Khamis; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim; Zakaria Ibrahim; Shaaban Kasim

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing of Tc-99m generator is carried out in clean room Block 21 of Malaysian Nuclear Agency, which need to comply current Good Manufacturing Practice requirement. High-ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) is a new renovated system. It is a critical system for maintaining suitable temperature, relative humidity and pressure differential in the clean room. The objective of this paper is to present results on Stage 1 Performance Qualification (PQ) for HVAC. This PQ stage 1 was done from 7 February 2007 till 16 March 2007. Temperature, Relative Humidity and Pressure Differential for each compartment in the clean room was monitored twice daily. The Measurement of air-born particle count was done weekly. Settle plate for microbial test was also done weekly. The results were then analyzed and compared with the pre-determined specification. We found that temperature was within the specs, namely 24 +20 degree C. Relative humidity was less than 65%. Pressure differential shows variation, some compartments are below the specs namely 1-3 mm H 2 O. Air-born particle and microbial test also meet the requirement. The results show that all parameters meeting the specs excepts for the pressure differential for certain compartments are a bit low, but is sufficient to create proper air flow and not cause any risk of cross contamination. The existing HVAC system in the clean room is in compliance to the pre-determined specification. However, further improvement can be made by increasing the pressure differential between compartments. (Author)

  10. Monitoring-based HVAC commissioning of an existing office building for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Greenberg, Steve; Fiegel, John; Rubalcava, Alma; Earni, Shankar; Pang, Xiufeng; Yin, Rongxin; Woodworth, Spencer; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrated monitoring-based HVAC commissioning using an existing office building. ► Diagnosed various types of faulty operation in the HVAC system by trend data analyses. ► Identified a list of energy saving measures for the HVAC system. ► Quantified energy saving potential for each commissioning measure using calibrated energy simulation model. ► Achieved an actual energy saving of 10% after the implementations of cost-effective measures. -- Abstract: The performance of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems may fail to satisfy design expectations due to improper equipment installation, equipment degradation, sensor failures, or incorrect control sequences. Commissioning identifies and implements cost-effective operational and maintenance measures in buildings to bring them up to the design intent or optimum operation. An existing office building is used as a case study to demonstrate the process of commissioning. Building energy benchmarking tools are applied to evaluate the energy performance for screening opportunities at the whole building level. A large natural gas saving potential was indicated by the building benchmarking results. Faulty operations in the HVAC systems, such as improper operations of air-side economizers, simultaneous heating and cooling, and ineffective optimal start, were identified through trend data analyses and functional testing. The energy saving potential for each commissioning measure is quantified with a calibrated building simulation model. An actual energy saving of 10% was realized after the implementations of cost-effective measures.

  11. Experimental and modelling analysis of an office building HVAC system based in a ground-coupled heat pump and radiant floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, José Ignacio; Villarino, Alberto; Fernández, Francisco Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of a geothermal heat pump in an office building. • A numerical model in EnergyPlus is validated by experimental results. • An energy, economic and environmental analysis is presented. • A comparison with other technologies demonstrates the potential of the system. - Abstract: This paper shows the evaluation of the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump system monitored building providing heating, ventilating and air conditioning to an office building located in Madrid, in Spain. The system consists of one borehole exchanger, heat pump unit, radiant floor system, mechanical ventilation and data control system. A simulation model was performed with EnergyPlus software and validated. The analyzed period corresponds to the most unfavorable weather conditions in heating and cooling mode. The coefficient of performance obtained in heating and cooling mode was 3.86/5.29, considering all the energy consumption elements of the building and the thermal demand corresponding to an office operation. The CO_2 emissions obtained with a value of 34.68 kg corresponding to the period analyzed represents a low CO_2 emission system. The monitored temperatures reached set point values of 22 °C/25 °C, considered as acceptable comfort temperatures. The values obtained in the validated simulation model presented a deviation of 2% respected experimental results in heating and cooling mode. A comparative of COP_s_y_s and CO_2 emissions with other technologies is performed in order to analyze GCHP compared to other available technologies. The GCHP system is presented as a technology that can fully supply the HVAC conditions for a building and environmentally friendly.

  12. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  13. ANFIS -Based Navigation for HVAC Service Robot with Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salleh, Mohd Zoolfadli Md; Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md; Mustafah, Yasir Mohd

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ongoing work on the autonomous navigation of a mobile service robot for Heat, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC) ducting. CCD camera mounted on the front-end of our robot is used to analyze the ducts openings (blob analysis) in order to differentiate them from other landmarks (blower fan, air outlets and etc). Distance between the robot and duct openings is measured using ultrasonic sensor. Controller chosen is ANFIS where its architecture accepts three inputs; recognition of duct openings, robot positions and distance while the outputs is maneuver direction (left or right).45 membership functions are created from which produces 46 training epochs. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the system, a working prototype is developed and tested inside HVAC ducting in ROBOCON Lab, IIUM

  14. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control

  15. A Novel Application of Thermoelectric Modules in an HVAC System Under Cold Climate Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Toru; Radermacher, Reinhard; Hwang, Yunho

    2012-06-01

    A vapor compression cycle (VCC) with integrated thermoelectric (TE) modules to boost the heating capacity of the system in an energy-efficient way, especially for cold climate operation, is suggested in this paper. While a baseline heat pump (HP) cycle absorbs heat from a source through an evaporator, the proposed system utilizes TE modules as an intermediate (or third) stage of an otherwise two-stage vapor compression system with a vapor injection compressor. This increases the overall system efficiency and augments the system capacity through the high coefficient of performance (COP) of the TE for small temperature lift conditions. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype refrigerant-to-solid (TE) heat exchanger, consisting of TE modules and microchannel flat tubes, was designed and fabricated so that the whole system could realize an additional 1 kW of heating capacity compared with the baseline system. The TE heat exchanger was integrated into a residential HP unit that uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and the system was tested in a laboratory under the severe condition of -17.8°C, in order to investigate the capacity improvement and the overall COP. Finally, an application of this technique in an automotive heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system with HFC134a working fluid has been studied for the purpose of providing supplemental heating for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles by establishing a detailed simulation model of a HP system with the TE heat exchanger. Both the laboratory test and the calculation study show that a VCC with integrated TE modules has both reasonable efficiency and increased heating capacity.

  16. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  17. Assessing the potential of residential HVAC systems for demand-side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.

    This paper investigates the potential of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems to contribute to dynamic demand-side management. Thermal models for seven houses in Austin, Texas are developed with the goal of using them in a planning based demand-side management methodology.

  18. Power System Technical Performance Issues Related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    The aim of this TB is to serve as a practical guide for preparing models and performing studies necessary during the assessment of the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with a large share of (long) AC cables. The brochure follows all phases of planning and analysis of a typical underground...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF SEALANTS USED IN HVAC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the potential antimicrobial efficacy of sealants used in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Recent experiments confirm field experience that duct cleaning alone may not provide adequate protection from regrowth of fu...

  20. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  1. Solar Trigeneration: a Transitory Simulation of HVAC Systems Using Different Typologies of Hybrid Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Amo Sancho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The high energy demand on buildings requires efficient installations and the integration of renewable energy to achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption using traditional energy sources. Usually, solar energy generation and heating loads have different profiles along a day and their maximums take place at different moments. In addition, in months in which solar production is higher, the heating demands are the minimum (hot water is consumed only domestically in summer. Cooling machines (absorption and adsorption allow using thermal energy to chill a fluid. This heat flow rate could be recovered from solar collectors or any other heat source. The aim of this study is to integrate different typologies of solar hybrid (photovoltaic and thermal collectors with cooling machines getting solar trigeneration and concluding the optimal combination for building applications. The heat recovered from the photovoltaic module is used to provide energy to these cooling machines getting a double effect: to get a better efficiency on PV modules and to cool the building. In this document the authors analyse these installations, their operating conditions, dimensions and parameters, in order to get the optimal installation in three different European cities. This work suggests that in a family house in Madrid, the optimal combination is to use CPVT with azimuthally tracking and absorption machine. In this case, the solar trigeneration system using 55 m2 of collector area saves the cooling loads and 79% of the heating load in the house round the year.

  2. A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiloroaya, Vahid; Samali, Bijan; Fakhar, Ahmad; Pishghadam, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various strategies for HVAC energy saving are described and reviewed. • The influence of each strategy on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. • Combination of existing air conditioning technologies appears to be effective for the energy conservation and comfort. • A comparison study between these approaches is carried out. • Changing the HVAC configuration has the potential to increase or reduce energy savings, depending on several factors. - Abstract: Decreasing the energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is becoming increasingly important due to rising cost of fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Therefore, finding novel ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings without compromising comfort and indoor air quality is an ongoing research challenge. One proven way of achieving energy efficiency in HVAC systems is to design systems that use novel configurations of existing system components. Each HVAC discipline has specific design requirements and each presents opportunities for energy savings. Energy efficient HVAC systems can be created by re-configuring traditional systems to make more strategic use of existing system parts. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of existing air conditioning technologies can offer effective solutions for energy conservation and thermal comfort. This paper investigates and reviews the different technologies and approaches, and demonstrates their ability to improve the performance of HVAC systems in order to reduce energy consumption. For each strategy, a brief description is first presented and then by reviewing the previous studies, the influence of that method on the HVAC energy saving is investigated. Finally, a comparison study between these approaches is carried out

  3. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  4. Thermal issues associated with the HVAC and lighting systems influences on the performance of the national ignition facility beam transport tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the thermal issues related to the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the influences of the HVAC system and lighting fixtures on the operational performance of the laser guide beam tubes are reviewed and discussed. An analytical model of the oscillating HVAC air temperatures in the NIF switchyard and target bay will cause significant amounts of beam distortion. However, these negative effects can be drastically reduced by adding thermal insulation to the outside of the beam tubes. A computational fluid dynamics model and an analytical investigation found that the light-fixture to beam-tube separation distance must be on the order of 5.7 m (18.7 ft) to maintain acceptable beam operating performance in the current NIF design. By reducing the fluorescent light fixture power by 33% this separation distance can be reduced to 3.5 m (11.5 ft). If in addition, thermal insulation with a reflective aluminum foil covering is added to the outside of the beam tubes, the separation distance can be reduced further to 1.6m (5.2 ft). A 1.27 cm (0.5 in.) rigid foam insulation sheet with aluminum foil covering will provide adequate insulation for the beam tubes in the NIF switchyards and target bay. The material cost for this amount of insulation would be roughly $30,000

  5. Technical and economic aspects of fuel cell applications in space HVAC systems; Technische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte zum Einsatz von Brennstoffzellen in der Gebaeudeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handke, J; Handschin, E

    1999-12-31

    There are two different types of fuel cells for small-scale applications, li.e. polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and high-termperature fuel cells with ceramic solid electrolytes (SOFC). Both types of fuel cells have different advantages and shortcomings. One of the main problems, however, is the fact that research is still going on and that commercial fuel cell systems for space HVAC applications are still not available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach dem heutigen Stand werden zwei unterschiedliche Brennstoffzellen-Typen zum Einsatz in Kleinanlagen entwickelt. Neben der zu Klasse der Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzellen gehoerenden Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) ist dies die Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle auf der Basis eines keramischen Festelektrolyten (SOFC). Beide Brennstoffzellen-Typen haben unterschiedliche Vor- und Nachteile fuer den Einsatz zur Gebaeudeversorgung. Eines der Hauptprobleme, das allerdings beide Zellentypen gemeinsam haben, besteht in der noch nicht abgeschlossenen Entwicklung und - daraus resultierend - der fehlenden kommerziellen Verfuegbarkeit im Bereich der Gebaeudeversorgung. (orig./MM)

  6. Efficiency improvement of variable speed electrical drives for HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Pedersen, J.K. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    A large part of the produced electrical energy is consumed by ventilators, pumps and compressors, the so-called HVAC applications. A lot of this energy can be saved by speed control, but even with the large saving obtained alone by introduction of variable speed, it is still essential to optimise the control of the variable speed drive and to optimise the electrical machine with respect to efficiency. Experiments are made with energy optimal induction motor control on a 2.2 kW variable speed pump system. It is demonstrated that 10% of the consumed energy can typically be saved by energy optimal motor control compared with constant V/Hz control. In a comparison of induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors for a variable speed pump application it is shown that for 2.2 kW motors an investment in high-efficiency or PM motors are typically paid back within 2.5 years and 7 years respectively. For a 90 kW PM motor the pay-back time would be 24 years. It is today not profitable to use PM motors for variable speed HVAC applications above 2 kW rated motor power. A further study is required to determine this limit in power rating more precisely. (orig.)

  7. Efficient HVAC. New products; Climatización eficiente. Nuevos productos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  8. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  9. A comfort-based, energy-aware HVAC agent and its applications in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a novel heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) agent that maintains a comfortable thermal environmant for its users while minimising energy consumption of the HVAC system and incorporating demand side management (DSM) signals to shift HVAC loads towards achieving more desirable overall load profiles. To do so, the agent needs to be able to accurately predict user comfort, for example by using a thermal comfort model. Existing thermal comfort models are u...

  10. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  11. Exergy optimization of cooling tower for HGSHP and HVAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of new correlations for outlet parameters with all inlet parameters. • Simultaneous achievement of required heat load and minimum exergy destruction. • Multiple combinations of parameters found for same heat load at minimized exergy. • Study useful for optimum control of cooling tower under varying ambient conditions. • Generalized optimization study can be implemented for any mechanical cooling tower. - Abstract: In the present work, a constrained inverse optimization method for building cooling applications is proposed to control the mechanical draft wet cooling tower by minimizing the exergy destruction and satisfying an imposed heat load under varying environmental conditions. The optimization problem is formulated considering the cooling dominated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSHP). As per the requirement, new second degree correlations for the tower outlet parameters (water temperature, air dry and wet-bulb temperatures) with five inlet parameters (dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, water inlet temperature, water and air mass flow rates) are developed. The Box–Behnken design response surface method is implemented for developing the correlations. Subsequently, the constrained optimization problem is solved using augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. This work further developed optimum inlet parameters operating curves for the HGSHP and the HVAC systems under varying environmental conditions aimed at minimizing the exergy destruction along with the fulfillment of the required heat load.

  12. The effect of cleanliness control during installation work on the amount of accumulated dust in ducts of new HVAC installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, R; Tuomainen, M; Asikainen, V; Pasanen, P; Säteri, J; Seppänen, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of dust in supply air ducts in recently installed ventilation systems. The samples for the determination of dust accumulation were collected from supply air ducts in 18 new buildings that have been constructed according to two different cleanliness control levels classified as category P1 (low oil residues and protected against contaminations) and category P2, as defined in the Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Building Materials. In the ducts installed according to the requirements of cleanliness category P1 the mean amount of accumulated dust was 0.9 g/m2 (0.4-2.9 g/m2), and in the ducts installed according to the cleanliness category P2 it was 2.3 g/m2 (1.2-4.9 g/m2). A significant difference was found in the mean amounts of dust between ducts of categories P1 and P2 (P < 0.008). The cleanliness control procedure in category P1 proved to be a useful and effective tool for preventing dust accumulation in new air ducts during the construction process. Additionally, the ducts without residual oil had lower amounts of accumulated dust indicating that the demand for oil free components in the cleanliness classification is reasonable.

  13. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  14. Integrovany pristup k reseni systemu vytapeni,vetrani a klimatizace v budovach (HVAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Towards an integral approach of building and HVAC system The dynamic thermal interacion between a building and the HVAC systems which service it, is still difficult to predict. As this thermal interacition becomes more critical in practice, related knowledge and evaluation tools become increasingly

  15. Energy-Smart Choices for Schools. An HVAC Comparison Tool. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A CD ROM program provides comparison construction cost capabilities for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in educational facilities. The program combines multiple types of systems with square footage data on low and high construction cost and school size to automatically calculate HVAC comparative construction costs. (GR)

  16. HVAC retrofit evaluations: Persuading owners to do it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford (Robert G.), Oakland, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    HVAC system retrofit evaluations for commercial buildings are complex and, at best, imperfect. The number of variables even for a simple system is large. For a complex system, they can be nearly overwhelming. One of the most difficult questions owners of older buildings face is to decide when is it cost effective to replace or upgrade the HVAC system rather than to repair (or ignore) specific components. Similarly, two of the major questions a prospective buyer faces in evaluating a building during the due diligence process are: how well does the HVAC system work today, and how well will it work in the future and at what cost? These are addressed in this article.

  17. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm 2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm 2 . Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  18. Weather data around the world for design of field hospital HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forejt, L.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Drkal, F.; Barankova, P.

    2006-01-01

    Field hospital (FH) is a military mobile complex to be deployed in almost any climate around the world. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the Czech Republic FH units is being redesigned. Computer simulation software will be used for the design of HVAC under variety of

  19. Possibilities and expectations for improved man-machine interface in power system control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asal, H; Burrow, R K; Lindstrom, K; Mocenigo, M; Schellstede, G; Schaffer, G; Serrani, A

    1992-05-01

    The paper describes the hardware, equipment and functions provided to operators for supervising and controlling HVAC power systems. It analyzes the main elements of the man-machine interface (MMI) with particular attention to the recent possibilities afforded by computer technology and full graphic screens. Alarm management and remote control operation are briefly described.

  20. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  1. Multiyear Plan for Validation of EnergyPlus Multi-Zone HVAC System Modeling using ORNL's Flexible Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiyear experimental plan for validation and uncertainty characterization of whole-building energy simulation for a multi-zone research facility using a traditional rooftop unit (RTU) as a baseline heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The project’s overarching objective is to increase the accuracy of energy simulation tools by enabling empirical validation of key inputs and algorithms. Doing so is required to inform the design of increasingly integrated building systems and to enable accountability for performance gaps between design and operation of a building. The project will produce documented data sets that can be used to validate key functionality in different energy simulation tools and to identify errors and inadequate assumptions in simulation engines so that developers can correct them. ASHRAE Standard 140, Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs (ASHRAE 2004), currently consists primarily of tests to compare different simulation programs with one another. This project will generate sets of measured data to enable empirical validation, incorporate these test data sets in an extended version of Standard 140, and apply these tests to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) EnergyPlus software (EnergyPlus 2016) to initiate the correction of any significant deficiencies. The fitness-for-purpose of the key algorithms in EnergyPlus will be established and demonstrated, and vendors of other simulation programs will be able to demonstrate the validity of their products. The data set will be equally applicable to validation of other simulation engines as well.

  2. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  3. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  4. Advanced HVAC modeling with FemLab/Simulink/MatLab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The combined MatLab toolboxes FemLab and Simulink are evaluated as solvers for HVAC problems based on partial differential equations (PDEs). The FemLab software is designed to simulate systems of coupled PDEs, 1-D, 2-D or 3-D, nonlinear and time dependent. In order to show how the program works, a

  5. Using variable speed drives technology to reap rewards of efficient HVAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Electric motors are continuously running at full speed with vanes and throttles used to modulate the output, in most HVAC applications. This results in an excessive wastage of electrical energy, and the solution is the variable speed drive, which can save vast amounts of energy in fans, pumps and compressors across the HVAC system. Users of traditional control methods will not benefit from the energy savings that are possible through variable speed drives because the motor speed remains the same, with the result that some, and in some cases most, of the energy drawn will be wasted. Variable speed drives are more efficient because they control output by regulating the motor speed, rather than run the motor at full speed and use restrictions to reduce the flow. Recently, small so-called micro-drives have been launched, cutting the cost for most variable speed operation. Variable speed motors can also introduce new features to the HVAC system. An example of how drives can save money and improve the indoor climate is cited for Heathrow airport. There, the gateroom was earlier controlled by modulating valves in both heater and cooler coils, with two fans that operated continuously at rated speed. This system was very inefficient because the occupancy of the gateroom varied between zero and maximum several times daily. A new system was installed using two AC drives, in which one drive controls the supply air fan and the other the return air fan. The energy savings amounted to 89% during two tests and 77% in a third. A pump installation in the district heating system of Strasbourg, Germany, showed the savings that are possible in pump applications

  6. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study: Summarized Data - Test Space HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  7. Integration of a photocatalytic multi-tube reactor for indoor air purification in HVAC systems: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walsem, Jeroen; Roegiers, Jelle; Modde, Bart; Lenaerts, Silvia; Denys, Siegfried

    2018-04-24

    This work is focused on an in-depth experimental characterization of multi-tube reactors for indoor air purification integrated in ventilation systems. Glass tubes were selected as an excellent photocatalyst substrate to meet the challenging requirements of the operating conditions in a ventilation system in which high flow rates are typical. Glass tubes show a low-pressure drop which reduces the energy demand of the ventilator, and additionally, they provide a large exposed surface area to allow interaction between indoor air contaminants and the photocatalyst. Furthermore, the performance of a range of P25-loaded sol-gel coatings was investigated, based on their adhesion properties and photocatalytic activities. Moreover, the UV light transmission and photocatalytic reactor performance under various operating conditions were studied. These results provide vital insights for the further development and scaling up of multi-tube reactors in ventilation systems which can provide a better comfort, improved air quality in indoor environments, and reduced human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  8. Workplace Trends In HVAC/R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lynn; Todd, CeCe

    2013-01-01

    This article presents trends in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry, with an emphasis on the importance of technician training programs as exemplified at the East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) in Mesa, Arizona. The article states that HVAC workers are increasingly helping their consumers "go…

  9. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  10. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  11. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  12. HVAC-DYNAMIC; A training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, M; Novakovic, V [SINTEF Division of Applied Thermodynamic, HVAC Group, Trondheim (Norway); Oegaard, O [SINTEF Division of Automatic Control, Trondheim (Norway); Brustad, G [Computer Aided Modelling, CAMO A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1989-01-01

    HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given. 4 figs., 4 refs.

  13. HVAC-DYNAMIC: a training simulator for dynamic analysis of HVAC plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Heintz

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available HVAC-DYNAMIC is a software tool for the dynamic simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC plants. The program is designed to be used by HVAC engineers during design or troubleshooting of plants and by plant operators in their training. The program is based on a set of the most-used HVAC plant configurations and requires only a minimum of knowledge in numeric methods and programming. A brief presentation of the program structure and examples showing some of the application of the program are given.

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  15. HVAC design manual for hospitals and clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    "Provides in-depth design recommendations and proven, cost effective, and reliable solutions for health care HVAC design that provide low maintenance cost and high reliability based on best practices...

  16. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    material was applied. Annual energy and cost savings were predicted based on a typical weather year for each site. The installation of the duct...Balance reports; Visible dust streaks on duct work, ceilings near supply diffusers, or electrical boxes; Comfort complaints Specific Leakage...energy consumption , depending on the HVAC system type and the location of the ducts that were sealed. The cost effectiveness of the technology is

  17. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  18. Development of predictive control strategies for building climate control

    OpenAIRE

    NAGPAL, HIMANSHU

    2018-01-01

    APPROVED The rapid growth in energy usage and CO2 emissions has become a critical issue for the whole world. It is noteworthy that buildings are a major contributor to global primary energy consumption. Among building services, use of energy in heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) system is particularly significant (about 50\\% of the total building energy consumption). Therefore, the development and implementation of effective control strategies to optimize the operation of HVAC sys...

  19. On-site study of HCFC-22 substitution for HFC non-azeotropic blends (R417A, R422D) on a water chiller of a centralized HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrella, E.; Larumbe, J.A. [Polytechnic University of Valencia, Dep. of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera 14, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabello, R.; Sanchez, D.; Llopis, R. [Jaume I University, Dep. of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The European Regulation no 2037/2000 has banned manufacturing HCFC refrigerants from January 1st 2010, although its use is allowed up to 2015 if the fluids come from a recycling process. This situation creates the need for developing new working fluids to replace the HCFC in the refrigeration plants now in operation. Among all the HCFCs the R22 is the most widely used in a wide range of applications, especially in air conditioning. This work presents an on-site experimental study of the R22 replacement by two possible substitutes, the HFC-417A and the HFC-422D, in a water chiller in which the energy performance was evaluated. This chiller is part of the centralized HVAC system of a lecture room building at the Jaume I University of Castellon, Spain. This communication compares and analyses main operation parameters of the chiller when operating with each refrigerant in real conditions. (author)

  20. ISH. HVAC engineering yearbook 1999; ISH. Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The 1999 HVAC engineering yearbook contains contributions on energy conservation and optimization in the fields of ventilation and air conditioning: inter alia, solar cooling and air conditioning, optimum rating of ventilator units, and cooling ceilings with ventilation function. In the field of heating, the following topics are addressed, equally under the aspect of energy conservation: condensing boiler technology, hydraulic balancing of heating pipe systems and sequential boiler switching using fuzzy control. Further works deal with rational use of electricity in buildings, and building automation. 17 papers are individually listed in the Energy database. [Deutsch] Das Jahrbuch fuer Gebaeudetechnik 1999 enthaelt Beitraege zur Energieeinsparung und Optimierung auf den Gebieten Lueftung und Klimatisierung, u. a. solare Kuehlung und Klimatisierung, optimale Auslegung von Ventilator-Aggregaten und Kuehldecken mit Lueftungsfunktion. Auf dem Gebiet der Heizung werden ebenfalls unter dem Gesichtspunkt Energieeinsparung die Brennwerttechnologie, der hydraulische Abgleich von Heizungsrohrnetzen sowie Kesselfolgeschaltungen mit Fuzzy Control angesprochen. Weitere Arbeiten befassen sich mit der rationellen Elektrizitaetsverwendung in Geb auden sowie der Gebaeudeautomation. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden 17 Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  1. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  2. Environmental Technology Verification: Biological Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Systems--American Ultraviolet Corporation, DC24-6-120 [EPA600etv08005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) is operated by RTI International (RTI), in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. The APCT Center conducts verifications of technologies that clean air in ventilation systems, inc...

  3. Economic Optimal HVAC Design for Hybrid GEOTABS Buildings and CO2 Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early design phase of a building, the task of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC engineer is to propose an appropriate HVAC system for a given building. This system should provide thermal comfort to the building occupants at all time, meet the building owner’s specific requirements, and have minimal investment, running, maintenance and replacement costs (i.e., the total cost and energy use or environmental impact. Calculating these different aspects is highly time-consuming and the HVAC engineer will therefore only be able to compare a (very limited number of alternatives leading to suboptimal designs. This study presents therefore a Python tool that automates the generation of all possible scenarios for given thermal power profiles and energy load and a given database of HVAC components. The tool sizes each scenario properly, computes its present total cost (PC and the total CO 2 emissions associated with the building energy use. Finally, the different scenarios can be searched and classified to pick the most appropriate scenario. The tool uses static calculations based on standards, manufacturer data and basic assumptions similar to those made by engineers in the early design phase. The current version of the tool is further focused on hybrid GEOTABS building, which combines a GEOthermal heat pump with a Thermally Activated System (TABS. It should further be noted that the tool optimizes the HVAC system but not the building envelope, while, ideally, both should be simultaneously optimized.

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying facility personnel monitoring system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) instrument air (IA) system that provides instrument quality air to the CVDF. The IA system provides the instrument quality air used in the process, HVAC, and HVAC instruments. The IA system provides the process skids with air to aid in the purging of the annulus of the transport cask. The IA system provides air for the solenoid-operated valves and damper position controls for isolation, volume, and backdraft in the HVAC system. The IA system provides air for monitoring and control of the HVAC system, process instruments, gas-operated valves, and solenoid-operated instruments. The IA system also delivers air for operating hand tools in each of the process bays

  5. Energy evaluation of optimal control strategies for central VWV chiller systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xinqiao; Du Zhimin; Xiao Xiaokun

    2007-01-01

    Under various conditions, the actual load of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is less than it is originally designed in most operation periods. To save energy and to optimize the controls for chilling systems, the performance of variable water volume (VWV) systems and characteristics of control systems are analyzed, and three strategies are presented and tested based on simulation in this paper. Energy evaluation for the three strategies shows that they can save energy to some extent, and there is potential remained. To minimize the energy consumption of chilling system, the setpoints of controls of supply chilled water temperature and supply head of secondary pump should be optimized simultaneously

  6. Space hvac-systems need careful maintenance; Operators are responsible. Raumlufttechnische Anlagen beduerfen der sorgfaeltigen Wartung; Betreiber stehen in der Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G

    1992-01-01

    Regular expert maintenance of ventilation and air-conditioning systems is absolutely necessary among others to avoid health damages (Legionnaires' disease). In hospitals the risk of bacteria distribution is avoided by two or three-step filtration. In case of air-conditioning systems in non-medical areas supply air has to be filtered at least once. Moreover regular maintenance and control of the hygienic conditions of all systems is absolutely necessary. With ultraviolet disinfection in humidifying systems an effective disinfection at least of drinking water can be attained by keeping to certain limits. Filtering devices are also important for the removal of pollutants from air. (BWI)

  7. Implementation of new concepts for space HVAC systems in domestic buildings in consideration of cost, consumption and user comfort. Final report; Umsetzung neuer Konzepte der technischen Gebaeudeausruestung im Wohnungsbau unter Beruecksichtigung von Kosten, Verbraeuchen und Nutzerkomfort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Sucic, D.; Wendler, M.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this project was the development of a set of tools for the selection of optimal concepts for HVAC-systems in housing buildings. Several factors are considered. They include technical feasibility, costs for investment, maintenance and operation, energy concumption, environmental impacts and user comfort. It is intended with the help of these tools to identify the most important factors which influence energy consumption and to suggest simple and cost effective measures to reduce energy consumption. Measures include improvements of the envelope, changes in the HVAC-system and its operation according to the needs to the inhabitants of the building. This report describes these components of this tool set which were developed in the frame of the project WohnKomfort. It lists data and rules chosen. In addition we report experiences which we gained with an prototypical implementation. This implementation allows load calculations for more than 60.000 different buildings applying EN 802 (only one zone model) as calculation method. It also supports selection of heating systems for such buildings by offering an evaluation according to user specified criteria including cost, environment and comfort. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung eines Instrumentariums zur Auswahl optimaler Konzepte fuer technische Anlagen in Wohngebaeuden unter Beruecksichtigung der Faktoren technische Machbarkeit, Erstellungs-, Betriebskosten, Energieverbrauch, Umweltbelastung und Nutzerkomfort. Mit Hilfe dieses Instrumentariums soll es moeglich werden, die Haupteinflussfaktoren fuer den Energieverbrauch anzugeben und Vorschlaege fuer einfache und kostenguenstige Massnahmen zu seiner Reduzierung auf der Seite des Gebaeudes (bauliche Massnahmen) und der Anlage (technische Massnahmen, Nutzerverhalten) anzugeben. In diesem Bericht beschreiben wir die im Vorhaben entwickelten Komponenten des Instrumentariums, die zugrundeliegenden Daten und Regeln sowie Erfahrungen, die

  8. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael J.

    2012-06-17

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A mathematical linear operator is found that transforms the unused or deferred cooling power usage of the HVAC system based on pre-determined temperature settings to a target cooling power usage. The mathematical operator is applied to the temperature settings to create a temperature setpoint trajectory expected to provide the target cooling power usage.

  9. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying facility personnel monitoring system design description (SYS 12); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) instrument air (IA) system that provides instrument quality air to the CVDF. The IA system provides the instrument quality air used in the process, HVAC, and HVAC instruments. The IA system provides the process skids with air to aid in the purging of the annulus of the transport cask. The IA system provides air for the solenoid-operated valves and damper position controls for isolation, volume, and backdraft in the HVAC system. The IA system provides air for monitoring and control of the HVAC system, process instruments, gas-operated valves, and solenoid-operated instruments. The IA system also delivers air for operating hand tools in each of the process bays

  11. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  12. A guide to space HVAC systems. Fundamentals of thermodynamics, system components, standards and regulations; Leitfaden fuer Lueftungs- und Klimaanlagen. Grundlagen der Thermodynamik, Komponenten einer Vollklimaanlage, Normen und Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, L.

    2005-07-01

    The book addresses engineers and technicians in sales and marketing, purchasing, service and assembly, projecting and maintenance of air conditioning systems. It intends to help select the appropriate components for any given case of application, taking into account aspects of investment cost, economic efficiency, ease of maintenance, life and functionality. The book is based on the relevant technical rules, DIN standards, and VDI guidelines. Ventilation systems are constructed in accordance with the RAL quality and test specifications in order to meet all current pertinent quality and safety requirements. (orig.)

  13. HVAC optimization as facility requirements change with corporate restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, R.R.; Sankey, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    The hyper-competitive, dynamic 1990`s forced many corporations to {open_quotes}Right-Size,{close_quotes} relocating resources and equipment -- even consolidating. These changes led to utility reduction if HVAC optimization was thoroughly addressed, and energy conservation opportunities were identified and properly designed. This is true particularly when the facility`s heating and cooling systems are matched to correspond with the load changes attributed to the reduction of staff and computers. Computers have been downsized and processing power per unit of energy input increased, thus, the need for large mainframe computer centers, and their associated high intensity energy usage, have been decreased or eliminated. Cooling, therefore, also has been reduced.

  14. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  15. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  16. HVAC in sustainable office buildings a bridge between owners and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hovorka, Frank; Kurnitski, Jarek; Litiu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    This guidebook aims to build a bridge between the real estate community and the engineering community. It explains the challenges of property valuation based on real data and how the sustainability and HVAC-technology can have an impact on value. It also gathers the latest HVAC- and other technologies used in sustainable buildings and gives some real case study examples. But maybe the most important part in terms of improved communication between the owners and engineers is the list of questions to be asked during the life time of a building. It is impossible to give all the right answers in this guidebook, but we will raise some pertinent questions. As climates and cultures are different, as well as existing building types and energy production, the same solutions do not solve problems universally. This guidebook is aimed for the owners and architects as well as engineers. It doesn’t require deep technical knowhow of HVAC-systems or real estate valuation.

  17. Assessment of auditory impression of the coolness and warmness of automotive HVAC noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Kamiya, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced by a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a vehicle is an important factor that affects the comfort of the interior of a car cabin. Much effort has been devoted to reduce noise levels, however, there is a need for a new sound design that addresses the noise problem from a different point of view. In this study, focusing on the auditory impression of automotive HVAC noise concerning coolness and warmness, psychoacoustical listening tests were performed using a paired comparison technique under various conditions of room temperature. Five stimuli were synthesized by stretching the spectral envelopes of recorded automotive HVAC noise to assess the effect of the spectral centroid, and were presented to normal-hearing subjects. Results show that the spectral centroid significantly affects the auditory impression concerning coolness and warmness; a higher spectral centroid induces a cooler auditory impression regardless of the room temperature.

  18. The Effects of Set-Points and Dead-Bands of the HVAC System on the Energy Consumption and Occupant Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    A building is a complex system where many components interact with each other therefore the control system plays a key role regarding the energy consumption and the occupant thermal comfort. This study is concerned with a detached, one-storey, single family, energy-plus house. It is equipped...... on the effects of the set-points and dead-bands of different components on the energy consumption together with the occupant thermal comfort. Evaluations are carried out with TRNSYS for Copenhagen and Madrid in order to compare climatic effects....... with a ground heat exchanger, a ground coupled heat pump, embedded pipes in the floor and in the ceiling, a ventilation system (mechanical and natural), a domestic hot water tank and photovoltaic/thermal panels on the roof. Preliminary evaluations showed that for Madrid, change of indoor set-point in cooling...

  19. Research and Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. This opportunity assessment aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, GHG reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D) initiatives for joining technologies in heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Improving joining technologies for HVAC&R equipment has the potential to increase lifetime equipment operating efficiency, decrease equipment and project cost, and most importantly reduce hydroflourocarbon (HFC) refrigerant leakage to support HFC phasedown and GHG reduction goals.

  20. Integrated Simulation for HVAC Performance Prediction: State-of-the-Art Illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for performance prediction of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The

  1. DISAIN SISTEM KENDALI MESIN AIR LEAK TEST MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM KENDALI PLC OMRON CJ2M DI HVAC (HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING LINE 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses produksi pembuatan komponen HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning dari perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia, memerlukan proses pengecekan kebocoran pada bagian HVAC. Proses pengecekan ini dilakukan untuk memastikan tidak ada komponen HVAC yang bocor sebelum dikirim ke pihak pelanggan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuat system dan alat air leak test. Mesin air leak test ini menggunakan prinsip kerja differential pressure air leak test, yaitu metode yang membandingkan antara tekanan udara yang diberikan ke produk dan master produk. Pada penelitian ini, kami membuat disain mesin air leak test menggunakan sistem kendali berupa air leak tester, PLC, dan HMI. Berdasarkan kondisi dengan kapasitas produksi yang meningkat karena bertambahnya permintaan dari customer, dapat ditanggulangi dengan adanya share loading produksi dari HVAC line 4 ke line baru, yaitu HVAC line 6. Hasil yang didapat dari pengujian deteksi kebocoran produk,didapat nilai parameter kebocoran produk sebesar 2.23 ml/min.

  2. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associated General Contractors of America, Washington, DC.

    This module on introductory heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. The module contains four instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) HVAC materials; (2) HVAC tools; (3) HVAC layout; and (4) HVAC basic skills.…

  3. Hierarchical fuzzy control of low-energy building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhen; Dexter, Arthur [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A hierarchical fuzzy supervisory controller is described that is capable of optimizing the operation of a low-energy building, which uses solar energy to heat and cool its interior spaces. The highest level fuzzy rules choose the most appropriate set of lower level rules according to the weather and occupancy information; the second level fuzzy rules determine an optimal energy profile and the overall modes of operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system (HVAC); the third level fuzzy rules select the mode of operation of specific equipment, and assign schedules to the local controllers so that the optimal energy profile can be achieved in the most efficient way. Computer simulation is used to compare the hierarchical fuzzy control scheme with a supervisory control scheme based on expert rules. The performance is evaluated by comparing the energy consumption and thermal comfort. (author)

  4. Transactive Control of Commercial Buildings for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Corbin, Charles D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Pratt, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Transactive control is a type of distributed control strategy that uses market mechanism to engage self-interested responsive loads to achieve power balance in the electrical power grid. In this paper, we propose a transactive control approach of commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems for demand response. We first describe the system models, and identify their model parameters using data collected from Systems Engineering Building (SEB) located on our Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus. We next present a transactive control market structure for commercial building HVAC system, and describe its agent bidding and market clearing strategies. Several case studies are performed in a simulation environment using Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and calibrated SEB EnergyPlus model. We show that the proposed transactive control approach is very effective at peak clipping, load shifting, and strategic conservation for commercial building HVAC systems.

  5. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  6. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  7. Predicting the Room Air Temperature of the Containment Spray Pump Room for the Loss of HVAC Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In PSA Models, the HVAC system is essential for the various vital mitigation safety systems operating during a mission time. So far, the unavailability of the safety system when the HVAC system is unavailable, has been applied conservatively or optimistically based on operating experience and expert judgment, so the total core damage frequency could be unrealistic. In this paper, we performed a heat up calculation for the Containment Spray Pump Room at Kori 3 and 4 Units using a CFD code to estimate the operability of the CS pump and its support systems in the pump room under the situation of a loss of the HVAC. The result of this calculation could be applied the PSA Model for Risk Informed Regulation for Kori Units 3 and 4

  8. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  9. ETV TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS GLASFLOSS INDUSTRIES EXCEL FILTER, MODEL SBG24242898

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Excel Filter, Model SBG24242898 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Glasfloss Industries, Inc. The pressure drop across the filter was 82 Pa clean and 348 Pa...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES SL-3 RING PANEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the High Efficiency Mini Pleat air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Columbus Industries. The pressure drop across the filter was 142 Pa clean and 283 Pa dust load...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATON: TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS AAF INTERNATIONAL DRIPAK 90/95%

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the DriPak 90/95% air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by AAF International. The pressure drop across the filter was 104 Pa clean and 348 Pa dust loaded, and the fil...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, COLUMBUS INDUSTRIES HIGH EFFICIENCY MINI PLEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

  13. Exergy analysis of scroll compressors working with R22, R407C, and R417A as refrigerant for HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvam Sivakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise in crisis of power enthralls the world economically and the options for conventional and non-conventional energy resources have been searched out. No system exists in this world with 100% efficiency due to several irreversibility's. If the output obtained from the system is maximum for a given input, maximum amount of energy can be saved globally. To understand the thermodynamic losses occurring in the system and to predict the available energy that can be tapped from the system, exergy plays a major role. Experimental study on exergy in a system can pave the way to understand the complete behavior of the system exergually. Conceptually exergy studies are based on simulation, to provide a new dimension to the concept of exergy experimental validation have been promoted. The analogy of exergy analysis of three refrigerants working in scroll compressors and their exergual features are explained in this paper. The refrigerants R22, R417A, and R407C and their thermo dynamical behavior, irreversibility were experimented in an air conditioning system with three scroll compressors, interaction between the system and the refrigerant in terms of pressure drop and heat transfer, friction has been implemented for the calculation of exergy. The entire system performance on the basis of refrigerant is validated in each part of the air conditioning system. The resultant coefficient of performance of R407C is 2.41% less than R22 in a R22 designed scroll compressor with minimal exergy losses. The second law efficiency of 50 to 55% obtained in R22 has fewer rules over R407C and R417A which has 48 to 52%. The diminutive deviation of results encourages R417A refrigerant to be used as a substitute for R22. Thus the exergual prediction of performance of refrigerant and second law efficiency can identify the use of eco-friendly refrigerant in scroll compressor.

  14. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  15. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...

  16. Comparison between design and actual energy performance of a HVAC-ground coupled heat pump system in cooling and heating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, S. [Energesis Ingenieria S.L., Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montero, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work compares the experimental results obtained for the energy performance study of a ground coupled heat pump system with the design values predicted by means of standard methodology. The system energy performance of a monitored ground coupled heat pump system is calculated using the instantaneous measurements of temperature, flow and power consumption and these values are compared with the numerical predictions. These predictions are performed with the TRNSYS software tool following standard procedures taking the experimental thermal loads as input values. The main result of this work is that simulation results solely based on nominal heat pump capacities and performances overestimate the measured overall energy performance by a percentage between 15% and 20%. A sensitivity analysis of the simulation results to changes in percentage of its input parameters showed that the heat pump nominal coefficient of performance is the parameter that mostly affects the energy performance predictions. This analysis supports the idea that the discrepancies between experimental results and simulation outputs for this ground coupled system are mainly due to heat pump performance degradation for being used at partial load. An estimation of the impact of this effect in energy performance predictions reduces the discrepancies to values around 5%. (author)

  17. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  18. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  19. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings.

  20. Potential of HVAC and solar technologies for hospital retrofit to reduce heating energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Octavian G.; Abrudan, Ancuta C.; Adace, Dan S.; Pocola, Adrian G.; Balan, Mugur C.

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a combination of several energy efficient technologies together with their potential to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the comfort through the retrofit of a hospital building. The existing situation is characterized by an old and inefficient heating system, by the complete missing of any ventilation and by no cooling. The retrofit proposal includes thermal insulation and a distributed HVAC system consisting of several units that includes air to air heat exchangers and air to air heat pumps. A condensing boiler was also considered for heating. A solar thermal system for preparing domestic hot water and a solar photovoltaic system to assist the HVAC units are also proposed. Heat transfer principles are used for modelling the thermal response of the building to the environmental parameters and thermodynamic principles are used for modelling the behaviour of HVAC, solar thermal system and photovoltaic system. All the components of the heating loads were determined for one year period. The study reveals the capacity of the proposed systems to provide ventilation and thermal comfort with a global reduction of energy consumption of 71.6 %.

  1. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  2. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  3. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  4. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  5. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  6. Advanced HVAC System for Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-06

    Rocky Research (Boulder City, NV) has developed an advanced roof top air conditioning unit (RTU) with the potential for providing smart grid functions such as regulation services and PV integration. The RTU contains advanced technologies that have been demonstrated to enable 1) improved coefficient of performance (COP) during start-up transients, 2) improved steady-state efficiency, and 3) blending of DC and AC power with high conversion efficiency. Technologies incorporated by Rocky Research include a pulsing thermal expansion valve (PTXV) to dynamically optimize refrigerant flow, a variable frequency drive (VFD) for the compressor, and on-board integrated power conversion electronics for inverting and blending DC and AC power.

  7. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Kopečková, Barbora; Fišer, Jan; JÍcha, Miroslav

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system. The HW (hardware) part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity), velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software) part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2) and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto) and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto). The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  8. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning system. The HW (hardware part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity, velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2 and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto. The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  9. A Statistical Approach for Selecting Buildings for Experimental Measurement of HVAC Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a statistical methodology for selecting representative buildings for experimentally evaluating the performance of HVAC systems, especially in terms of energy consumption. The proposed approach is based on the k-means method. The algorithm for this method is conceptually simple, allowing it to be easily implemented. The method can be applied to large quantities of data with unknown distributions. The method was tested using numerical experiments to determine the hourly, daily, and yearly heat values and the domestic hot water demands of residential buildings in Poland. Due to its simplicity, the proposed approach is very promising for use in engineering applications and is applicable to testing the performance of many HVAC systems.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  11. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  12. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  13. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  14. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  15. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  16. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  17. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  18. Determining Off-Cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moniot, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jehlik, Forrest [Argonne National Laboratory; Chevers, Netsanet [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Hirabayshi, Hidekazu [Toyota Motor North America R& D; Song, Yuanpei [DENSO International America Inc.

    2018-04-03

    This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state. These vehicle models were integrated into a database of measured on road testing and coupled with U.S. typical meteorological data to simulate vehicle efficiency across seasonal thermal and operational conditions for hundreds of thousands of drive cycles. Fuel economy benefits utilizing the 2-Layer HVAC technology are presented in addition to goodness of fit statistics of the modeling approach relative to the experimental test data.

  19. D0 General Support: The Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.

    2000-01-01

    With the exception of control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ventilation fans, and their shutdown in the case of smoke in the ducts, all implementations of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in Dzero have been made within the fundamental premise that no uncertified PLC apparatus shall be entrusted with the safety of equipment or personnel. Thus although PLCs are used to control and monitor all manner of intricate equipment, simple hardware interlocks and relief devices provide basic protection against component failure, control failure, or inappropriate control operation. Nevertheless, this report includes two observations as follows: (1) It may be prudent to reconfigure the link between the Pyrotronics system and the HVAC system such that the Pyrotronics system provides interlocks to the ventilation fans instead of control inputs to the uncertified HVAC PLCs. Although the Pyrotronics system is certified and maintained to life safety standards, the HVAC system is not. A hardware or software failure of the HVAC system probably should not be allowed to result in the situation where the ventilation fans in a smoke filled duct continue to operate. Dan Markley is investigating this matter. (2) It may also be prudent to examine the network security of those systems connected to the Fermilab WAN (HVAC, Cryo, and Solenoid Controls). Even though the impact of a successful hack might only be to operations, it might nevertheless be disruptive and could be expensive. The risks should perhaps be analyzed. One of the most attractive features of these systems, from a user's viewpoint, is their unlimited networking. The unlimited networking that makes the systems so convenient to legitimate access also makes them vulnerable to illegitimate access.

  20. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Simplified Building Thermal Model Used for Optimal Control of Radiant Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MPC has the ability to optimize the system operation parameters for energy conservation. Recently, it has been used in HVAC systems for saving energy, but there are very few applications in radiant cooling systems. To implement MPC in buildings with radiant terminals, the predictions of cooling load and thermal environment are indispensable. In this paper, a simplified thermal model is proposed for predicting cooling load and thermal environment in buildings with radiant floor. In this thermal model, the black-box model is introduced to derive the incident solar radiation, while the genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the parameters of the thermal model. In order to further validate this simplified thermal model, simulated results from TRNSYS are compared with those from this model and the deviation is evaluated based on coefficient of variation of root mean square (CV. The results show that the simplified model can predict the operative temperature with a CV lower than 1% and predict cooling loads with a CV lower than 10%. For the purpose of supervisory control in HVAC systems, this simplified RC thermal model has an acceptable accuracy and can be used for further MPC in buildings with radiation terminals.

  2. Integrated control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that instrument manufacturers must develop standard network interfaces to pull together interrelated systems such as automatic start-up, optimization programs, and online diagnostic systems. In the past individual control system manufacturers have developed their own data highways with proprietary hardware and software designs. In the future, electric utilities will require that future systems, irrespective of manufacturer, should be able to communicate with each other. Until now the manufactures of control systems have not agreed on the standard high-speed data highway system. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with several electric utilities and equipment manufactures, is working on developing a standard protocol for communicating between various manufacturers' control systems. According to N. Michael of Sargent and Lundy, future control room designs will require that more of the control and display functions be accessible from the control room through CRTs. There will be less emphasis on traditional hard-wired control panels

  3. A national control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    An effective control of nuclear fissionable material is dependent on three different kinds of control, the industry - laboratory management, a national control system and an international safeguards system. The national systems of control differ greatly between various industrialized countries. Two principal reasons for fact can be mentioned. The type and the amounts for nuclear material may be different depending upon the stage of development of the nuclear industry in the country in question. Another reason may be that the country may wish to establish a very elaborate national system of control in order to minimize the IAEA control as much as possible. The two safeguards agreements between the Agency and Sweden on one hand and the Agency and Japan on the other hand can serve as examples for the understanding of the latitude of the IAEA safeguards system under NPT due to the influence of the national control system. If it thus is apparent that the national control system is strongly interrelated to the international safeguards system it is equally influenced by the control and accountancy systems which exist at the nuclear plants and development laboratories. A detailed study of national control systems and their relations to plant management control would fall outside the scope of this article. Some important features will however be examined. (author)

  4. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  5. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  6. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  7. Effectiveness of photocatalytic filter for removing volatile organic compounds in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Huang, Wei-Ming; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Chia-ling; Yang, Shinhao

    2006-05-01

    Nowadays, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system has been an important facility for maintaining indoor air quality. However, the primary function of typical HVAC systems is to control the temperature and humidity of the supply air. Most indoor air pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cannot be removed by typical HVAC systems. Thus, some air handling units for removing VOCs should be added in typical HVAC systems. Among all of the air cleaning techniques used to remove indoor VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive alternative technique for indoor air purification and deodorization. The objective of this research is to investigate the VOC removal efficiency of the photocatalytic filter in a HVAC system. Toluene and formaldehyde were chosen as the target pollutants. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber equipped with a simplified HVAC system. A mechanical filter coated with Degussa P25 titania photocatalyst and two commercial photocatalytic filters were used as the photocatalytic filters in this simplified HVAC system. The total air change rates were controlled at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 hr(-1), and the relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 30%, 50%, and 70%. The ultraviolet lamp used was a 4-W, ultraviolet-C (central wavelength at 254 nm) strip light bulb. The first-order decay constant of toluene and formaldehyde found in this study ranged from 0.381 to 1.01 hr(-1) under different total air change rates, from 0.34 to 0.433 hr(-1) under different RH, and from 0.381 to 0.433 hr(-1) for different photocatalytic filters.

  8. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  9. RFID-Based Monitoring And Access Control System For Parliamentary Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Thu Rein Htun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to implement monitoring and access control system based on RFID and Zigbee technology which can be used at Parliamentary Campus. Nowadays RFID technology is widely used for access control system because it is cheap waterproof and easy to use as well as it contains unique EPC electronic protect code .In addition Zigbee wireless module is cost-effective and can be reliable for security. Sothis system consists of RFID tag RFID reader Arduino Uno and Zigbee. This system can also be used for industrial amp commercial and security HVAC closures. This paper describes the results of point-to-point connection and point-to-multipoint connection using Zigbee and RFID technology.

  10. The ILC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  11. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  12. A Study on Heat-up Phenomena of the RHR Pump Room in KORI Unit 2 for the Loss of HVAC Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon

    2009-01-01

    In PSA(Probabilistic Safety Analysis) Models, the HVAC(Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition) system is essential for the various vital mitigation safety systems operating during a mission time. So far, the unavailability of a safety system when the HVAC system fails has been applied conservatively or optimistically based on operating experience and expert judgment, so the total core damage frequency could be unrealistic. When the HVAC system of a nuclear power plant fails, it is one of the main issues in a PSA FT (Fault Tree) model to estimate the transient temperature variations of some component rooms. The purpose of this study is to establish a heat-up prediction model by using direct measuring and CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analyses

  13. Energization of Long HVAC Cables in Parallel - Analysis and Estimation Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    The installation of long HVAC cables has recently become more common and it tends to increase during the next years. Consequently, the energization of long HVAC cables in parallel is also a more common condition. The energization of HVAC cables in parallel resembles the en-ergization of capacitor...... has several simplifications and does not always provide accurate results. This paper proposes a new formula that can be used for the estimation of these two quantities for two HVAC cables in parallel....

  14. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  15. System and method of providing quick thermal comfort with reduced energy by using directed spot conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Kadle, Prasad S.; Ghosh, Debashis; Zima, Mark J.; Wolfe, IV, Edward; Craig, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and a method of controlling a HVAC system that is configured to provide a perceived comfortable ambient environment to an occupant seated in a vehicle cabin. The system includes a nozzle configured to direct an air stream from the HVAC system to the location of a thermally sensitive portion of the body of the occupant. The system also includes a controller configured to determine an air stream temperature and an air stream flow rate necessary to establish the desired heat supply rate for the sensitive portion and provide a comfortable thermal environment by thermally isolating the occupant from the ambient vehicle cabin temperature. The system may include a sensor to determine the location of the sensitive portion. The nozzle may include a thermoelectric device to heat or cool the air stream.

  16. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  17. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  18. 77 FR 72763 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment; and commercial water heating equipment... refrigeration equipment; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers...

  19. Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. It contains three units: HVAC materials, HVAC tools, and applied skills. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the…

  20. 10 CFR 431.402 - Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption of State regulations for commercial HVAC & WH... regulations for commercial HVAC & WH products. Beginning on the effective date of such standard, an energy conservation standard set forth in this Part for a commercial HVAC & WH product supersedes any State or local...

  1. 77 FR 76825 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and Water... provisions for commercial refrigeration equipment; commercial heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC...; commercial HVAC equipment; commercial WH equipment; and walk-in coolers and freezers (June 30 Final Rule). 76...

  2. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  3. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  4. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  5. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  6. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  7. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  8. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  9. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  10. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  11. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  12. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig

  13. System control and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindner, H.; Oestergaard, J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid and ongoing development in the energy sector has consequences for system control at all levels. In relation to system control and communication the control system is challenged in five important ways: 1) Expectations for security of supply, robustness and vulnerability are becoming more stringent, and the control system plays a big part in meeting these expectations. 2) Services are becoming increasingly based on markets that involve the transmission system operators (TSOs), generators and distribution companies. Timely, accurate and secure communication is essential to the smooth running of the markets. 3) Adding large amounts of renewable energy (RE) to the mix is a challenge for control systems because of the intermittent availability of many RE sources. 4) Increasing the number of active components in the system, such as small CHP plants, micro-CHP and intelligent loads, means that the system control will be much more complex. 5) In the future it is likely that power, heat, gas, transport and communication systems will be tighter coupled and interact much more. (au)

  14. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  15. Energy-efficiency-oriented cascade control for vapor compression refrigeration cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaohong; Wang, Xinli; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    The vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCC) system plays an important role and accounts for a large proportion of energy consumption from the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The traditional control approaches, for example PID control method, however, cannot meet the cooling demands with the satisfactory energy efficiency as well. This paper presents a novel energy-efficiency-oriented cascade control strategy for the VCC systems to improve the energy efficiency and fulfill the cooling requirements of indoor occupants simultaneously. In outer loop, a mathematic model is developed to determine the set point of superheat by a PI controller based on the nonlinear correlation between cooling demands and superheat degree. In inner loop, the pressure difference and superheat degree of evaporator are controlled by a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to track the values which are determined in the outer loop, simultaneously to enhance system efficiency of the VCC systems. Simulation and experiments studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of this proposed cascade control strategy and the results indicate significant tracking performance and energy efficiency improvements on VCC system. Compared to other schemes, the proposed cascade control strategy can improve energy efficiency by up to 5.8%. - Highlights: • Energy-efficiency-oriented cascade control strategy for VCC system is presented. • The correlation between cooling requirements and superheat is analyzed. • A MPC-based controller is developed to maximize system energy efficiency. • Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  16. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  17. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  18. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel ® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  19. Proportional-integral controller based small-signal analysis of hybrid distributed generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We aim to minimize the deviation of frequency in an integrated energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). → Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. → A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. → In the study both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements in frequency deviation profiles with use of ultracapacitor (UC) as energy storage element. -- Abstract: The large band variation in the wind speed and unpredictable solar radiation causes remarkable fluctuations of output power in offshore wind and photovoltaic system respectively, which leads to large deviation in the system frequency. In this context, to minimize the deviation in frequency, this paper presents integration of different energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and proportional-integral (PI) controller is addressed in order to achieve improvements in the deviation of frequency profiles. A comparative assessment of frequency deviation for different hybrid systems is also carried out in the presence of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link and high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) line. Frequency deviation for different isolated hybrid systems are presented graphically as well as in terms of

  20. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  1. Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D H; Fisk, W; Apte, M G; Wu, X; Trout, A; Faulkner, D; Sullivan, D

    2012-08-01

    This field study of 37 small and medium commercial buildings throughout California obtained information on ventilation rate, temperature, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics. The study included seven retail establishments; five restaurants; eight offices; two each of gas stations, hair salons, healthcare facilities, grocery stores, dental offices, and fitness centers; and five other buildings. Fourteen (38%) of the buildings either could not or did not provide outdoor air through the HVAC system. The air exchange rate averaged 1.6 (s.d. = 1.7) exchanges per hour and was similar between buildings with and without outdoor air supplied through the HVAC system, indicating that some buildings have significant leakage or ventilation through open windows and doors. Not all buildings had sufficient air exchange to meet ASHRAE 62.1 Standards, including buildings used for fitness centers, hair salons, offices, and retail establishments. The majority of the time, buildings were within the ASHRAE temperature comfort range. Offices were frequently overcooled in the summer. All of the buildings had filters, but over half the buildings had a filter with a minimum efficiency reporting value rating of 4 or lower, which are not very effective for removing fine particles. Most U.S. commercial buildings (96%) are small- to medium-sized, using nearly 18% of the country's energy, and sheltering a large population daily. Little is known about the ventilation systems in these buildings. This study found a wide variety of ventilation conditions, with many buildings failing to meet relevant ventilation standards. Regulators may want to consider implementing more complete building inspections at commissioning and point of sale. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  3. The Epicure Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambik, E.; Kline, D.; West, R.

    1993-09-01

    The Epicure Control System supports the Fermilab fixed target physics program. The system is distributed across a network of many different types of components. The use of multiple layers on interfaces for communication between logical tasks fits the client-server model. Physical devices are read and controlled using symbolic references entered into a database with an editor utility. The database system consists of a central portion containing all device information and optimized portions distributed among many nodes. Updates to the database are available throughout the system within minutes after being requested

  4. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  5. Efficient solutions from HVAC to offgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    Rio Tinto and Ingenero recently announced that agreement had been reached for the development of the Weipa Solar Photovoltaic Project in Queensland. First Solar will leverage its expertise in utility-scale grid integration and plant control systems to offer a FuelSmart solution that provides maximum fuel savings while maintaining system reliability. Combined with Ingenero's design and integration experience, the project will generate electricity for Rio Tinto Alcan's Weipa bauxite mine, processing facilities and township on the Western Cape York Peninsula

  6. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  7. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  8. Flight control actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  9. Low sound level source path contribution on a HVAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    For compliance test purposes, the noise level of a HVAC is usually measured with a pressure microphone positioned at a certain distance. This measurement is normally performed in an anechoic room. However, this method doesn't provide the engineer any insight on what noise sources do contribute to

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: HVAC/R Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the…

  11. Maximize Benefits, Minimize Risk: Selecting the Right HVAC Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, James T.

    1993-01-01

    An informal survey of 20 major urban school districts found that 40% were currently operating in a "break down" maintenance mode. A majority, 57.9%, also indicated they saw considerable benefits in contracting for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) maintenance services with outside firms. Offers guidelines in selecting…

  12. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  13. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  14. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  15. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  16. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Controllability of nilpotent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, V.A.; Martin, L.S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate algebraic conditions which give information about the controllability of invariant control systems on nilpotent Lie groups. With the same purpose, the authors use the co-adjoint representation and define the concept of symplectic vectors. We study the existence of these objects to analyze the controllability. In particular, we obtain a characterization when G is simply connected. (author). 9 refs

  18. CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bork, R.; Grubb, C.; Lahti, G.; Navarro, E.; Sage, J.

    1989-01-01

    A logic-based computer control system is in development at CEBAF. This Unix/C language software package, running on a distributed, hierarchical system of workstation and supervisory minicomputers, interfaces to hardware via CAMAC. Software aspects to be covered are ladder logic, interactive database generation, networking, and graphic user interfaces. 1 fig

  19. PSR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.; Conley, A.P.; Bair, S.S.; Fuka, M.A.; Sandford, E.L.; Lander, R.F.; Wells, F.D.

    1985-01-01

    The control system for the Proton Storage Ring at Los Alamos has been essentially completed. Modifications are being applied that are required in the light of machine physics and operating experience. The present design of the system is described and future planned modifications are indicated

  20. Environment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarone, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere

  1. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  2. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  3. TMX magnet control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    A control system utilizing a microcomputer has been developed that controls the power supplies driving the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) magnet set and monitors magnet coil operation. The magnet set consists of 18 magnet coils that are driven by 26 dc power supplies. There are two possible modes of operation with this system: a pulse mode where the coils are pulsed on for several seconds with a dc power consumption of 16 MW; and a continuous mode where the coils can run steady state at 10 percent of maximum current ratings. The processor has been given an active control role and serves as an interface between the operator and electronic circuitry that controls the magnet power supplies. This microcomputer also collects and processes data from many analog singal monitors in the coil circuits and numerous status signals from the supplies. Placing the microcomputer in an active control role has yielded a compact, cost effective system that simplifies the magnet system operation and has proven to be very reliable. This paper will describe the TMX magnet control sytem and discuss its development

  4. Improvement of Transient Stability in a Hybrid Power Multi-System Using a Designed NIDC (Novel Intelligent Damping Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chia Ou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to apply a novel intelligent damping controller (NIDC for the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM to reduce the power fluctuations, voltage support and damping in a hybrid power multi-system. In this paper, we discuss the integration of an offshore wind farm (OWF and a seashore wave power farm (SWPF via a high-voltage, alternating current (HVAC electric power transmission line that connects the STATCOM and the 12-bus hybrid power multi-system. The hybrid multi-system consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and a micro-turbine generation (MTG. The proposed NIDC consists of a designed proportional–integral–derivative (PID linear controller, an adaptive critic network and a proposed functional link-based novel recurrent fuzzy neural network (FLNRFNN. Test results show that the proposed controller can achieve better damping characteristics and effectively stabilize the network under unstable conditions.

  5. System control and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1977-01-01

    The system described was designed, developed, and installed on short time scales and primarily utilized of-the-shelf military and commercial hardware. The system was designed to provide security-in-depth and multiple security options with several stages of redundancy. Under normal operating conditions, the system is computer controlled with manual backup during abnormal conditions. Sensor alarm data are processed in conjunction with weather data to reduce nuisance alarms. A structured approach is used to order alarmed sectors for assessment. Alarm and video information is presented to security personnel in an interactive mode. Historical operational data are recorded for system evaluation

  6. Ion implantation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, R. B.; Keutzer, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A control system is disclosed for an ion implantation system of the type in which the wafers to be implanted are mounted around the periphery of a disk which rotates and also moves in a radial direction relative to an ion beam to expose successive sections of each wafer to the radiation. The control system senses beam current which passes through one or more apertures in the disk and is collected by a Faraday cup. This current is integrated to obtain a measure of charge which is compared with a calculated value based upon the desired ion dosage and other parameters. The resultant controls the number of incremental steps the rotating disk moves radially to expose the adjacent sections of each wafer. This process is continued usually with two or more traverses until the entire surface of each wafer has been implanted with the proper ion dosage

  7. The TRISTAN control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shinichi; Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawamoto, Takashi; Kikutani, Eiji; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Koiso, Haruyo; Komada, Ichitaka; Kudo, Kikuo; Naito, Takashi; Oide, Katsunobu; Takeda, Shigeru; Uchino, Kenji; Urakawa, Junji; Shinomoto, Manabu; Kurihara, Michio; Abe, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    The 8 GeV accumulation ring and the 30 GeV main ring of TRISTAN, an accelerator-storage ring complex at KEK, are controlled by a highly computerized control system. Twenty-four minicomputers are linked by optical fiber cables to form an N-to-N token ring network. The transmission speed on the cables is 10 Mbps. From each minicomputer, a CAMAC serial highway extends to the controlled equipment. At present, twenty minicomputers are connected to the network and are used to control the accumulation ring. The software system is based on the NODAL language devised at the CERN SPS. The KEK NODAL system retains main features of the original NODAL: the interpretive scheme, the multi-computer programming facility, and the data-module concept. In addition, it has the following features: (1) fast execution due to the compiler-interpreter method, (2) a multi-computer file system (3), a full-screen editing facility, and (4) a dynamic linkage scheme for data modules and NODAL functions. The accelerators are operated through five operator consoles, each of which is mangaged by one minicomputer in the network. An operator console contains two 20-inch high-resolution color graphic displays, a pair of touch-panels, and ten small TV monitors. One touch-panel is used to select a program and a piece of equipment to be controlled; the other is used mainly to perform the console actions. (orig.)

  8. neural control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, A.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic power stabilization control is the desired objective for any reactor operation , especially, nuclear power plants. A major problem in this area is inevitable gap between a real plant ant the theory of conventional analysis and the synthesis of linear time invariant systems. in particular, the trajectory tracking control of a nonlinear plant is a class of problems in which the classical linear transfer function methods break down because no transfer function can represent the system over the entire operating region . there is a considerable amount of research on the model-inverse approach using feedback linearization technique. however, this method requires a prices plant model to implement the exact linearizing feedback, for nuclear reactor systems, this approach is not an easy task because of the uncertainty in the plant parameters and un-measurable state variables . therefore, artificial neural network (ANN) is used either in self-tuning control or in improving the conventional rule-based exper system.the main objective of this thesis is to suggest an ANN, based self-learning controller structure . this method is capable of on-line reinforcement learning and control for a nuclear reactor with a totally unknown dynamics model. previously, researches are based on back- propagation algorithm . back -propagation (BP), fast back -propagation (FBP), and levenberg-marquardt (LM), algorithms are discussed and compared for reinforcement learning. it is found that, LM algorithm is quite superior

  9. RHIC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, D.S. E-mail: dsbarton@bnl.gov; Binello, S.; Buxton, W.; Clifford, T.; D' Ottavio, T.; Hartmann, H.; Hoff, L.T.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Kerner, T.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.R.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Skelly, J.F

    2003-03-01

    The RHIC control system architecture is hierarchical and consists of two physical layers with a fiber-optic network connection. The Front-End Level systems consist of VME chassis with processors running a real-time operating system and both VME I/O modules and remote bus interfaces. Accelerator device software interfaces are implemented as objects in C++. The network implementation uses high speed, switched Ethernet technology. Specialized hardware modules were built for waveform control of power supplies, multiplexed signal acquisition, and timing services. The Console Level systems are Unix workstations. A strong emphasis has been given to developing highly reusable, standard software tools for use in building physics and diagnostic application software.

  10. RHIC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Binello, S.; Buxton, W.; Clifford, T.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hartmann, H.; Hoff, L.T.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Kerner, T.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.R.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Skelly, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The RHIC control system architecture is hierarchical and consists of two physical layers with a fiber-optic network connection. The Front-End Level systems consist of VME chassis with processors running a real-time operating system and both VME I/O modules and remote bus interfaces. Accelerator device software interfaces are implemented as objects in C++. The network implementation uses high speed, switched Ethernet technology. Specialized hardware modules were built for waveform control of power supplies, multiplexed signal acquisition, and timing services. The Console Level systems are Unix workstations. A strong emphasis has been given to developing highly reusable, standard software tools for use in building physics and diagnostic application software

  11. ZEUS hardware control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-12-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users.

  12. ZEUS hardware control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-01-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users. (orig.)

  13. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  14. Assessment of control room habitability and unfiltered air inleakage test of the OPR 1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Jong Beom; Ha, Sang Jun; Huh, Seong Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of control room habitability for Hanbit unit 5 was performed based on GL 2003-01 and Regulatory Guide 1.197. The integrated control room envelope (CRE) test was performed utilizing ASTM E741. Four tests were performed using each of the control room HVAC subtrains. The control room heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system lineup of pressurization mode test was based upon a lineup that encompassed the design basis radiological analyses. The other control room HVAC system lineup of isolation mode test was based on an operation mode that considers toxic gas. The measured inleakage for the isolation test mode remains within the toxicity limit. Radiation effect analysis showed that the measured inleakage satisfied the regulatory criteria, and the inleakage would not result in control room operator dose exceeding 50 mSv whole body and 500 mSv thyroid except train A pressurization test mode. The thyroid dose due to maximum measured unfiltered inleakage of 8976 lpm for train A is corresponding to 700 mSv. Modifications to the CRE boundary and control room HVAC system should be done to demonstrate that the measured unfiltered inleakage for train A pressurization test mode is bounded by the regulatory criteria assumed in the design basis radiological analyses. (author)

  15. HESYRL control system status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chihyuan

    1992-01-01

    HESYRL synchrotron radiation storage ring was completed in 1989 and has been in commissioning since then. Now it has met its design specification and is ready for synchrotron light experiments. Control system of the project was completed in 1989 and some modifications were made during commissioning. This paper describes its present configuration, status and upgrading plan. (author)

  16. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  17. Lighting Control Systems Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    cost, both initial and operating. Initially, the control system designer must collect in- formation and then study and weigh several areas including...8217odLe 045. Pearl Harbor. III: Code 11 Pearl Harbor ar ho I ir I L ’ odk 402. R IYI& [’. Plearl II arbor I II: Li bra ry. Pearl HaIitrbor. I ai

  18. GLCTA control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Hayano, H.; Higo, T.; Saeki, T.; Suehara, T.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-01-01

    Research and development for the high power X-band RF technologies have been performed on the GLC Test Accelerator, GLCTA, since fall of 2003. The control system of this facility is based on the PC-Linux servers that handle the CAMAC, VME and PLC modules. Automated RF processing and data accumulation of the RF breakdown have been performed. (author)

  19. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  20. Modeling and optimization of HVAC energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Li, Mingyang; Tang, Fan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 - 1527 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A data-driven approach for minimization of the energy to air condition a typical office-type facility is presented. Eight data-mining algorithms are applied to model the nonlinear relationship among energy consumption, control settings (supply air temperature and supply air static pressure), and a set of uncontrollable parameters. The multiple-linear perceptron (MLP) ensemble outperforms other models tested in this research, and therefore it is selected to model a chiller, a pump, a fan, and a reheat device. These four models are integrated into an energy optimization model with two decision variables, the setpoint of the supply air temperature and the static pressure in the air handling unit. The model is solved with a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimization results have demonstrated the total energy consumed by the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system is reduced by over 7%. (author)

  1. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  2. PEP computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of the computer system that will be used to control and monitor the PEP storage ring. Since the design is essentially complete and much of the system is operational, the system is described as it is expected to 1979. Section 1 of the paper describes the system hardware which includes the computer network, the CAMAC data I/O system, and the operator control consoles. Section 2 describes a collection of routines that provide general services to applications programs. These services include a graphics package, data base and data I/O programs, and a director programm for use in operator communication. Section 3 describes a collection of automatic and semi-automatic control programs, known as SCORE, that contain mathematical models of the ring lattice and are used to determine in real-time stable paths for changing beam configuration and energy and for orbit correction. Section 4 describes a collection of programs, known as CALI, that are used for calibration of ring elements

  3. The ISOLDE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-01-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained. ((orig.))

  4. Modeling and application of VSC-HVDC in the European transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Abatte, A.; Fulli, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential technical, environmental, and economic impacts of voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) technologies on the European power system, with particular emphasis on enhancing the attainable transmission capacity in specific applications. To this end, an original steady-state model of the VSC-HVDC was presented and tested. A techno-economic analysis of the potential impact of VSC-HVDC on liberalized power systems in Europe was performed to determine the feasibility of such investment compared to building conventional high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission infrastructures. The land use and environmental impact of HVDC may be lower than HVAC technologies. VSC-HVDC offers several advantages over conventional HVDC, including flexibility and range of power control, compactness and modularity of converter stations, easier expandability for multi-terminal configurations, and greater environmental friendliness. The relative disadvantages of the VSC-HVDC include a greater expense and higher converter losses. When replacing existing HVAC lines, some targeted VSC-HVDC installations were shown to be technologically and economically feasible, particularly when installed on lines between regions with a high electricity price differential, although less profitable than building new HVAC lines. VSC-HVDC can be a more feasible option when socio-political and environmental restraints curtail the extension of the HVAC transmission system. 29 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Maintaining Human Comfort within Intelligent Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrodin .T. Mustapha, Momoh J. E. Salami, Nazim and M. Nasiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent control approach for air handling unit (AHU which is an integral part of heat, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system. In the past years various control design for HVAC have been proposed as this system remarkably consumes very high energy. But most of the proposed designs were focused on the control flow of heat-transfer medium such as chilled or heated water while the importance of the efficient mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies is sometimes ignored. These enthalpies invariably determine the best strategy to overcome thermal load in a controlled environment to satisfy human comfort, hence a control design strategy must be able to efficiently regulate the flow and mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies by a proper control of AHU dampers and fans. This approach requires sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity of both outdoor and indoor environments. However, unpredictable level of disturbances coming from many sources including heat generated by occupants, electrical items and air leaking and the continuous changes of outdoor enthalpy makes it difficult to model the process. Consequently, conventional controllers are not suitable, hence the use of fuzzy logic controller (FLC is proposed in this paper. This proposed controller operates in a master and slave control loop so as to control the AHU dampers and fans with adjustable output membership function whilst at the same time a scaling-factor method is used to drive the master operation. To implement the proposed system, a small scale prototype has been designed and fabricated. This prototype is an AHU model which consists of ductwork, temperature and humidity sensors, dampers, air cooling and heating systems. A small box is used as a conditioning space in which a room temperature is measured. The control algorithm is programmed using National Instrument (NI LabVIEW and executed using NI FieldPoint. Experimental results reveal that

  6. Dynamitron control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamitron control system utilizes the latest personal computer technology in control circuitry and components. Both the DPC-2000 and newer Millennium series of control systems make use of their modular architecture in both software and hardware to keep up with customer and engineering demands. This also allows the main structure of the software to remain constant for the user while software drivers are easily changed as hardware demands are modified and improved. The system is presented as four units; the Remote I/O (Input/Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the accelerator. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. All process parameters are printed to a report at regular intervals during a process run for record keeping

  7. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  8. Management control system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank

  10. Access control system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, L.D.

    1981-06-01

    An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

  11. HVAC design guidelines for effective indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladykas, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Building owners, designers and occupants need to consider all the design measures that contribute to high indoor air quality. Building occupants, furnishings, equipment, and ambient air pollution all contribute to surmounting indoor air quality concerns. However, these can be minimized by following HVAC design guidelines which promote high indoor air quality while maintaining reasonable energy-efficiency. The possible liabilities and loss of business productivity due to air quality problems are too great to ignore

  12. The COSY control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, N.; Hacker, U.; Henn, K.; Richert, A.; Simon, M.; Sobotta, K.; Stephan, M.; Vashegyi, T.; Weinert, A.

    1992-01-01

    The COSY control system architecture is organized strongly hierarchically with distributed intelligence and extensive use of standards. At the top level of computer control hardware work stations give the operator graphical access to the process. For these tasks Hewlett Packard HP 9000 Series 700 computers with HP-UX and X-Windows/Motif are in use. Also used as work-cells this RISC computers give computing power for model calculations and long term databases. This computers are interconnected using Ethernet and TCP/IP to the next layer of hardware. (author) 3 refs.; 5 figs

  13. Building Environment Analysis Based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Won

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment.

  14. Building environment analysis based on temperature and humidity for smart energy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment.

  15. The UNK control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, V.N.; Brook, V.L.; Dunaitsev, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The IHEP proton Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) includes in its first stage a 400 GeV conventional and a 3000 GeV superconducting ring placed in the same underground tunnel of 20.7 km circumference. The beam will be injected into UNK from the existing 70 GeV accelerator U-70. The experimental programme which is planned to start in 1995, will include 3000 GeV fixed target and 400 + 3000 GeV colliding beams physics. The size and complexity of the UNK dictate a distributed multiprocessor architecture of the control system. About 4000 of 8/16 bit controllers, directly attached to the UNK equipment will perform low level control and data acquisition tasks. The equipment controllers will be connected via the MIL-1553 field bus to VME based 32-bit front end computers. The TCP/IP network will interconnect front end computers in the UNK equipment buildings with UNIX workstations and servers in the Main Control Room. The report presents the general architecture and current status of the UNK control. (author)

  16. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator's console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A

  17. Automatic heating control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, A.J.

    1989-11-15

    A heating control system for buildings comprises at least one heater incorporating heat storage means, a first sensor for detecting temperature within the building, means for setting a demand temperature, a second sensor for detecting outside temperature, a timer, and means for determining the switch on time of the heat storage means on the basis of the demand temperature and the internal and external temperatures. The system may additionally base the switch on time of the storage heater(s) on the heating and cooling rates of the building (as determined from the sensed temperatures); or on the anticipated daytime temperature (determined from the sensed night time temperature). (author).

  18. Intelligent Lighting Control System

    OpenAIRE

    García, Elena; Rodríguez González, Sara; de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Bajo Pérez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive architecture that allows centralized control of public lighting and intelligent management, in order to economise on lighting and maintain maximum comfort status of the illuminated areas. To carry out this management, architecture merges various techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) and statistics such as artificial neural networks (ANN), multi-agent systems (MAS), EM algorithm, methods based on ANOVA and a Service Oriented Aproach (SOA). It performs optim...

  19. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  20. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  1. Building Automation Systems Using Wireless Sensor Networks: Radio Characteristics and Energy Efficient Communication Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, F.; Halgamuge, M.N.; Chen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Building automation systems (BAS) are typically used to monitor and control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, manage building facilities (e.g., lighting, safety, and security), and automate meter reading. In recent years, the technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) has

  2. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    .../Cooling System Leaks (HVAC--Building Systems) deficiency, coolant, water or steam escaping from the unit... surface failure, or evidence of water infiltration or other moisture producing conditions,'' and the title... beyond the control of a PHA. For instance, pooling of water on a site may not be fixable during winter...

  3. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, Susila; Tang, Y.N.

    1994-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans. ((orig.))

  4. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  5. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  6. Crawling the Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrieu, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google 'mini' search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  7. Radiation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Mitsuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly and suitably performing planning and designation by radiation-working control systems in the radiation controlled area of nuclear power plant. Method: Various informations regarding radiation exposure are arranged and actual exposure data are statistically stored, to thereby perform forecasting calculation for the radiation exposure upon workings in the plurality of working regions in the radiation controlled area. Based on the forecast values and the registered workers' exposure dose in the past workings are alocated successively such that the total exposure does upon conducting the workings is less than the limited value, to prepare working plans in the areas. Further, procedures for preparing a series of documents regarding the workings in the radiation area are automated to rapidly and properly provide the informations serving to the planning and designation for the radiation workings. As a result, the radiation managers' burnden can be mitigated and an efficient working management system can be provided, in view of the exposure management and personal management. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  9. Feedwater control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Excessive swing of the feedwater in nuclear reactor power supply apparatus on the occurrence of a transient is suppressed by injecting an anticipatory compensating signal (δWsub(fw)) into the control for the feedwater. Typical overshoot occurs on removal of a large part of the load, the steam flow is reduced so that the conventional control system reduces the flow of feedwater. At the same time there is a reduction of feedwater level in the steam generator because of the collapse of the bubbles under increased steam pressure. By the time the control responds to the drop in level, the apparatus has begun to stabilize so that there is overshoot. The anticipatory signal is derived from the boiling power (BP) which is a function of the nuclear power (Qsub(N)) developed, the enthalpy of saturated water (hsub(s)) and the enthalpy of the feedwater injected into the steam generator (hsub(fw)). From the boiling power (BP) and the increment in steam pressure resulting from the transient an anticipatory increment of feedwater flow is derived. This increment is added to the other parameters controlling the feedwater. (author)

  10. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  11. PEP instrumentation and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems.

  12. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  13. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  14. Automatically controlled training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milashenko, A.; Afanasiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  15. HVAC&R Equipment Environmental Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:Large "Truck" ChamberThe large "truck" chamber provides controlled air conditions from -7 °C (20 °F) to 65 °C (150 °F).Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Test...

  16. Optimization of the structural design of HVAC ducts and their supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMatias, I.P.; Barrio, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the computerized process of qualification and design based on experience accumulated in structural designs of HVAC systems in nuclear power plants, using CAD/CAE systems. Such computerization has drastically reduced the number of manhours employed to generate the information necessary to issue duct and support fabrication drawings. During the analysis stage, the requirements for qualification of ducts and supports contained in CONAGT ANSI/ASME AG-1 have been considered. The data package applicable to the process consists of a set of computer programs which may be used independently or combined. A significant portion of such programs governs the graphic design. Moreover, analyses are performed on results of the different types of tests carried out to date, and on those necessary to determine the mechanisms of failures in ducts, and in order to be able to calibrate design criteria currently in use

  17. 78 FR 15653 - Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Certification Working Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 429 Notice of Intent To Form the Commercial HVAC, WH, and... Requirements for Commercial HVAC, WH, and Refrigeration Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration equipment...

  18. Applications and Energy Consumption of Demand Controlled Ventilation Systems. Modelling, Simulation and Implementation of Modular Built Dynamical VAV Systems and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bjoern R.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis discusses many topics of heating and ventilation. This is because the ventilation system is an integrated part of its host building. The functionality and effectiveness of the ventilation system are very much dependent on the building's architectural design, its internal materials, its occupants, its air tightness characteristics and its placement in the terrain. Although this thesis emphasizes strongly on VAV (Variable Air Volume) systems and, in particular, modelling and simulation of such systems, it touches a range of important HVAC related issues. The scope is however, limited to the field of comfort ventilation. That is because ventilation in industrial environments often is subject to separate regulations, and requires other and specialized methods of design and evaluation of ventilation performance. The main objectives have been to: (1) Develop mathematical models for VAV components and systems. (2) Evaluate existing and develop new strategies for VAV demand controlled ventilation by system simulation. (3) Investigate the potential for saving energy and the impact on indoor climate. The development of mathematical models and simulation of VAV systems are given quite much attention compared to the other topics discussed.

  19. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    Distributed intelligence for accelerator control systems has become possible as a result of advances in microprocessor technology. A system based on distributed intelligence is inherently versatile, readily expandable, and reduces both information flow across the system and software complexity in each unit

  20. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS, FILTRATION GROUP, AEROSTAR FP-98 MINIPLEAT V-BLANK FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the AeroStar FP-98 Minipleat V-Bank Filter air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by Filtration Group. The pressure drop across the filter was 137 Pa clean and 348 Pa ...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF CONTROL OF BIOAEROSOLS IN HVAC SYSTEMS:AAF INTERNATIONAL, PERFECTPLEAT ULTRA, 175-102-863

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the PerfectPleat Ultra 175-102-863 air filter for dust and bioaerosol filtration manufactured by AAF International. The pressure drop across the filter was 112 Pa clean and 229 Pa dust lo...

  3. Division 1137 property control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  4. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  5. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  6. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  7. Characterization of gradient control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; van der Schaft, Arjan; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  8. Characterization of Gradient Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; Schaft, Arjan van der; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  9. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. Covariance upperbound controllers for networked control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with designing covariance upperbound controllers for a linear system that can be used in a networked control environment in which control laws are calculated in a remote controller and transmitted through a shared communication link to the plant. In order to compensate for possible packet losses during the transmission, two different techniques are often employed: the zero-input and the hold-input strategy. These use zero input and the latest control input, respectively, when a packet is lost. For each strategy, we synthesize a class of output covariance upperbound controllers for a given covariance upperbound and a packet loss probability. Existence conditions of the covariance upperbound controller are also provided for each strategy. Through numerical examples, performance of the two strategies is compared in terms of feasibility of implementing the controllers

  11. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  12. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  13. Downstream Benefits of Energy Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    21  a.  DDC Programmed Incorrectly .........................................21  b.  Air Conditioning Chiller Stuck Running...Metering System Auto-Cx Automatic Commissioning DDC Direct Digital Controls DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy EMCS...include sensors monitoring operating status of lighting and HVAC equipment. An EMS may also include direct digital controls ( DDC ) for automated control

  14. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activities directed towards the students and the general public. Designed .... attention has been directed towards the use of control and automation to mitigate the effects of those ... The history of automatic control can be divided into four main.

  15. System for controlling apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  16. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  17. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  18. Modernization of control system using the digital control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J. A.; Fernandez, L.; Jimenez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, all plant automation tendencies are based on the use of Digital Control System. In big industrial plants the control systems employed are Distributed Control Systems (DCS). The addition of these systems in nuclear power plants,implies an important adaptation process, because most of them were installed using analog control systems. This paper presents the objectives and the first results obtained, in a modernization project, focused in obtaining an engineering platform for making test and analysis of changes prior to their implementation in a nuclear plant. Modernization, Upgrade, DCS, Automation, Simulation, Training. (Author)

  19. Distributed systems status and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  20. Upgrading the BEPC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liping; Wang Lizheng; Liu Shiyao

    1992-01-01

    The BEPC control system has been put into operation and operated normally since the end of 1987. Three years's experience shows this system can satisfy basically the operation requirements, also exhibits some disadvantages araised from the original centralized system architecture based on the VAX-VCC-CAMAC, such as slow response, bottle neck of VCC, less CPU power for control etc.. This paper describes the method and procedure for upgrading the BEPC control system which will be based on DEC net and DEC-WS, and thus intend to upgrade the control system architecture from the centralized to the distributed and improve the integral system performance. (author)

  1. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  2. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  3. Diagnostic, reliablility and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leondes

    2014-01-01

    1. Explicit-Model-Based Fault Detection Method in Industrial Plants 2. Soft Sensor: An Effective Approach to Improve Control 3. Techniques in Soft Computing and Their Utilization in Mechatronic Products 4. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants 5. A Mechatronic Systems Approach to Controlling Robotic Systems with Actuator Dynamics 6. Process and Control Design for Fast Coordinate Measuring Machines 7. Techniques in the Stability of Mechatronic Systems with Sensor or Actuator Failure.

  4. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  5. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzsch, K; Braun, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Kersten, S; Arfaoui, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Schlenker, S; Tsarouchas, C A; Mindur, B; Hartert, J; Zimmermann, S; Talyshev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Poblaguev, A; Martin, T; Thompson, P D; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Hoffmann, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  6. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  7. Autorotation flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  8. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  9. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  10. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  11. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi.

    1991-11-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  12. The GSI control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, U.; Schaa, V.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  13. Minicomputer controlled test system for process control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, L.D.

    A minicomputer controlled test system for testing process control and monitoring systems is described. This system, in service for over one year, has demonstrated that computerized control of such testing has a real potential for expanding the scope of the testing, improving accuracy of testing, and significantly reducing the time required to do the testing. The test system is built around a 16-bit minicomputer with 12K of memory. The system programming language is BASIC with the addition of assembly level routines for communication with the peripheral devices. The peripheral devices include a 100 channel scanner, analog-to-digital converter, visual display, and strip printer. (auth)

  14. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions

  15. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design of civil engineering structures has been noted. Protecting ci vil ... R despite disturbing forces such as wind gusts, changes in ambient temperature, etc .. Brief History of ... frequency regulation, boiler control for steam generation, electric.

  16. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N Ananthkrishnan1 Rashi Bansal2. Head, CAE Analysis & Design Zeus Numerix Pvt Ltd. M-03, SINE, IIT Bombay Powai Mumbai 400076, India. MTech (Aerospace Engineering) with specialization in Dynamics & Control from IIT Bombay.

  17. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  18. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational

  19. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  20. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  1. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  2. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  3. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  4. Lighting Control System (ILCS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... function blocks CNC machining protocol. Advanced Materials Research, 2014, 845:779-785. [2] Miki M, Nagano M, Yoshimi M, Yonemoto H, Yoshida K. Intelligent lighting system with an additional energy-saving mechanism. In IEEE International Conference on Systems,. Man, and Cybernetics, 2012, pp.

  5. Development of a method for bacteria and virus recovery from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James E; Goyal, Sagar M; Kim, Seung Won; Kuehn, Thomas H; Raynor, Peter C; Ramakrishnan, M A; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Tang, Weihua

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to study the effectiveness of building air handling units (AHUs) in serving as high volume sampling devices for airborne bacteria and viruses. An HVAC test facility constructed according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 was used for the controlled loading of HVAC filter media with aerosolized bacteria and virus. Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. niger was chosen as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Three animal viruses; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and fowlpox virus were chosen as surrogates for three human viruses; SARS coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and smallpox virus; respectively. These bacteria and viruses were nebulized in separate tests and injected into the test duct of the test facility upstream of a MERV 14 filter. SKC Biosamplers upstream and downstream of the test filter served as reference samplers. The collection efficiency of the filter media was calculated to be 96.5 +/- 1.5% for B. subtilis, however no collection efficiency was measured for the viruses as no live virus was ever recovered from the downstream samplers. Filter samples were cut from the test filter and eluted by hand-shaking. An extraction efficiency of 105 +/- 19% was calculated for B. subtilis. The viruses were extracted at much lower efficiencies (0.7-20%). Our results indicate that the airborne concentration of spore-forming bacteria in building AHUs may be determined by analyzing the material collected on HVAC filter media, however culture-based analytical techniques are impractical for virus recovery. Molecular-based identification techniques such as PCR could be used.

  6. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  7. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  8. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  9. Control Allocation for Overactuated Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oppenheimer, Michael W; Doman, David B

    2006-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on overactuated systems for air vehicles. Overactuating an air vehicle provides a certain amount of redundancy for the flight control system, thus potentially allowing for recovery from off-nominal conditions...

  10. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  11. Chapter 4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Heating and Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States); Metoyer, Jarred [DNV GL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The specific measure described here involves improving the overall efficiency in air-conditioning systems as a whole (compressor, evaporator, condenser, and supply fan). The efficiency rating is expressed as the energy efficiency ratio (EER), seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), and integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER). The higher the EER, SEER or IEER, the more efficient the unit is.

  12. Digital control systems. Verteilte Prozessleitsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    With a distinct description of the systems properties thin regulation shall provide a latter transparency for the use of digital control systems. The application of the new technique shall be facilitated, incitations for the further development shall be given and the compatibility of the systems shall be advanced. Moreover, the regulation can be used as criteria catalogue for the evaluation of digital systems.

  13. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriansky, J.; Suriansky, J. Ml.; Puskajler, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of High-Performance Rooftop HVAC Unit Naval Air Station Key West, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howett, Daniel H. [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report documents performance of a high performance rooftop HVAC unit (RTU) at Naval Air Station Key West, FL. This report was sponsored by the Federal Energy Management Program as part of the "High Performance RTU Campaign".

  15. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  16. Automatic Bridge Control System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Niraimathi; S.Sivakumar; R.Vigneshwaran; R.Vinothkumar; P.Babu

    2012-01-01

    Bridge vibration control is an important issue whose purpose is to extend the structural service life of bridges. Normally, the bridge is modeled as an elastic beam or plate subject to a moving vehicle. However, the moving truck on a bridge is a complicated problem that must still be researched. In this paper, wepropose a new method, to overcome the huge load in the bridge a load cell is used at the entry which will monitor the load continuously at both ends. To escape from the heavy water fl...

  17. Virtualization in control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.R.; Liu, D.K.; Wan, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In large scale distributed control system, there are lots of common service composed an environment for the entire control system, such as the server system for the common software base library, application server, archive server and so on. This paper gives a description of a virtualization realization for control system environment including the virtualization for server, storage, network system and application for the control system. With a virtualization instance of the EPICS based control system environment that was built by the VMware vSphere v4, we tested the whole functionality of this virtualization environment in the SSRF control system, including the common server of the NFS, NIS, NTP, Boot and EPICS base and extension library tools, we also have applied virtualization to application servers such as the Archive, Alarm, EPICS gateway and all of the network based IOC. Specially, we test the high availability and VMotion for EPICS asynchronous IOC successful under the different VLAN configuration of the current SSRF control system network. (authors)

  18. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  19. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  20. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system