WorldWideScience

Sample records for hv cross-polarized airsar

  1. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  2. Polarization and wavelength diversities of Gulf Stream fronts imaged by AIRSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Jansen, R. W.; Marmorino, G. O.; Chubb, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990 Gulf Stream Experiment, NASA/JPL AIRSAR imaged the north edge of the Gulf Stream near the coast of Virginia. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of currents, temperatures, salinities, etc. were made for several crossings of the north edge by the R/V Cape Henlopen. Measurements identified two fronts with shearing and converging flows. The polarimetric SAR images from the fronts showed two bright linear features. One of them corresponds to the temperature front, which separated the warm Gulf Stream water to the south from a cool, freshwater filament to the north. The other line, located about 8 km north of the temperature front, is believed to correspond to the velocity front between the filament and the slope water. At these fronts, wave-current interactions produced narrow bands of steep and breaking waves manifesting higher radar returns in polarimetric SAR images. In general, our AIRSAR imagery shows that the signal-to-clutter ratio of radar cross sections for the temperature front is higher than that of the velocity front. In this paper, we study the polarization and wavelength diversities of radar response of these two fronts using the P-, L-, and C-Band Polarimetric SAR data. The north-south flight path of the AIRSAR crossed the temperature front several times and provided valuable data for analysis. Three individual passes are investigated. We found that for the temperature front, the cross-pol (HV) responses are much higher than co-pol responses (VV and HH), and that P-Band HV has the highest signal to clutter ratio. For the velocity front, the ratio is the strongest in P-Band VV, and it is indistinguishable for all polarizations in C-Band. The radar cross sections for all three polarization (HH, HV, and VV) and for all three bands are modelled using an ocean wave model and a composite Bragg scattering model. In our initial investigations, the theoretical model agrees qualitatively with the AIRSAR observations.

  3. AIRSAR studies of woody shrub density in semiarid rangeland: Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H.B.; Schaber, G.S.; Breed, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data to assess woody shrub density in a semiarid site where the vegetation consists primarily of varied mixtures of herbaceous vegetation and shrubs. AIRSAR data and field observations of vegetation cover and growth form-composition were obtained for 59 sites in the Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and W polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with Jornada del Muerto plain in southern New Mexico. Radar signature measures examined were C-, L- and P-band backscattering coefficients (??0) for HH, HV and VV polarizations, ratios of ??0HH and ??0HV to ??0VV, and the HH-VV polarization phase difference and correlation coefficient. The most effective measure for estimation of shrub density was L-band ??0HV, which distinguished among shrub density classes with no misclassification. Sensitivity of this measure to small amounts of shrub cover was indicated by successful separation of sites with <1% shrub cover from sites with 1-5% cover. Separability of shrub density classes was generally least for C-band signature measures. A distinctive radar signature was exhibited by dense stands of Yucca elata, a semitreelike plant with uniformly thick (???10 cm diameter) fibrous stems. Yucca sites were distinguished from others by their high P-band ??0HV relative to L-band ??0HV. The results are largely explained by the greater sensitivity of longer wavelengths to larger canopy structural elements. L-band ??0HV and other measures responsive to

  4. Geocoding of AIRSAR/TOPSAR SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecz, Francesco; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and recognized that radar interferometry is a promising method for the determination of digital elevation information and terrain slope from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An important application of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data in areas with topographic variations is that the derived elevation and slope can be directly used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the amplitude SAR data as well as for scattering mechanisms analysis. On the other hand polarimetric SAR data has long been recognized as permitting a more complete inference of natural surfaces than a single channel radar system. In fact, imaging polarimetry provides the measurement of the amplitude and relative phase of all transmit and receive polarizations. On board the NASA DC-8 aircraft, NASA/JPL operates the multifrequency (P, L and C bands) multipolarimetric radar AIRSAR. The TOPSAR, a special mode of the AIRSAR system, is able to collect single-pass interferometric C- and/or L-band VV polarized data. A possible configuration of the AIRSAR/TOPSAR system is to acquire single-pass interferometric data at C-band VV polarization and polarimetric radar data at the two other lower frequencies. The advantage of this system configuration is to get digital topography information at the same time the radar data is collected. The digital elevation information can therefore be used to correctly calibrate the SAR data. This step is directly included in the new AIRSAR Integrated Processor. This processor uses a modification of the full motion compensation algorithm described by Madsen et al. (1993). However, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with the additional products such as local incidence angle map, and the SAR data are in a geometry which is not convenient, since especially DEMs must be referred to a specific cartographic reference system. Furthermore, geocoding of SAR data is important for multisensor and/or multitemporal purposes. In this paper, a procedure to

  5. AIRSAR Web-Based Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anhua; Van Zyl, Jakob; Kim, Yunjin; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Madsen, Soren; Chapman, Bruce; Imel, David; Durden, Stephen; Tung, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The AIRSAR automated, Web-based data processing and distribution system is an integrated, end-to-end synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing system. Designed to function under limited resources and rigorous demands, AIRSAR eliminates operational errors and provides for paperless archiving. Also, it provides a yearly tune-up of the processor on flight missions, as well as quality assurance with new radar modes and anomalous data compensation. The software fully integrates a Web-based SAR data-user request subsystem, a data processing system to automatically generate co-registered multi-frequency images from both polarimetric and interferometric data collection modes in 80/40/20 MHz bandwidth, an automated verification quality assurance subsystem, and an automatic data distribution system for use in the remote-sensor community. Features include Survey Automation Processing in which the software can automatically generate a quick-look image from an entire 90-GB SAR raw data 32-MB/s tape overnight without operator intervention. Also, the software allows product ordering and distribution via a Web-based user request system. To make AIRSAR more user friendly, it has been designed to let users search by entering the desired mission flight line (Missions Searching), or to search for any mission flight line by entering the desired latitude and longitude (Map Searching). For precision image automation processing, the software generates the products according to each data processing request stored in the database via a Queue management system. Users are able to have automatic generation of coregistered multi-frequency images as the software generates polarimetric and/or interferometric SAR data processing in ground and/or slant projection according to user processing requests for one of the 12 radar modes.

  6. Investigation of AIRSAR signatures of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Lee, J. S.; Schuler, D. L.; Marmorino, G. O.; Askari, F.; Hoppel, K.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Keller, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) measurements were made on 20 July 1990 during the NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment which addressed a number of scientific questions relating to SAR imaging of the ocean surface in the presence of variable currents and the background thermohaline circulation. The nature of the electromagnetic (e.m.) backscatter from the North edge of the GS using polarimetric signatures and amplitude imagery from the AIRSAR data is addressed.

  7. Log-periodic dipole antenna with low cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    In this work, log-periodic antennas with improved cross-polarization level were studied. It was found that some modifications of the traditional design lead to an essential improvement of the co-to-cross polarization ratio up to 40 dB. An improved design of a log-periodic dipole antenna with low...... cross-polarization level is described. Some recommendations regarding improvement of the polarization characteristics of log- periodic antennas in general are also given. It was also found that log-periodic antennas can be attributed to the class of so-called first-order (m = plusmn1) antennas, which...... is an important requirement for probes in spherical near- field antenna measurements....

  8. Mitochondrial DNA HV1 and HV2 variation in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sørensen, Erik; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;

    2010-01-01

    Sequences from the two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA were obtained from a total of 201 Danes and five individuals who later were recognized to be of non-West European origin. Two fractions of each region were amplified separately and sequenced ...

  9. MACSIGMA0 - MACINTOSH TOOL FOR ANALYZING JPL AIRSAR, ERS-1, JERS-1, AND MAGELLAN MIDR DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norikane, L.

    1994-01-01

    MacSigma0 is an interactive tool for the Macintosh which allows you to display and make computations from radar data collected by the following sensors: the JPL AIRSAR, ERS-1, JERS-1, and Magellan. The JPL AIRSAR system is a multi-polarimetric airborne synthetic aperture radar developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes the single-frequency L-band sensor mounted on the NASA CV990 aircraft and its replacement, the multi-frequency P-, L-, and C-band sensors mounted on the NASA DC-8. MacSigma0 works with data in the standard JPL AIRSAR output product format, the compressed Stokes matrix format. ERS-1 and JERS-1 are single-frequency, single-polarization spaceborne synthetic aperture radars launched by the European Space Agency and NASDA respectively. To be usable by MacSigma0, The data must have been processed at the Alaska SAR Facility and must be in the "low-resolution" format. Magellan is a spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft carries a single-frequency, single-polarization synthetic aperture radar. MacSigma0 works with framelets of the standard MIDR CD-ROM data products. MacSigma0 provides four basic functions: synthesis of images (if necessary), statistical analysis of selected areas, analysis of corner reflectors as a calibration measure (if appropriate and possible), and informative mouse tracking. For instance, the JPL AIRSAR data can be used to synthesize a variety of images such as a total power image. The total power image displays the sum of the polarized and unpolarized components of the backscatter for each pixel. Other images which can be synthesized are HH, HV, VV, RL, RR, HHVV*, HHHV*, HVVV*, HHVV* phase and correlation coefficient images. For the complex and phase images, phase is displayed using color and magnitude is displayed using intensity. MacSigma0 can also be used to compute statistics from within a selected area. The

  10. Horizon Instability in the Cross Polarized Bell-Szekeres Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtug, O; Gurtug, Ozay; Halilsoy, Mustafa

    2000-01-01

    The quasiregular singularities (horizons) that form in the collision of cross polarized electromagnetic waves are, as in the linear polarized case unstable. The validity of the Helliwell-Konkowski stability conjecture is tested for a number of exact back-reaction cases. In the test electromagnetic case the conjecture fails to predict the correct nature of the singularity while in the scalar field and in the null dust cases the aggrement is justified.

  11. Targets detecting in the ocean using the cross-polarized channels of fully polarimetric SAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunhua; LIU Xiaoyan; LI Huimin; ZHANG Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Azimuth ambiguities (ghost targets) discrimination is of great interest with the development of a synthet-ic aperture radar (SAR). And the azimuth ambiguities are often mistaken as actual targets and cause false alarms. For actual targets, HV channel signals acquired by a fully polarimetric SAR are approximately equal to a VH channel in magnitude and phase, i.e., the reciprocity theorem applies, but shifted in phase about ±ʌ for the first-order azimuth ambiguities. Exploiting this physical behavior, the real part of the product of the two cross-polarized channels, i.e.()SHVSV H, hereafter calledA12r, is employed as a new parameter for a target detection at sea. Compared with other parameters, the contrast ofA12r image between a target and the surrounding sea surface will be obviously increased whenA12r image is processed by mean filtering algo-rithm. Here, in order to detect target with constant false-alarm rates (CFARs), an analytical expression for the probability density function (pdf) ofA12r is derived based on the complex Wishart-distribution. Because a value ofA12r is greater/less than 0 for real target/its azimuth ambiguities, the first-order azimuth ambiguities can be completely removed by thisA12r-based CFAR technology. Experiments accomplished over C-band RADARSAT-2 fully polarimetric imageries confirm the validity.

  12. 3-D reconstruction of coastal bathymetry from AIRSAR/POLSAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maged MARGHANY; Mazlan HASHIM; Arthur P. CRACKNELL

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) coastal bathymetry changes from Airborne AIRSAR/POLSAR synthetic aperture data. The new method is based on integration between fuzzy B-spline and Volterra algorithm. Volterra algorithm is used to simulate the ocean surface current from AIRSAR/POLSAR data. Then, the ocean surface current information used as input for continuity equation to estimate the water depths from AIRSAR/POLSAR data. This study shows that 3D ocean bathymetry can be reconstructed from AIRSAR/POLSAR data with root mean square error of ±0.03 m.

  13. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  14. Sequencing of mitochondrial HV1 and HV2 DNA with length heteroplasmy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E. Michael; Eriksen, Birthe; Larsen, Hans Jakob

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a fast method for sequencing the poly C/G regions in HV1 and HV2 in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)......This study presents a fast method for sequencing the poly C/G regions in HV1 and HV2 in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

  15. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  16. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of oral soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Karabut, Maria; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Muraev, Alexander; Fomina, Julia

    2011-03-01

    We consider the capabilities of cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) focused on comparison of images resulting from cross-polarization and co-polarization scattering simultaneously for diagnosis of oral soft tissues. CP OCT was done for 35 patients with dental implants and 30 patients with inflammatory intestine diseases. Our study showed good diagnostic capabilities of CP OCT for detecting soft tissue pathology in the oral cavity. The cross-polarized images demonstrate the ability of tissue to depolarize. CP OCT demonstrates clinical capabilities for early diagnosis of inflammatory intestine diseases by the state of oral cavity mucosa and for early detection of gingivitis in patients above implant.

  17. Ice Shelf Modeling: A Cross-Polar Bayesian Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, N.; Furrer, R.; Jakobsson, M.; Zwally, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice streams interlink glacial terrestrial and marine environments: embedded in a grounded inland ice such as the Antarctic Ice Sheet or the paleo ice sheets covering extensive parts of the Eurasian and Amerasian Arctic respectively, ice streams are major drainage agents facilitating the discharge of substantial portions of continental ice into the ocean. At their seaward side, ice streams can either extend onto the ocean as floating ice tongues (such as the Drygalsky Ice Tongue/East Antarctica), or feed large ice shelves (as is the case for e.g. the Siple Coast and the Ross Ice Shelf/West Antarctica). The flow behavior of ice streams has been recognized to be intimately linked with configurational changes in their attached ice shelves; in particular, ice shelf disintegration is associated with rapid ice stream retreat and increased mass discharge from the continental ice mass, contributing eventually to sea level rise. Investigations of ice stream retreat mechanism are however incomplete if based on terrestrial records only: rather, the dynamics of ice shelves (and, eventually, the impact of the ocean on the latter) must be accounted for. However, since floating ice shelves leave hardly any traces behind when melting, uncertainty regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and evolution of ice shelves in times prior to instrumented and recorded observation is high, calling thus for a statistical modeling approach. Complementing ongoing large-scale numerical modeling efforts (Pollard & DeConto, 2009), we model the configuration of ice shelves by using a Bayesian Hiearchial Modeling (BHM) approach. We adopt a cross-polar perspective accounting for the fact that currently, ice shelves exist mainly along the coastline of Antarctica (and are virtually non-existing in the Arctic), while Arctic Ocean ice shelves repeatedly impacted the Arctic ocean basin during former glacial periods. Modeled Arctic ocean ice shelf configurations are compared with geological spatial

  18. Quantitative analysis of SMEX'02 AIRSAR data for soil moisture inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyl, J. J. van; Njoku, E.; Jackson, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses in detail the characteristics of the AIRSAR data acquired, and provides an initial quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the radar inversion algorithms under these vegetated conditions.

  19. Quantitative analysis of SMEX'02 AIRSAR data for soil moisture inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyl, J. J. van; Njoku, E.; Jackson, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses in detail the characteristics of the AIRSAR data acquired, and provides an initial quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the radar inversion algorithms under these vegetated conditions.

  20. Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-07-01

    Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended.

  1. Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Balalaeva, Irina; Karabut, Maria; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Feldchtein, Felix

    2013-04-01

    The goal of the research was analysis of the effect of collagen condition in formation of cross-polarized CP OCT images. We used of the CP OCT technique for studying collagen condition on an example of oral mucosa. Special histologic picrosirius red (PSR) staining of cheek mucosa specimens was used with subsequent assessing of the result of collagen staining in polarized light. High correlation (r = 0.692, p = 0.0001) between OCT signal standard deviation (SD) in cross-polarized images and brightness of PSR stained collagen fibers in cheek mucosa specimens was demonstrated in patients with inflammatory intestine and oral mucosa diseases. We have found that the OCT signal SD in cross-polarized images reflects two boundary conditions of collagen disorganization, namely, loss of fiber properties at active inflammation which attenuates the signal and fibrosis that occurs due to synthesis of a new remodeled collagen which amplifies the OCT signal.

  2. High-contrast Coherent Population Trapping based on Crossed Polarizers Method

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    We developed a method based on crossed polarizers to observe high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance. Since crossed polarizers have a simple optical system, our method is suitable for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). We calculated the Faraday rotation in CPT in a linearly polarized light field (lin || lin) using two pairs of lambda system models based on the density matrix and estimated the spectrum of the Faraday rotation. After that, we measured the contrast and linewidth with the crossed polarizers method. A comparison of the theoretical model and experiment data showed they were in good agreement. Moreover, the experimental results showed that a high contrast (88.4 %) and narrow linewidth (1.15 kHz) resonance could be observed using a Cs gas cell and D1-line vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser (VCSEL).

  3. Efficient cross polarization with simultaneous adiabatic frequency sweep on the source and target channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weng Kung; Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2007-10-01

    In this work, we propose a new and efficient heteronuclear cross polarization scheme, in which adiabatic frequency sweeps from far off-resonance toward on-resonance are applied simultaneously on both the source and target spins. This technique, which we call as Simultaneous ADIabatic Spin-locking Cross Polarization (SADIS CP), is capable of efficiently locking both the source and target spins with moderate power even in the presence of large spectral distribution and fast relaxation. It is shown that by keeping the time-dependent Hartmann-Hahn mismatch minimal throughout the mixing period, polarization transfer can be accelerated. Experiments are demonstrated in a powder sample of L-alanine.

  4. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  5. AIRSAR deployment in Australia, September 1993: Management and objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. K.; Tapley, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    Past co-operation between the NASA Earth Science and Applications Division and the CSIRO and Australian university researchers has led to a number of mutually beneficial activities. These include the deployment of the C-130 aircraft with TIMS, AIS, and NS001 sensors in Australia in 1985; collaboration between scientists from the USA and Australia in soils research which has extended for the past decade; and in the development of imaging spectroscopy where DSIRO and NASA have worked closely together and regularly exchanged visiting scientists. In May this year TIMS was flown in eastern Australia on board a CSIRO-owned aircraft together with a CSIRO-designed CO2 laser spectrometer. The Science Investigation Team for the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIRC-C) Program includes one Australian Principal Investigator and ten Australian co-investigators who will work on nine projects related to studying land and near-shore surfaces after the Shuttle flight scheduled for April 1994. This long-term continued joint collaboration was progressed further with the deployment of AIRSAR downunder in September 1993. During a five week period, the DC-8 aircraft flew in all Australian states and collected data from some 65 individual test sites.

  6. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at C-

  7. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  8. On the cross-polarization characteristics of crooked wire antennas designed by genetic-algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, S. R.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In many modern communication applications there is a need for simple circularly polarized antennas for hemispherical coverage with good axial ratio or low value of cross polarization. We revisited the crooked wire antenna because of its simplicity. This paper presents results of our investigation on the crooked wire antennas and other elements.

  9. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at C-

  10. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at

  11. (e)-operations and Hv-fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas VOUGIOUKLIS

    2008-01-01

    The hyperoperations,called theta-operations (e),are motivated from the usual property,which the derivative has on the derivation of a product of functions.Using any map on a set,one can define(e) -operatious.In this paper,we continue our study on the(e) -operations on groupoids,rings,fields and vector spaces or on the corresponding hyperstructures.Using(e) -operations one obtains,mainly,Hv-structures,which form the largest class of the hyperstructures.For representation theory of hyperstructures,by hypermatrices,one needs special Hv-rings or Hv-fields,so these hyperstructures can be used.Moreover,we study the relation of these(e)-structures with other classes of hyperstructures,especially with the Hy-structures.

  12. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paul, Susan M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The development of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has, to a large extent, focused on using spin-1/2 nuclei as probes to investigate molecular structure and dynamics. For such nuclei, the technique of cross polarization is well-established as a method for sensitivity enhancement. However, over two-thirds of the nuclei in the periodic table have a spin-quantum number greater than one-half and are known as quadrupolar nuclei. Such nuclei are fundamental constituents of many inorganic materials including minerals, zeolites, glasses, and gels. It is, therefore, of interest to explore the extent to which polarization can be transferred from quadrupolar nuclei. In this dissertation, solid-state NMR experiments involving cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to spin-1/2 nuclei under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are investigated in detail.

  13. CTS attenuation and cross-polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W. J.; Straiton, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of data obtained 80 days preceding the solar eclipse shutdown of the CTS 11.7 GHz righthand circularly polarized beacon transmitter are presented. Attenuation and cross polarization isolation were measured. It was determined that depolarization presents a serious limitation to satellite system reliability when frequency reuse by polarization diversity is employed. A 27 db isolation margin would reduce reliability below 99.95%. For the same percentage the required fade margin was below 3 db.

  14. Modulation of cross polarization in motionally averaged solids by Variable Angle Spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Catalina A.; Thureau, Pierre; Shapiro, Rebecca A.; Litvak, Ilya M.; Martin, Rachel W.

    2011-01-01

    In systems where the dipolar couplings are partially averaged by molecular motion, cross-polarization is modulated by sample spinning. The cross-polariation efficiency in Variable Angle Spinning (VAS) and Switched Angle Spinning (SAS) experiments on mobile samples is therefore strongly dependent on the spinning angle. We describe simulations and experimental measurements of these effects over a range of spinning angles from 0° to 90°. PMID:21743604

  15. COMPOZER-based longitudinal cross-polarization via dipolar coupling under MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Takayuki; Murakami, Miwa; Noda, Yasuto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K

    2014-08-01

    We propose a cross polarization (CP) sequence effective under magic-angle spinning (MAS) which is tolerant to RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. Its key feature is that spin locking is not used, as CP occurs among the longitudinal (Z) magnetizations modulated by the combination of two pulses with the opposite phases. We show that, by changing the phases of the pulse pairs synchronized with MAS, the flip-flop term of the dipolar interaction is restored under MAS.

  16. Design and performance of a low frequency cross-polarized log-periodic dipole antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, K Sasikumar; Ramesh, R; Rajalingam, M; Barve, Indrajit V

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and performance of a cross-polarized log-periodic dipole (CLPD) antenna for observations of polarized radio emission from the solar corona at low frequencies. The measured isolation between the two mutually orthogonal log periodic dipole antennas was as low as $\\approx$ -43 dBm in the 65-95 MHz range. We carried out observations of the solar corona at 80 MHz with the above CLPD and successfully recorded circularly polarized emission.

  17. Ordering in nematic liquid crystals from NMR cross-polarization studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Ramanathan; Neeraj Sinha

    2003-08-01

    The measurement of dipolar couplings between nuclei is a convenient way of obtatining directly liquid crystalline ordering through NMR since the coupling is dependent on the average orientation of the dipolar vector in the magnetic field which also aligns the liquid crystal. However, measurement of the dipolar coupling between a pair of selected nuclei is beset with problems that require special solutions. In this article the use of cross polarization for measuring dipolar couplings in liquid crystals is illustrated. Transient oscillations observed during cross polarization provide the dipolar couplings between essentially isolated nearest neighbour spins which can be extracted for several sites simultaneously by employing two-dimensional NMR techniques. The use of the method for obtaining heteronuclear dipolar couplings and hence the order parameters of liquid crystals is presented. Several modifications to the basic experiment are considered and their utility illustrated. A method for obtaining proton–proton dipolar couplings, by utilizing cross polarization from the dipolar reservoir, is also presented.

  18. The Variability Of RSG : HV2576

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Jiang, B. W.

    2008-10-01

    The Harvard Variable HV2576, as a red supergiant in the Large Magallanic Cloud, has a complex light variation, which is not explained well. The existing one-period non-linear pulsation model deviated clearly from its light curve. We tried to fit the light curve by a superposition of several harmonic pulsations. By using the PDM, PERIOD04 and SparSpec codes to analyze the light variation, two periods with 525 and 261 days are well established. Furthermore, the 261-day period is found to change according to the wavelet analysis. In addition, the noise obeying the 1/f law. Based on all these facts, we suggest that the light variation of HV2576 may be due to huge convection cells that interplay with oscillation or the third very long period.

  19. Herpesvirus bovino 4 (BoHV-4)

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger,Ernesto Renato

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: BoHV-4 é membro da sub-família Gammaherpesvirinae, gênero Rhadinovirus e está associado a diversas manifestações clínicas, em que estudos demonstram uma forte correlação entre infecção por este vírus com metrite pós-parto e aborto em bovinos. Objetivos: este trabalho teve por propósito caracterizar uma amostra viral isolada a partir de secreção uterina de fêmea de bovino e desenvolver técnica de ensaio imunoenzimático - ELISA indireto - para detecção de anticorpos específicos ao BoHV-...

  20. Generation of pure heralded single-photon states by cross-polarized spontaneous four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; McKinstrie, Colin J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme which employs cross-polarized pumps to generate temporally and spectrally uncorrelated signal-idler photon-pairs through spontaneous fourwave mixing in a birefringent third-order nonlinear waveguide.......We propose a novel scheme which employs cross-polarized pumps to generate temporally and spectrally uncorrelated signal-idler photon-pairs through spontaneous fourwave mixing in a birefringent third-order nonlinear waveguide....

  1. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  2. Polarimetric Features of Oyster Farm Observed by AIRSAR and JERS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.-K.; Hong, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Won, J. -S.; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; 山口, 芳雄

    2006-01-01

    The polarimetric features of an oyster farm in a coastal area are analyzed to verify the applicability of radar polarimetry and interferometry. L-band Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data and Japan Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) data are used to examine the unique structure of an oyster farm located in South Korea. A specific feature of the oyster farm is the presence of numerous arrays of structures of various orientations that consist of exercise-bar-shaped poles protruding a...

  3. Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{M...

  4. CTS attenuation and cross polarization measurements at 11.7 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long-term attenuation, cross-polarization, and rain-rate data monitored in Austin, Texas from the circularly polarized 11.7 GHz satellite beacon transmitter aboard the Communications Technology Satellite are analyzed. Data events are significantly more likely during April-September, than during October-March, except for ice deplorization which predominates during the winter months. A time of day dependence of the events is also noted. The 10 dB fade level is exceeded for .03% during the thunderstorm months. Isolation with the same probability is 23 dB.

  5. Measurement of ultrashort-pulse cross-polarization scattering in a tandem mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Yuichiro; Mase, Atsushi [Advanced Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Hojo, Hitoshi; Itakura, Akiyoshi; Ichimura, Makoto; Yatsu, Kiyoshi [Plasma Research Center, Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    Cross-polarization scattering (CPS) diagnostics using ultrashort pulse microwaves is applied to the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror for the measurement of internal magnetic fluctuations. The CPS process uses the mode conversion effect of electromagnetic waves by means of magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. The mode contamination of antennas and multiple reflections from the vacuum vessel make the CPS measurement difficult since they easily mask the CPS signal. By using polarizers and performing time-of-flight measurement on the ultrashort pulse, the spurious electromagnetic waves are eliminated and the identification of the CPS process is successful. (author)

  6. Cross-polarization scattering from low-frequency waves in a tandem mirror plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Yuichiro; Mase, Atsushi; Bruskin, L.G.; Oyama, Naoyuki; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Itakura, Akiyosi; Hojo, Hitoshi; Tamano, Teruo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Plasma Research Center

    1997-05-01

    Cross-polarization scattering (CPS) diagnostic was applied to the central-cell plasma of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror in order to study electromagnetic plasma waves with frequencies of less than 200 kHz. In the CPS process, an incident ordinary (extraordinary) wave is converted to an extraordinary (ordinary) wave by magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. The converted wave propagates through the cutoff layer and reaches the opposite diagnostic port. The experimental data suggest that the power spectral density of the CPS signal satisfies the Bragg condition, while the reflectometer detects the waves near the cutoff layer where the wave number cannot be resolved. (author)

  7. Single Shot Polarization Characterization of XUV FEL Pulses from Crossed Polarized Undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E.; Allaria, E.; Buck, J.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Glaser, L.; Huang, Z.; Ilchen, M.; Lambert, G.; Lutman, A. A.; Mahieu, B.; Penco, G.; Spezzani, C.; Viefhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization control is a key feature of light generated by short-wavelength free-electron lasers. In this work, we report the first experimental characterization of the polarization properties of an extreme ultraviolet high gain free-electron laser operated with crossed polarized undulators. We investigate the average degree of polarization and the shot-to-shot stability and we analyze aspects such as existing possibilities for controlling and switching the polarization state of the emitted light. The results are in agreement with predictions based on Gaussian beams propagation. PMID:26314764

  8. Extraction of quantitative surface characteristics from AIRSAR data for Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were collected for the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) over Death Valley, California, USA, in Sep. 1989. AIRSAR is a four-look, quad-polarization, three frequency instrument. It collects measurements at C-band (5.66 cm), L-band (23.98 cm), and P-band (68.13 cm), and has a GIFOV of 10 meters and a swath width of 12 kilometers. Because the radar measures at three wavelengths, different scales of surface roughness are measured. Also, dielectric constants can be calculated from the data. The AIRSAR data were calibrated using in-scene trihedral corner reflectors to remove cross-talk; and to calibrate the phase, amplitude, and co-channel gain imbalance. The calibration allows for the extraction of accurate values of rms surface roughness, dielectric constants, sigma(sub 0) backscatter, and polarization information. The radar data sets allow quantitative characterization of small scale surface structure of geologic units, providing information about the physical and chemical processes that control the surface morphology. Combining the quantitative information extracted from the radar data with other remotely sensed data sets allows discrimination, identification and mapping of geologic units that may be difficult to discern using conventional techniques.

  9. The CMS ECAL Barrel HV system

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The CMS electro-magnetic calorimeter comprises 75848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals. 61200 crystals are contained in the ECAL Barrel section and these are readout by avalanche photodiodes (APD) with internal gain. The APD gain strongly depends on the bias voltage that, for a gain G=50, is around 400 V. In order to match the requirements for gain stability, the power supply voltage must be stable to within 0.01\\%. In this talk we describe our experience with the installed Barrel HV power supply system which has been used for data taking at the LHC since 2008.

  10. Influence of dental resin material composition on cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammeier, Carmen; Li, YuPing; Lunos, Scott; Fok, Alex; Rudney, Joel; Jones, Robert S.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-polarization-optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) signal attenuation through different resin material compositions. Four distinct composite systems were used: Filtek supreme ultra (FSU) (3M ESPE), IPS empress direct (EMD) (Ivoclar Vivadent), estelite sigma quick (SQK) (Tokuyama Dental), and Z100 (3M ESPE). Cross-sectional images of different composite-demineralized phantoms (n=108) were collected using a 1310-nm intraoral cross-polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) imaging system. %T quantified the CP-OCT signal attenuation. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer chemical analysis was utilized to determine how different matrix/filler compositions affected attenuation of the near infrared (NIR) signal. CP-OCT imaging of dental resin composites showed enormous variation in signal attenuation. For each of our composite systems, there was not a consistent attenuation difference in the NIR signal for A to D shades. The four composites had similar measured backscattering values but attenuated the overall signal to different degrees. When comparing the A2 shades between the four different composite systems, the order of highest to lowest of %T was EMD>Z100, FSU>SQK (ANOVA, Tukey, pcomposite materials affect CP-OCT signal attenuation.

  11. Coherent cross-polarization theory for a spin-12 coupled to a general object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magusin; Veeman

    2000-04-01

    Zero-order average-Hamiltonian theory is used to extend the product-operator description of coherent spin-spin cross-polarization to the case of a spin-12 coupled to a general object, like a molecular rotor or a quantum oscillator. The object, which is not necessarily in a Boltzmann equilibrium state, is assumed to have no interaction with the lattice and no internal relaxation capacity. The Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield (BWR) theory for incoherent processes like spin-lattice relaxation does not apply for such an isolated spin-object pair. Nevertheless spectral density at the Larmor frequency, of key importance in BWR theory, also plays a central role in object-induced spin polarization. Spectral density in our theory is represented by quantum operators J(-) and J(+). If J(-) and J(+) do not commute, the spin-object coupling may cause spin polarization in an initially saturated spin system. This represents a coherent mechanism for spin cooling, which in specific cases may lead to enhanced spin polarization above the thermal equilibrium value. A master equation is derived for general spin-object cross-polarization, and applied to the case of a spin pair inside a uniaxial rotor, and a spin coupled to a microelectronic LC circuit. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  13. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox......-dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys...

  14. Cross-polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to silicon using low-radio-frequency amplitudes during magic-angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paul, S.M.; Ernst, M.; Shore, J.S.; Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Stebbins, J.F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-04-17

    The dynamics of cross-polarization from the central transition of a quadrupolar nucleus ({sup 27}Al or {sup 23}Na) to a spin-1/2 nucleus ({sup 29}Si) during magic-angle spinning and using low-radio-frequency field strengths are analyzed for the mineral low albite. Under these conditions additional complications in the spin-lock behavior of the quadrupolar nucleus and in the cross-polarization process were found experimentally and are examined in detail. A step-by-step procedure for optimizing cross-polarization from the central transition of a quadrupolar nucleus to a spin-1/2 nucleus is described. Significant enhancement of {sup 29}Si NMR sensitivity and several applications are demonstrated. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Millimeter-Wave Ultra-Wideband Six-Port Receiver Using Cross-Polarized Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new low-cost millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB transceiver architecture operating over V-band from 60 to 64 GHz. Since the local oscillator (LO power required in the operation of six-port receiver is generally low (compared to conventional one using diode mixers, the carrier recovery or LO synchronization is avoided by using second transmission path and cross-polarized antennas. The six-port model used in system simulation is based on -parameters measurements of a rectangular waveguide hybrid coupler. The receiver architecture is validated by comparisons between transmitter and receiver bit sequences and bit error rate results of 500 Mb/s pseudorandom QPSK signal.

  16. Millimeter-Wave Ultra-Wideband Six-Port Receiver Using Cross-Polarized Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serioja O. Tatu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new low-cost millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB transceiver architecture operating over V-band from 60 to 64 GHz. Since the local oscillator (LO power required in the operation of six-port receiver is generally low (compared to conventional one using diode mixers, the carrier recovery or LO synchronization is avoided by using second transmission path and cross-polarized antennas. The six-port model used in system simulation is based on S-parameters measurements of a rectangular waveguide hybrid coupler. The receiver architecture is validated by comparisons between transmitter and receiver bit sequences and bit error rate results of 500 Mb/s pseudorandom QPSK signal.

  17. Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Bog, Uwe; Sekula, Sylwia; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2010-08-30

    There is a strong need for low-cost biosensors to enable rapid, on-site analysis of biological, biomedical, or chemical substances. We propose a platform for label-free optical biosensors based on applying the analyte onto a surface-functionalized photonic crystal slab and performing a transmission measurement with two crossed polarization filters. This dark-field approach allows for efficient background suppression as only the photonic crystal guided-mode resonances interacting with the functionalized surface experience significant polarization rotation. We present a compact biosensor demonstrator using a low-cost light emitting diode and a simple photodiode capable of detecting the binding kinetics of a 2.5 nM solution of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-functionalized photonic crystal surface.

  18. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization of deuterated molecules enhanced by cross-polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbach, Dennis; Weber, Emmanuelle M. M.; Jhajharia, Aditya; Cousin, Samuel F.; Sadet, Aude; Marhabaie, Sina; Canet, Estel; Birlirakis, Nicolas; Milani, Jonas; Jannin, Sami; Eshchenko, Dmitry; Hassan, Alia; Melzi, Roberto; Luetolf, Stephan; Sacher, Marco; Rossire, Marc; Kempf, James; Lohman, Joost A. B.; Weller, Matthias; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Abergel, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We present novel means to hyperpolarize deuterium nuclei in 13CD2 groups at cryogenic temperatures. The method is based on cross-polarization from 1H to 13C and does not require any radio-frequency fields applied to the deuterium nuclei. After rapid dissolution, a new class of long-lived spin states can be detected indirectly by 13C NMR in solution. These long-lived states result from a sextet-triplet imbalance (STI) that involves the two equivalent deuterons with spin I = 1. An STI has similar properties as a triplet-singlet imbalance that can occur in systems with two equivalent I = 1/2 spins. Although the lifetimes TSTI are shorter than T1(Cz), they can exceed the life-time T1(Dz) of deuterium Zeeman magnetization by a factor of more than 20.

  19. Identification of Dynamic Cover Types in Wetlands by using Multitemporal Cross-polarized Sentinel-1 Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    , and the Lagoon of Fuente de Piedra, a small wetland in Southern Spain. For that we use a multitemporal change detection procedure for polarimetric SAR imagery based on the Complex Wishart distribution developed recently by Conradsen et al (2015), (to be published) and an innovative open source software...... source and free data. It enables an operational monitoring service of short-term change detection. No calibration or validation needed, only interpretation of changes using local knowledge. This has important implications for operational standardized monitoring service such as the ones developed...... images in C2 matrix. These were generated in the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) using 12 Sentinel-1 images (Interferometric Wide, Single Look Complex and cross-polarized) with a monthly resolution.The methodology proposed here for change detection is relatively easy to use and utilizes only open...

  20. Cross-polarization coupling and switching in an open nano-meta-resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabelak, W.; Nasalski, W.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate the reconfiguration process of optical beam fields circulating in an open nano-meta-resonator cavity. The cavity is composed of four corners or quadrants of space filled alternatively with dielectric and metamaterial media. The media are assumed to be lossless, nondispersive and of parameters precluding impedance matching at the boundaries between the subsequent corners. Beam path retracement in the cavity is obtained from a resonance condition of phase compensation along each optical ray contributed to the circulating beam. Cross-polarization coupling between TM and TE components of elegant higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams propagating in the resonator is analysed. The existence of the phenomena of beam excitation, filtering and switching predicted on these grounds is explicitly confirmed by numerical simulations. All phenomena described depend substantially on a field cross-sectional diameter of the circulating beams.

  1. Passive mode locking of lasers by crossed-polarization gain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaloyes, Julien; Mulet, Josep; Balle, Salvador

    2006-10-20

    We report on a novel approach for inducing passive mode locking of lasers without using any saturable absorber but exploiting the polarization degree of freedom of light. In our scheme, passive mode locking is achieved by crossed-polarization gain modulation caused by the reinjection of a polarization-rotated replica of the laser output after a time delay. The reinjection time delay defines resonance tongues that correspond to mode-locking operation. Numerical continuation reveals that the cw solution is destabilized through a Hopf bifurcation that defines the onset of multimode operation which evolves sharply into a mode-locked solution. Our approach can be applied to a large variety of laser systems. For vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, we demonstrate stable mode-locked pulses at repetition rates in the GHz range and pulse widths of few tens of picoseconds.

  2. Biomedical Applications of Fermenticin HV6b Isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC10770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermenticin HV6b is a class IIa antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC 10770 isolated from human vaginal ecosystem. It shows growth inhibition of a wide range of opportunistic pathogens of humans, for example, Bacteroides, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Staphylococci, and Streptococci, associated with bacterial vaginosis in humans. It does possess an impressive sperm immobilization and spermicidal activity tested against human sperms which makes it an attractive proposition for formulating antibacterial vaginosis and contraceptive products. Apart from this, in vitro studies conducted against four different tissue models have indicated its potential to be used as a component of anticancerous drug therapy as it is reported to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. This information could be integrated in future studies focusing on in vivo assessment of anticancerous activity of lactic acid bacterial toxins or bacteriocins.

  3. Rapid acquisition of 14N solid-state NMR spectra with broadband cross polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kristopher J; Veinberg, Stanislav L; Mireault, Christopher R; Lupulescu, Adonis; Frydman, Lucio; Schurko, Robert W

    2013-11-25

    Nitrogen is an element of utmost importance in chemistry, biology and materials science. Of its two NMR-active isotopes, (14)N and (15)N, solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments are rarely conducted upon the former, due to its low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) and broad powder patterns arising from first-order quadrupolar interactions. In this work, we propose a methodology for the rapid acquisition of high quality (14)N SSNMR spectra that is easy to implement, and can be used for a variety of nitrogen-containing systems. We demonstrate that it is possible to dramatically enhance (14)N NMR signals in spectra of stationary, polycrystalline samples (i.e., amino acids and active pharmaceutical ingredients) by means of broadband cross polarization (CP) from abundant nuclei (e.g., (1)H). The BRoadband Adiabatic INversion Cross-Polarization (BRAIN-CP) pulse sequence is combined with other elements for efficient acquisition of ultra-wideline SSNMR spectra, including Wideband Uniform-Rate Smooth-Truncation (WURST) pulses for broadband refocusing, Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) echo trains for T2-driven S/N enhancement, and frequency-stepped acquisitions. The feasibility of utilizing the BRAIN-CP/WURST-CPMG sequence is tested for (14)N, with special consideration given to (i) spin-locking integer spin nuclei and maintaining adiabatic polarization transfer, and (ii) the effects of broadband polarization transfer on the overlapping satellite transition patterns. The BRAIN-CP experiments are shown to provide increases in signal-to-noise ranging from four to ten times and reductions of experimental times from one to two orders of magnitude compared to analogous experiments where (14)N nuclei are directly excited. Furthermore, patterns acquired with this method are generally more uniform than those acquired with direct excitation methods. We also discuss the proposed method and its potential for probing a variety of chemically distinct nitrogen environments.

  4. Radar backscattering from snow facies of the Greenland ice sheet: Results from the AIRSAR 1991 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric; Jezek, K.; Vanzyl, J. J.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Lou, Y. L.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1991, the NASA/JPL airborne SAR (AIRSAR) acquired C- (lambda = 5.6cm), L- (lambda = 24cm), and P- (lambda = 68m) band polarimetric SAR data over the Greenland ice sheet. These data are processed using version 3.55 of the AIRSAR processor which provides radiometrically and polarimetrically calibrated images. The internal calibration of the AIRSAR data is cross-checked using the radar response from corner reflectors deployed prior to flight in one of the scenes. In addition, a quantitative assessment of the noise power level at various frequencies and polarizations is made in all the scenes. Synoptic SAR data corresponding to a swath width of about 12 by 50 km in length (compared to the standard 12 x 12 km size of high-resolution scenes) are also processed and calibrated to study transitions in radar backscatter as a function of snow facies at selected frequencies and polarizations. The snow facies on the Greenland ice sheet are traditionally categorized based on differences in melting regime during the summer months. The interior of Greenland corresponds to the dry snow zone where terrain elevation is the highest and no snow melt occurs. The lowest elevation boundary of the dry snow zone is known traditionally as the dry snow line. Beneath it is the percolation zone where melting occurs in the summer and water percolates through the snow freezing at depth to form massive ice lenses and ice pipes. At the downslope margin of this zone is the wet snow line. Below it, the wet snow zone corresponds to the lowest elevations where snow remains at the end of the summer. Ablation produces enough meltwater to create areas of snow saturated with water, together with ponds and lakes. The lowest altitude zone of ablation sees enough summer melt to remove all traces of seasonal snow accumulation, such that the surface comprises bare glacier ice.

  5. Geometric rectification and geocoding of JPL's AIRSAR data over hilly terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroof, H.; Degrandi, G.; Sieber, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    A post-processing system was developed to georeference and geocode airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected by the JPL-Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) System over hilly terrain during the 1990 MAESTRO1 campaign. Georectification relates image coordinates and object coordinates while the geocoding involves resampling. The georectification method uses a hybrid method based upon a number of navigational parameters and minimal two ground-control points which are referenced in both image and map space. The calculation of the intersection of the SAR signal wavefront and a digital elevation model allowed, within certain error bounds, acquisition of the object-to-image and image-to-object relationships.

  6. Interval Valued Intuitionistic (S,T)-fuzzy Hv-submodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming ZHAN; W. A. DUDEK

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of the interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets introduced by K. Atanassov, the notion of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy Hv-submodules of an Hv-module with respect to a t-norm T and an s-norm S is given and the characteristic properties are described. The homomorphic image and the inverse image are investigated. In particular, the connections between interval valued intuitionistic (S, T)-fuzzy Hv-submodules and interval valued intuitionistic (S,T)-fuzzy submodules are discussed.

  7. Dependence of the cross polar cap potential saturation on the type of solar wind streams

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaeva, N S; Lodkina, I G

    2013-01-01

    We compare of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation during magnetic storms induced by various types of the solar wind drivers. By using the model of Siscoe-Hill \\citep{Hilletal1976,Siscoeetal2002a,Siscoeetal2002b,Siscoeetal2004,Siscoe2011} we evaluate criteria of the CPCP saturation during the main phases of 257 magnetic storms ($Dst_{min} \\le -50$ nT) induced by the following types of the solar wind streams: magnetic clouds (MC), Ejecta, the compress region Sheath before MC ($Sh_{MC}$) and before Ejecta ($Sh_{E}$), corotating interaction regions (CIR) and indeterminate type (IND). Our analysis shows that occurrence rate of the CPCP saturation is higher for storms induced by ICME ($13.2%$) than for storms driven by CIR ($3.5%$) or by IND ($3.5%$).The CPCP saturation was obtained more often for storms initiated by MC ($25%$) than by Ejecta ($2.9%$); it was obtained for $8.6%$ of magnetic storms induced by sum of MC and Ejecta, and for $21.5%$ magnetic storms induced by Sheath before them (sum of $Sh_...

  8. Hyperpolarization of nitrogen-15 nuclei by cross polarization and dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Jonas; Vuichoud, Basile; Bornet, Aurélien; Melzi, Roberto; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is often achieved by the direct transfer of polarization from electrons to nuclei such as 13C, induced by microwave saturation of the wings of narrow EPR lines of radicals like trityl. In the indirect approach on the other hand, DNP is used to transfer the polarization from the electrons of radicals such as nitroxides that have broad EPR lines to nuclear spins I = 1H, followed by cross-polarization (CP) from I = 1H to S = 13C or other nuclei with low gyromagnetic ratios. This approach is particularly attractive for S = 15N, since direct DNP yields modest polarizations P(15N) 2 h. In this paper, we show that CP from 1H to 15N at 1.2 K can yield P(15N) = 25% with τCP-DNP(15N) = 10-15 min. After rapid dissolution and transfer to a solution-state NMR spectrometer, a polarization P(15N) = 20% was observed at 300 K. The longitudinal relaxation times in solution can be as long as T1(15N) > 800 s in favorable cases.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement by multiple-contact cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, J.; Hirschinger, J.

    2017-08-01

    Multiple-contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) is applied to powder samples of ferrocene and L-alanine under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. The combination of a two-step memory function approach and the Anderson-Weiss approximation is found to be particularly useful to derive approximate analytical solutions for single-contact Hartmann-Hahn CP (HHCP) and MC-CP dynamics under MAS. We show that the MC-CP sequence requiring no pulse-shape optimization yields higher polarizations at short contact times than optimized adiabatic passage through the HH condition CP (APHH-CP) when the MAS frequency is comparable to the heteronuclear dipolar coupling, i.e., when APHH-CP through a single sideband matching condition is impossible or difficult to perform. It is also shown that the MC-CP sideband HH conditions are generally much broader than for single-contact HHCP and that efficient polarization transfer at the centerband HH condition can be reintroduced by rotor-asynchronous multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath. Boundary conditions for the successful use of the MC-CP experiment when relying on spin-lattice relaxation for repolarization are also examined.

  10. Rain induced cross polarization at millimeter waves in a Xi'an environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yan; Lijiun, Wang; Jiying, Huang

    1993-05-01

    The rainfall intensity accumulative distribution, raindrop size and canting angle distributions in Xi'an(108.9 E, 34.3 N) have been obtained from data measured over a long period of time. Rain induced crose polarization in this environment has been studied. The crose polarization discrimination, XPD, was compu ted over a frequency range of 19.3 to 300 GHz for non spherical drops. The variations of XPD with frequency, rainfall rate and copolar attenuation, CPA, were investigated. The computational resulte are in good agreement with experimental data. A mathematical relationship was established between the XPD and CPA, raindrop canting angle, which result is in good agreement with experimental data. The cumulative distribution of rain induced cross polarization for eleven years and in month have been ob tained with the cumulative distribution of the rain rate from the data measured from 1975 to 1985. The role of multiple scattering also has been discussed, it is shown that the multiple scattering play an important part in short millimeter wave.

  11. Sensitivity enhancement by multiple-contact cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, J; Hirschinger, J

    2017-08-01

    Multiple-contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) is applied to powder samples of ferrocene and l-alanine under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. The combination of a two-step memory function approach and the Anderson-Weiss approximation is found to be particularly useful to derive approximate analytical solutions for single-contact Hartmann-Hahn CP (HHCP) and MC-CP dynamics under MAS. We show that the MC-CP sequence requiring no pulse-shape optimization yields higher polarizations at short contact times than optimized adiabatic passage through the HH condition CP (APHH-CP) when the MAS frequency is comparable to the heteronuclear dipolar coupling, i.e., when APHH-CP through a single sideband matching condition is impossible or difficult to perform. It is also shown that the MC-CP sideband HH conditions are generally much broader than for single-contact HHCP and that efficient polarization transfer at the centerband HH condition can be reintroduced by rotor-asynchronous multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath. Boundary conditions for the successful use of the MC-CP experiment when relying on spin-lattice relaxation for repolarization are also examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the SuperDARN cross polar cap potential saturation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Koustov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation of the cross polar cap potential (CPCP with the interplanetary electric field (IEF, the merging electric field EKL, the Polar Cap North (PCN magnetic index, and the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function EC of Newell et al. (2007 is investigated by considering convection data collected by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN in the Northern Hemisphere. Winter and summer observations are considered separately. All variations considered show close to linear trend at small values of the parameters and tendency for the saturation at large values. The threshold values starting from which the non-linearity was evident were estimated to be IEF*~EKL*~3 mV/m, PCN*~3–4, and EC*~1.5×104. The data indicate that saturation starts at larger values of the above parameters and reaches larger (up to 10 kV saturation levels during summer. Conclusions are supported by a limited data set of simultaneous SuperDARN observations in the Northern (summer and Southern (winter Hemispheres. It is argued that the SuperDARN CPCP saturation levels and the thresholds for the non-linearity to be seen are affected by the method of the CPCP estimates.

  13. Parallel and series FED microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, John (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A microstrip array antenna for vertically polarized fan beam (approximately 2 deg x 50 deg) for C-band SAR applications with a physical area of 1.7 m by 0.17 m comprises two rows of patch elements and employs a parallel feed to left- and right-half sections of the rows. Each section is divided into two segments that are fed in parallel with the elements in each segment fed in series through matched transmission lines for high efficiency. The inboard section has half the number of patch elements of the outboard section, and the outboard sections, which have tapered distribution with identical transmission line sections, terminated with half wavelength long open-circuit stubs so that the remaining energy is reflected and radiated in phase. The elements of the two inboard segments of the two left- and right-half sections are provided with tapered transmission lines from element to element for uniform power distribution over the central third of the entire array antenna. The two rows of array elements are excited at opposite patch feed locations with opposite (180 deg difference) phases for reduced cross-polarization.

  14. Cross-polarization phenomena in the NMR of fast spinning solids subject to adiabatic sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungsool; Gan, Zhehong; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2015-02-14

    Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) experiments employing frequency-swept pulses are explored within the context of obtaining broadband signal enhancements for rare spin S = 1/2 nuclei at very high magnetic fields. These experiments employ adiabatic inversion pulses on the S-channel ((13)C) to cover a wide frequency offset range, while simultaneously applying conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel ((1)H). Conditions are explored where the adiabatic frequency sweep width, Δν, is changed from selectively irradiating a single magic-angle-spinning (MAS) spinning centerband or sideband, to sweeping over multiple sidebands. A number of new physical features emerge upon assessing the swept-CP method under these conditions, including multiple zero- and double-quantum CP transfers happening in unison with MAS-driven rotary resonance phenomena. These were examined using an average Hamiltonian theory specifically designed to tackle these experiments, with extensive numerical simulations, and with experiments on model compounds. Ultrawide CP profiles spanning frequency ranges of nearly 6⋅γB1 (s) were predicted and observed utilizing this new approach. Potential extensions and applications of this extremely broadband transfer conditions are briefly discussed.

  15. Clinical cross-polarization optical coherence tomography assessment of subsurface enamel below dental resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Patricia; Rudney, Joel; Fok, Alex; Jones, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    A newly designed intraoral swept source cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) imaging system was used to examine the integrity of the subsurface enamel below resin composite restorations placed in primary teeth. CP-OCT analysis was performed using images obtained from resin composite restoration in 62 ([Formula: see text]) pediatric subjects. Clinical examination was performed by a single examiner prior to CP-OCT imaging and analysis. CP-OCT images are presented using a unique combined intensity image, where a false color scale is overlaid on the grayscale intensity image. There was a clear difference in the distribution of the mean-backscattered intensity (mR) between restorations recently placed and those possessing frank cavitation (Student's t-test, [Formula: see text]). For mR above 15.49 dB, the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 86%. The Youden index J was 0.8 above 12.3 dB where sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 80%. CP-OCT imaging may be used to confirm the subsurface marginal integrity below resin composite restorations but with careful consideration of limitations of the imaging modality. CP-OCT imaging may be a useful adjunct to clinical visual investigation to confirm that a composite margin has a sound and well-adapted interface.

  16. Heteronuclear cross-polarization in multinuclear multidimensional NMR: Prospects for triple-resonance CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, A.; Zuiderweg, E.R.P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Heteronuclear multiple-pulse-based Cross Polarization (HECP) between scalar coupled spins is gaining an important role in high-resolution multidimensional NMR of isotopically labeled biomolecules, especially in experiments involving net magnetization transfer. It has generally been observed that in these situations, the performance of HECP is superior to that of INEPT-based sequences. In particular, HECP-based three-dimensional HCCH spectroscopy is more efficient than the INEPT version of the same experiment. Differences in sensitivity have been intuitively attributed to relaxation effects and technical factors such as radiofrequency (rf) inhomogeneity We present theoretical analyses and computer simulations to probe the effects of these factors. Relaxation effects were treated phenomenologically; we found that relaxation differences are relatively small (up to 25%) between pulsed-free-precession (INEPT) and HECP-although always in favor of HECP. We explored the rf effects by employing a Gaussian distribution of rf amplitude over sample volume. We found that inhomogeneity effects significantly favor HECP over INEPT, especially under conditions of {open_quotes}matched {close_quotes} inhomogeneity in the two rf coils. The differences in favor of HECP indicate that an extension of HECP to triple resonance experiments (TRCP) in I -> S -> Q net transfers might yield better results relative to analogous INEPT-based net transfers. We theoretically analyze the possibilities of TRCP and find that transfer functions are critically dependent on the ratio J{sub IS}/J{sub SQ}. When J{sub IS} equals J{sub SQ}, we find that 100% transfer is possible for truly simultaneous TRCP and this transfer is obtained in a time 1.41 /J. The TRCP time requirement compares favorably with optimally concatenated INEPT-transfers, where net transfer I -> S -> Q is complete at 1.5 /J.

  17. (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-14

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel ((1)H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from (1)H (I = 1/2) to (2)H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the (1)H-(2)H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak (2)H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1⟩,|0⟩,|-1⟩} mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal (2)H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  18. Longitudinal monitoring of demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets using cross polarization optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Alexander; Chan, Kenneth; Kang, Hobin; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to longitudinally monitor demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets in an extended clinical study. A high-speed CP-OCT system was used to acquire 3D volumetric images of the area at the base of orthodontic brackets over a period of 12 months after placement. The reflectivity was measured at 3-month intervals for 12 months to determine if there was increased demineralization. Two teeth were monitored on 20 test subjects and the brackets were bonded using two types of adhesives. This was a randomized controlled clinical study with a split mouth design such that each subject served as his or her own control. On one side, the control premolar was bonded with a bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond from 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and composite (Transbond XT from 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA) that lacked fluoride. On the other side, the experimental premolar was bonded with a fluoride releasing glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji Ortho LC from GC America, Alsip, IL). There was a small but significant increase in the calculated lesion depth and integrated reflectivity over that depth (ΔR) for both adhesive types (pfluoride releasing glass ionomer cement and the conventional composite. CP-OCT was able to measure a significant increase in demineralization (p<0.0001) at the base of orthodontic brackets over a period of 12 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retrieval of Droplet size Density Distribution from Multiple field of view Cross polarized Lidar Signals: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    is derived to facilitate use of secondary polarization. The model is supported by exper- imental MFOV lidar measurements carried out in a controlled ...Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of- view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation...Gilles Roy, Luc Bissonnette, Christian Bastille, and Gilles Vallee Multiple-field-of- view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to

  20. A Compact Wide-Band Hybrid Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Enhanced Gain and Low Cross-Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By loading two printed patches to the dielectric resonator antenna (DRA, a compact wide-band hybrid dielectric resonator antenna with enhanced gain and low cross-polarization is presented. The proposed antenna utilizes a combination of a rectangular dielectric resonator and two printed patches. Due to the hybrid design, multiple resonances were obtained. By adding two air layers between the dielectric resonator and the printed patches, the bandwidth has been significantly improved. Compared to the traditional hybrid dielectric resonator antenna, the proposed antenna can achieve wide bandwidth, high gain, low cross-polarization, and even small size simultaneously. The prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and tested. The measured −10 dB return loss bandwidth is 25.6% (1.7–2.2 GHz. The measured antenna gains are about 6.3 and 8.2 dBi in the operating frequency band. Low cross-polarization levels of less than −28.5 dB and −43 dB in the E-plane and H-plane are achieved. Moreover, the overall dimensions of the antenna are only 67 × 67 × 34 (mm3. The proposed antenna is especially attractive for small base antenna applications.

  1. Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of soil humic fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Hawkins, B.L.; Maciel, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cross polarization, magic-angle spinning /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize humic fractions isolated from different soils. The humic acid fractions are more aromatic than the humin fractions, probably due to the higher polysaccharide content of humins. However, fulvic acid fractions are more aromatic than the corresponding humic acid and humin fractions. These results can be interpreted in terms of the isolation procedure, because the high affinity of Polyclar AT for phenols results in higher aromaticities as compared with other isolation methods (e.g. charcoal).

  2. Development of Efficient and Robust Heteronuclear Cross-Polarization Techniques for Biological Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sheetal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    of biological macromolecules. A new method for polarization transfer called Rotor Echo Short Pulse IRradiATION mediated Cross-Polarization (RESPIRATIONCP) is introduced with a theoretical explanation of its polarization transfer efficiency. An analysis of robustness towards experimental imperfections......) and Silver Hepta Fluoro Butyrate (SHFB) are presented at high magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that important information about dynamics may be extracted from 19F→13C RESPIRATIONCP buildup curves, which are central to the dynamics studies of important biological and synthetic polymers....

  3. AIRSAR observations of the Gulf Stream with interpretation from sea truth and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, G. R.; Chubb, S. R.; Marmorino, G. O.; Trump, C. L.; Lee, J. S.; Cooper, A. L.; Askari, F.; Keller, W. C.; Kaiser, J. A. C.; Mied, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    On 20 Jul., JPL/DC-8 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) participated in the 17-21 Jul. 1990 NRL Gulf Stream (GS) experiment in preparation for SIR-C missions in 1993, 1994, and 1996 for calibration purposes and to check modes and techniques for operation at our experimental site off the east coast of the US. During this experiment, coordinated and near simultaneous measurements were performed from ship (R/V Cape Henlopen) and other aircraft (NADC/P-3 and NRL/P-3) to address scientific questions relating to the origin of 'slick-like' features observed by Scully-Power, the refraction and modulation of waves by variable currents, the effect of current and thermal fronts on radar imagery signatures and the modification of Kelvin ship wakes by fronts. The JPL/DC-8 and NADC/P-3 SAR's are fully polarimetric systems. Their composite frequency range varies between P- and X-band. We describe in detail the Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) participation in the Jul. 1990 GS experiment and present preliminary results of the ongoing analysis and interpretation of the radar imagery in the context of ground truth, other remote measurements, and modeling efforts.

  4. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro-Nunez, Alonzo; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F.;

    2016-01-01

    of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected...

  5. Profile optimization for an HV insulator in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiziano, L.; Spagnuolo, G.; Tucci, V. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell`Informazione e Ingegneria Elettrica; Lupo, G.; Petrarca, C. [Univ. di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica

    1996-12-31

    The exposition of HV solid insulators in vacuum to relevant voltage differences could determine the surface flashover along the solid dielectric-vacuum interface. Insulator holdoff capabilities can be significantly improved by limiting the field intensity in proximity of the electrodes by means of a Geometrical Field Control, namely designing the insulator profile so that the region subjected to high field is shifted away from the regions where the electrodes join the solid dielectric-vacuum interface. In this paper a new profile for an HV insulator in vacuum is presented. An axially symmetrical configuration constituted by a couple of coaxial cylindrical electrodes is considered, with the insulator shape designed to guarantee similar performances for both field polarities. The effectiveness of the design is validated by means of numerical simulations and by experimental results involving D.C. and impulse flashover performances.

  6. AUDISON(欧迪臣)THESIS HV VENTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    点评:THESIS HV VENTI产品刚刚上市几个月,就斩获2004-2005届欧洲汽车移动音响的最高大奖——EISA奖。拥有双重立体功放,含有超强电流、超强功率两种功放模式,在经过AUDISON“欧迪臣”工程师们对汽车音响功放理念的最深刻的研究,导入了一流散热技术和再加上超级审美艺术,最终造就了这款有王者风范的汽车立体音响功放——THESIS HV VENTI。

  7. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wales, Nathan; Balazs, George H; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals' clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP.

  8. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5 latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5 has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP, a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals’ clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP.

  9. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Wales, Nathan; Balazs, George H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals’ clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP. PMID:27547576

  10. Das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste

    OpenAIRE

    Trösch, Mirl

    2016-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste als dual kodierendes Gen charakterisiert. Damit wurde ein solches Gen erstmals in Pflanzen beschrieben. Der alternative S40+1-Leserahmen, der den kanonischen Leserahmen im 5'-Bereich überragt, konnte auch in anderen monokotylen, jedoch nicht in dikotylen Arten gefunden werden. Das S40-Protein, das durch den kanonischen Leserahmen S40+3 kodiert wird, kann der pflanzenspezifischen Proteinfamilie DUF584 zugeordnet...

  11. Reliability 'H' scheme of HV/MV substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Substations (HV/MV connect transmission and distribution systems with consumers of electric energy. The selective search method was used for calculation of substation reliability, where all arrangement elements were grouped into blocks. Subject of the analysis was H-arrangements comprising air-insulated switchgears on the high voltage side of HV/MV substations with different number of feeder and transformer bays and diverse scope of the installed switching equipment. Failure rate and duration were used as main HV/MV substation equipment reliability indices. A large number of arrangements were classified into groups, and within a group the arrangements were ranked with the use of multiple criteria. It is shown that the reliability of the electricity transit depends on the equipment of field for the transit of electricity, which favors poorly equipped field. On the other hand, the reliability of transformation of the full power depends mostly on the equipment in coupling field. It is essential that in the coupling field, there are at least two disconnectors. Installation of the switch in the coupling field is meaningful only with appropriate protection, because it further improves reliability. Conclusions are drawn for phased construction and expansion of the single pole diagram with an additional field for the transmission line.

  12. Cross-polarization borehole radar system with a RF analog optical transmission link. Hikaridenso ni yoru chokko henpa bore hole radar keisoku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, T.; Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    The cross-polarization borehole radar system (BRS) was reported. The RF analogue optical transmission system (using the optical fiber cable) was introduced into the signal transmission between the sonde and the surface station to broaden the band and to heighten the S/N ratio. The sonde consisted of cable head (to transmit the trigger signal), receiving antenna, and transmitting antenna. The transmitting antenna was excited by the trigger signal from the surface to generate the pulse by the pulse generator. The signal received by the receiving antenna was sent to the oscilloscope on the surface. The field test of cross-polarization borehole system revealed that the effect of noise associated with the BRS employing the eccentric cable did not appear on the BRS. Examples of field test of the cross-polarization borehole measurement system employing the BRS were described. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Dayside and nightside contributions to the cross polar cap potential: placing an upper limit on a viscous-like interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations of changes in size of the ionospheric polar cap allow the dayside and nightside reconnection rates to be quantified. From these it is straightforward to estimate the rate of antisunward transport of magnetic flux across the polar regions, quantified by the cross polar cap potential ΦPC. When correlated with upstream measurements of the north-south component of the IMF, ΦPC is found to increase for more negative Bz, as expected. However, we also find that ΦPC does not, on average, decrease to zero, even for strongly northward IMF. In the past this has been interpreted as evidence for a viscous interaction between the magnetosheath flow and the outer boundaries of the magnetosphere. In contrast, we show that this is the consequence of flows excited by tail reconnection, which is inherently uncorrelated with IMF Bz.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography, nonlinear, and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Kirillin, Mikhail Yu.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Timashev, Peter S.; Kotova, Svetlana L.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Belkova, Galina V.; Solovieva, Anna B.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Gregory V.; Fiks, Ilya I.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-12-01

    A combination of approaches to the image analysis in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) and high-resolution imaging by nonlinear microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the different stages of atherosclerotic plaque development is studied. This combination allowed us to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the disorganization of collagen in the atherosclerotic arterial tissue (reduction and increase of CP backscatter), at the fiber (change of the geometric distribution of fibers in the second-harmonic generation microscopy images) and fibrillar (violation of packing and different nature of a basket-weave network of fibrils in the AFM images) organization levels. The calculated CP channel-related parameters are shown to have a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable (also called vulnerable) plaques, and hence, CP OCT could be a potentially powerful, minimally invasive method for vulnerable plaques detection.

  15. Chemical shift powder spectra enhanced by multiple-contact cross-polarization under slow magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Jésus; Perrone, Barbara; Hirschinger, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    A simple multiple-contact cross-polarization (CP) scheme is applied to a powder sample of ferrocene and β-calcium formate under static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. We show that multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath improves the polarization transfer efficiency at short contact times and provides higher signal enhancements than state-of-the art techniques such as adiabatic passage through the Hartmann-Hahn condition CP (APHH-CP) when MAS is applied. The resulting chemical shift powder spectra then are identical to the ones obtained by using ROtor-Directed Exchange of Orientations CP (APHH-RODEO-CP) with intensity gains of a factor 1.1-1.3.

  16. Chemical shift powder spectra enhanced by multiple-contact cross-polarization under slow magic-angle spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Jésus; Perrone, Barbara; Hirschinger, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    A simple multiple-contact cross-polarization (CP) scheme is applied to a powder sample of ferrocene and β-calcium formate under static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. We show that multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath improves the polarization transfer efficiency at short contact times and provides higher signal enhancements than state-of-the art techniques such as adiabatic passage through the Hartmann-Hahn condition CP (APHH-CP) when MAS is applied. The resulting chemical shift powder spectra then are identical to the ones obtained by using ROtor-Directed Exchange of Orientations CP (APHH-RODEO-CP) with intensity gains of a factor 1.1-1.3.

  17. Assessing ex vivo dental biofilms and in vivo composite restorations using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Aparicio, C.; Chityala, R.; Chen, R.; Fok, A.; Rudney, J.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-polarization 1310-nm optical coherence tomography system (CP-OCT), using a beam splitter based design, was used to assess ex vivo growth of complex multi-species dental biofilms. These biofilm microcosms were derived from plaque samples along the interface of composite or amalgam restoration in children with a history of early childhood caries. This paper presents a method of measuring the mean biofilm height of mature biofilms using CP-OCT. For our in vivo application, the novel swept source based CP-OCT intraoral probe (Santec Co. Komaki, Japan) dimensions and system image acquisition speed (20 image frames/second) allowed imaging pediatric subjects as young as 4 years old. The subsurface enamel under the interface of composite resin restorations of pediatric subjects were imaged using CP-OCT. Cavitated secondary caries is clearly evident from sound resin composite restorations.

  18. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  19. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Ciret, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with co-polarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent on the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  20. AIRSAR Data for Geological and Geomorphological Mapping in the Great Sandy Desert and Pilbara Regions of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Ian J.

    1996-01-01

    Enhancements of AIRSAR data have demonstrated the benefits of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for revealing an additional and mich higher level of information about the composition of the terrain than enhancements f either SPOT-PAN or Landsat TM data. With appropriate image processing techniques, surface and near surface geological structures, hydrological systems (both current and ancient) and landform features, have been evidenced in a diverse range of landscapes. In the Great Sandy Desert region where spectral variability is minimal, radar's sensitivity to the micromorphology of sparse exposures of subcrop and lag gravels has provided a new insight into the region's geological framework, its landforms, and their evolution. In the Pilbara region, advanced processing of AIRSAR data to unmix the backscatter between and within the three frequencies of data has highlighted subsurface extensions of greenstone lithologies below sand cover and morphological evidence of past flow conditions under former climate regimes. On the basis of these observations, it is recommend that radar remote sensing technology involving the use of high resolution, polarimetric data be seriously considered as a viable tool for exploration in erosional and depositional environments located within Australia's mineral and oil-prospective provinces.

  1. Inversion of H/V ratio in layered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina Flores, J.; García-Jerez, A.; Luzon, F.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Both coda of earthquakes and microtremors are assumed to be diffuse fields resulting from multiple scattering. From the diffuse field theory, the average of the autocorrelation of displacement components at a given receiver measures the directional energy densities that are proportional to the imaginary parts of the Green's function for source and receiver at the same point. The directional energies have been recently related to the calculation of microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR). These ratios are widely used in the assessment of the dominant frequency of soil sites and their measurements are relatively simple as only one station is required. The H/V spectral ratios have also been interpreted as representing either directly the S wave amplification or the Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Moreover, the H/V ratios can be also used for a finer characterization of the site assuming horizontally layered media without lateral heterogeneities. In that case and for an appropriate noise normalization the experimental spectral ratios H2/V2 should correspond to their theoretical counterpart: the ratio 2 ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary parts of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively and for horizontally layered media. In order to guarantee a viable inversion, the imaginary part of the theoretical Green's functions must be efficiently computed using both an integral in the complex k plane (in terms of homogeneous plane waves) and the pole contributions due to Rayleigh and Love normal modes, which result from the (application of the) Cauchy residue theorem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712 and the AXA Research Fund.

  2. Conformations of fungal .BETA.-D-glucans in the fruit body of edible fungi assessed by cross polarization-magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    大野, 尚仁; 安達, 禎之; 宿前, 利郎

    1988-01-01

    .... Bull., 34, 2555 (1986); Saito et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 59, 2903 (1986)). In this paper, the glucan conformations in the fruit bodies of several edible fungi were examined by using carbon-13 cross polarization-magic angle spinning (CP/MAS...

  3. Edge-TCT measurements on irradiated HV CMOS sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Weisser, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Passive $100 \\times 100 \\,\\mu$m test diodes in an unirradiated and an irradiated HV2FEI4v3 HV-CMOS silicon sensor were analysed using the edge TCT technique. To integrate the sensor into the setup a PCB was designed to extract the signals, a cooling mechanism was constructed and the system housed in a shielding box. The observed signal had fast and slow contributions, that were interpreted as drift and diffusion. The former peaked in a region, that was interpreted as the depletion region, while the latter peaked further in the bulk material. Raising the bias voltage increased the depth of the former region, while pushing the latter region further into the bulk. The irradiated sample lost signal strength mainly in its slow part compared to the unirradiated sample, while its quick signal remained largely unaffected. As only the signal interpreted as drift is fast enough to be useful in LHC operation the investigated sensors could be considered radiation hard for this purpose. This gives further promise to ...

  4. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  5. A STUDY ON THE INTERPRETATION OF WAVE COMPONENTS IN MICROTREMOR H/V SPECTRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Yamada, Masayuki; Nozu, Atsushi

    The peak information in microtremor H/V spectrum is often used in the evaluation of amplification characteristics of earthquake ground motion. Although characteristics of microtremor H/V spectrum can be generally explained by those of surface waves, the assumption that microtremor only consists of surface wave is hardly valid considering the fact that peak amplification is finite and often correlates with amplification characteristics of earthquake ground motion. This study presents a new in terpretation of wave components of microtremor H/V spectrum using medium response analysis. Mixture rates of surface wave and body wave that well explain microtremor H/V spectrum was studied.

  6. COS FUV Detector Response to New HV Management System at LP3 {LENA4}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This program uses a series of 205s WAVECALS and 60s DCE dumps to exercise the new HV Management System. We first ramp to the Maximum HV for Both Segment FUVA/FUVB = 178/175, we then transition to the minimum HV {A/B = 167/163} using the new HV management system, then transition back to the Maximum HV. The WAVECAL exposures at the Maximum HV will be taken with G160M/1611 {C1611} and the minimums are taken with G160M/1623 {C1623}. The CENWAVE change is required to allow time for the HV change. The sequence is repeated with FUVA ON {FUVB OFF}, and then with FUVB ON {FUVA OFF}. DCE Dumps are included before and after each WAVECAL.All exposures in the program should execute at the LP3 position, using the ALTERNATE lifetime position.This program will use a special HV Table with the following changes to the normal HV/Aperture table:CENWAVE Lifetime Position HVA/HVB--------------------------1611 Alternate {LP3} 178/1751623 Alternate {LP3} 167/163LP3 FUV aperture positions and SIAF file updates are not absolutely required, as these are all internals, but they are desired.

  7. Analysis of Cross-Polarization Dynamics between Two Abundant Nuclei, 19F and 1H, Based on Spin Thermodynamics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shinji; Harris, Robin K.; Reinsberg, Stefan A.

    1999-11-01

    The phenomenological theory of spin thermodynamics based on the spin temperature hypothesis was employed to describe the cross-polarization (CP) dynamics between two abundant nuclei, 19F and 1H, when the number of fluorine atoms is not substantially less than the number of hydrogens. The influence of T1ρ's of both nuclei and the relative magnitude (heat capacity) of the two spin baths must be incorporated explicitly into the analysis in order to derive values for the parameters involved in the CP dynamics. Numerical calculations were performed to clarify the difference in the evolution of magnetization in variable contact time CP experiments between the 1H → 13C and 1H → 19F cases. A new type of CP-drain experiment was developed for observing the residual 1H magnetization after 1H → 19F CP. 19F direct polarization magic-angle spinning (MAS), 1H → 19F CP, and 1H → 19F CP-drain MAS NMR spectra have been measured for a fluorinated polyimide, 6FDA/ODA. The CP dynamics between 1H and 19F for the polyimide were analyzed on the basis of the spin thermodynamics theory. The constant for polarization transfer (THF) was determined by the analysis using the effective CP parameters, which were directly obtained from the CP and CP-drain experiments, together with independently measured values of TH1ρ and TF1ρ.

  8. Kinetics of 1H --> 31P NMR cross-polarization in bone apatite and its mineral standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaflak, Agnieszka; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2008-04-01

    Kinetics of NMR cross-polarization (CP) from protons to phosphorus-31 nuclei was studied in the following samples: mineral of whole human bone, apatite prepared from bone, natural brushite, synthetic hydroxyapatite (hydrated and calcined), and synthetic carbonatoapatite of type B with 9 wt% of CO(3) (2-). In order to avoid an effect of magic angle spinning on CP and relaxation, the experiments were carried out on static samples. Parameters of the CP kinetics were discussed for trabecular and cortical bone tissue from adult subjects in comparison to the synthetic mineral standards. It was found that carbonatoapatite shows similar CP behavior to the bone mineral. Both materials undergo two-component CP kinetics. The fast-relaxing classical component is from the surface of apatite crystals and the slow-relaxing nonclassical component comes from the crystal interior. The components have been unambiguously assigned using inverse CP from phosphorus-31 to protons. The study provides information on a structured water layer, which covers crystal surface of carbonato- and bone apatite. The layer encompasses ca 40% of apatite phosphorus and its thickness is more than ca 2 nm.

  9. Measurement of local, internal magnetic fluctuations via cross-polarization scattering in the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, K.; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.

    2016-11-01

    We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. A new scattering geometry, provided by a unique probe beam, is utilized to improve the spatial localization and wavenumber range. Remotely controllable polarizer and mirror angles allow polarization matching and wavenumber selection for a range of plasma conditions. The quasi-optical system design, its advantages and challenges, as well as important physics validation tests are presented and discussed. Effect of plasma beta (ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure) on both density and magnetic fluctuations is studied and it is observed that internal magnetic fluctuations increase with beta. During certain quiescent high confinement operational regimes, coherent low frequency modes not detected by magnetic probes are detected locally by CPS diagnostics.

  10. Effect of temporal variation rate of cross polar cap potential on the equatorial ionospheric vertical drift: A statistical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wen; XU JiSheng; WANG Hui; XU Liang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the equatorial vertical ion drift measured by DMSP and cross polar cap potential (φcpc) from AMIE output during 2001 to 2003,this paper investigates the relationship of φcpc and its temporal variation rate (△φcpc) with the disturbed ion velocity (ΔVx) which is the difference between the disturbed days (Kp≥4) and quiet days (Kp<2).The statistical analysis shows:(1)The ΔVx correlates better with Δφcpc than with φcpc,indicating that the electric field penetration is more easily to occur when solar wind input rapidly varies with time.(2) The optimal delay time of electric field penetration from the high-latitude magnetosphere to equatorial ionosphere has local time dependence which is longer on the nightside than on the dayside.It may be due to more complicated electrodynamic process on the nightside.(3) With the linear relationship between Δφcpc and ΔVx,it is obtained that the penetration efficiency is about 4.5%-13.9% at day and 31%-42% at night,coinciding well with former studies.

  11. Enhancement of visual scoring of skin irritant reactions using cross-polarized light and parallel-polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A

    2008-03-01

    Polarized light has been used as an aid in visualizing various skin conditions, including acne vulgaris, rosacea, photoageing, lentigo simplex, and basal cell carcinoma. The use of parallel-polarized and cross-polarized light was evaluated in mild irritant reactions to determine, if this increases the ability to detect very early stages or low levels of irritation. Low concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate (0.01% and 0.1%) were patched on human volunteers for 2, 6, and 24 hr, daily for 2-3 days in a modification of the standard patch test. Feminine protection products were evaluated in the behind-the-knee (BTK) test. Erythema reactions were scored by unaided visual assessment and using a polarized light visualization system. In the 24-hr patch test, mean erythema assessed with polarized light was consistent with results of unaided visual scoring. Under milder conditions (2- and 6-hr patches), and in the BTK, significant differences from pretreatment levels of erythema were apparent earlier in the series of treatments compared with unaided scoring. In addition, subsurface scoring demonstrated that changes were still present under the skin surface even after unaided visual scoring indicated recovery. Low (subclinical) levels of irritation can be detected using enhanced visual scoring, indicating this non-invasive method has the potential to increase the sensitivity of our clinical studies.

  12. Dynamic structures of intact chicken erythrocyte chromatins as studied by 1H-31P cross-polarization NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, H; Nishimoto, S; Kyogoku, Y

    1994-08-01

    The dynamic properties of DNA in intact chicken erythrocyte cells, nuclei, nondigested chromatins, digested soluble chromatins, H1, H5-depleted soluble chromatins and nucleosome cores were investigated by means of single-pulse and 1H-31P cross-polarization NMR. The temperature dependence of the phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy was identical for the former three in the presence of 3 mM MgCl2, suggesting that the local higher order structure is identical for these chromatins. The intrinsic phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy of the nucleosome cores was -159 ppm. The chemical shift anisotropy of DNA in the chromatins can be further averaged by the motion of the linker DNA. The spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame of the proton spins (T1p) of the nondigested chromatins was measured at various locking fields. The result was analyzed on the assumption of the isotropic motion to get a rough value of the correlation time of the motion efficient for the relaxation, which was eventually ascribed to the segmental motion of the linker DNA with restricted amplitude. The 30 nm filament structure induced by NaCl was shown to be dynamically different from that induced by MgCl2. Side-by-side compaction of 30-nm filaments was suggested to be induced in the MgCl2 concentration range higher than 0.3 mM. Biological significance of the dynamic structure was discussed in connection with the results obtained.

  13. Cross polarization from spins I=12 to spins S=1 in nuclear magnetic resonance with magic angle sample spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Karthik; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2006-05-21

    Spin locking of the nuclear magnetization of a spin with S=1 such as deuterium in the presence of a radio-frequency field under magic angle spinning (MAS) is described in terms of adiabatic modulations of the energy levels. In a brief initial period, part of the initial density operator nutates about the Hamiltonian and is dephased. The remaining spin-locked state undergoes persistent oscillatory transfer processes between various coherences with a periodicity given by the rotation of the sample. While all crystallites in the powder undergo such periodic transfer processes, the phases of the oscillations depend on the angle gamma of the crystallites. The angle gamma is the azimuthal angle defining the orientation of the unique axis of the quadrupolar interaction tensor in a rotor-fixed frame. The theory is extended to describe cross-polarization between spins S=1 and I=12 under MAS. There are four distinct Hartmann-Hahn matching conditions that correspond to four zero-quantum matching conditions, all of which are shifted and broadened compared to their spin S=12 counterparts. These matching conditions are further split into a family of sideband conditions separated by the spinning frequency. The theory allows the calculation of both shifts and broadening factors of the matching conditions, as verified by simulations and experiments.

  14. Broadband cross-polarization-based heteronuclear dipolar recoupling for structural and dynamic NMR studies of rigid and soft solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharkov, B. B. [Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, SE 10044 (Sweden); Chizhik, V. I. [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dvinskikh, S. V., E-mail: sergeid@kth.se [Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, SE 10044 (Sweden); Laboratory of Biomolecular NMR, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    Dipolar recoupling is an essential part of current solid-state NMR methodology for probing atomic-resolution structure and dynamics in solids and soft matter. Recently described magic-echo amplitude- and phase-modulated cross-polarization heteronuclear recoupling strategy aims at efficient and robust recoupling in the entire range of coupling constants both in rigid and highly dynamic molecules. In the present study, the properties of this recoupling technique are investigated by theoretical analysis, spin-dynamics simulation, and experimentally. The resonance conditions and the efficiency of suppressing the rf field errors are examined and compared to those for other recoupling sequences based on similar principles. The experimental data obtained in a variety of rigid and soft solids illustrate the scope of the method and corroborate the results of analytical and numerical calculations. The technique benefits from the dipolar resolution over a wider range of coupling constants compared to that in other state-of-the-art methods and thus is advantageous in studies of complex solids with a broad range of dynamic processes and molecular mobility degrees.

  15. Copy number variation at the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major component of frost resistance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Enrico; Morcia, Caterina; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Milc, Justyna Anna; Rizza, Fulvia; Terzi, Valeria; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat.

  16. Dayside and nightside contributions to cross-polar cap potential variations: the 20 March 2001 ICME case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Andalsvik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between temporal-spatial structure of polar cap convection and auroral electrojet intensifications during a 5-h-long interval of strong forcing of the magnetosphere by an ICME/Magnetic cloud on 20 March 2001. We use data from coordinated ground-satellite observations in the 15:00–20:00 MLT sector. We take advantage of the good latitudinal coverage in the polar cap and in the auroral zone of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard – Scandinavia – Russia and the stable magnetic field conditions in ICMEs. The electrojet events are characterized by a sequence of 10 min-long AL excursions to −1000/−1500 nT followed by poleward expansions and auroral streamers. These events are superimposed on a high disturbance level when the AL index remains around −500 nT for several hours. These signatures are different from those appearing in classical substorms, most notably the absence of a complete recovery phase when AL usually reaches above −100 nT. We concentrate on polar cap convection in both hemispheres (DMSP F13 data in relation to the ICME By conditions, electrojet intensifications, and the global UV auroral configuration obtained from the IMAGE spacecraft. The temporal evolution of convection properties such as the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP drop and flow channels at the dawn/dusk polar cap (PC boundaries around the time of the electrojet events are investigated. This approach allows us to distinguish between dayside (magnetopause reconnection and nightside (magnetotail reconnection sources of the PC convection events within the context of the expanding-contracting model of high-latitude convection in the Dungey cycle. Inter-hemispheric symmetries/asymmetries in the presence of newly-discovered convection channels at the dawn or dusk side PC boundaries are determined.

  17. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an Isolate from Medicinal Leech Mucosal Castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg; Rio, Rita V M

    2015-12-17

    The Pedobacter sp. Hv1 strain was isolated from the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, mucosal castings. These mucosal sheds have been demonstrated to play a role in horizontal symbiont transmission. Here, we report the draft 4.9 Mbp genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain Hv1.

  19. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höhm, S., E-mail: hoehm@mbi-berlin.de.de [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und–prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LIPSS formation on fused silica is studied upon cross-polarized two-color (400 and 800 nm) double-fs-pulse irradiation. • LIPSS orientation follows the polarization of the first pulse. • LIPSS periods are determined by the wavelength of the first pulse. • LIPSS area is increased for temporally overlapping pulses due to nonlinear absorption. - Abstract: The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation)

  20. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enhances brain damage from ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long-Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Akhavan Sharif, M Reza; Baker, Amanda; Jia, Yonghui; Fahey, Frederic H; Luo, Hongbo R; Feener, Edward P; Clapham, David E

    2012-03-04

    Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enables NOX function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Accordingly, we investigated whether NOX-mediated brain damage in stroke can be inhibited by suppression of Hv1. We found that mouse and human brain microglia, but not neurons or astrocytes, expressed large Hv1-mediated currents. Hv1 was required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and in vivo. Mice lacking Hv1 were protected from NOX-mediated neuronal death and brain damage 24 h after stroke. These results indicate that Hv1-dependent ROS production is responsible for a substantial fraction of brain damage at early time points after ischemic stroke and provide a rationale for Hv1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  1. Emergence of fatal European genotype CyHV-3/KHV in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfu; Li, Xuezhu; Weng, Shaoping; Xie, Shaoxia; He, Jianguo

    2013-02-22

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a highly infectious causative agent to common carp and koi worldwide. The virus is mainly consisted of European and Asian genotype isolates. To date, no European genotype CyHV-3 has been found emerging in the East and Southeast Asian regions. In late March 2011, an outbreak of CyHV-3 disease occurred in Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China, resulting in the deaths of approximately 200 large-sized adult koi within four weeks. One moribund koi was sampled for CyHV-3 isolation. Thus, a CyHV-3 was isolated in KCF-1 cells and designated as KHV-GZ11. Abundant mature or immature virions in infected KCF-1 cells were observed under a transmission electron micrograph. In addition, intra-nuclear inclusion body-like structures with masses of virions were also observed. Based on the TK and ORF136H genes, the sequence analyses revealed that KHV-GZ11 is a distinct European genotype of CyHV-3. Moreover, the infectivity experiment showed that KHV-GZ11 was highly virulent to koi. In summary, we are the first to confirm the emergence of fatal European genotype CyHV-3/KHV in East and Southeast Asia. Our study will provide new insight to explore the virus origin and epidemiology, as well as its pathogenicity.

  2. Microglial Hv1 proton channel promotes cuprizone-induced demyelination through oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Tian, Daishi; Murugan, Madhuvika; Eyo, Ukpong B; Dreyfus, Cheryl F; Wang, Wei; Wu, Long-Jun

    2015-10-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in inflammatory cells including microglia plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism underlying microglial ROS production and demyelination remains largely unknown. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of microglial Hv1 proton channels in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, a model for MS. Following cuprizone exposure, wild-type mice presented obvious demyelination, decreased myelin basic protein expression, loss of mature oligodendrocytes, and impaired motor coordination in comparison to mice on a normal chow diet. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1(-/-) ) are partially protected from demyelination and motor deficits compared with those in wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1(-/-) mice in cuprizone-induced demyelination is accompanied by reduced ROS production, ameliorated microglial activation, increased oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (NG2) proliferation, and increased number of mature oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate that the Hv1 proton channel is required for cuprizone-induced microglial oxidative damage and subsequent demyelination. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for controlling NOX-dependent ROS production in the pathogenesis of MS.

  3. Baseline HV-interval predicts complete AV-block secondary to transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-In; Merx, Marc W; Meyer, Christian; Kirmanoglou, Kiriakos; Hellhammer, Katharina; Ohlig, Jan; Katsani, Dimitra; Zeus, Tobias; Westenfeld, Ralf; Eickholt, Christian; Linke, Axel; Kelm, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Development of AV-block is a frequent complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). To date little is known about the predictive value of the HV-interval prior to TAVI with respect to the risk of AV-block development. HV-interval was determined in 25 consecutive elderly patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) before and immediately after TAVI. All patients subsequently underwent TAVI and 8 of these 25 patients (32%) developed complete AV-block during the TAVI procedure requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Six of these 8 patients (75%) had marked HV prolongation (>54 ms). Pre-procedural HV-interval was significantly prolonged in the subgroup developing complete AV-block (62.1 ms±13.0 vs 49.2 ms±12.9; P=0.029). Prolongation of the HV-interval above 54 ms was associated with a higher rate of complete AV-block (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 77.8%, P=0.01). HV-interval was prolonged in approximately one third of our elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis and associated with a high rate of complete AV-block following TAVI. HV-interval is easily obtained during TAVI screening procedures, thus facilitating identification of patients at risk for complete AV-block due to TAVI and consequently enabling bespoke risk management.

  4. Transcriptome-Based Discovery of Fusarium graminearum Stress Responses to FgHV1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangchao; Zhang, Jingze; Li, Pengfei; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua

    2016-11-17

    Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1), which is phylogenetically related to Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), is a virus in the family Hypoviridae that infects the plant pathogenic fungus F. graminearum. Although hypovirus FgHV1 infection does not attenuate the virulence of the host (hypovirulence), it results in defects in mycelial growth and spore production. We now report that the vertical transmission rate of FgHV1 through asexual spores reached 100%. Using RNA deep sequencing, we performed genome-wide expression analysis to reveal phenotype-related genes with expression changes in response to FgHV1 infection. A total of 378 genes were differentially expressed, suggesting that hypovirus infection causes a significant alteration of fungal gene expression. Nearly two times as many genes were up-regulated as were down-regulated. A differentially expressed gene enrichment analysis identified a number of important pathways. Metabolic processes, the ubiquitination system, and especially cellular redox regulation were the most affected categories in F. graminearum challenged with FgHV1. The p20, encoded by FgHV1 could induce H₂O₂ accumulation and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Moreover, hypovirus FgHV1 may regulate transcription factors and trigger the RNA silencing pathway in F. graminearum.

  5. The Voltage–gated Proton Channel, Hv1, Enhances Brain Damage from Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Long–Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Baker, Amanda; Jia, Yonghui; H. Fahey, Frederic; Luo, Hongbo; Feener, Edward Paul; Clapham, David Eldon

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. Here we show that NOX–mediated damage can be inhibited by suppression of the voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1. Hv1 is required for full NOX activity since it compensates for loss of NOX–exported charge. We show that Hv1 is required for NOX–dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and...

  6. Mapping the sites of latency and reactivation by bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 and a thymidine kinase-deleted BoHV-5 in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Cadore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A thymidine kinase (tk-deleted bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5tkΔ was previously shown to establish latent infection and reactivate - even poorly - in a sheep model (Cadore et al. 2013. As TK-negative alphaherpesviruses are unlike to reactivate in neural tissue, this study investigated the sites of latency and reactivation by this recombinant in lambs. For this, groups of lambs were inoculated intranasally with the parental BoHV-5 strain (SV-507/99 or with the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ. During latent infection (40 days post-inoculation, pi, the distribution of recombinant virus DNA in neural and non-neural tissues was similar to that of the parental virus. Parental and recombinant virus DNA was consistently detected by PCR in trigeminal ganglia (TGs; frequently in palatine and pharyngeal tonsils and, less frequently in the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. In addition, latent DNA of both viruses was detected in several areas of the brain. After dexamethasone (Dx administration (day 40pi, the recombinant virus was barely detected in nasal secretions contrasting with marked shedding of the parental virus. In tissues of lambs euthanized at day 3 post-Dx treatment (pDx, reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR for a late viral mRNA (glycoprotein D gene demonstrated reactivation of parental virus in neural (TGs and lymphoid tissues (tonsils, lymph node. In contrast, recombinant virus mRNA was detected only in lymphoid tissues. These results demonstrate that BoHV-5 and the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ do establish latent infection in neural and non-neural sites. Reactivation of the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ, however, appeared to occur only in non-neural sites. In anyway, the ability of a tk-deleted strain to reactivate latent infection deserves attention in the context of vaccine safety.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3 Encoded MicroRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen H Donohoe

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Some viruses encode their own miRNAs and these are increasingly being recognized as important modulators of viral and host gene expression. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 is a highly pathogenic agent that causes acute mass mortalities in carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi (Cyprinus carpio koi worldwide. Here, bioinformatic analyses of the CyHV-3 genome suggested the presence of non-conserved precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA fractions prepared from in vitro CyHV-3 infections led to the identification of potential miRNAs and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs derived from some bioinformatically predicted pre-miRNAs. DNA microarray hybridization analysis, Northern blotting and stem-loop RT-qPCR were then used to definitively confirm that CyHV-3 expresses two pre-miRNAs during infection in vitro. The evidence also suggested the presence of an additional four high-probability and two putative viral pre-miRNAs. MiRNAs from the two confirmed pre-miRNAs were also detected in gill tissue from CyHV-3-infected carp. We also present evidence that one confirmed miRNA can regulate the expression of a putative CyHV-3-encoded dUTPase. Candidate homologues of some CyHV-3 pre-miRNAs were identified in CyHV-1 and CyHV-2. This is the first report of miRNA and moRNA genes encoded by members of the Alloherpesviridae family, a group distantly related to the Herpesviridae family. The discovery of these novel CyHV-3 genes may help further our understanding of the biology of this economically important virus and their encoded miRNAs may have potential as biomarkers for the diagnosis of latent CyHV-3.

  8. ST5 Observations of the Imbalance of Region 1 and 2 Field-Aligned Currents and Its Implication to the Cross-Polar Cap Pedersen Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Slavin, J. A.; Strangeway, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use the in-situ magnetic field observations from Space Technology 5 mission to quantify the imbalance of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) currents. During the three-month duration of the ST5 mission, geomagnetic conditions range from quiet to moderately active. We find that the R1 current intensity is consistently stronger than the R2 current intensity both for the dawnside and the duskside large-scale field-aligned current system. The net currents flowing into (out of) the ionosphere in the dawnside (duskside) are in the order of 5% of the total R1 currents. We also find that the net currents flowing into or out of the ionosphere are controlled by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the same way as the field-aligned currents themselves are. Since the net currents due to the imbalance of the R1 and R2 currents require that their closure currents flow across the polar cap from dawn to dusk as Pedersen currents, our results indicate that the total amount of the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents is in the order of 0.1 MA. This study, although with a very limited dataset, is one of the first attempts to quantify the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents. Given the importance of the Joule heating due to Pedersen currents to the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, quantifying the cross-polar cap Pedersen currents and associated Joule heating is needed for developing models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  9. Applications of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance to chemistry: multiple-pulse NMR, cross polarization, magic-angle spinning annd instrumental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.D.

    1979-07-01

    Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been applied to: (1) Measurements of the prinicpal components of the proton shielding tensors of the hydrides of zirconium chloride and zirconium bromide. Multiple-Pulse techniques have been used to remove static homonuclear dipolar coupling. The anisotropies and isotropic shifts of these tensors have been used to infer the possible locations of the hydrogen within the sandwich-like layers of these unusual compounds. (2) Studies of the oscillatory transfer of magnetic polarization between /sup 1/H and /sup 29/Si in substituted silanes. The technique of J Cross Polarization has been used to enhance sensitivity. The /sup 29/Si NMR shifts of -Si-O- model compounds have been investigated as a possible probe for future studies of the environment of bound oxygen in coal-derived liquids. (3) Measurements of the aromatic fraction of /sup 13/C in whole coals. The techniques of /sup 1/H-/sup 13/C Cross Polarization and Magic-Angle Spinning have been used to enhance sensitivity and remove shift anisotropy. Additional topics described are: (4) Calculation and properties of the broadened lineshape of the shileding Powder Pattern. (5) Calculation of the oscillatory transfer of magnetic polarization for an I-S system. (6) Numerical convolution and its uses. (7) The technique of digital filtering applied in the frequency domain. (8) The designs and properties of four NMR probe-circuits. (9) The design of a single-coil double-resonance probe for combined Magic-Angle Spinning and Cross Polarization. (10) The designs of low Q and high Q rf power amplifiers with emphasis on the rf matching circuitry.

  10. The role of Hv1 and CatSper channels in sperm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishko, Polina V; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2010-12-01

    Elevations of sperm intracellular pH and Ca(2+) regulate sperm motility, chemotaxis, capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and play a vital role in the ability of the sperm cell to reach and fertilise the egg. In human spermatozoa, the flagellar voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is the main H(+) extrusion pathway that controls sperm intracellular pH, and the pH-dependent flagellar Ca²(+) channel CatSper is the main pathway for Ca²(+) entry as measured by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Hv1 and CatSper channels are co-localized within the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. Hv1 is dedicated to proton extrusion from flagellum and is activated by membrane depolarisation, an alkaline extracellular environment, the endocannabinoid anandamide, and removal of extracellular zinc, a potent Hv1 blocker. The CatSper channel is strongly potentiated by intracellular alkalinisation. Since Hv1 and CatSper channels are located in the same subcellular domain, proton extrusion via Hv1 channels should induce intraflagellar alkalinisation and activate CatSper ion channels. Therefore the combined action of Hv1 and CatSper channels in human spermatozoa can induce elevation of both intracellular pH and Ca²(+) required for sperm activation in the female reproductive tract. Here, we discuss how Hv1 and CatSper channels regulate human sperm physiology and the differences in control of sperm intracellular pH and Ca²(+) between species.

  11. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Tyerman, Stephen D; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M; Howitt, Susan M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.

  12. Compact, simple and robust cross polarized wave generation source of few-cycle, high-contrast pulses for seeding petawatt-class laser systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Patricia; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Hanna, Marc; Pellegrina, Alain; Friebel, Florence; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A compact and robust, dual-crystal cross polarized wave generation setup combined with a hollow waveguide filter is implemented to deliver few-cycle, high-contrast laser pulses sourced from a commercial multipass Ti:Sa amplifier. The initial 25-fs pulses with a temporal contrast of 108 are shortened to 10 fs with an improved contrast of at least 10^10. The single nonlinear stage for spectral broadening and contrast enhancement of a commercial amplifier serves as an ide...

  13. Cattle are a potential reservoir of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, S. S.; Delgado, F.; Vagnoni, L.; Mauroy, A.; Thiry, E.; Romera, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1). Two bovine and two buffalo calves were infected with BuHV1 (20287N isolate) by intranasal aerosolisation. Two sentinel cattle did not receive the virus challenge, but were housed with infected buffaloes to evaluate horizontal transmission. All experimentally inoculated animals showed viral infection and respiratory clinical signs. BuHV1 experimentally infected calves showed intermittent viral excretion between 2 days and 18 days postinfection (dpi) with a maximum titre of excretion of 106 TCID50/ml and moderate rhinitis between 2 dpi and 20 dpi. BuHV1 experimentally inoculated buffaloes showed mild respiratory signs, which consisted mainly of serous nasal secretions during the infection period. Sentinel calves showed mucosal specific IgG1 antibodies at seven days postcontact. Viral DNA was detected by PCR and sequencing in both buffaloes and sentinel calves, which could be associated with latency. In conclusion, this study showed the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 after both experimental infection and contact with infected buffaloes. These data increase the scarce knowledge on the pathogenesis in natural host and the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 experimental infection. PMID:28074144

  14. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    2016-01-01

    of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected...... and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were...... significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals' clinical...

  15. Voltage-gated proton (H(v)1) channels, a singular voltage sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Karen; Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Contreras, Gustavo F; Morera, Francisco J; Neely, Alan; Latorre, Ramon; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-11-14

    The main role of voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is to extrude protons from the intracellular milieu when, mediated by different cellular processes, the H(+) concentration increases. Hv1 are exquisitely selective for protons and their structure is homologous to the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels like sodium, potassium, and calcium channels. In clear contrast to the classical voltage-dependent channels, Hv1 lacks a pore domain and thus permeation necessarily occurs through the voltage sensing domain. Hv1 channels are activated by depolarizing voltages, and increases in internal proton concentration. It has been proposed that local conformational changes of the transmembrane segment S4, driven by depolarization, trigger the molecular rearrangements that open Hv1. However, it is still unclear how the electromechanical coupling is achieved between the VSD and the potential pore, allowing the proton flux from the intracellular to the extracellular side. Here we provide a revised view of voltage activation in Hv1 channels, offering a comparative scenario with other voltage sensing channels domains.

  16. A Vegetation Classification of the Opunohu Valley (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) based on a Relative Canopy-Height Class Set Using AirSAR and MASTER Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, B.; Thomas, J.; Capolsini, P.

    2003-12-01

    This paper addresses the vegetation mapping and land use of Opunohu Valley (Moorea Island - French Polynesia) using JPL-AirSAR and MASTER (MODIS/ASTER simulator) images acquired during the PACRIM2 mission (Aug. 2000). These sensors are different but can be considered as complementary since MASTER is a 20 meters ground resolution multispectral imaging scanner with 50 channels distributed in the visible-shortwave infrared, mid infrared and thermal infrared, and AirSAR is a C-band (TOPSAR) and L-band (POLSAR), 5meters ground resolution radar sensor. Our main application field deals with the complex and fragile vegetation cover of south pacific volcanic islands. We presently focus on Opunohu Valley because of its highly representative diversity of vegetation and land cover (found in other polynesian volcanic islands), including different types of forests, coconut fields, grass fields, fern lands, urban zones, agricultural areas, etc... We first defined an original set of classes based on the relative canopy-height of vegetation, we then composed a well-suited RGB SAR-composite image in order to visually discriminate our vegetation classes. An interesting "pineapple fields" class (an important economic resource in Moorea island) proved to particularly discriminate from height-related "grass fields" class because of its structural properties, which lead to a particular signature on SAR images. Using a supervised maximum likelihood algorithm, two classification maps have been defined on both the AirSAR and the MASTER images, using aerial photographs as a ground truth training set. The vegetal species included in each class as well as the classification results are further discussed and the MASTER and AirSAR based classification maps are compared.

  17. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on fused silica upon irradiation with linearly polarized fs-laser pulses (50 fs pulse duration) is studied by cross-polarized two-color double-fs-pulse experiments. In order to analyze the relevance of temporally distributed energy deposition in the early stage of LIPSS formation, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used for generating multiple double-pulse sequences at two different wavelengths (400 and 800 nm). The inter-pulse delay between the individual cross-polarized pulses of each sequence was systematically varied in the sub-ps range and the resulting LIPSS morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the polarization of the first laser pulse arriving to the surface determines the orientation and the periodicity of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments further confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition to the silica surface for LIPSS formation, particularly by the first laser pulse of each sequence. The second laser pulse subsequently reinforces the previously seeded spatial LIPSS characteristics (period, orientation).

  18. Phylogenetic position and replication kinetics of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h isolated from Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Insect-specific ascoviruses with a circular genome are distributed in the USA, France, Australia and Indonesia. Here, we report the first ascovirus isolation from Spodoptera exigua in Hunan, China. DNA-DNA hybridization to published ascoviruses demonstrated that the new China ascovirus isolate is a variant of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a, thus named HvAV-3h. We investigated the phylogenetic position, cell infection, vesicle production and viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h, as well as its host-ranges. The major capsid protein (MCP gene and the delta DNA polymerase (DNA po1 gene of HvAV-3h were sequenced and compared with the available ascovirus isolates for phylogenetic analysis. This shows a close relationship with HvAV-3g, originally isolated from Indonesia, HvAV-3e from Australia and HvAV-3c from United States. HvAV-3h infection induced vesicle production in the SeE1 cells derived from S. exigua and Sf9 cells derived from S. frugiperda, resulting in more vesicles generated in Sf9 than SeE1. Viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h also demonstrated a difference between the two cell lines tested. HvAV-3h could readily infect three important insect pests Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius from two genera in different subfamilies with high mortalities.

  19. Neurological and epidemiological aspects of a BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lunardi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 is a DNA virus that has been associated with meningoencephalitis in young cattle. While its clinical diagnosis is obscured by other major diseases that also produce similar neurological disease in cattle, the use of conventional virological techniques is hampered by the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in the host and the difficulty in differentiating BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. The aim of the current report is to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects observed in a natural outbreak of BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis in a dairy cattle herd from Brazil. In the outbreak, the affected animals consisted of nine calves, which presented three possible forms of the neurological disease, subjectively classified as peracute, acute, and subacute/chronic. In contrast to conventional herpetic meningoencephalitis, characterized mainly by progressive multifocal brain dysfunctions, BoHV-5 infection resulted in focal non-progressive caudal brainstem dysfunction (pontomedullary syndrome in an animal presented with subacute/chronic BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. The evaluation of CNS tissue of affected calves through both histological examination and multiplex-PCR was able to confirm BoHV-5 infection. Additionally, the analysis of CSF samples through PCR allowed ante-mortem BoHV-5 diagnosis during the outbreak, which enabled the implementation of several measures of control for the disease.O herpesvírus bovino 5 é um vírus DNA que tem sido associado a casos de meningoencefalite em bovinos jovens. Enquanto o diagnóstico clínico da doença é dificultado pelo fato de outras enfermidades importantes também determinarem quadro neurológico em bovinos, a utilização de técnicas virológicas convencionais no diagnóstico laboratorial tem sido inviabilizada pela latência viral que ocorre no hospedeiro e pela dificuldade em se diferenciar o BoHV-1 do BoHV-5. O objetivo deste relato é o de descrever alguns aspectos clínicos e

  20. Quantitative investigations of geologic surfaces utilizing airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data for Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data were collected over Death Valley, California, USA, in September 1989. These two data sets were used to quantitatively characterize both the mineralogy and surface structure of the valley floor. Field mapping and characterization of the salt flats across the valley identified 16 separate units. The AVIRIS data were calibrated using the 'empirical line' method, and spectra extracted for the 16 units. A water vapor map was generated from the AVIRIS data and showed spatial variations in its distribution due to evaporation of surface water. Unmixing of the 16 spectral units produced maps of endmember abundance.

  1. Quantitative investigations of geologic surfaces utilizing airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data for Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data were collected over Death Valley, California, USA, in September 1989. These two data sets were used to quantitatively characterize both the mineralogy and surface structure of the valley floor. Field mapping and characterization of the salt flats across the valley identified 16 separate units. The AVIRIS data were calibrated using the 'empirical line' method, and spectra extracted for the 16 units. A water vapor map was generated from the AVIRIS data and showed spatial variations in its distribution due to evaporation of surface water. Unmixing of the 16 spectral units produced maps of endmember abundance.

  2. Efficacy of an inactivated, recombinant bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Dezen, D; Antunes, D A; Santos, H F; Arantes, T S; Cenci, A; Gomes, F; Lima, F E S; Brito, W M E D; Filho, H C K; Batista, H B C R; Spilki, F R; Franco, A C; Rijsewijk, F A M; Roehe, P M

    2011-02-24

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of bovine herpetic encephalitis. In countries where BoHV-5 is prevalent, attempts to vaccinate cattle to prevent clinical signs from BoHV-5-induced disease have relied essentially on vaccination with BoHV-1 vaccines. However, such practice has been shown not to confer full protection to BoHV-5 challenge. In the present study, an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared with a recombinant BoHV-5 from which the genes coding for glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9 were deleted (BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-)), was evaluated in cattle in a vaccination/challenge experiment. The vaccine was prepared from a virus suspension containing a pre-inactivation antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.69) TCID(50)/dose. Three mL of the inactivated vaccine were administered subcutaneously to eight calves serologically negative for BoHV-5 (vaccinated group). Four other calves were mock-vaccinated with an equivalent preparation without viral antigens (control group). Both groups were boostered 28 days later. Neither clinical signs of disease nor adverse effects were observed during or after vaccination. A specific serological response, revealed by the development of neutralizing antibodies, was detected in all vaccinated animals after the first dose of vaccine, whereas control animals remained seronegative. Calves were subsequently challenged on day 77 post-vaccination (pv) with 10(9.25) TCID(50) of the wild-type BoHV-5 (parental strain EVI 88/95). After challenge, vaccinated cattle displayed mild signs of respiratory disease, whereas the control group developed respiratory disease and severe encephalitis, which led to culling of 2/4 calves. Searches for viral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) of vaccinated calves indicated that wild-type BoHV-5 did not replicate, whereas in CNS tissues of calves on the control group, viral DNA was widely distributed. BoHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions was significantly

  3. Use of AIRSAR to identify woody shrub invasion and other indicators of desertification in the Jornada LTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad; Schaber, Gerald G.; Breed, Carol S.

    1995-01-01

    The replacement of semidesert grassland by woody shrubland is a widespread form of desertification. This change in physiognomy and species composition tends to sharply reduce the productivity of the land for grazing by domestic livestock, increase soil erosion and reduce soil fertility, and greatly alter many other aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning. Remote sensing methods are needed to assess and monitor shrubland encroachment. Detection of woody shrubs at low density would provide a particularly useful baseline on which to access changes, because an initially low shrub density often tends to increase even after cessation of the disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, drought, or fire suppression) responsible for triggering the initial stages of the invasion (Grover and Musick, 1990). Limited success has been achieved using optical remote sensing. In contrast to other forms of desertification, biomass does not consistently decrease with a shift from grassland to shrubland. Estimation of green vegetation amount (e.g., by NDVI) is thus of limited utility, unless the shrubs and herbaceous plants differ consistently in phenology and the area can be viewed during a season when only one of these is green. The objective of this study was to determine if the potential sensitivity of active microwave remote sensing to vegetation structure could be used to assess the degree of shrub invasion of grassland. Polarimetric Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were acquired for a semiarid site containing varied mixtures of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation and compared with ground observations of vegetation type and other landsurface characteristics. In this preliminary report we examine the response of radar backscatter intensity to shrub density. The response of other multipolarization parameters will be examined in future work.

  4. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  5. A new method for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) using real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Recavarren, M; Pagnuco, I; Späth, E; Pérez, S; Odeón, A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are antigenically and genetically similar. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable one-step real time PCR assay with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Optimization of assay conditions was performed with DNA from reference strains. Then, DNA from field isolates, clinical samples and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals were studied by real time PCR-HRM. An efficient amplification of real time PCR products was obtained, and a clear melting curve and appropriate melting peaks for both viruses were achieved in the HRM curve analysis for BoHV type identification. BoHV was identified in all of the isolates and clinical samples, and BoHV types were properly differentiated. Furthermore, viral DNA was detected in 12/18 and 7/18 samples from BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves, respectively. Real time PCR-HRM achieved a higher sensitivity compared with virus isolation or conventional PCR. In this study, HRM was used as a novel procedure. This method provides rapid, sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine alpha-herpesviruses DNA. Thus, this technique is an excellent tool for diagnosis, research and epidemiological studies of these viruses in cattle.

  6. Expression patterns of HvCKX genes indicate their role in growth and reproductive development of barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zalewski

    Full Text Available Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase proteins (CKX are encoded by a multigene family of CKX genes with a varying number of members depending on species. For some of the genes, spectacular effects on grain production in selected cereals have been observed. Despite the fact that partial or full length sequences of most HvCKX genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare have already been published, in most cases their specific biological functions have not been reported. Detailed expression patterns for five HvCKX genes in different organs/tissues of developing barley plants coupled with analysis of RNAi silent for two genes are presented to test the hypothesis that these expression profiles might indicate their function. Elevated expression for four of them - HvCKX1, HvCKX9, HvCKX4, and HvCKX11 - was found in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to other tissues. HvCKX5 was mainly expressed in leaf tissue. Lower expression was noted for HvCKX1 in seedling roots and for HvCKX9 in leaves. The documented effect of RNAi silencing of HvCKX1 and a trend for HvCKX9 was higher plant productivity, and the trait was inherited through four generations. Higher plant yield was determined by higher numbers of seeds and spikes. Increased productivity was significantly greater in HvCKX1 silenced plants showing higher relative expression of HvCKX1 in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to the expression of HvCKX9. Both HvCKX1 silenced T1 seedlings of cv. Golden Promise and the newly transformed breeding line STH7308 showed greater root mass, but this trait was not inherited in the next generation. Similarly HvCKX9 silenced T1 seedlings exhibited greater plant height without inheritance in the next generation. It is suggested that these effects were not inherited because of compensation by other genes co-ordinately regulating reproductive development. One line with untypically changed, inherited phenotype, which was selected from several dozen silenced lines

  7. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  8. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  9. Prototyping of an HV-CMOS demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Benoit, M.; Casanova, R.; Casse, G.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Peric, I.; Vossebeld, J.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS sensors can offer important advantages in terms of material budget, granularity and cost for large area tracking systems in high energy physics experiments. This article presents the design and simulated results of an HV-CMOS pixel demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC. The pixel demonstrator has been designed in the 0.35 μm HV-CMOS process from ams AG and submitted for fabrication through an engineering run. To improve the response of the sensor, different wafers with moderate to high substrate resistivities are used to fabricate the design. The prototype consists of four large analog and standalone matrices with several pixel flavours, which are all compatible for readout with the FE-I4 ASIC. Details about the matrices and the pixel flavours are provided in this article.

  10. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  11. On the Computation of H/V and its Application to Microzonation and Seismic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Martínez, J. A.; Lermo, J. F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The H/V ratio is the square root of the ratio of horizontal to vertical energies of ground motion. It has been observed that the frequency of the main peak is well suited for the characterization of site effects and had been widely used for micro-zonation and seismic structural design. Historically that ratio was made from the average of individual H/V ratios obtained from noise autocorrelations. Nevertheless, it has been recently pointed out that the H/V ratio should be calculated differently as the ratio of the average of H over the average of V. This calculation is based on the relation between the directional energies (the imaginary part of Green's function) and the noise autocorrelations. In general, the average of ratios is different from the ratio of averages. Although the frequency of the main response was correctly obtained, the associated amplification factor has generally been badly predicted, having little matching with the amplification observed during strong earthquakes. The unexpected decay behavior of such ratios at high frequency and the lack of stability and reproducibility of the H/V ratios are other problems that face the method. These problems are addressed here from the point of view of normalization of noise correlations. In fact, several normalization techniques have already been proposed in order to correctly retrieve the Green's function. Some of them are well suited for the retrieval of the surface wave contribution, while others are more appropriate for bulk wave incidence. Since the H/V ratio may be used for various purposes like surface wave tomography, micro-zonation or seismic design, different normalizations are discussed in functions of the objectives. The H/V obtained from local historical earthquakes on top or far away from the subduction zone are also discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712 and the AXA Research Fund.

  12. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of magnetic and density fluctuations via cross-polarization scattering and Doppler backscattering on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, T. L.; Barada, K.; Peebles, W. A.; Crocker, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    An upgraded cross-polarization scattering (CPS) system for the simultaneous measurement of internal magnetic fluctuations B ˜ and density fluctuations ñ is presented. The system has eight radial quadrature channels acquired simultaneously with an eight-channel Doppler backscattering system (measures density fluctuations ñ and flows). 3-D ray tracing calculations based on the GENRAY ray tracing code are used to illustrate the scattering and geometric considerations involved in the CPS implementation on DIII-D. A unique quasi-optical design and IF electronics system allow direct comparison of B ˜ and ñ during dynamic or transient plasma events (e.g., Edge Localized Modes or ELMs, L to H-mode transitions, etc.). The system design allows the interesting possibility of both magnetic-density ( B ˜ -ñ) fluctuation and magnetic-temperature ( B ˜ - T ˜ ) fluctuation cross-phase measurements suitable for detailed tests of turbulence simulations.

  14. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohloff, M.; Das, S. K.; Hoehm, S.; Grunwald, R.; Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krueger, J.; Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon irradiation of fused silica with multiple irradiation sequences consisting of five Ti:sapphire femtosecond (fs) laser pulse pairs (150 fs, 800 nm) is studied experimentally. A Michelson interferometer is used to generate near-equal-energy double-pulse sequences with a temporal pulse delay from -20 to +20 ps between the cross-polarized individual fs-laser pulses ({approx}0.2 ps resolution). The results of multiple double-pulse irradiation sequences are characterized by means of Scanning Electron and Scanning Force Microscopy. Specifically in the sub-ps delay domain striking differences in the surface morphologies can be observed, indicating the importance of the laser-induced free-electron plasma in the conduction band of the solids for the formation of LIPSS.

  15. Understanding and optimizing microstrip patch antenna cross polarization radiation on element level for demanding phased array antennas in weather radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbracht, D.

    2015-11-01

    The antenna cross polarization suppression (CPS) is of significant importance for the accurate calculation of polarimetric weather radar moments. State-of-the-art reflector antennas fulfill these requirements, but phased array antennas are changing their CPS during the main beam shift, off-broadside direction. Since the cross polarization (x-pol) of the array pattern is affected by the x-pol element factor, the single antenna element should be designed for maximum CPS, not only at broadside, but also for the complete angular electronic scan (e-scan) range of the phased array antenna main beam positions. Different methods for reducing the x-pol radiation from microstrip patch antenna elements, available from literature sources, are discussed and summarized. The potential x-pol sources from probe fed microstrip patch antennas are investigated. Due to the lack of literature references, circular and square shaped X-Band radiators are compared in their x-pol performance and the microstrip patch antenna size variation was analyzed for improved x-pol pattern. Furthermore, the most promising technique for the reduction of x-pol radiation, namely "differential feeding with two RF signals 180° out of phase", is compared to single fed patch antennas and thoroughly investigated for phased array applications with simulation results from CST MICROWAVE STUDIO (CST MWS). A new explanation for the excellent port isolation of dual linear polarized and differential fed patch antennas is given graphically. The antenna radiation pattern from single fed and differential fed microstrip patch antennas are analyzed and the shapes of the x-pol patterns are discussed with the well-known cavity model. Moreover, two new visual based electromagnetic approaches for the explanation of the x-pol generation will be given: the field line approach and the surface current distribution approach provide new insight in understanding the generation of x-pol component in microstrip patch antenna radiation

  16. Human voltage-gated proton channel hv1: a new potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exist in a hypoxic microenvironment, and possess high-glycolytic metabolites. To avoid the acidosis, tumor cells must exhibit a dynamic cytosolic pH regulation mechanism(s. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 mediates NADPH oxidase function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Here, we showed for the first time, that Hv1 expression is increased in colorectal tumor tissues and cell lines, associated with poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Hv1 is strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas but not or lowly expressed in normal colorectal or hyperplastic polyps. Hv1 expression in colorectal cancer is significantly associated with the tumor size, tumor classification, lymph node status, clinical stage and p53 status. High Hv1 expression is associated significantly with shorter overall and recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that Hv1 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines, SW620, HT29, LS174T and Colo205, but not in SW480. Inhibitions of Hv1 expression and activity in the highly metastatic SW620 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA and Zn(2+ respectively, markedly decrease the cell invasion and migration, restraint proton extrusion and the intracellular pH recovery. Our results suggest that Hv1 may be used as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma, and a potential target for anticancer drugs in colorectal cancer therapy.

  17. Usage of mechanically switching devices for HV electrostatic elements of beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We are considering usage of gas-filled mechanical relays-Kilovacs and Gigavacs- for power supply of HV electrical dipoles, quadrupoles etc., where even a time dependent regime required. One can expect the physical switching time on few nanosecond level with such devices operating up to 70kV with currents~50A.

  18. Pressure measurement in HV circuit-breaker; Mesure de pression dans un disjoncteur H.T.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottet, C. [Schneider Electric, Groupe appareillage, Lab. d' Essai A1, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-06-01

    Electric arc pressure measurement in an HV circuit-breaker is fraught with difficulties concerning insulation, equi-potentiality, electromagnetic interference, corrosiveness of SF{sub 6} gas, and pressure and temperature rise. None of the many measurement methods attempted to data has proved wholly satisfactory. This article sets out an optical solution that does overcome the difficulties involved in measuring arc pressure. (author)

  19. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1/VSOP inhibits neutrophil granule release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Aratani, Yasuaki; Adissu, Hibret A; Miyawaki, Nana; Sasaki, Mari; Suzuki, Kazuo; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granule exocytosis is crucial for host defense and inflammation. Neutrophils contain 4 types of granules, the exocytotic release of which is differentially regulated. This exocytosis is known to be driven by diverse mediators, including calcium and nucleotides, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We show in the present study that voltage-gated proton (Hv) channels are necessary for the proper release of azurophilic granules in neutrophils. On activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and IgG, neutrophils derived from Hvcn1 gene knockout mouse exhibited greater secretion of MPO and elastase than WT cells. In contrast, release of LTF enriched in specific granules was not enhanced in these cells. The excess release of azurophilic granules in Hv1/VSOP-deficient neutrophils was suppressed by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and, in part, by valinomycin, a potassium ionophore. In addition, Hv1/VSOP-deficient mice exhibited more severe lung inflammation after intranasal Candida albicans infection than WT mice. These findings suggest that the Hv channel acts to specifically dampen the release of azurophilic granules through, in part, the suppression of increased positive charges at the plasma membrane accompanied by the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  20. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Gao, Ying-Tang [Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300170 (China); Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.

  1. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  2. Investigating the lignocellulosic composition during delignification using confocal raman spectroscopy, cross-polarization magic angle spinning carbon 13 - nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C- NMR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available spectroscopy, Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Carbon 13 - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS 13C-NMR) spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with image analysis. The confocal Raman results showed that there were differences...

  3. A triple gene mutant of BoHV-1 administered intranasally in lambs replicates efficiently in the nasal epithelium and induces neutralizing antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory infections and abortions in cattle, and is an important component of Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). BoHV-1 has also been isolated from sheep with respiratory disorder. Experimentally, sheep and goats are infected productively with BoHV-1...

  4. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  5. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  6. Carbon-thirteen cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared studies of thermally modified wood exposed to brown and soft rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hanne; Nuopponen, Mari; Maunu, Sirkka L; Sundholm, Franciska; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2003-03-01

    Thermally modified wood has many technically interesting properties, such as increased dimensional stability, low equilibrium moisture content, and enhanced biological and weather resistance. This paper describes solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies on the decay of heat-treated and untreated pine (Pinus sylvestris) by brown (Poria placenta) and soft rot fungi. Both techniques combined with multivariate data analysis proved to be powerful tools for the study of wood degradation by fungi. When untreated pine was exposed to brown or soft rot fungi, a drastic decay of the cell wall polysaccharides was observed. Brown rot fungus degraded mainly hemicelluloses while soft rot fungus attacked cellulose more extensively. The aromatic region of 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectra revealed that the structure of lignin was also altered. New carboxylic structures were formed as a consequence of the decay. The increased biological resistance of pine wood heat-treated at >220 degrees C was observed in the 13C CPMAS NMR and IR spectra.

  7. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  8. Some Properties of Multiplicative Hv-Rings of Polynomials over Multiplicative Hyperrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The set of all polynomials Rx, over a multiplicative hyperring R, +, ·, form a commutative group with respect to the component-wise addition (+ of the polynomials. For polynomials f, g in Rx, f*g is a set of polynomials whose k+1th components k∈N∪0 are chosen from the set ∑i+j=kai·bj, where ai and bj are the i+1th and the j+1th components of f and g, respectively. A multiplicative hyperring is polynomially structured if the hyperstructure Rx, +, * is a multiplicative Hv-ring. The purpose of the paper is to study the properties of the multiplicative Hv-ring Rx, +, *, corresponding to those of a polynomially structured multiplicative hyperring R.

  9. HV substation earth grid commissioning using current injection test (CIT method: Worst case scenario determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing of the High Voltage (HV infrastructure creates a unique set of safety circumstances. The earthing system is one of the main elements to mitigate any unsafe conditions. Commissioning the earth grid certifies that the implemented system fulfills to the pertinent necessities. This paper endeavors to present vital information on how to perform the earth grid commissioning of an HV infrastructure. This paper will minutiae the minimum needs to guarantee the test will symbolize the actual fault case that the design was based on. A flow chart diagram is established and presented in this paper, which allows the determination of the most suitable injection route. The results of the case study are discussed, and the results are shown in this paper.

  10. Cooling Performance Test of the SCT LV&HV Power Supply Rack

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, J; Vacek, V

    2005-01-01

    The cooling performance test of the 52U rack, housing SCT LV&HV power supplies for 192 detector modules, being located in USA15 cavern, has been curried out. The rack was equipped with two air-water heat exchangers, air turbine, four vertical fan tray units under crates and horizontal fans in four Artesyn AC/DC power supply units. The resistive dummy loads for 192 power supply channels have been placed in four crates and housed in the adjacent rack.

  11. Crystal structures of barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 reveal features involved in protein recognition and possibly in discriminating the isoform specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine;

    2008-01-01

    H-type thioredoxins (Trxs) constitute a particularly large Trx sub-group in higher plants. Here, the crystal structures are determined for the two barley Trx h isoforms, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, in the partially radiation-reduced state to resolutions of 1.7 angstrom, and for HvTrxh2 in the oxidized...... state to 2.0 angstrom. The two Trxs have a sequence identity of 51% and highly similar fold and active-site architecture. Interestingly, the four independent molecules in the crystals of HvTrxh1 form two relatively large and essentially identical protein-protein interfaces. In each interface, a loop......) of the bound loop segment in the proximity of the Cys40 thiol. The interaction involves three characteristic backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like arrangement, similar to the arrangement observed in the structure of an engineered, covalently bound complex between Trx...

  12. Selectivity Mechanism of the Voltage-gated Proton Channel, HV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Musset, Boris; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.; Smith, Susan M. E.; Mazmanian, Karine; Decoursey, Thomas E.; Lim, Carmay

    2015-05-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, trigger bioluminescence in dinoflagellates, enable calcification in coccolithophores, and play multifarious roles in human health. Because the proton concentration is minuscule, exquisite selectivity for protons over other ions is critical to HV1 function. The selectivity of the open HV1 channel requires an aspartate near an arginine in the selectivity filter (SF), a narrow region that dictates proton selectivity, but the mechanism of proton selectivity is unknown. Here we use a reduced quantum model to elucidate how the Asp-Arg SF selects protons but excludes other ions. Attached to a ring scaffold, the Asp and Arg side chains formed bidentate hydrogen bonds that occlude the pore. Introducing H3O+ protonated the SF, breaking the Asp-Arg linkage and opening the conduction pathway, whereas Na+ or Cl- was trapped by the SF residue of opposite charge, leaving the linkage intact, thus preventing permeation. An Asp-Lys SF behaved like the Asp-Arg one and was experimentally verified to be proton-selective, as predicted. Hence, interacting acidic and basic residues form favorable AspH0-H2O0-Arg+ interactions with hydronium but unfavorable Asp--X-/X+-Arg+ interactions with anions/cations. This proposed mechanism may apply to other proton-selective molecules engaged in bioenergetics, homeostasis, and signaling.

  13. A specialized molecular motion opens the Hv1 voltage-gated proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Laetitia; Berger, Thomas K; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2015-04-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is unique among voltage-gated channels for containing the pore and gate within its voltage-sensing domain. Pore opening has been proposed to include assembly of the selectivity filter between an arginine (R3) of segment S4 and an aspartate (D1) of segment S1. We determined whether gating involves motion of S1, using Ciona intestinalis Hv1. We found that channel opening is concomitant with solution access to the pore-lining face of S1, from the cytoplasm to deep inside the pore. Voltage- and patch-clamp fluorometry showed that this involves a motion of S1 relative to its surroundings. S1 motion and the S4 motion that precedes it are each influenced by residues on the other helix, thus suggesting a dynamic interaction between S1 and S4. Our findings suggest that the S1 of Hv1 has specialized to function as part of the channel's gate.

  14. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  15. VSOP/Hv1 proton channels sustain calcium entry, neutrophil migration, and superoxide production by limiting cell depolarization and acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Chemaly, Antoun; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Arnaudeau, Serge; Okamura, Yasushi; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    .... Voltage-gated proton channels (voltage-sensing domain only protein [VSOP]/Hv1) are required for high-level superoxide production by phagocytes, but the mechanism of this effect is not established...

  16. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a transgenic approach to constitutively silence HvNAC6 expression, using RNA interference (RNAi), to investigate the in vivo functions of HvNAC6 in basal resistance responses in barley in relation to the phytohormone ABA. The HvNAC6 RNAi plants displayed reduced HvNAC6 transcript levels and were more...... susceptible to Bgh than wild-type plants. Application of exogenous ABA increased basal resistance against Bgh in wild-type plants, but not in HvNAC6 RNAi plants, suggesting that ABA is a positive regulator of basal resistance which depends on HvNAC6. Silencing of HvNAC6 expression altered the light....../dark rhythm of ABA levels which were, however, not influenced by Bgh inoculation. The expression of the two ABA biosynthetic genes HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was compromised, and transcript levels of the ABA conjugating HvBG7 enzyme were elevated in the HvNAC6 RNAi lines, but this effect was not clearly associated...

  17. Identification of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) in endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Wei-Li; Lan, Yu-Ching; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Tseng, Cheng-Tsung; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP), a debilitating tumor disease of sea turtles, was first identified in green turtles [Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758)] in Florida in 1938. In recent decades, FP has been observed globally and is an emerging panzootic disease in sea turtles. However, few reports of FP in Asia exist. Here, we provide the first evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) DNA associated with FP in endangered green turtles from Taiwan, through molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and histopathological examination. In our study, ChHV5 was successfully detected by PCR in the FP tumor lesions of green turtles. The sequences were found to be consistent with those of tumor-inducing viruses shown to affect sea turtles in the other parts of the world. ChHV5 RNA from the FP tissues was further detected by RT-PCR, indicating active replication of the viruses inside FP tumors. In addition to the molecular evidence of ChHV5 in FP, epidermal intranuclear inclusions were identified in tumor lesions upon histopathological examination. This further suggests that ChHV5 should be in a transcriptionally active (i.e., non-latent) state in FP tumors of affected green turtles. The phylogenetic tree revealed that ChHV5 from the green turtles in Taiwan were closest to the ChHV5 from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Sao Tome. For conservation of endangered sea turtles, ChHV5 should be considered an emerging virus, which threatens sea turtles in marine waters in Asia.

  18. Characterization of high-tannin fractions from humus by carbon-13 cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Klaus; Preston, Caroline M

    2002-01-01

    Condensed tannins can be found in various parts of many plants. Unlike lignin there has been little study of their fate as they enter the soil organic matter pool and their influence on nutrient cycling, especially through their protein-binding properties. We extracted and characterized tannin-rich fractions from humus collected in 1998 from a black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton et al.] forest in Canada where a previous study (1995) showed high levels (3.8% by weight) of condensed tannins. A reference tannin purified from black spruce needles was characterized by solution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a pure procyanidin with mainly cis stereochemistry and an average chain length of four to five units. The colorimetric proanthocyanidin (PA) assay, standardized against the black spruce tannin, showed that both extracted humus fractions had higher tannin contents than the original humus (2.84% and 11.17% vs. 0.08%), and accounted for 32% of humus tannin content. Consistent with the results from the chemical assay, the aqueous fraction showed higher tannin signals in the 13C cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectrum than the emulsified one. As both tannin-rich humus fractions were depleted in N and high in structures derived from lignin and cutin, they did not have properties consistent with recaldtrant tannin-protein complexes proposed as a mechanism for N sequestration in humus. Further studies are needed to establish if tannin-protein structures in humus can be detected or isolated, or if tannins contribute to forest management problems observed in these ecosystems by binding to and slowing down the activity of soil enzymes.

  19. Isolation and characterization of BoHV-1 from seropositive cows after inducing artificial stress in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tapabrata; Guha, Chanchal; Chakraborty, Dhruba; Pal, Biplab; Biswas, Ujjwal; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Koenig, Patricia; Beer, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India. With an aim to reactivate BoHV-1 from latently infected sero-positive cattle for molecular characteristics of the isolates prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India and further epidemiological investigations on IBR infections this study had been conducted. Artificial stress with dexamethasone at the dose rate of 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 5 consecutive days was induced in BoHV-1 sero-positive cows. Then isolation from nasal swabs was attempted in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line to find out the prevalent strain in India. The virus was isolated from all the three cows. All the three isolates were typed as BoHV-1.2 (Strain India 4, India 5 and India 6). The reactivation obtained in this study with dexamethasone suggests the usefulness of BoHV-1 cow latency model for epidemiological investigations on BoHV-1 infections in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India, Pakistan etc.

  20. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/- Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is the etiological agent of human (MPX. It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV, and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the population is currently unprotected against MPXV infection. Disease control hinges on deterring zoonotic exposure to the virus and, barring that, interrupting person-to-person spread. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies against MPX, and current vaccines are limited due to safety concerns. For this reason, new studies on pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapeutics are still of great interest, not only for the scientific community but also for the governments concerned that MPXV could be used as a bioterror agent. In the present study, a new vaccination strategy approach based on three recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 vectors, each expressing different MPXV glycoproteins, A29L, M1R and B6R were investigated in terms of protection from a lethal MPXV challenge in STAT1 knockout mice. BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK were successfully constructed by recombineering, and their capacity to express their transgene was demonstrated. A small challenge study was performed, and all three recombinant BoHV-4 appeared safe (no weight-loss or obvious adverse events following intraperitoneal administration. Further, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK alone or in combination with BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK, was shown to be able to protect, 100% alone and 80% in combination, STAT1(-/- mice

  1. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  2. MuPix7 - A fast monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip for Mu3e

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, H; Dittmeier, S; Hammerich, J; Hartenstein, U; Huang, Q; Huth, L; Immig, D; Kozlinskiy, A; Aeschbacher, F Meier; Perić, I; Perrevoort, A -K; Schöning, A; Shrestha, S; Sorokin, I; Tyukin, A; Bruch, D vom; Wauters, F; Wiedner, D; Zimmermann, M

    2016-01-01

    The MuPix7 chip is a monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip, thinned down to 50 \\mu m. It provides continuous self-triggered, non-shuttered readout at rates up to 30 Mhits/chip of 3x3 mm^2 active area and a pixel size of 103x80 \\mu m^2. The hit efficiency depends on the chosen working point. Settings with a power consumption of 300 mW/cm^2 allow for a hit efficiency >99.5%. A time resolution of 14.2 ns (Gaussian sigma) is achieved. Latest results from 2016 test beam campaigns are shown.

  3. Mapping the geophysical bedrock of the Moesian Platform using H/V ratios and borehole data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinela Manea, Elena; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The strong effects at long periods observed in the extra-Carpathian area of Romania during large Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes were explained by the influence of both source mechanism and mechanical properties of the geological structure. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic velocities of the sediments are the primary responsible for the large amplification and long duration of the seismic records from the extra-Carpathian area during intermediate-depth earthquakes. The aim of this study is to map the geophysical bedrock of this area correlating and interpolating the results obtained from local resonance phenomena evaluation with the available surface geological data. The site was investigated through the computation of H/V spectral ratios from three-directional single station measurements of ambient vibration. The first step was to estimate the depth of the geophysical bedrock at all the Romanian seismic stations located in the extra-Carpathian area (velocity sensors) using the fundamental frequency retrieved from the H/V curves. In the second stage of the study all the relevant peaks from the H/V curves were interpreted in consonance with the available information of the geology. The geological data were obtained from the database developed in the national BIGSEES project by National Institute of Earth Physics. In this database are integrated all the geological, geophysical data from all the past projects, contracts, studies (as refraction, reflexion, etc.), geotechnical drillings and other information publicly available. The mapping of the geophysical bedrock was done interpolating the geological database and information gathered/resulted from H/V using a geographical informational system(GIS). The geology of this area displays very complex features as outcrops in small zones/lines/ near the Danube and then is gradually dipping to about 2 km depth in the N-NE. The depth of the bedrock is (nearly) constant around 100 m depth on the right side of

  4. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    OpenAIRE

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to ch...

  5. Unconventional role of voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) in regulation of microglial ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takafumi; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Imura, Yoshio; Koizumi, Schuichi; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Yamashita, Toshihide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. ) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. ). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. ). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia. Extracellular ROS production was lower in neutrophils of Hvcn1(-/-) mice than WT mice as reported. In contrast, it was drastically enhanced in isolated Hvcn1(-/-) microglia as compared with cells from WT mice. Actin dynamics was altered in Hvcn1(-/-) microglia and intracellular distribution of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit, p67, was changed. When expression levels of oxidative stress responsive antioxidant genes were compared between WT and Hvcn1(-/-) in cerebral cortex at different ages of animals, they were slightly decreased in Hvcn1(-/-) mice at younger stage (1 day, 5 days, 3 weeks old), but drastically increased at aged stage (6 months old), suggesting that the regulation of microglial ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is age-dependent. We also performed brain ischemic stroke experiments and found that the neuroprotective effect of VSOP/Hv1deficiency on infarct volume depended on the age of animals. Taken together, regulation of ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is more complex than previously thought and significance of VSOP/Hv1 in microglial ROS production depends on age. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Ambient noise H/V spectral ratio in site effects estimation in Fateh jang area, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Talha Qadri; Bushra Nawaz; S.H.Sajjad; Riaz Ahmad Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Local geology or local site effect is a crucial component while conducting seismic risk assessment studies.Investigations made by utilization of ambient noise are an effective tool for local site estimation.The present study is conducted to perform site response analysis at 13 different sites within urban settlements of Fateh jang area (Pakistan).The aim of this study was achieved by utilizing Nakamura method or H/V spectral ratio method.Some important local site parameters,e.g.,the fundamental frequencies f0 of soft sediments,amplitudes A0 of corresponding H/V spectral ratios,and alluvium thicknesses over 13 sites within the study area,were measured and analyzed.The results show that the study area reflects low fundamental frequency f0.The fundamental frequencies of the sediments are highly variable and lie in a range of 0.6-13.0 Hz.Similarly,amplification factors at these sites are in the range of 2.0-4.0.

  7. Characterisation of capacitively coupled HV/HR-CMOS sensor chips for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kremastiotis, Iraklis; Campbell, Michael; Dannheim, Dominik; Fiergolski, Adrian; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The capacitive coupling between an active sensor and a readout ASIC has been considered in the framework of the CLIC vertex detector study. The CLICpix Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector (C3PD) is a High-Voltage CMOS sensor chip produced in a commercial 180 nm HV-CMOS process for this purpose. The sensor was designed to be connected to the CLICpix2 readout chip. It therefore matches the dimensions of the readout chip, featuring a matrix of 128 × 128 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The sensor chip has been produced with the standard value for the substrate resistivity (∼ 20 Ωcm) and it has been characterised in standalone testing mode, before receiving and testing capacitively coupled assemblies. The standalone measurement results show a rise time of ∼ 20 ns for a power consumption of 5 μW/pixel. Production of the C3PD HV-CMOS sensor chip with higher substrate resistivity wafers (∼ 20, 80, 200 and 1000 Ωcm) is foreseen. The expected benefits of the higher substrate resistivity will be studied using...

  8. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  9. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00211411; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F.A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Peric, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Vicente Barrero Pinto, M.; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the $4^{\\mathrm{th}}$ generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between $1\\cdot 10^{14}$ and $5\\cdot 10^{15}$ 1-MeV-n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of $85\\,$V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of $1\\cdot 10^{15}$ n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ - a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker - exhibited 99.7% average hit ...

  10. Active pixel sensors in AMS H18/H35 HV-CMOS technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement signal processing electronics in deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150 V leading to a depletion depth of several 10 μm. Prototype sensors in the AMS H18 180 nm and H35 350 nm HV-CMOS processes were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiations with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses of 1 Grad while Edge-TCT studies assessed the effects of radiation on the charge collection. The sensors showed high detection efficiencies after neutron irradiation to 1015neq cm-2 in testbeam experiments. A full reticle size demonstrator chip, implemented in the H35 process is being submitted to prove the large scale feasibility of the HV-CMOS concept.

  11. Detecção de herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 em bovinos do Sudeste Brasileiro Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 in cattle in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Gomes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the detection of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 by a specific nested PCR assay. Samples were collected from the central nervous system (CNS of cattle from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, Brazil. All animals died presenting neurological symptoms. Nineteen frozen CNS samples analyzed had been previously tested by fluorescence antibody test for rabies virus and showed negative results. Three paraffin-embedded brain tissue samples were examined by histopatology and the observed alterations suggested nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. BoHV-5 was detected in five (22.7% among 22 tested samples. The occurrence of BoHV-5 infection is reported in the Southeast region of Brazil, indicating that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  12. Investigation of the foam influence on the wind-wave momentum exchange and cross-polarization microwave radar return within laboratory modeling of atmosphere-ocean boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim; Ermoshkin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    The effect of foam presence on the transfer processes and the parameters of the surface roughness within the laboratory simulation of wind-wave interaction was carried out on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Tank (TSWiWaT) IAP, using a specially designed foam generator. The parameters of air flow profiles and waves elevation were measured with scanning Pitot gauge and wire wave gauges respectively in the range of equivalent wind speed U10 from 12 to 38 m/s (covering strong winds) on the clean water and with foam. It was shown that the foam reduces the amplitudes and slopes of the waves in comparison with the clean water in the hole range of wind speeds investigated, and the peak frequency and wave numbers remain almost constant. The drag coefficient calculating by profiling method demonstrated similar behavior (almost independent on U10) for case of foam and increased compared with clear water, particularly noticeable for low wind speeds. Simultaneously the investigations of influence of the foam on the peculiarity of the microwave radio back scattering of X-diapason was investigated. These measurements were carried for different sensing angles (30, 40 i 50 degrees from vertical) and for four polarizations: co-polarized HH and VV, and de-polarized HV and VH. It was shown that foam leads to decrease of specific radar cross section of the wavy surface in comparison with clean water. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 15-35-20953, 14-05-00367, 16-55-52022) and project ASIST of FP7. The experiment is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreement No. 15-17-20009), radilocation measurments are partially supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreement No. 14-17-00667).

  13. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The high voltage diodes D5 to D10 are used to protect the HV switch against negative back swing voltage, while D4 diode for reverse current ...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0001 STUDY OF HV DIELECTRICS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION IN LINEAR & NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES & SIMULATION & DEVELOPMENT...AFOSR Final Performance Report Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Simulation

  14. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifan [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Pan, Juncheng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe, E-mail: cheli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yin, Jian [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China); Zhao, Qing [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  15. Isolation and In vitro characterization of anti-Gardnerellavaginalisbacteriocin producing Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b isolated from human vaginal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin producing strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy andfecund females and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against pathogens causing important humandiseases such as gastrointestinal infections, nosocomial and skin diseases. Vaginal isolate HV6b is anagent that could be used to combat growing prevalence of sexually transmitted microbial infections andviral diseases. Therapeutic application of this probiotic strain to protect against gastrointestinal infectionsmay be of great importance for future medicinal use. Bacteriocin HV6b shows maximum inhibitionagainst bacterial vaginosis causing G. vaginalis. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum on the basisof biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity profiles vaginalLABs, HV6b was suggested as a strain for formulating topical personal care therapeutics aimed atprevention and treatment of many human diseases.

  16. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 in Goats in Mainland France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suavet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence. Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds. This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats.

  17. The inversion of spectral ratio H/V in a layered system using the diffuse field assumption (DFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the diffuse field assumption from both the experimental and the modelling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modelling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.

  18. The inversion of spectral ratio H/V in a layered system using the Diffuse Field Assumption (DFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the Diffuse Field Assumption from both the experimental and the modeling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modeling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.

  19. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a), an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide’s stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide. PMID:26516914

  20. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; King, Glenn F

    2015-10-26

    The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a), an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide's stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide.

  1. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Herzig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a, an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide’s stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide.

  2. Radiation hardness studies of AMS HV-CMOS 350 nm prototype chip HVStripV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisauskas, K.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hiti, B.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, B. T.; John, J.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Liang, Z.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; MacMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Peric, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Staniztki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2017-02-01

    CMOS active pixel sensors are being investigated for their potential use in the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade at the HL-LHC. The new inner tracker will have to handle a significant increase in luminosity while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and pulse shaping times. This paper focuses on the prototype chip "HVStripV1" (manufactured in the AMS HV-CMOS 350nm process) characterization before and after irradiation up to fluence levels expected for the strip region in the HL-LHC environment. The results indicate an increase of depletion region after irradiation for the same bias voltage by a factor of ≈2.4 and ≈2.8 for two active pixels on the test chip. There was also a notable increase in noise levels from 85 e‑ to 386 e‑ and from 75 e‑ to 277 e‑ for the corresponding pixels.

  3. Recent results with HV-CMOS and planar sensors for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims for the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) impose high precision requirements on the vertex detector which has to match the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of 3μm, 10 ns time stamping capabilities, low mass (⇠0.2% X0 per layer), low power dissipation and pulsed power operation. Recent results of test beam measurements and GEANT4 simulations for assemblies with Timepix3 ASICs and thin active-edge sensors are presented. The 65 nm CLICpix readout ASIC with 25μm pitch was bump bonded to planar silicon sensors and also capacitively coupled through a thin layer of glue to active HV-CMOS sensors. Test beam results for these two hybridisation concepts are presented.

  4. HV/CVD Grown Relaxed SiGe Buffer Layers for SiGe HMOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文韬; 罗广礼; 史进; 邓宁; 陈培毅; 钱佩信

    2003-01-01

    High-vacuum/chemical-vapor deposition (HV/CVD) system was used to grow relaxed SiGe buffer layers on Si substrates. Several methods were then used to analyze the quality of the SiGe films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the upper layer was almost fully relaxed. Second ion mass spectroscopy showed that the Ge compositions were step-graded. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the misfit dislocations were restrained to the graded SiGe layers. Tests of the electrical properties of tensile-strained Si on relaxed SiGe buffer layers showed that their transconductances were higher than that of Si devices. These results verify the high quality of the relaxed SiGe buffer layer. The calculated critical layer thicknesses of the graded Si1-xGex layer on Si substrate and a Si layer on the relaxed SiGe buffer layer agree well with experimental results.

  5. Comparative Investigation of Pollution Accumulation and Natural Cleaning for Different HV Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dimitropoulou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High Voltage insulators are scattered throughout any HV network and a single insulator fault may cause an excessive outage. Reliability is a key issue for electric power systems and fault-free performance of insulators greatly reflects on the reliability of the system. Environmental influence is rather important for the optimum selection of outdoor insulators and, therefore, field measurements provide valuable information. Utilities perform such measurements in order to decide upon the location/route of new HV installations (substations, lines etc and also to optimize the selection, maintenance and replacement of already installed insulators. A rather interesting case in Greek territory is the island of Crete, due to the coastal development of the network and the local weather conditions. The Greek utility has employed a variety of remedies to cope with the pollution problem. Following the positive feedback after the installation on certain tower in the past, a large project to replace all ceramic insulators with new polymer ones of hydrophobic surface is now in progress. Polymer coatings have also been extensively applied on substations and also on certain areas/towers of the transmission network in the past. In order to investigate the pollution accumulation and the impact of natural washing on different insulator types, a series of periodical ESDD and NSDD pollution measurements were conducted in HEDNO’s TALOS High Voltage Test Station for a 3-months period. Multiple measurements were performed on each insulator every month in order to collect additional data. Five different insulators were selected based on the types historically used in the Cretan Network. Along with the standard glass disc profile, two strings of glass fog profile (the one coated with RTV and two long-rod composite insulators of different shed profile and material were used. Results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. The role of the HvNAC6 transcription factor in response to biotic and abiotic stress in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun

    -mediated transformation methods could be used to study stress responses at the whole-plant level. The abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were measured during Bgh infection to investigate the involvement of these hormones and TF in the basal resistance. HvNAC6 RNAi plants were also subjected to dehydration...

  7. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  8. Mapping a part of Neuquen Basin in Argentina by global-phase H/V spectral ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Ruigrok, E.; Gomez, M.; Draganov, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of global phases (epicentral distances of ≥ 120° and ≥ 150°) for the H/V spectral ratio to identify the fundamental resonance frequency. We applied the method to delineate a part of Neuquén basin in Argentina without the need for active seismic sources. We obtained

  9. VSOP/Hv1 proton channels sustain calcium entry, neutrophil migration, and superoxide production by limiting cell depolarization and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chemaly, Antoun; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Arnaudeau, Serge; Okamura, Yasushi; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2010-01-18

    Neutrophils kill microbes with reactive oxygen species generated by the NADPH oxidase, an enzyme which moves electrons across membranes. Voltage-gated proton channels (voltage-sensing domain only protein [VSOP]/Hv1) are required for high-level superoxide production by phagocytes, but the mechanism of this effect is not established. We show that neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1-/- mice lack proton currents but have normal electron currents, indicating that these cells have a fully functional oxidase that cannot conduct protons. VSOP/Hv1-/- neutrophils had a more acidic cytosol, were more depolarized, and produced less superoxide and hydrogen peroxide than neutrophils from wild-type mice. Hydrogen peroxide production was rescued by providing an artificial conductance with gramicidin. Loss of VSOP/Hv1 also aborted calcium responses to chemoattractants, increased neutrophil spreading, and decreased neutrophil migration. The migration defect was restored by the addition of a calcium ionophore. Our findings indicate that proton channels extrude the acid and compensate the charge generated by the oxidase, thereby sustaining calcium entry signals that control the adhesion and motility of neutrophils. Loss of proton channels thus aborts superoxide production and causes a severe signaling defect in neutrophils.

  10. Evidence for functional diversity between the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 and its closest related protein HVRP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris H Kim

    Full Text Available The Hv1 channel and voltage-sensitive phosphatases share with voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels the ability to detect changes in membrane potential through voltage-sensing domains (VSDs. However, they lack the pore domain typical of these other channels. NaV, KV, and CaV proteins can be found in neurons and muscles, where they play important roles in electrical excitability. In contrast, VSD-containing proteins lacking a pore domain are found in non-excitable cells and are not involved in neuronal signaling. Here, we report the identification of HVRP1, a protein related to the Hv1 channel (from which the name Hv1 Related Protein 1 is derived, which we find to be expressed primarily in the central nervous system, and particularly in the cerebellum. Within the cerebellar tissue, HVRP1 is specifically expressed in granule neurons, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of subcellular distribution via electron microscopy and immunogold labeling reveals that the protein localizes on the post-synaptic side of contacts between glutamatergic mossy fibers and the granule cells. We also find that, despite the similarities in amino acid sequence and structural organization between Hv1 and HVRP1, the two proteins have distinct functional properties. The high conservation of HVRP1 in vertebrates and its cellular and subcellular localizations suggest an important function in the nervous system.

  11. Constraints on the variable subglacial structure of Whillans Ice Stream from ambient noise Rayleigh wave H/V ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M. J.; Shen, W.; Wiens, D.; Winberry, J. P.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) ellipticity ratios of Rayleigh waves have been used to determine shallow (reflection imaging showing a deeper sedimentary package that extends to an unknown depth. It is also known that the frictional properties of the WIS ice-bed interface at 700 m depth are highly heterogeneous, including stick-spots of high friction, possibly as a result of compacted sediment or bedrock, and active subglacial lakes where frictional coefficients are effectively zero. Ambient noise cross-correlations are calculated between all station pairs, restricting the minimum interstation distance to 20 km, as well as constraining valid H/V ratios of radial and vertical sources between the same station pair to wave energy with good signal-to-noise between 6 s and 20 s that are sensitive to the shear velocity of the shallowest sedimentary layers beneath the ice stream and is combined with average phase and group velocity of the area to help constrain the inversion. H/V ratio modeling results suggest that ratios are highly susceptible to sedimentary layer thickness. Ratios also increase over the observed frequency band with the presence of a shallow, saturated sedimentary layer with high Vp/Vs. In preliminary results, we observe an increase in H/V ratio towards the grounding line as well as at stations where hydro-potential surface is high. These higher ratios can be attributed to higher water content within sediments, or an increase in the sedimentary layer thickness.

  12. Fusion to snowdrop lectin magnifies the oral activity of insecticidal ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a peptide by enabling its delivery to the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Fitches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider-venom peptide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a targets insect voltage-gated calcium channels, acting directly at sites within the central nervous system. It is potently insecticidal when injected into a wide variety of insect pests, but it has limited oral toxicity. We examined the ability of snowdrop lectin (GNA, which is capable of traversing the insect gut epithelium, to act as a "carrier" in order to enhance the oral activity of Hv1a. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A synthetic Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was produced by recombinant expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. When injected into Mamestra brassicae larvae, the insecticidal activity of the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was similar to that of recombinant Hv1a. However, when proteins were delivered orally via droplet feeding assays, Hv1a/GNA, but not Hv1a alone, caused a significant reduction in growth and survival of fifth stadium Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth larvae. Feeding second stadium larvae on leaf discs coated with Hv1a/GNA (0.1-0.2% w/v caused ≥ 80% larval mortality within 10 days, whereas leaf discs coated with GNA (0.2% w/v showed no acute effects. Intact Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was delivered to insect haemolymph following ingestion, as shown by Western blotting. Immunoblotting of nerve chords dissected from larvae following injection of GNA or Hv1a/GNA showed high levels of bound proteins. When insects were injected with, or fed on, fluorescently labelled GNA or HV1a/GNA, fluorescence was detected specifically associated with the central nerve chord. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to mediating transport of Hv1a across the gut epithelium in lepidopteran larvae, GNA is also capable of delivering Hv1a to sites of action within the insect central nervous system. We propose that fusion to GNA provides a general mechanism for dramatically enhancing the oral activity of insecticidal peptides and proteins.

  13. Mapping exposed and buried lava flows using synthetic aperture and ground-penetrating radar in Craters of the Moon lava field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Heggy, Essam; Fernandez, Jaime

    2007-11-01

    The Craters of the Moon (COM) lava field has a multiple eruptive history. Burial of older flows has resulted in complex subsurface stratigraphy. For the older eruptive periods, the locations of source vents and the extension of lava flows are either speculative or unknown, because they are buried under more recent pyroclastics. In this study, we used surface and subsurface backscatter characteristics of the P- and L-band polarimetric airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) data and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) soundings to resolve different exposed and buried lava flows. Our primary objective is to define the most effective polarization and frequency for mapping, resolving, and characterizing different lava types in the volcanic field. Polarimetric analysis of AIRSAR images from COM allows a clear recognition of the aa and pahoehoe lava types as a result of the variability in their roughness. Our results suggest that the HV cross-polarized, AIRSAR L-band is capable of producing a detailed map delineating surface lava with different surface backscattering properties. An accuracy assessment utilizing the geological map of the Inferno Cone area was performed to quantify the reliability of differentiating lava types and mapping the lava flows extension below loose pyroclastics using AIRSAR data. Results shows an ability of P-band SAR to map buried structures up to 3 meters deep under loose cinder and ash deposits, resolving buried fissures, outcrops, and lava flows that were validated with ground-truth GPR surveys. The techniques used in this study provide a tool to assess volcanic hazards in remote and inaccessible places. Also it could be an aid in the study of other planets and planetary bodies in the solar system.

  14. Transgenic plants expressing ω-ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA) fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin ω-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6 ± 4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after 7 days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50 = 0.73 mg/ml after 2 days against LC50 = 1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae), as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  15. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  16. Fine mapping of a HvCBF gene cluster at the frost resistance locus Fr-H2 in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, E; Barabaschi, D; Tondelli, A; Laidò, G; Rizza, F; Stanca, A M; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Stockinger, E J; Pecchioni, N

    2007-11-01

    Barley is an economically important model for the Triticeae tribe. We recently developed a new resource: the 'Nure' x 'Tremois' mapping population. Two low temperature QTLs were found to segregate on the long arm of chromosome 5H (Fr-H1, distal; Fr-H2, proximal). With the final aim of positional cloning of the genetic determinants of Fr-H1 and Fr-H2, a large segregating population of 1,849 F(2) plants between parents 'Nure' and 'Tremois' was prepared. These two QT loci were first validated by using a set of F(3) families, marker-selected to harbor pairs of reciprocal haplotypes, with one QTL fixed at homozygosity and the alternate one in heterozygous phase. The study was then focused towards the isolation of the determinant of Fr-H2. Subsequent recombinant screens and phenotypic evaluation of F(4) segregants allowed us to estimate (P < or = 0.01) a refined genomic interval of Fr-H2 (4.6 cM). Several barley genes with the CBF transcription factor signature had been already roughly mapped in cluster at Fr-H2, and they represent likely candidate genes underlying this QTL. Using the large segregating population (3,698 gametes) a high-resolution genetic map of the HvCBF gene cluster was then constructed, and after fine mapping, six recombinations between the HvCBFs were observed. It was therefore possible to genetically divide seven HvCBF subclusters in barley, in a region spanning 0.81 cM, with distances among them varying from 0.03 to 0.32 cM. The few recombinants between the different HvCBF subclusters are being marker-selected and taken to homozygosity, to phenotypically separate the effects of the single HvCBF genes.

  17. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  18. Transgenic plants expressing -ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Y.T. Nakasu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin w-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6±4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after seven days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50=0.73 mg/ml after two days against LC50=1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae, as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  19. Imaging the crustal structure of the valley of Mexico and higher mode identification using H/V spectral ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, D.; Campillo, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F.; Singh, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 19 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise records for the 8 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 11 VMEX stations. We use surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 3 seconds. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This observation suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure beneath the valley, an identification of these dominants modes is required. To identify the modes of surface waves we use the spectral ratio of the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V for the velocity model deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. H/V ratio in the coda is computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium following Margerin et al. [2009] and Sánchez-Sesma et al. [2011]. We processed several events to ensure that the observed H/V is stable. The comparison of the modelled dispersion and H/V ratio allows for mode identification, and consequently to recover the velocity model of the structure. We conclude on the predominance of higher modes in our observations. The excitation of higher modes is key element of explanation for the long duration and amplification of the seismic signals observed in the Valley of Mexico.

  20. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  1. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V., E-mail: fadeyev@ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A.A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, O. Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-21

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  2. Optimum Scheme for Insulation System in HV Generator Based on Electromagnetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical insulations are one of the basic parts of electrical machinery in any sizes and characteristics. Focusing on insulating, studies on the operation of industrial-electrical machinery came to the fact that the most important part of a machine is the Stator. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electromagnetic tensions. Therefore with respect to insulation system improvement of stator, the HV generator can be optimized. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electromagnetic performance is Finite Element Method (FEM which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. These processes of optimization have been done according the proposed algorithm. In this algorithm the technical constraints have been considered. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot’s insulation with respect to objective function and constraints.

  3. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    CERN Document Server

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on Partially Depleted High Voltage SOI technology (PD-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer while FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The XFAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry witch mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neu...

  4. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  5. New Simulation Method of New HV Power Supply for Industrial Microwave Generators with N=2 Magnetrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. El Ghazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This original work treats a new simulation method of a new type of high voltage power supply for microwave generators with N magnetrons (treated case: N=2 magnetrons, used as a source of energy in the industrial applications. This new power supply is composed of a single-phase HV transformer with magnetic leakage flow, supplying two parallel cells, which multiplies the voltage and stabilizes the current. The doubler supplies one magnetron. The transformer is presented by its p equivalent circuit. Each inductance of the model is characterized by its relation "flow-current". In this paper, we present a new approach validation of the p model of the special transformer using Matlab-Simulink code. The theoretical results compared with the experimental measurements, is in good agreement with them. The use of this tool Matlab-Simulink, has allowed us to confirm the possibility of the operation of this new system without interaction between magnetrons, with a view to a possible optimization which lead to reduce the weight, the volume and the cost of implementation while ensuring the process of regulating the current in each magnetron.

  6. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  7. Reliability assessment of an OVH HV power line truss transmission tower subjected to seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Karol; Jakubowska, Patrycja; Soltysik, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The study focuses on the reliability of a transmission tower OS24 ON150 + 10, an element of an OVH HV power line, under seismic loading. In order to describe the seismic force, the real-life recording of the horizontal component of the El Centro earthquake was adopted. The amplitude and the period of this excitation are assumed random, their variation is described by Weibull distribution. The possible space state of the phenomenon is given in the form of a structural response surface (RSM methodology), approximated by an ANOVA table with directional sampling (DS) points. Four design limit states are considered: stress limit criterion for a natural load combination, criterion for an accidental combination (one-sided cable snap), vertical and horizontal translation criteria. According to these cases the HLRF reliability index β is used for structural safety assessment. The RSM approach is well suited for the analysis - it is numerically efficient, not excessively time consuming, indicating a high confidence level. Given the problem conditions, the seismic excitation is shown the sufficient trigger to the loss of load-bearing capacity or stability of the tower.

  8. Application Of The Wavelet Packet Transform For Selecting Transient Seismic Noise And Study Of Its Effect On Estimates Of The H/V Spectral Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Merino, J.; Parolai, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio of seismic noise has become a widely used tool in microzonation, although it has not yet been clearly established whether or not only the stationary part of the recorded signal may be used. In fact, while some studies have suggested the use of only stationary signals others have shown that including transients may improve the results. In this study, we have employed a filtering method based on the wavelet packet transform for removing the stationary part of the noise recordings in the frequency band of interest for the H/V spectral ratio. In this way, we have obtained filtered seismograms with only transients, which have been used for performing the H/V spectral ratio calculation. Moreover, we have also calculated the H/V spectral ratio selecting only stationary noise windows from the seismograms and without making any a priori selection on them. Finally, we have compared the results and analysed the influence of transient noise on the shape of the H/V spectral ratio. The analysis has been carried out on noise recordings collected at 7 stations installed in the Cologne-Bonn region (Germany). Results show that the H/V spectral ratios calculated using only stationary noise do not significantly differ from those obtained without performing any data selection, independent of the site resonance frequency and of the frequency content of the transient. On the contrary, H/V spectral ratios obtained using only transients show a large variability that may be attributed to the kind of source and the source to receiver distance. These results indicate that the effect of transient noise is negligible when the H/V spectral ratios are calculated without performing any data selection, making the H/V spectral ratio technique more attractive for urban area measurements.

  9. Deficiency in the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 increases M2 polarization of microglia and attenuates brain damage from photothrombotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dai-Shi; Li, Chun-Yu; Qin, Chuan; Murugan, Madhuvika; Wu, Long-Jun; Liu, Jun-Li

    2016-10-01

    Microglia become activated during cerebral ischemia and exert pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory role dependent of microglial polarization. NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in microglia plays an important role in neuronal damage after ischemic stroke. Recently, NOX and ROS are consistently reported to participate in the microglial activation and polarization; NOX2 inhibition or suppression of ROS production are shown to shift the microglial polarization from M1 toward M2 state after stroke. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. However, the effect of Hv1 proton channel on microglial M1/M2 polarization state after cerebral ischemia remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of microglial Hv1 proton channel in modulating microglial M1/M2 polarization during the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury using a mouse model of photothrombosis. Following photothrombotic ischemic stroke, wild-type mice presented obvious brain infarct, neuronal damage, and impaired motor coordination. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1(-/-)) were partially protected from brain damage and motor deficits compared to wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1(-/-) mice in ischemic stroke is accompanied by reduced ROS production, shifted the microglial polarization from M1 to M2 state. Hv1 deficiency was also found to shift the M1/M2 polarization in primary cultured microglia. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for modulation of microglial M1/M2 polarization in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. ROS participate in microglial activation and polarization. However, the effect of Hv1 on microglial M1/M2 polarization state after

  10. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W.; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara Agata;

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...

  11. S-Wave Velocity Structure of Taipei Basin by Using the Simulation of Microtremor H/V Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Yi, Lin; Kuo-Liang, Wen; Che-Min, Lin

    2014-05-01

    In this report here the investigation of the S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei basin which is located in the northern Taiwan. Previous study, the dense microtremor measurement analysis have been confirmed in Taipei Basin. However, within the basin around the layer effects on seismic site characterization and contribution have still needed to clarify more details, as the strata in Taipei basin with reference to estimate ground motion prediction. The detail site response all over the Taipei basin has been studied by using the H/V ratios of dense microtremor surveys. In this study, a method, GA-Haskell, combining Genetic Algorithm and Thomson-Haskell propagator matrix was used to simulate the microtremor H/V ratios according to the previous results of dense microtremor surveys. The near-surface S-wave velocity structures of over 400 sites in the Taipei basin were evaluated by the simulations of the H/V ratios. Through the numerous microtremor data are helpful to figure the S-wave velocity and thickness of the Sungshan Formation and the other deeper formations which control the seismic site-effect in the basin. While many strong motion stations have also been performed microtremor measurement and single station spectrum to understand the earthquake site characteristics analysis. Compared with other research results, confirmed the applicability of the method for estimating the velocity structure in Taipei Basin. Finally, accord with the actual site earthquake and microtremor response, established a complete and detailed S-wave velocity model of the Taipei basin. It will benefit the strong motion prediction and simulation in the future. Key Words: Taipei Basin, Microtremor, H/V Ratio, S-wave Velocity, Site Effect

  12. Bio-plastic (P-3HB-co-3HV) from Bacillus circulans (MTCC 8167) and its biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukon, Pinkee; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Konwar, Bolin Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally occurring polyesters synthesized by bacteria for carbon and energy storage and it has commercial potential as bioplastic. The bacterial species Bacillus circulans MTCC 8167, isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, can efficiently produce medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (P-3HB-co-3HV) from cheap carbon sources like dextrose. The molecular mass of P-3HB-co-3HV was reported as 5.1×10(4)Da with polydispersity index of 1.21 by gel permeation chromatography. In the present investigation different bacteria and fungi species were used for testing the biodegradability of the extracted polymer. The FTIR spectra of the biodegraded PHBV film showed a decrease in the peak from 1735 cm(-1) (untreated film) to 1675 cm(-1), and disappearance of a peak present in the control at 2922 cm(-1) indicating the breakdown of ester (>C=O) or O-R group and -C=H bond, respectively. From biodegradability testing, the tested microorganisms were found to have decisive contribution to the biodegradation of P-3HB-co-3HV polymer.

  13. The cytoplasmic coiled-coil mediates cooperative gating temperature sensitivity in the voltage-gated H(+) channel Hv1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takeshita, Kohei; Kobayashi, Megumi; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-05-08

    Hv1/VSOP is a dimeric voltage-gated H(+) channel in which the gating of one subunit is reportedly coupled to that of the other subunit within the dimer. The molecular basis for dimer formation and intersubunit coupling, however, remains unknown. Here we show that the carboxy terminus ends downstream of the S4 voltage-sensor helix twist in a dimer coiled-coil architecture, which mediates cooperative gating. We also show that the temperature-dependent activation of H(+) current through Hv1/VSOP is regulated by thermostability of the coiled-coil domain, and that this regulation is altered by mutation of the linker between S4 and the coiled-coil. Cooperative gating within the dimer is also dependent on the linker structure, which circular dichroism spectrum analysis suggests is α-helical. Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic coiled-coil strands form continuous α-helices with S4 and mediate cooperative gating to adjust the range of temperatures over which Hv1/VSOP operates.

  14. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  16. Seismic ambient noise H/V spectral ratio using the ACA (autocorrelations of coda of autocorrelations) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Piña, J.; Campillo, M.; Luzón, F.; García-Jerez, A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (NHVSR) are valuable for microzonation, and seismic prospecting. This is particularly true for low-cost dense spatial sampling projects. Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) proposed to use average energy densities to compose the ratios. It means that H/V comes from the square root of the ratio of averages. On the other hand, a popular approach makes the average of spectral ratios. For ergodic processes peak values are usually the same using these two approaches. Sometimes however, the observations are insufficient and computed values for low frequencies display large variability and the corresponding H/V estimates may be inaccurate. The bias caused by localized sources may be the source of errors in the estimates. In this work we propose to compute the NHVSR using the Autocorrelations of Coda of Autocorrelations. This ACA approach is inspired in the work by Stehly et al. (2008). They used the Correlations of Coda of Correlations (C3) to isotropize the field. In our ACA approach the whole time series, say of 30 minutes, for each component is autocorrelated and the averages of the spectral density of selected windows (late coda windows are eliminated) are then improved estimates of directional energy densities. The computation of NHVSR using ACA appears more stable and free of transient effects. It remains to establish how this may be accounted for in forward calculation of H/V spectral ratios for models like a layered medium (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011; Albarello and Lunedei, 2011). This will require further scrutiny. References. Albarello, D. & E. Lunedei (2011). Structure of ambient vibration wavefield in the frequency range of engineering interest ([0.5, 20] Hz): insights from numerical modelling. Near Surface Geophysics 9, 543-559. Arai, H. & K. Tokimatsu (2004). S-wave velocity profiling by inversion of microtremor H/V spectrum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 53-63. Sánchez-Sesma, F. J., M. Rodr

  17. Transfer impedance simulation and measurement methods to analyse shielding behaviour of HV cables used in Electric-Vehicles and Hybrid-Electric-Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Abid; Frei, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    In the power drive system of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), High Voltage (HV) cables play a major role in evaluating the EMI of the whole system. Transfer impedance (ZT) is the most commonly used performance parameter for the HV cable. To analyse and design HV cables and connectors with better shielding effectiveness (SE), appropriate measurement and simulation methods are required. In this paper, Ground Plate Method (GPM) with improvements has been proposed to measure ZT. Use of low-frequency ferrites to avoid ground-loop effects has also been investigated. Additionally, a combination of analytical model with a circuit model has been implemented to simulate limitations (frequency response) of the test setup. Also parametrical studies using the analytical model have been performed to analyse the shielding behaviour of HV cables.

  18. 冷胁迫下大麦幼苗根质膜水通道蛋白基因的表达%Expression of RootHvPIPsof Barley Seedling under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段瑞君; 熊辉岩; 且原真木

    2014-01-01

    The plant plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, PIPs) is a kind of mem-brane intrinsic proteins which has high selectivity and water transport. They play important roles in many phys-iological activities in plant growth and development. In this study, seedlings of barley variety ‘Haruna-nijo’ were treated with chilling stress. Expression of water channel protein PIPs of root in two processes which were stress period (4℃, 48 h) and recovery period (16℃, 48 h) were analyzed with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). And root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr), root length and seedling height were ana-lyzed at the same time. The results showed that: after 4℃ and 48 h stress, the growth of the barley seedlings was signiifcantly inhibited, but root growth was no signiifcant changed; after 16℃, 48 h recovery, shoot height of stressed-seedling caught up that of control seedlings and root growth did not change signiifcantly; root hy-draulic conductivity decreased in the period of chilling stress and increased rapidly in recovery period but there were no significant difference. The results of qRT-PCR showed: the highest expression were HvPIP1;2 and HvPIP1;3, the lowest expressionwereHvPIP1;1 andHvPIP2;3. Compared with the control group,HvPIPsex-pression were decreased in all after cold treatment, in which HvPIP1;2, HvPIP1;3, HvPIP1;4, HvPIP1;5, HvPIP2;1,HvPIP2;2 were down-regulated signiifcantly. In recovery period, most ofHvPIPs expression were increased, espeacallyHvPIP1;1,HvPIP1;2, HvPIP1;5,HvPIP2;3were up-regulated significantly, but HvPIP1;4, HvPIP2;5 were down-regulated. This study found thatHvPIPs expressions of barley root were down-regulated overall in chilling stress and in recovery growth mostHvPIPs were up-regulated. Combined with changes of root hydraulic conductivity and plant growth, the role of barleyHvPIPs in chilling resistance reaction speculated thatHvPIPs effected water absorption were different in

  19. Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Shailesh; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2017-02-01

    We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831

  20. HV1 acts as a sodium sensor and promotes superoxide production in medullary thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Sun, Jingping; Stilphen, Carly A; Smith, Susan M E; Ocasio, Hiram; Bermingham, Brent; Darji, Sandip; Guha, Avirup; Patel, Roshan; Geurts, Aron M; Jacob, Howard J; Lambert, Nevin A; O'Connor, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    We previously characterized a H(+) transport pathway in medullary thick ascending limb nephron segments that when activated stimulated the production of superoxide by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Importantly, the activity of this pathway was greater in Dahl salt-sensitive rats than salt-resistant (SS.13(BN)) rats, and superoxide production was enhanced in low Na(+) media. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular identity of this pathway and its relationship to Na(+). We hypothesized that the voltage-gated proton channel, HV1, was the source of superoxide-stimulating H(+) currents. To test this hypothesis, we developed HV1(-/-) null mutant rats on the Dahl salt-sensitive rat genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease gene targeting. HV1 could be detected in medullary thick limb from wild-type rats. Intracellular acidification using an NH4Cl prepulse in 0 sodium/BaCl2 containing media resulted in superoxide production in thick limb from wild-type but not HV1(-/-) rats (Pthick limb and peritoneal macrophages only when HV1 was present. When fed a high-salt diet, blood pressure, outer medullary renal injury (tubular casts), and oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal staining) were significantly reduced in HV1(-/-) rats compared with wild-type Dahl salt-sensitive rats. We conclude that HV1 is expressed in medullary thick ascending limb and promotes superoxide production in this segment when intracellular Na(+) is low. HV1 contributes to the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

  1. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination.

  2. The Microtremor H/V Spectral Ratio: The Physical Basis of the Diffuse Field Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is popular to obtain the dominant frequency at a site. Despite the success of MHVSR some controversy arose regarding its physical basis. One approach is the Diffuse Field Assumption, DFA. It is then assumed that noise diffuse features come from multiple scattering within the medium. According to theory, the average of the autocorrelation is proportional to directional energy density (DED) and to the imaginary part of the Green's function for same source and receiver. Then, the square of MHVSR is a ratio of DEDs which, in a horizontally layered system, is 2xImG11/ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary parts of Green's functions for horizontal and vertical components. This has physical implications that emerge from the duality DED-force, implicit in the DFA. Consider a surface force at a half-space. The radiated energy is carried away by various wave types and the proportions of each one are precisely the fractions of the energy densities of a diffuse elastic wave field at the free surface. Thus, some properties of applied forces are also characteristics of DEDs. For example, consider a Poisson solid. For a normal point load, 67 per cent of energy is carried away by Rayleigh waves. For the tangential case, it is less well known that, 77 per cent of energy goes as shear waves. In a full space, 92 per cent of the energy is emitted as shear waves. The horizontal DED at the half-space surface implies significant emission of down-going shear waves that explains the curious stair-like resonance spectrum of ImG11. Both ImG11 and ImG33 grow linearly versus frequency and this represents wave emission. For a layered medium, besides wave emission, the ensuing variations correspond to reflected waves. For high frequencies, ImG33 depends on the properties of the top layer. Reflected body waves are very small and Rayleigh waves behave in the top layer as in a kind of mini half-space. From HVSR one can invert the velocity model

  3. Continuous H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise: a necessity to understand microzonation results obtained by mobile stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the resonance frequency (f0) and amplification factor of unconsolidated sediments by H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of seismic ambient noise has been widely used since Nakamura's proposal in 1989. To measure f0 properly, Nakamura suggested to perform microzonation surveys at night when the artificial microtremor is small and does not fully disrupt the ambient seismic noise. As nightly fieldwork is not always a reasonable demand, we propose an alternative workflow of Nakamura's technique to improve the quality of HVSR results obtained by ambient noise measurements of mobile stations during the day. This new workflow includes the automated H/V calculation of continuous seismic data of a stationary or permanent station installed near the microzonation site for as long as the survey lasts in order to control the error in the HVSR analysis obtained by the mobile stations. In this presentation, we apply this workflow on one year of seismic data at two different case studies; i.e. a rural site with a shallow bedrock depth of 30 m and an urban site (Brussels, capital of Belgium, bedrock depth of 110 m) where human activity is continuous 24h/day. By means of an automated python script, the fundamental peak frequency and the H/V amplitude are automatically picked from H/V spectra that are calculated from 50% overlapping, 30 minute windows during the whole year. Afterwards, the f0 and amplitude picks are averaged per hour/per day for the whole year. In both case studies, the H/V amplitude and the fundamental frequencies range considerable, up to ˜15% difference between the daily and nightly measurements. As bedrock depth is known from boreholes at both sites, we concluded that the nightly picked f0 is the true one. Our results thus suggest that changes in the determined f0 and H/V amplitude are dominantly caused by the human behaviour which is stored in the ambient seismic noise (e.g. later onset of traffic in a weekend, quiet Sundays, differences between

  4. Identification of a 49-bp fragment of the HvLTP2 promoter directing aleurone cell specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Divon, Hege Hvattum; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Kalla, Roger; Hammond-Kosack, Michael; Shimamoto, Ko; Kohli, Ajay

    2004-10-27

    Identification of regulatory elements directing definite and specific spatiotemporal expression patterns is a prerequisite to the next generation of transgenic plants with commercial and ethical feasibility for producing plantibodies or other pharmaceutically important compounds. Here we describe the functional dissection of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein gene promoter, HvLTP2. The gene is specifically expressed in aleurone cells of cereals and used as an aleurone marker in maize and rice. The transcript is uniformly localised in the barley aleurone cells from around 10 DAP. Patchy expression in aleurone cells of transgenic rice has been reported and explained by silencing of transgenes. We have performed deletion analyses of the 801-bp HvLTP2 promoter to gain insight into the molecular basis of its regulation and the presence of putative regulatory elements. From the deletion studies, a 49-bp promoter region directing aleurone-specific expression was identified. Simultaneously, in vivo footprinting was carried out to identify promoter elements bound by putative regulatory proteins. Within the 49-bp fragment, the most promising candidate for a minimal cis-acting regulatory region directing aleurone specificity is the ds-sequence. Based on our results, we hypothesise that the ds-sequence directs aleurone specificity, possibly through a concerted action with elements directing general expression in the seed. Moreover, we present an overview of LTP2 elements putatively involved in directing seed, endosperm, and aleurone expression. Additionally, we report HvLTP2 expression in the embryo, not previously detected. The regulatory element(s) directing expression in embryo is located downstream of the 49-bp fragment directing aleurone specificity, thus demonstrating independent control of aleurone and embryo-localised expression. Finally, we discuss the existence of several endosperm-specific boxes and whether alternative promoter elements and combinations

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel barley gene,HvORG4,induced by Fusarium graminearum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theo; Van-Der; Lee

    2007-01-01

    Barley Fusarium head blight(FHB),caused by species of the Fusarium fungus,is a devastating disease that is reemerging worldwide in recent years.In this study,a novel gene,HvORG4,was cloned from barley by using cDNA library and suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) library strategies.The SSH library and cDNA library were constructed from the Chinese barley cultivar Jing02-461(resistance to FHB) infected by Fusarium graminearum isolate Huanggang-1.For the SSH analysis,more than 120 differentially express...

  6. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan; Mohamed Abdalla Fadol; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed Salih; Abdel Rahim Mohamed El Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97), placenta (n=15), whole blood (n=19), uterine fluid (n=1), and serum (n=8) were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and p...

  7. Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major stress factors reducing cereal production worldwide. There is ample evidence that the mineral nutrient status of plants plays a critical role in increasing plant tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this regard, the important role of various nutrients e.g., potassium (K or silicon (Si in the mitigation of different stress factors, such as drought, heat or frost has been well documented. Si application has been reported to ameliorate plant nutrient deficiency. Here, we used K and Si either solely or in combination to investigate whether an additive positive effect on barley growth can be achieved under osmotic stress and which mechanisms contribute to a better tolerance to osmotic stress. To achieve this goal, barley plants were subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG-induced osmotic stress under low or high K supply and two Si regimes. The results showed that barley silicon transporters HvLsi1 and HvLsi2 regulate the accumulation of Si in the shoot only when plant suffered from K deficiency. Si, in turn, increased the starch level under both osmotic stress and K deficiency and modulated the glycolytic and TCA pathways. Hormone profiling revealed that the beneficial effect of Si is most likely mediated also by ABA homeostasis and active cytokinin isopentenyl adenine (iP. We conclude that Si may effectively improve stress tolerance under K deficient condition in particular when additional stress like osmotic stress interferes.

  8. Assessment of the Group 3-4 (HV-S1, HV-S2, IHLW-S1) Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 3-4 exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The HV-S1, HV-S2, and IHLW-S1 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 3-4) because they share a geometric attribute: the common factor in their design is that the last significant flow disturbance upstream of the air sampling probe is a jog (i.e., two conjoined bends of equal and opposite curvature resulting in a change in elevation of the duct). Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  9. Comparison between two methods for forward calculation of ambient noise H/V spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jerez, A.; Luzón, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Santoyo, M. A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.; Campillo, M.; Iturrarán-Viveros, U.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of ambient noise (NHVSR) is a valuable tool for seismic prospecting, particularly if both a dense spatial sampling and a low-cost procedure are required. Unfortunately, the computation method still lacks of a unanimously accepted theoretical basis and different approaches are currently being used for inversion of the ground structure from the measured H/V curves. Two major approaches for forward calculation of NHVSRs in a layered medium are compared in this work. The first one was developed by Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) and recently improved by Albarello and Lunedei (2011). It consists of a description of the wavefield as generated by Far Surface point Forces (FSF method). The second one is based on the work of Sánchez-Sesma et al. (2011) who consider ambient noise as a Diffuse WaveField (DWF method), taking advantage of the proportionality between its Fourier-transformed autocorrelation (power spectrum) and the imaginary part of the Green function when source and receiver are the same. In both methods, the NHVSR is written as (PH/PV)1/2, where PH and PV are the horizontal and vertical power spectra. In the FSF method these quantities are given by PV∝⊙m(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2 PH∝⊙m{(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2χm2+1/2α2(ALm/kLm)2} where kRm, χm and ARm are wavenumber, ellipticity and medium response of the m-th Rayleigh wave mode; kLm and ALm correspond to the m-th Love wave mode and α is the horizontal-to-vertical load ratio of the ambient noise sources. Some common factors are omitted in the expressions of PV and PH. On the other hand, the DWF method deals with the full wavefield including both surface and body waves. In order to make the comparison easier, and taking into account that surface waves are often the dominant components in wide spectral ranges, body wave contributions are neglected here. In this case, the PH and PV power spectra for the DWF method are reduced to the simple expressions: PV

  10. Molecular Characterization of the First Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) Strains Isolated from In Vitro Bovine Embryos production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Altamiranda, Erika; Manrique, Julieta M.; Pérez, Sandra E.; Ríos, Glenda L.; Odeón, Anselmo C.; Leunda, María R.; Jones, Leandro R.; Verna, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as “starting material” for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these strains circulate

  11. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  12. Presence of anti-BoHV-1 antibodies in caprine herds from Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carvalho Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in serum samples from caprines. This way, one analyzed 337 samples from 5 properties, 2 of them located at the state of Minas Gerais and the other 3 at the state of Sao Paulo. The samples underwent the virusneutralization test using the Nebraska viral strain, in order to verify the presence of antibodies against BoHV-1. Despite the geometric mean of antibody titers was 3, the occurrence of reactivity in animals achieved 62% (209/337, being positive 57.2% (151/264 of samples from the properties at the state of Minas Gerais and 79.5% (58/73 of samples from the state of Sao Paulo. Due to the fact that caprines don’t constitute a target species of this virus, the high occurrence of anti-BOHV-1 antibodies awakens an epidemiological alert on consortium herds, a fact driving the need for further studies to show the importance of infection in this animal species.

  13. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.

  14. An Inactivated Vaccine from a Field Strain of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) has High Antigenic Mass and Induces Strong Efficacy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Ruiz-Sáenz; Jairo Jaime; Victor Vera

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is a DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae,subfamily Alfaherpesvirinae;it is a worldwide pathogen,causing serious economic losses in livestock.In Colombia there have been multiple isolates of BoHV-1 that have been subjected to molecular characterization,classifying most of the country isolates as BoHV-1.1.In the present study we developed and evaluated an ethyleneimine binary inactivated isolate from the native BoHV-1 strain (Córdoba-2) in a rabbit model of vaccination and infection.The vaccine was evaluated in two phases,one of immunogenicity with vaccination and a booster after 21 days,and an evaluation phase of protection against challenge with a highly virulent reference strain.The results demonstrate optimum serum-conversion,with protective neutralizing antibody titers 28 days post vaccination and optimal protection against challenge with the reference strain with decreased clinical signs of infection,protection against the onset of fever and decrease of virus excretion post challenge.In conclusion,our results show the enormous potential that an immunogenic inactivated vaccine has produced from the native BoHV-1.1 strain,which produces a high antigen mass to the vaccine to induce optimal immunity and protection,and it is a strong candidate for evaluation and possible future use in different cattle populations.

  15. Tracking and flavour-tagging performance for HV-CMOS sensors in the context of the ATLAS ITK pixel simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandri, A.; Vacavant, L.; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A.; Djama, F.

    2016-12-01

    The HV-CMOS (High Voltage - Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) pixel technology has recently risen interest for the upgrade of the pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment towards the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . HV-CMOS sensors can be employed in the pixel outer layers (R >15 cm), where the radiation hardness requirements are less stringent, as they could instrument large areas at a relatively low cost. In addition, smaller pixel granularity can be achieved by exploiting sub-pixel encoding technology. Therefore, the largest impact on physics performance, tracking and flavour tagging, could be reached if exploited in the innermost layer (in place of the current IBL) or in the next-to-innermost layer. This proceeding will present studies on tracking and flavour-tagging performance in presence of HV-CMOS sensors in the innermost layer of the ATLAS detector.

  16. Transcriptome comparative profiling of barley eibi1 mutant reveals pleiotropic effects of HvABCG31 gene on cuticle biogenesis and stress responsive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Tao; Li, Guangrong; Chen, Guoxiong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-10-14

    Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  17. Transcriptome Comparative Profiling of Barley eibi1 Mutant Reveals Pleiotropic Effects of HvABCG31 Gene on Cuticle Biogenesis and Stress Responsive Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eviatar Nevo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  18. HvEXPB7, a novel β-expansin gene revealed by the root hair transcriptome of Tibetan wild barley, improves root hair growth under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Cao, Fangbin; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zhang, Guoping; Vincze, Eva; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan wild barley is a treasure trove of useful genes for crop improvement including abiotic stress tolerance, like drought. Root hair of single-celled structures plays an important role in water and nutrition uptake. Polyethylene-glycol-induced drought stress hydroponic/petri-dish experiments were performed, where root hair morphology and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (drought-tolerant XZ5 and drought-sensitive XZ54) and drought-tolerant cv. Tadmor were compared. Drought-induced root hair growth was only observed in XZ5. Thirty-six drought tolerance-associated genes were identified in XZ5, including 16 genes specifically highly expressed in XZ5 but not Tadmor under drought. The full length cDNA of a novel β-expansin gene (HvEXPB7), being the unique root hair development related gene in the identified genes, was cloned. The sequence comparison indicated that HvEXPB7 carried both DPBB_1 and Pollon_allerg_1 domains. HvEXPB7 is predominantly expressed in roots. Subcellular localization verified that HvEXPB7 is located in the plasma membrane. Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) of HvEXPB7 led to severely suppressed root hairs both under control and drought conditions, and significantly reduced K uptake. These findings highlight and confer the significance of HvEXPB7 in root hair growth under drought stress in XZ5, and provide a novel insight into the genetic basis for drought tolerance in Tibetan wild barley.

  19. Risk factors associated with BoHV-1 and BVDV seropositivity in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis from the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise Gomes Fernandes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BoHV-1 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV infections in buffaloes in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, using 136 female buffaloes ? 24 months old from 14 herds. For the serological diagnosis of the BoHV-1 and BVDV infections, the virus-neutralization test (VN was used and in each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain data to be used in the risk factor analysis. Of the 136 animals 86 (63.2% were positive for BoHV-1 and 12 (8.8% for BVDV. The presence of watering points (odds ratio = 17.68; 95% CI = 3.74 – 83.04 was identified as risk factor for BoHv-1, and animal purchasing was a risk factor for both BoHV-1 (odds ratio = 68.64; 95% CI = 12.28 – 383.73 and BVDV (odds ratio = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.04 – 12.76. The results from the present study showed an evidence of the presence of BoHV-1 and BVDV infections in buffaloes from the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. It is suggested that control and prevention measures should be adopted, such as the use of diagnostic tests prior to animal purchasing and the use of vaccines to avoid the introduction of infected animals into the herds and the consequent dissemination of the infections, minimizing economic losses.

  20. Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA HV1 Region of Shed Hairs%脱落毛发线粒体DNA HV1区序列测定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 陈松; 张纯斌; 赵鑫

    1999-01-01

    目的对脱落毛发线粒体DNA HV1区序列测定方法进行研究.方法嵌合扩增结合末端荧光标记DNA测序.结果对20例脱落毛发进行分析获得了明确的测序结果,与来自同一个体的血液所测得的DNA序列进行比较,完全相同.结论嵌合扩增在对脱落毛发进行线粒体DNA多变区序列分析中是一种有效的方法,在法医DNA检验中具有实用价值.

  1. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  2. Installation of a TCT set-up for characterization of novel HV-CMOS planar silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    For future upgrades of the LHC it is necessary to develop new tracking detectors: more radiation hard and cost efficient pixel detectors with high spacial resolution are required for the planned high luminosity version of the LHC (HL-LHC). For future tracking devices HV-CMOS active pixel sensors are great candidates since they fulfill all the demands mentioned above. First prototypes of these sensors are assembled on custom test boards and together with FE-I4 readout chips they make up the first test pixel detectors. One approach for testing these chips is through using lasers to induce electron-hole-pairs into the depletion zone of the sensor chip diodes to simulate an ionizing particle crossing through the bulk. Comparison measurements of irradiated/non-irradiated sensors are used to explore the radiation hardness of the sensors.

  3. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis for HV Circuit Breakers Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Energy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation process of the high voltage circuit breaker, the changes of vibration signals can reflect the machinery states of the circuit breaker. The extraction of the vibration signal feature will directly influence the accuracy and practicability of fault diagnosis. This paper presents an extraction method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD. Firstly, the original vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of stationary intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Secondly, calculating the envelope of each IMF and separating the envelope by equal-time segment and then forming equal-time segment energy entropy to reflect the change of vibration signal are performed. At last, the energy entropies could serve as input vectors of support vector machine (SVM to identify the working state and fault pattern of the circuit breaker. Practical examples show that this diagnosis approach can identify effectively fault patterns of HV circuit breaker.

  4. Integration of V2H/V2G Hybrid System for Demand Response in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yubo; Sheikh, Omar; Hu, Boyang; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-11-03

    Integration of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with power grid not only brings new challenges for load management, but also opportunities for distributed storage and generation in distribution network. With the introduction of Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), EVs can help stabilize the operation of power grid. This paper proposed and implemented a hybrid V2H/V2G system with commercialized EVs, which is able to support both islanded AC/DC load and the power grid with one single platform. Standard industrial communication protocols are implemented for a seamless respond to remote Demand Respond (DR) signals. Simulation and implementation are carried out to validate the proposed design. Simulation and implementation results showed that the hybrid system is capable of support critical islanded DC/AC load and quickly respond to the remote DR signal for V2G within 1.5kW of power range.

  5. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  6. Analysis of Abnormal Chromatographic Data of Transformer HV Bushing%变压器高压套管色谱异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜军; 何镔; 刘红春

    2012-01-01

    The reason of abnormal chromatographic data of 220kV capacitive oil-paper HV bushing is analyzed. The preventive measures are presented.%分析了一起220kV电容式油纸高压套管色谱异常的故障原因,并提出了预防措施。

  7. Overexpression of the barley aquaporin HvPIP2;1 increases internal CO(2) conductance and CO(2) assimilation in the leaves of transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanba, Yuko T; Shibasaka, Mineo; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Hayakawa, Takahiko; Kasamo, Kunihiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Katsuhara, Maki

    2004-05-01

    The internal conductance for CO(2) diffusion (g(i)) and CO(2) assimilation rate were measured and the related anatomical characteristics were investigated in transgenic rice leaves that overexpressed barley aquaporin HvPIP2;1. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that aquaporin facilitates CO(2) diffusion within leaves. The g(i) value was estimated for intact leaves by concurrent measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope ratio. The leaves of the transgenic rice plants that expressed the highest levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1 showed a 40% increase in g(i) as compared to g(i) in the leaves of wild-type rice plants. The increase in g(i) was accompanied by a 14% increase in CO(2) assimilation rate and a 27% increase in stomatal conductance (g(s)). The transgenic plants that had low levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1 showed decreases in g(i) and CO(2) assimilation rate. In the plants with high levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1, mesophyll cell size decreased and the cell walls of the epidermis and mesophyll cells thickened, indicating that the leaves had become xeromorphic. Although such anatomical changes could partially offset the increase in g(i) by the aquaporin, the increase in aquaporin content overcame such adverse effects.

  8. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grain...

  9. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating...

  10. Characterization of H/V Spectral Ratios for the Assessment of Slope Stability in the Gas Hydrate-rich Area: an Example from Offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Tsia, C. H.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Lin, S. S.; Liang, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Nakamura's method, which calculates the ratios between horizontal and vertical component spectra of seismic signals (H/V), is widely used in the inland area. However, few related estimations were performed for the offshore area and little knowledge for the marine sediments were obtained. From 2013 to 2015, three passive ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) experiments were conducted in gas hydrate-rich area offshore SW Taiwan in the aim of acquiring information related to the physical properties of seafloor sediments. The H/V of the seafloor sediments in the three areas were estimated by using the ambient noise and seismic signal recorded by OBSs. The resonance frequency of each site was estimated from the main peak of H/V distribution and a range between 5 and 10 Hz were obtained. Based on the empirical law, this resonance frequency range should correspond to a sediment thickness of approximately several to ten of meters. This estimation is consistent with the thickness of the sedimentary cover imaged by chirp sonar survey, suggesting that the site response of seafloor is dominantly controlled by the unconsolidated sedimentary layer on the top of the sea bed. Remarkably, the H/V ratios obtained in our study area are much larger than that calculated for the inland areas. The magnification can reach as high as 50 to more than 100. This observation infers that the sea water movement might emphasize the horizontal motion of the marine sediments, which is crucial for the slope stability assessment. Moreover, for most stations located in the active margin, no distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. However, in the passive margin, the H/V peak calculated from ambient noise and earthquakes is mostly identical. This phenomenon may suggest that relatively unclear sedimentary boundary exist in the active margin environment. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the OBSs deployed in the southwest Taiwan offshore area offers a

  11. Comparative analysis of replication characteristics of BoHV-1 subtypes in bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants: a phylogenetic enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steukers Lennert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In general, members of the Alphaherpesvirinae use the epithelium of the upper respiratory and/or genital tract as a preferential site for primary replication. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 may replicate at both sites and cause two major clinical entities designated as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis/balanoposthitis (IPV/IPB in cattle. It has been hypothesized that subtype 1.1 invades preferentially the upper respiratory mucosa whereas subtype 1.2 favors replication at the peripheral genital tract. However, some studies are in contrast with this hypothesis. A thorough study of primary replication at both mucosae could elucidate whether or not different BoHV-1 subtypes show differences in mucosa tropism. We established bovine respiratory and genital organ cultures with emphasis on maintenance of tissue morphology and viability during in vitro culture. In a next step, bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants of the same animals were inoculated with several BoHV-1 subtypes. A quantitative analysis of viral invasion in the mucosa was performed at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post inoculation (pi by measuring plaque latitude and penetration depth underneath the basement membrane. All BoHV-1 subtypes exhibited a more profound invasion capacity in respiratory tissue compared to that in genital tissue at 24 h pi. However, at 24 h pi plaque latitude was found to be larger in genital tissue compared to respiratory tissue and this for all subtypes. These similar findings among the different subtypes take the edge off the belief of the existence of specific mucosa tropisms of different BoHV-1 subtypes.

  12. Knockdown of WHIRLY1 Affects Drought Stress-Induced Leaf Senescence and Histone Modifications of the Senescence-Associated Gene HvS40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Janack

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The plastid-nucleus located protein WHIRLY1 has been described as an upstream regulator of leaf senescence, binding to the promoter of senescence-associated genes like HvS40. To investigate the impact of WHIRLY1 on drought stress-induced, premature senescence, transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the HvWHIRLY1 gene were grown under normal and drought stress conditions. The course of leaf senescence in these lines was monitored by physiological parameters and studies on the expression of senescence- and drought stress-related genes. Drought treatment accelerated leaf senescence in WT plants, whereas WHIRLY 1 knockdown lines (RNAi-W1 showed a stay-green phenotype. Expression of both senescence-associated and drought stress-responsive genes, was delayed in the transgenic plants. Notably, expression of transcription factors of the WRKY and NAC families, which are known to function in senescence- and stress-related signaling pathways, was affected in plants with impaired accumulation of WHIRLY1, indicating that WHIRLY1 acts as an upstream regulator of drought stress-induced senescence. To reveal the epigenetic indexing of HvS40 at the onset of drought-induced senescence in WT and RNAi-W1 lines, stress-responsive loading with histone modifications of promoter and coding sequences of HvS40 was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantified by qRT-PCR. In the wildtype, the euchromatic mark H3K9ac of the HvS40 gene was low under control conditions and was established in response to drought treatment, indicating the action of epigenetic mechanisms in response to drought stress. However, drought stress caused no significant increase in H3K9ac in plants impaired in accumulation of WHIRLY1. The results show that WHIRLY1 knockdown sets in motion a delay in senescence that involves all aspects of gene expression, including changes in chromatin structure.

  13. Herpesvírus bovinos (BoHV-1.1 e BoHV-1.2b em forma infecciosa em encéfalos de bovinos submetidos ao diagnóstico de raiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.C.R. Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a incidência de herpesvírus bovinos (BoHVs em encéfalos de bovinos submetidos ao diagnóstico de raiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, amostras coletadas durante dois anos (n=70 foram submetidas ao isolamento viral em cultivos celulares. Os BoHVs foram isolados em dois (2,9% encéfalos. Após serem submetidas à caracterização antigênica e molecular, as amostras foram subtipadas como BoHV-1.1 e BoHV-1.2b. A BoHV-1.1 foi isolada de um encéfalo que foi também positivo para raiva. O vírus da raiva foi identificado em 11 amostras (15,7%. Estes achados revelam que a incidência de BoHVs em forma infecciosa em bovinos com encefalite foi baixa, embora represente 16,7% (2/12 dos encéfalos nos quais um agente viral foi identificado. Tal fato confirma a já reportada associação entre BoHV-1 e encefalites. Esse é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de BoHV-1.2b, um subtipo considerado menos patogênico, em um caso de doença neurológica em bovinos.

  14. Crystal structure solid-state cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C NMR correlation in luminescent d10 metal-organic frameworks constructed with the 1,2-Bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hesham A; Hoffmann, Anke; Höppe, Henning A; Steinfeld, Gunther; Janiak, Christoph

    2009-03-02

    Hydrothermal reactions of 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane (btre) with copper(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) salts have yielded the dinuclear complexes [Zn2Cl4(mu2-btre)2] (1) and [Zn2Br4(mu2-btre)2] (2), the one-dimensional coordination polymer infinity1[Zn(NCS)2(2-btre)] (3), the two-dimensional networks infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Cl)2(mu4-btre)] (4), infinity2[Cu2(mu2-Br)2(mu4-btre)] (5), and infinity2{[Cd6(mu3-OH)2(mu3-SO4)4(mu4-btre)3(H2O)6](SO4).6H2O} (6), and the three-dimensional frameworks infinity3{[Cu(mu4-btre)]ClO4.0.25H2O} (7), 3{[Zn(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (8), infinity3{[Cd(mu4-btre)(mu2-btre)](ClO4)2} (9), and infinity3[Cu2(mu2-CN)2(mu4-btre)] (10, 2-fold 3D interpenetrated framework). The copper-containing products 4, 5, 7, and 10 contain the metal in the +1 oxidation state, from a simultaneous redox and self-assembly reaction of the Cu(II) starting materials. The cyanide-containing framework 10 has captured the CN- ions from the oxidative btre decomposition. The perchlorate frameworks 7, 8, or 9 react in an aqueous NH4+PF6- solution with formation of the related PF6--containing frameworks. The differences in the metal-btre bridging mode (mu2-kappaN1:N1', mu2-kappaN1:N2 or mu4-kappaN1:N2:N1':N2') and the btre ligand symmetry can be correlated with different signal patterns in the 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectra. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 7 to 10 exhibit fluorescence at 403-481 nm upon excitation at 270-373 nm which is not seen in the free btre ligand.

  15. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  16. Modelling Sediment Thickness for Site-Effect Characterisation using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Watlet, Arnaud; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The H/V Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient seismic noise has been widely used to estimate the fundamental site resonance frequency in the context of site-effect characterisation. In regions of unknown subsurface structure, in which there is a significant acoustic impedance contrast between sediments and the underlying bedrock, HVSR can be a very powerful tool to map bedrock morphology and sediment thickness. Calibrating the power-law relationship between the variation in fundamental frequency and sediment thickness around these unknown sites is crucial for sediment thickness mapping. This empirical relationship can be easily calculated by conducting HVSR analysis of ambient noise measurements above boreholes with known bedrock depth. Additional local H/V measurements above near-surface geophysical profiles, for instance created by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), allow training and improving the power-law relationship for sites with a shallow bedrock depth. As the compaction of sediments influences the Vs, one has however to take into account that this empirical relationship can only be applied in relative small areas with a similar local geology. Between 2008 and 2010, a seismic swarm (MLmax = 3.2) occurred in a hilly area, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). 60 of the 300 recorded events were felt/heard by the local residents and were reported in the corresponding 'Did You Feel It' internet inquiries held by Royal Observatory of Belgium. Several low-magnitude events show a distinct macroseismic intensity variation that can be explained by the geological site effect, i.e. the local sediment thickness, affecting the human perception of these earthquake-induced ground motions. In this presentation, we apply the above described methodology and discuss the results of a geophysical survey including ERT-profiling, ambient noise recording, HVSR analysis in Geopsy and DEM-modelling to characterise the local site effects. The resulting sediment thickness model

  17. Seismic microzonation and velocity models of El Ejido area (SE Spain) from the diffuse-field H/V method

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Navarro, Manuel; Piña-Flores, José; Luzón, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Aranda, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    El Ejido town is located in the Campo de Dalías coastal plain (Almería province, SE Spain), emplaced in one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. The municipality has 84000 inhabitants and presented a high growth rate during the last twenty years. The most recent intense seismic activity occurred close to this town was in 1993 and 1994, with events of Mb = 4.9 and Mb = 5.0, respectively. To provide a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, we first carried out a seismic microzonation of this town in terms of predominant periods and geotechnical properties. The predominant periods map was obtained from ambient noise observations on a grid of 250 x 250 m in the main urban area, and sparser measurements on the outskirts. These broad-band records, of about 20 minutes long each, were analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique (H/V). Dispersion curves obtained from two array measurements of ambient noise and borehole data provided additional geophysical information. All the surveyed points in the town were found to have relatively long predominant periods ranging from 0.8 to 2.3 s and growing towards the SE. Secondary high-frequency (> 2Hz) peaks were found at about the 10% of the points only. On the other hand, Vs30 values of 550 - 650 m/s were estimated from the array records, corresponding to cemented sediments and medium-hard rocks. The local S-wave velocity structure has been inverted from the H/V curves for a subset of the measurement sites. We used an innovative full-wavefield method based on the diffuse-wavefield approximation (Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011) combined with the simulated annealing algorithm. Shallow seismic velocities and deep boreholes data were used as constraints. The results show that the low-frequency resonances are related with the impedance contrast between several hundred meters of medium-hard sedimentary rocks (marls and calcarenites) with the stiffer basement of the basin, which dips to the SE. These

  18. Scattering Mechanism Extraction by a Modified Cloude-Pottier Decomposition for Dual Polarization SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual polarization is a typical operational mode of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR. However, few studies have considered the scattering mechanism extraction of dual-polarization SARs. A modified Cloude-Pottier decomposition is proposed to investigate the performance of the scattering mechanism extraction of dual-polarization SARs. It is theoretically demonstrated that only HH-VV SAR can discriminate the three canonical scattering mechanisms from an isotropic surface, horizontal dipole, and isotropic dihedral. Various experiments are conducted using 21 scenes from real datasets acquired by AIRSAR, Convair-580 SAR, EMISAR, E-SAR, Pi-SAR, and RADARSAT-2. Division of the dual-polarization H-α plane is experimentally obtained. The lack of cross-polarization induces the diffusion of scattering mechanisms and their overlap in the HH-VV H-α plane. However, the performance of HH-VV SAR for extracting scattering mechanisms is acceptable. Thus, HH-VV SAR is a suitable alternative to full-polarization SAR in certain cases. Meanwhile, the extraction performance of the other two dual-polarization SARs is badly degraded due to the lack of co-polarization. Therefore, HH-HV and HV-VV SARs cannot effectively extract the scattering mechanisms in the H-α plane.

  19. Measurement of Ballooning Gap Size of Irradiated Fuels Using Neutron Radiography Transfer Method and HV Image Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Tae Joo; Oh, Hwa Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Cheol [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A transfer method of neutron radiography was developed to measure the size of the end plug and a gap of an intact K102L-2, the irradiated fuel of a ballooned K174L-3, a ballooned and ruptured K98L-3. A typical irradiation time of 25 min. was determined to obtain a film density of between 2 and 3 of SR X-ray film with neutrons of 1.5x10{sup 11}n{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. To validate and calibrate the results, a RISO fuel standard sample, Cd plate and ASTM-BPI/SI were used. An activated latent image formed in the 100 {mu}m Dy foil was subsequently transferred in a dark room for more than 8 hours to the SR film which is a maximum of three half-lives. Due to the L/D ratio an unsharpness of 9.82-14{mu}m and a magnification of 1.0003 were given. After digitizing an image of SR film, the ballooning gap of the plug was discernible by an H/V filter of image processing. The gap size of the ballooned element, K174L-3, is equal to or greater than 1.2 mm. The development of a transfer method played a pivotal role in developing high burn-up of Wolsung and PWR nuclear fuel type.

  20. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miucci, A; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Rosa, A.La; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J.C.; Liu, J; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C050642014 JINST 9 C05064 A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation a...

  1. A computer code for forward calculation and inversion of the H/V spectral ratio under the diffuse field assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Piña-Flores, José; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    During a quarter of a century, the main characteristics of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise HVSRN have been extensively used for site effect assessment. In spite of the uncertainties about the optimum theoretical model to describe these observations, over the last decade several schemes for inversion of the full HVSRN curve for near surface surveying have been developed. In this work, a computer code for forward calculation of H/V spectra based on the diffuse field assumption (DFA) is presented and tested. It takes advantage of the recently stated connection between the HVSRN and the elastodynamic Green's function which arises from the ambient noise interferometry theory. The algorithm allows for (1) a natural calculation of the Green's functions imaginary parts by using suitable contour integrals in the complex wavenumber plane, and (2) separate calculation of the contributions of Rayleigh, Love, P-SV and SH waves as well. The stability of the algorithm at high frequencies is preserved by means of an adaptation of the Wang's orthonormalization method to the calculation of dispersion curves, surface-waves medium responses and contributions of body waves. This code has been combined with a variety of inversion methods to make up a powerful tool for passive seismic surveying.

  2. A computer code for forward calculation and inversion of the H/V spectral ratio under the diffuse field assumption

    CERN Document Server

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    During a quarter of a century, the main characteristics of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise HVSRN have been extensively used for site effect assessment. In spite of the uncertainties about the optimum theoretical model to describe these observations, several schemes for inversion of the full HVSRN curve for near surface surveying have been developed over the last decade. In this work, a computer code for forward calculation of H/V spectra based on the diffuse field assumption (DFA) is presented and tested.It takes advantage of the recently stated connection between the HVSRN and the elastodynamic Green's function which arises from the ambient noise interferometry theory. The algorithm allows for (1) a natural calculation of the Green's functions imaginary parts by using suitable contour integrals in the complex wavenumber plane, and (2) separate calculation of the contributions of Rayleigh, Love, P-SV and SH waves as well. The stability of the algorithm at high frequencies is preserv...

  3. Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers%Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6Gas Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jingwei; GUO Jin; DENG Xiang'e

    2013-01-01

    The design technology for HV SF6 gas circuit breakers is very demanding.A numerical method for prediction of the thermal interruption capability of SF6 gas circuit breakers is established based on the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model and a commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) software,FLUENT.Nozzle ablation effect is considered by introducing an independent mass conservation equation for the ablated material to the overall conservation equations of mass,momentum,and energy.The ohmic heating and the radiation of the electric arc are considered in the model by adding relevant source terms.To predict the thermal interruption capability,the arc conductance 200 ns before current zero is used as an indicator.The CFD model is applied for the high current arcing phase,and Mayr arc model is used near the current zero period.The arc conductance at 200 ns before current zero(G200) for various arcing periods are computed by the present method.It shows that there exist a limit of the G200.For those whose arcing periods are within the arcing window,the related G200 are below the limit,therefore result a successful current interruption,and vice versa.The validation of the developed computer simulation tool is therefore verified.The numerical prediction by the simulation tool is verified by the direct interrupting test of 550 kV gas circuit breaker (GCB).The developed computer simulation tool was applied in the design of a 550 kV GCB.Significant benefits have been achieved in terms of both the cost saving and shorten of the development cycle.

  4. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s−1·mM−1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s−1·mM−1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases. PMID:28208765

  5. 高压交联电缆材料及工艺发展综述%A Review about Development of HV XLPE Cable Materials and Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳本红; 华明; 邓显波

    2016-01-01

    The history of production and application of HV XLPE cables was reviewed. The influence of the content, shape, and dielectric parameters of impurity in materials, interfacial smoothness between insu-lation layer and semiconductive shielding layer, and manufacturing process on the performance of cables was analyzed. The progress of HV cables technology was reviewed from materials and processes, and the development direction of performance and technology improvement for HV cables was proposed.%回顾了高压交联聚乙烯(XLPE)电缆的生产和应用历史,分析了材料中杂质含量、形状、介电参数、绝缘层与半导电屏蔽层界面光滑程度和电缆制造工艺对电缆性能的影响,从材料和工艺两个方面对高压电缆技术的进展进行了综述,并展望了高压交联电缆绝缘性能提升和技术进步的发展方向。

  6. Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, Tomá; Kalous, Luká; Vesel, Tomá; Krásová, Eva; Reschová, Stanislava; Rylková, Katerˇina; Kulich, Pavel; L, Miloslav Petrt; Pokorová, Dagmar; Knytl, Martin

    2012-12-27

    From 22 May to 10 June 2011 massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio was observed in alluvial Lake Řehacˇka close to the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. More than 1400 kg of dead fish were collected and no other fish species were affected. Further molecular and cytogenetic investigation of fish (n = 232) revealed that the Rˇehacˇka population of Prussian carp consisted exclusively of gynogenetic triploid females. The causative agent was identified by means of molecular and electron microscopy as a herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2). This is the first report of CyHV-2 from the Czech Republic and the second finding worldwide of CyHV-2 causing mass mortality of C. gibelio. Some other localities in the upper Elbe River basin where C. gibelio was affected are also noted. We assume that the massive wave of deaths of all female gynogenetic Prussian carp can be attributed to limited genetic variation and the favourable conditions for development of viral disease.

  7. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...... interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we...... suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling...

  8. BACKGROUND TRACK DENSITY REDUCTION OF 50-HZ-HV ECE-PROCESSED THICK POLYCARBONATE DETECTORS TO IMPROVE LOWER DETECTION LIMIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Hakimi, A; Soltani, Z

    2016-12-01

    A recent novel development of 50-Hz-HV ECE of 1-mm-thick and 250-µm-thick polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) has proved some promising results for some health physics, dosimetry and ion-beam-related applications. The method while proved having some good characteristics for some applications provided a relatively higher background track density (BGTD) in particular when very high voltages are applied to the PCTDs. In order to decrease the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the PCTDs and to further promote its applications for low dose, the BGTD was reduced by applying a layer removal methodology applying ethylendiamine (EDA). The effects of EDA concentrations (50, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 %) in water at room temperature (26°C) and soaking durations up to 100 min at different EDA concentration on BGTD reduction were studied. The thickness of the layer removed from the surface of a PCTD highly depends on the soaking time and EDA concentration; it increases as the EDA concentration increases up to for example 700 µm after 2 h of soaking in the EDA solution. After ∼10 min of soaking duration at any of the above-stated concentrations, the BGTD reaches its minimum value, a value which differs from concentration to concentration. An EDA concentration of 85 % in water provided the lowest BGTD of 64.06 ± 3.12 tracks cm(- 2); ∼6 times lower than that of its original value. It is shown that the layer removal process does not change the registration characteristics of the PCTD and its appearance significantly. The MDL of the PCTDs depends strongly on the BGTD. The MDL values for a desired confidence level were also studied by three calculation methods. The results of the BGTD and the MDL studies under different conditions applied are presented and discussed.

  9. SAK -HV 蛋白通过上调 ABCG5/ABCG8的表达降低胆固醇的吸收%SAK-HV Protein Inhibits Cholesterol Absorption through Up -regulation of ABCG5/ABCG8 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁敏; 王旻; 付文亮; 蔡贵玲; 徐东刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms through that SAK-HV protein reduces cholesterol level.Methods We admin-istrated high fat fed ApoE-/-C57 mice with SAK-HV protein of 0.5mg/kg concentration.Blood lipid levels were analysed in enzymic method.qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the small intestinal.To see whether the cholesterol absorption in the caco-2, cells was inhibited by SAK-HV protein.We pretreated the cells with SAK-HV protein of 100μg/ml concentration at different time followed by examination of the changes of cholesterol absorption in these SAK-HV-treated cells.Fi-nally we determined whether SAK-HV protein affects the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 by both Western blot analysis and qPCR quantification.Results SAK-HV protein can reduce serum cholesterol levels of high fat fed ApoE-/-C57 mice and up-regulate the ex-pression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 at both mRNA and protein level in the small intestine.The SAK-HV protein can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in caco-2 cells and up-regulate the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 at both mRNA and protein level.Conclusion SAK-HV protein inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption through up-regulation of ABCG5 and ABCG8 expression.%目的:通过动物实验和体外细胞实验探讨SAK-HV蛋白降胆固醇的机制。方法以0.5mg/kg浓度的SAK-HV蛋白治疗高脂喂养的ApoE-/-C57小鼠,酶法检测ApoE-/-C57小鼠血脂水平,定量PCR法( real-time quantitative PCR,qPCR)和蛋白质印迹( Western blot)法检测小肠ABCG5和ABCG8 mRNA和蛋白的表达水平。100μg/ml的SAK-HV蛋白作用caco-2细胞不同时间后,NBD胆固醇作为荧光探针检测SAK-HV蛋白对caco-2细胞胆固醇吸收的影响,q-PCR和Western blot法检测SAK-HV蛋白对caco-2细胞ABCG5和ABCG8 mRNA和蛋白表达水平的影响。结果 SAK-HV蛋白可以降低高脂喂养的ApoE-/-C57小鼠的血清胆固醇

  10. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  11. Voltage-dependent BK and Hv1 channels expressed in non-excitable tissues: New therapeutics opportunities as targets in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Francisco J; Saravia, Julia; Pontigo, Juan Pablo; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Lorenzo, Yenisleidy; Castillo, Karen; Tilegenova, Cholpon; Cuello, Luis G; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are the molecular determinants of cellular excitability. This group of ion channels is one of the most important pharmacological targets in excitable tissues such as nervous system, cardiac and skeletal muscle. Moreover, voltage-gated ion channels are expressed in non-excitable cells, where they mediate key cellular functions through intracellular biochemical mechanisms rather than rapid electrical signaling. This review aims at illustrating the pharmacological impact of these ion channels, highlighting in particular the structural details and physiological functions of two of them - the high conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-gated K(+) (BK) channels and voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels- in non-excitable cells. BK channels have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes ranging from regulation of smooth muscle tone to modulation of hormone and neurotransmitter release. Interestingly, BK channels are also involved in modulating K(+) transport in the mammalian kidney and colon epithelium with a potential role in the hyperkalemic phenotype observed in patients with familial hyperkalemic hypertension type 2, and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. In addition, BK channels are responsible for resting and stimulated Ca(2+)-activated K(+) secretion in the distal colon. Hv1 channels have been detected in many cell types, including macrophages, blood cells, lung epithelia, skeletal muscle and microglia. These channels have a central role in the phagocytic system. In macrophages, Hv1 channels participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the respiratory burst during the process of phagocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inversion of H/V in layered media from seismic ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory and on improved calculation of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is widely used to assess the dominant frequency of soil sites. Measurements are relatively simple as only one station is needed. It has been recently proposed a theoretical basis linking ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory. In this theory the directional energy density computed as the average spectral density of motion at a point, is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function at the observation point. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In order to efficiently compute the imaginary part of Green's functions in a layered medium we start from an integral on the complex k plane and, using Harkrider's nomenclature, separate formulae for body-, Rayleigh-, and Love-wave components to the spectral densities are obtained. Then the poles allow for integration using the Cauchy residue theorem plus some contributions from branch integrals. It is possible to isolate pseudo reflections from ImG11 and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (from an a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V )2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer controls the slope in high frequency. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the estimate of ImG11 will be improved. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712, by the MINECO research project CGL2010-16250, Spain, by the EU with FEDER, and the AXA Research Fund.

  13. Investigation of the attenuation properties of the HV board grid of electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchung der Daempfungseigenschaften des Hochvoltbordnetzes in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obholz, Martin; Baerenfaenger, Joerg [EMC Test NRW GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Maarleveld, Marc; Hirsch, Holger [Duisburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energietransport und -speicherung

    2012-11-01

    Power electronics components with transient switching processes cause AC components in the HV on-board supply system, with current and voltage harmonics with frequencies in the two-digit MHz range. Depending on their length and design, the HV lines can act as effective antenna structures. It is already common to shield HV lines for better EMP but the shield should be continued also in the connected casings. Material characteristics must be considered for weight and cost optimisation. For this reason, shield attenuation dimensions are calculated for exemplary casings for the frequency ranges that are relevant in electromobility. Afater this, the intrinsic sheild attenuation values of three different materials are measured in the frequency range of 10 - 100 MHz, and their relevance for applications in electormobility is assessed. The coaxial HV lines differ from other coaxial lines in their system characteristics; coupling attenuation and transfer impedance are important characteristics. To measure these characteristics, measuring tools must be adapted to the concrete applications. The methodology and the identified characteristics are discussed in detail. [German] Baugruppen der Leistungselektronik mit transienten Schaltvorgaengen verursachen Wechselspannungsanteile im Hochvoltbordnetz, die Strom- und Spannungsoberschwingungen mit Frequenzauspraegungen bis in den zweistelligen MHz-Bereich zeigen. Die Hochvoltleitungen koennen dann abhaengig von Laenge und Ausfuehrung als effektive Antennenstrukturen agieren. Zur Einhaltung der elektromagnetischen Vertraeglichkeit, werden bereits Schirmungen der Hochvoltleitungen eingesetzt. Jedoch muss fuer eine effektive elektromagnetische Entkopplung die Schirmung auch in den angeschlossenen Gehaeusen konsequent weitergefuehrt werden. Hierbei sind materialspezifische Anforderungen zu beachten, die Gewichts- und Kostenoptimierungen unterliegen. Daher wird fuer die in der Elektromobilitaet relevanten Frequenzbereiche eine

  14. Microtremor measurements in the northern coast of İzmir Bay, Turkey to evaluate site-specific characteristics and fundamental periods by H/V spectral ratio method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuğba Eskişar; Şenol Özyalin; Mehmet Kuruoğlu; H Recep Yilmaz

    2013-02-01

    Seventy-two microtremor measurements were conducted in the northern coast of İzmir Bay. The dataset has been processed using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The fundamental period contour map obtained showed that the fundamental period at rock sites of the northern coast of İzmir Bay was between 0.15 and 0.35 s. However, the fundamental period increased towards the western direction where thick soft sediments exist, the fundamental period varied between 0.5 and 2.0 s. A soil classification map of the area was prepared based on the data estimated from SPT- values of 25 boreholes. It is seen that major portion of the study area, including the shore line of the northern coast had SPT- values lower than 15. The fundamental periods obtained by H/V spectral ratio method and the periods derived from shear wave velocity data available in 11 of 25 boreholes were well-correlated. Fundamental period map obtained from H/V spectral ratio method illustrated the characteristics of weak soil conditions and the presence of bedrock level under thick alluvial soils. Finally, microtremor investigations have proved to be an effective tool for assessment of local soil conditions in case of thick soft sediments in the northern coast of İzmir Bay.

  15. Bio-Safety Technology in Production of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 (BoHV-5 Using an Alternative Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and growth of bovine herpes virus type 5 (BoHV-5 was evaluated in three different media without foetal bovine serum or animal protein by infecting three different cell lines. The OPTI-PRO, VP-SFM and RPMI 1640 media were supplemented by L-glutamine, antibiotics added by 5µg of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and used to adapt CER, MDBK and CRIB cells in a statistic continuous culture system. The results obtained by CRIB and MDBK cells adaptation showed steady growth after 10th passages in OPTI-PRO medium, 20th passages in VP-SFM medium and 30th passages in RPMI 1640 medium, respectively. The OPTI-PRO and RPMI 1640 media were not able to support CER growth, even supplemented by IGF-1 and present apoptotic cells at 72h post-infection. The CER cells seeded after adaptation by 10th passages in VP-SFM medium added by 5µg/20ml of IGF-1 growth factor revealed the best virus titres compared to MDBK and CRIB cell lines. It was concluded that CER, MDBK and CRIB cells infected by BoHV-5 serotype could be used for laboratory diagnosis propagated on much safer culture system of high biotechnology advances.

  16. Residual Prolapse in Patients with III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids Undergoing Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy with CPH34 HV: Results of an Italian Multicentric Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Reboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CPH34 HV, a high volume stapler, was tested in order to assess its safety and efficacy in reducing residual/recurrent haemorrhoids. The clinical charts of 430 patients with third- to fourth-degree haemorrhoids undergoing SH in 2012-2013 were consecutively reviewed, excluding those with obstructed defecation (rectocele >2 cm; Wexner’s score >15. Follow-up was scheduled at six and 12 months. Rectal prolapse exceeding more than half of CAD was reported in 341 patients (79.3%; one technical failure was reported (0.2% without any serious untoward effect; and 1.3 stitch/patient (SD, 1.7 was required to achieve complete haemostasis. Doughnuts volume was higher (13.8 mL; SD, 1.5 in patients with a large rectal prolapse than with smaller one (8.9 mL; SD, 0.7 (P value <0.05. Residual and recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 8 of 430 patients (1.8% and 5 of 254 patients (1.9%, respectively. A high index of patient satisfaction (visual analogue scale = 8.9; SD, 0.9 coupled with a persistent reduction of constipation scores (CSS = 5.0, SD, 2.2 was observed. The wider prolapse resection well correlated with a clear-cut reduction of haemorrhoidal relapse, a high index of patient satisfaction, and clinically relevant reduction of constipations scores coupled with satisfactory haemostatic properties of CPH34 HV.

  17. HvLUX1 is a candidate gene underlying the early maturity 10 locus in barley: phylogeny, diversity, and interactions with the circadian clock and photoperiodic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Pankin, Artem; Drosse, Benedikt; Casao, Cristina M; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiodic flowering is a major factor determining crop performance and is controlled by interactions between environmental signals and the circadian clock. We proposed Hvlux1, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis circadian gene LUX ARRHYTHMO, as a candidate underlying the early maturity 10 (eam10) locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The link between eam10 and Hvlux1 was discovered using high-throughput sequencing of enriched libraries and segregation analysis. We conducted functional, phylogenetic, and diversity studies of eam10 and HvLUX1 to understand the genetic control of photoperiod response in barley and to characterize the evolution of LUX-like genes within barley and across monocots and eudicots. We demonstrate that eam10 causes circadian defects and interacts with the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 to accelerate flowering under long and short days. The results of phylogenetic and diversity analyses indicate that HvLUX1 was under purifying selection, duplicated at the base of the grass clade, and diverged independently of LUX-like genes in other plant lineages. Taken together, these findings contribute to improved understanding of the barley circadian clock, its interaction with the photoperiod pathway, and evolution of circadian systems in barley and across monocots and eudicots.

  18. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, B. T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Peric, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  19. Polyphasic characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (p(HB-co-HV)) metabolizing and denitrifying Acidovorax sp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloe, K; Gillis, M; Hoste, B; Pot, B; Vancanneyt, M; Mergaert, J; Swings, J; Biedermann, J; Süssmuth, R

    2000-10-01

    For the purpose of denitrification in small drinking water plants, a bacterial mixed population was isolated from a packed bed column bioreactor with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) as a substrate for the denitrification of ground water (10 degrees C). Isolates 2nIII from the mixed culture, with the ability to denitrify and metabolize P(HB-co-HV), were used as starter cultures for the elimination of nitrate in ground water. The strains were characterized by diverse techniques. Classical phenotypic studies lead to rRNA group III of the genus Pseudomonas. Results obtained by molecular techniques demonstrated that the 2nIII strains are members of the Comamonadaceae and shows similarities to the genus Acidovorax. However, an integration of the 2nIII isolates within one of the known Acidovorax species is not possible for the moment. The 2nIII starter cultures clustered close to Av. temperans according to their whole cell proteins and fatty acids, whereas in DNA/DNA hybridization no significant DNA binding (< 25%) was found. In contrast a significant but low degree of DNA/DNA hybridization was found between the 2nIII strains and Av. facilis and Av. delafieldii. Our polyphasic results lead to the conclusion that the 2nIII strains may constitute a separate Acicdovorax species.

  20. Role of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) during meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Aline; Freitas Versiani, Alice; Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Larissa; Silva de Miranda, Aline; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Brant, Fátima; Silva, Daniele Gonçalves; Luisa Quintino-de-Carvalho, Iracema; Marianetti Soriani, Frederico; Guimarães da Fonseca, Flávio; César Vasconcelos, Anilton; da Silva Barcelos, Lucíola; Martins Teixeira, Mauro; Lúcio Teixeira, Antônio; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2016-08-01

    The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) was evaluated by intracranial infection in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and SOCS2 deficient mice (SOCS2(-/-)). Both infected groups presented weight loss, ruffled fur and hunched posture. Additionally, infected SOCS2(-/-) mice showed swollen chamfer and progressive depression. Infected WT animals developed mild meningitis, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells. Moreover, viral DNA was detected in liver and lung from infected WT group. This group also showed elevated brain levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with non-infected WT animals. Brain inflammation was exacerbated in infected SOCS2(-/-) mice with widespread distribution of the virus and increased brain levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with WT infected mice. Moreover, infected SOCS2 deficient mice exhibited reduced brain mRNA expression of IFNα and IFNβ and increased expression of mRNA of SOCS1, compared with infected WT mice. Taken together, our study provides an insight into the role of SOCS2 in modulating the immune response to BoHV-5 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The potential role of cobalt ions released from metal prosthesis on the inhibition of Hv1 proton channels and the decrease in Staphyloccocus epidermidis killing by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Samira; El Chemaly, Antoun; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Bernard, Louis; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a devastating complication of metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty (THA). Neutrophils are the first line of defense against infection, and these innate immune cells are potentially exposed to Co(2+) ions released in the peri-prosthetic tissue by the wear of MM THA. The toxicity of Co(2+) is still debated, but Co(2+) is a potential inhibitor of the Hv1 proton channel that sustains the production of superoxide by neutrophils. In this study, we show that the Co(2+) concentration in peri-prosthetic tissue from patients with MM THA averages 53 μM and that such high concentrations of Co(2+) alter the antibacterial activity of human neutrophils in vitro by inhibiting Hv1 proton channels. We show that submillimolar concentrations of Co(2+) inhibit proton currents, impair the extrusion of cytosolic acid, and decrease the production of superoxide in human neutrophils. As a result, Co(2+) reduces the ability of human neutrophils to kill two strains of Staphyloccocus epidermidis by up to 7-fold at the maximal concentration tested of 100 μM Co(2+). By inhibiting proton channels, the Co(2+) ions released by metal prostheses might therefore promote bacterial infections in patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

  2. Residual Prolapse in Patients with III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids Undergoing Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy with CPH34 HV: Results of an Italian Multicentric Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboa, Giuliano; Gipponi, Marco; Rattaro, Andrea; Ciotta, Giovanni; Tarantello, Marco; Caviglia, Angelo; Pagliazzo, Antonio; Masoni, Luigi; Caldarelli, Giuseppe; Gaj, Fabio; Masci, Bruno; Verdi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    CPH34 HV, a high volume stapler, was tested in order to assess its safety and efficacy in reducing residual/recurrent haemorrhoids. The clinical charts of 430 patients with third- to fourth-degree haemorrhoids undergoing SH in 2012-2013 were consecutively reviewed, excluding those with obstructed defecation (rectocele >2 cm; Wexner's score >15). Follow-up was scheduled at six and 12 months. Rectal prolapse exceeding more than half of CAD was reported in 341 patients (79.3%); one technical failure was reported (0.2%) without any serious untoward effect; and 1.3 stitch/patient (SD, 1.7) was required to achieve complete haemostasis. Doughnuts volume was higher (13.8 mL; SD, 1.5) in patients with a large rectal prolapse than with smaller one (8.9 mL; SD, 0.7) (P value <0.05). Residual and recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 8 of 430 patients (1.8%) and 5 of 254 patients (1.9%), respectively. A high index of patient satisfaction (visual analogue scale = 8.9; SD, 0.9) coupled with a persistent reduction of constipation scores (CSS = 5.0, SD, 2.2) was observed. The wider prolapse resection well correlated with a clear-cut reduction of haemorrhoidal relapse, a high index of patient satisfaction, and clinically relevant reduction of constipations scores coupled with satisfactory haemostatic properties of CPH34 HV.

  3. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  4. Soil characterization in urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin (Southeast Spain) using H/V, F-K and ESAC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Cintas, S.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Molina-Palacios, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; García-Fernández, M.; Jiménez, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Bajo Segura Basin, placed in the south of Alicante province (southeast Spain), is a region of moderate seismicity, which presents frequent seismic episodes. This region, as the rest of south-eastern part of Spain, is growing both economically and demographically. Hence, the presence of soft soils in a seismic region where many towns and villages are placed shows the importance of an adequate characterization of the site effects study in this area. The present work investigates the use of noise measurements for soil characterization by the application of H/V method and array techniques: extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) and frequency-wave number (F-K) in three urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin. The application of these methods will help us to estimate the resonance frequencies, as well as shear-wave velocity profiles, having a better understanding of the sediment depth and site effects phenomena at the studied places. The estimated velocity profiles are used to model the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves and the S-wave site transfer functions. Finally, the correlation between this curves and the experimental H/V analysis has allowed us a better assessment of the site response in the studied areas.

  5. Application of the H/V and SPAC Method to Estimate a 3D Shear Wave Velocity Model, in the City of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. E. A. P.; Aguirre, J.; Vazquez Rosas, R.; Suarez, G.; Contreras Ruiz-Esparza, M. G.; Farraz, I.

    2014-12-01

    Methods that use seismic noise or microtremors have become very useful tools worldwide due to its low costs, the relative simplicity in collecting data, the fact that these are non-invasive methods hence there is no need to alter or even perforate the study site, and also these methods require a relatively simple analysis procedure. Nevertheless the geological structures estimated by this methods are assumed to be parallel, isotropic and homogeneous layers. Consequently precision of the estimated structure is lower than that from conventional seismic methods. In the light of these facts this study aimed towards searching a new way to interpret the results obtained from seismic noise methods. In this study, seven triangular SPAC (Aki, 1957) arrays were performed in the city of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, varying in sizes from 10 to 100 meters. From the autocorrelation between the stations of each array, a Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curve was calculated. Such dispersion curve was used to obtain a S wave parallel layers velocity (VS) structure for the study site. Subsequently the horizontal to vertical ratio of the spectrum of microtremors H/V (Nogoshi and Igarashi, 1971; Nakamura, 1989, 2000) was calculated for each vertex of the SPAC triangular arrays, and from the H/V spectrum the fundamental frequency was estimated for each vertex. By using the H/V spectral ratio curves interpreted as a proxy to the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve, a series of VS structures were inverted for each vertex of the SPAC array. Lastly each VS structure was employed to calculate a 3D velocity model, in which the exploration depth was approximately 100 meters, and had a velocity range in between 206 (m/s) to 920 (m/s). The 3D model revealed a thinning of the low velocity layers. This proved to be in good agreement with the variation of the fundamental frequencies observed at each vertex. With the previous kind of analysis a preliminary model can be obtained as a first

  6. A 3000-year varved record of glacier activity and climate change from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2011-09-01

    A suite of environmental proxies in annually laminated sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in the central highlands of Iceland, are used to reconstruct regional climate variability and glacial activity for the past 3000 years. Sedimentological analysis is supported by tephrostratigraphy to confirm the continuous, annual nature of the laminae, and a master varve chronology places proxies from multiple lake cores in a secure geochronology. Varve thickness is controlled by the rate of glacial erosion and efficiency of subglacial discharge from the adjacent Langjökull ice cap. The continuous presence of glacially derived clastic varves in the sediment fill confirms that the ice cap has occupied the lake catchment for the duration of the record. Varve thickness, varve thickness variance, ice-rafted debris, total organic carbon (mass flux and bulk concentration), and C:N of sedimentary organic matter, reveal a dynamic late Holocene climate with abrupt and large-scale changes in ice-cap size and landscape stability. A first-order trend toward cooler summers and ice-cap expansion is punctuated by notable periods of rapid ice cap growth and/or landscape instability at ca 1000 BC, 600 BC, 550 AD and 1250 AD. The largest perturbation began ca 1250 AD, signaling the onset of the Little Ice Age and the termination of three centuries of relative warmth during Medieval times. Consistent deposition of ice-rafted debris in Hvítárvatn is restricted to the last 250 years, demonstrating that Langjökull only advanced into Hvítárvatn during the coldest centuries of the Little Ice Age, beginning in the mid eighteenth century. This advance represents the glacial maximum for at least the last 3 ka, and likely since regional deglaciation 10 ka. The multi-centennial response of biological proxies to the Hekla 3 tephra deposition illustrates the significant impact of large explosive eruptions on local environments, and catchment sensitivity to perturbations.

  7. Research on genetic diversities of Asiatic beaver (Castor fiber birulai)on mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰin Xinjiang,China%新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜聪聪; 赵晶; 初红军; 刘元超; 端肖楠; 陈刚

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversities of Asiatic beaver(Castor fiber)in Xinjiang was investigated by analyzing the HV-Ⅰsequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop)of 16 individuals from the Ulungur watershed of Xinjiang in China.Results showed that the length of mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of Xinjiang beaver was 569 bp,with nucle-otide frequencies of 27.0%,32.7%,24.0% and 16.2% for A,T,G and C respectively,and the frequencies of A and T was higher than that of G and C,which indicated the preference of nucleotides;that 10 polymorphic sites (2.03% of total analyzed sites) were found in the mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of Xinjiang beaver compared with that (AY623632)of Mongolia beaver,of which there were four transitions sites,five transversions sites and one missing site;that Xinjiang beaver and Mongolia beaver were in one cluster by phylogenetic analyses based on the open mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of beaver in other regions on GenBank,suggesting Xinjiang beaver also belonged to the sub-species of C.f.birulai;that Xinjiang beaver population had two unique haplotypes,whose haplotype diversity(Hd), nucleotide diversity(Pi)and average number of nucleotide differences(K)were 0.233 00 ±0.015 78,0.001 23 ±0.015 90 and 0.700,indicating a low level of genetic diversity,deeply related to its limited environment and human factors.%通过测定和分析我国新疆乌伦古河流域16只河狸的 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区序列,对新疆河狸的遗传多样性进行了研究。结果表明,新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区序列长度为569 bp,A、T、G 和 C 四种核苷酸的平均比例分别为27.0%、32.7%、24.0%和16.2%,新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区 A +T 含量高于 G +C 含量,表现出碱基组成的偏倚性。与蒙古国河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区(AY623632)比对后,发现我国新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区10个变异位点,占分析位点总数的2.03%,其中转换位点4个,颠换位点5个,缺失位点1

  8. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 inactivated vaccine Eficácia de uma vacina inativada, gE-deletada, contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D. Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE-deleted virus (265gE-. In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50 of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 é reconhecido como um importante agente de perdas econômicas em bovinos. Vacinação tem sido amplamente empregada para minimizar as perdas conseqüentes a infecções com o BoHV-1. Reportamos previamente o desenvolvimento de uma vacina

  9. REEVALUATION OF EXISTING GROUND STRUCTURE MODEL GAINED THROUGH MICROTREMOR ARRAY METHOD BY USING FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF MODEL SURVEIED THROUGH H/V SPECTRUM - ON GROUND STRUCTURE OF FUKUI PLAIN -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yuzuru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Takao

    In order to reduce discrepancies between ground models based on the microtremor array observation in Fukui Plain and models by the H/V survey method and gravity analysis, the existing array ground models were reevaluated. The representative of the dispersion curves was selected so as to fit a theoretical fundamental mode dispersion curve of the H/V ground model. By using the method of selection, a reasonable reevaluation became possible. As a result the correspondences among the three models were much improved as a whole, but in the edge site of the Plain the differences against the gravity model are not reduced.

  10. Readout electronics for low dark count Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E; Arbat, A; Alonso, O; Vila, A; Dieguez, A [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, A; Trenado, J; Gascon, D; Garrido, L, E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This work presents low noise readout circuits for silicon pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes. Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. In addition, they can be compatible with standard CMOS technologies. However, they suffer from a high intrinsic noise, which induces false counts indistinguishable from real events and represents an increase of the readout electronics area to store the false counts. We have developed new front-end electronic circuitry for Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in a conventional 0.35 {mu}m HV-CMOS technology based on a gated mode of operation that allows low noise operation. The performance of the pixel detector is triggered and synchronized with the particle beam thanks to the gated acquisition. The circuits allow low reverse bias overvoltage operation which also improves the noise figures. Experimental characterization of the fabricated front-end circuit is presented in this work.

  11. Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by the barley cystatin Hv-CPI (gene Icy) is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M; López-Solanilla, E; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P; Carbonero, P; Díaz, I

    2003-10-01

    The recombinant barley cystatin Hv-CPI inhibited the growth of three phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum graminicola, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina) and the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma viride. Several mutants of barley cystatin were generated by polymerase chain reaction approaches and both their antifungal and their cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties investigated. Point mutants R38-->G, Q63-->L, and Q63-->P diminished their capacity for inhibiting papain and cathepsin B, retaining their antifungal properties. However, mutant C68-->G was more active for papain and cathepsin B than the wild type. These results indicate that in addition to the consensus cystatin-reactive site, Q63-V64-V65-A66-G67, the A37-R38-F39-A40-V41 region, common to all cereal cystatins, and the C68 residue are important for barley cystatin activity. On the other hand, the K92-->P mutant is inactive as a fungicide, but still retains measurable inhibitory activity for papain and cathepsin B. Against B. cinerea, the antifungal effect of Hv-CPI and of its derived mutants does not always correlate with their activities as proteinase inhibitors, because the Q63-->P mutant is inactive as a cystatin, while still inhibiting fungal growth, and the K92-->P mutant shows the reciprocal effects. These data indicate that inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by barley cystatin is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory activity. Moreover, these results are corroborated by the absence of inhibition of intra- and extramycelia-proteinase activities by barley cystatin and by other well-known inhibitors of cysteine-proteinase activity in the fungal zymograms of B. cinerea.

  12. Evaluation of local site effect in the western side of the Suez Canal area by applying H/V and MASW techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Hassoup, Awad; Helal, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The soft sediments are one of the most important factors responsible for the amplification of the seismic ground motion in an area of study. Three components, single-station microtremor measurements were performed at 61 sites along the Suez Canal to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil and corresponding H/V amplitude ratios by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. We have applied the investigations of the shear wave velocity for supplementing the existing seismic microzonation of the Suez Canal. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) tests were done along the Suez Canal in the three cities, Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said using 24 channels digital engineering seismograph with 4.5 Hz geophones from September 2014 to January 2015 to get the shear wave velocity VS30. The SeisImager/SW software was used for analyzing the data, and 1D-shear wave velocity model have achieved for each site. The HVSR curves show that the fundamental frequency values are ranging from 0.57 to 1.08 Hz, and H/V amplitude ratios are ranging from 4.05 to 6.46. The average values of VS30 are (548, 301), (241, 319), (194, 110, 238) for Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said respectively. The average of shear wave velocity up to 30 m depth is estimated and used for site classification based on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification. The majority of the sites was classified as Class D (stiff soil) except one site at Port Said city is classified as Class E (soft soils), and another site in the Suez city is classified as Class C (hard rock).

  13. Field evaluation of safety during gestation and horizontal spread of a recombinant differential bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 vaccine Avaliação a campo da segurança para vacas prenhes e capacidade de disseminação horizontal de uma vacina diferencial recombinante contra o Herpes-vírus Bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of respiratory, reproductive disease and abortion in cattle. Vaccination is widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections; however, vaccination of dams during pregnancy with modified live virus (MLV vaccines has been occasionally associated to abortions. We have previously reported the development of a BoHV-1 recombinant virus, constructed with basis on a Brazilian BoHV-1 (Franco et al. 2002a from which the gene coding for glycoprotein E (gE was deleted (gE- by genetic manipulation. Such recombinant has been previously evaluated in its potential as a differential vaccine (gE- vaccine that allows differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Here, in the first part of the present study, the safety of the gE- vaccine during pregnancy was evaluated by the intramuscular inoculation of 10(7.4 tissue culture 50 % infective doses (TCID50 of the virus into 22 pregnant dams (14 BoHV-1 seronegative; 8 seropositive, at different stages of gestation. Other 15 pregnant dams were kept as non-vaccinated controls. No abortions, stillbirths or fetal abnormalities were seen after vaccination. Seroconversion was observed in both groups of previously seronegative vaccinated animals. In the second part of the study, the potential of the gE- vaccine virus to spread among beef cattle under field conditions was examined. Four heifers were inoculated intranasally with a larger amount (10(7,6 TCID50 of the gE- vaccine (to increase chances of transmission and mixed with other sixteen animals at the same age and body condition, in the same grazing area, at a population density equal to the average cattle farming density within the region (one cattle head per 10,000 m², for 180 days. All animals were monitored daily for clinical signs. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 180 post-vaccination. Seroconversion was observed only in vaccinated heifers. These results

  14. PE/PVC materials in HV cable jackets. Breakdown voltage of PE/PVC materials; PE/PVC-Materialien in Aussenmaenteln von Hochspannungskabeln. Durchschlagspannung von PE/PVC-Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Xu, Liang; Schufft, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik

    2010-12-13

    Cables are spaced across increasingly longer distances in HV engineering. Integration of offshore wind farms and the construction of new transmission and distribution grids would be impossible without cables. Voltages and overvoltages in operation are managed according to international standards using overvoltage protection systems. However, there may be instances in which voltage occur that exceed the strength of the cable jacket. (orig.)

  15. Case note: HvJ EU (rolnr. C-131/12: Google Spain and Google Inc. tegen Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) and Costeja González)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.V.J.

    2014-01-01

    De uitspraak betreft de verplichtingen van aanbieders van zoekmachines op het internet met betrekking tot de verwerking van persoonsgegevens in zoekresultaten. Het HvJ EU beoordeelt deze vraag in het licht van het recht aangaande bescherming van persoonsgegevens, waarbij de door het EU Handvest besc

  16. Spectral ratios of ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory: Improved inversion of H/V in layered media using analytical properties of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Piña, J.; Luzón, F.; Garcia-Jerez, A.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is well know the popularity of H/V spectral ratio to extract the dominant frequency of soil sites for microzonation studies (Nakamura, 1989). It is relatively easy to make measurements as only one station is needed. Despite its success, this approach had not solid theoretical basis until a proposal to link ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory was made (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011a). Based on this theory the average spectral density of a given motion of a point, also called directional energy density (Perton et al, 2009), is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function precisely at the observation point. The proportionality implies that vector components are all multiplied by the current spectral level of the diffuse illumination. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio of ImG11 and ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. From ImG11 it could be possible through Fourier analysis to extract pseudo reflections and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We propose to assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (obtained from a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V)2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the most relevant property is the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer which controls the slope in high frequency (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011b). Pseudo-reflection seismograms are thus obtained from Fourier transform, back to time domain, of i{ImG11-ImG11HSS}, where ImG11HSS is the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal load at the surface of a half-space with the properties of the uppermost layer. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the

  17. 3D model of Campo de Dalías basement from H/V spectral ratio of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Luzón, Francisco; Navarro, Manuel; Molina, Luis; Aranda, Carolina; Piña-Flores, José; Navarro, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Campo de Dalías is a large coastal plain in the southeastern mountain front of the Betic Cordillera (SE of the Iberian Peninsula), being one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. This area has a population of about 213.000 inhabitants, with a high growth rate during the last decades due to the development of intensive agricultural activities. Seismic risk assessment and hydrogeological issues are major topics of interest for this area, relaying on the knowledge of the geophysical properties of the basin. A passive seismic survey has been conducted throughout the basin. We have recorded ambient noise at 340 sites located approximately on the vertexes of a 1000 x 1000 m square grid, as well as around a set of deep boreholes reaching the Triassic basement. These broad-band records, of at least 45 minutes long each, have been analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method (H/V). The spectral analysis shows clear H/V peaks with periods ranging from 0.3 s to 4 s, approximately, associated to relevant contrasts in S-wave velocity (Vs) at depth. Simulations based on the diffuse field approach (Sánchez-Sesma et al. 2011) show that long periods are explained by the effect of several hundred meters of soft sedimentary rocks (mainly Miocene marls). Well-developed high-frequency secondary peaks have been found in some specific zones (e.g. N of Roquetas de Mar town). Then, fundamental frequencies and basement depths at borehole sites have been fitted by means of a power law, which can be applied down to 900 - 970m. Larger depths are estimated by extrapolation. This relationship has been used to map the basement (main Vs contrast) throughout the plain. The prospected basement model describes well the main structural features of this smoothly folded region, namely, the El Ejido Synform and the Guardias Viejas Antiform, with ENE-WSW-trend. These features are shifted toward the south in comparison with Pedrera et al. (2015). The homogeneous

  18. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  19. Large proper motion of the Thorne-\\.Zytkow object candidate HV 2112 reveals its likely nature as foreground Galactic S-star

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Using the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) catalog, we show that the candidate Thorne-\\.Zytkow object HV~2112 has a proper motion implying a space velocity of about 3000\\kms if the object is located at the distance of the Small Magellanic Cloud. The proper motion is statistically different from that of the SMC at approximately $4\\sigma$ in SPM, although the result can drop to about $3\\sigma$ significance by including the UCAC4 data and considering systematic uncertainties in addition to the statistical ones. Assuming the measurement is robust, this proper motion is sufficient to exclude its proposed membership of the Small Magellanic Cloud and to argue instead that it is likely to be a foreground star in the Milky Way halo. The smaller distance and therefore lower brightness argue against its proposed nature as a Thorne-\\.Zytkow object (the hypothesized star-like object formed when a normal star and a neutron star merge) or a super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Instead we propose a binary scenario where thi...

  20. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  1. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  2. Cross-polarization endoscopic optical coherence tomography in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, E. V.; Gladkova, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Streltsova, O. S.; Ledayev, D. S.; Atduev, V. A.; Balandina, E. V.; Snopova, L. B.

    2009-02-01

    We present results obtained using a two-channel portable device for CP OCT based on the polarization-maintaining fiber. The device is capable of acquiring OCT images of the object in direct and orthogonal polarizations simultaneously. The OCT system has an endoscopic forward-looking probe (2.7 mm in diameter). The CP OCT imaging was done in 64 postoperative specimens, for 30 patients during cystoscopy with suspicion of urothelial neoplasia, and for 11 patients with prostatectomy due to cancer. After surgery in the tissue specimen we immediately introduced surgical suture and investigated a bladder wall by CP OCT. When comparing OCT images and histology slides we can distinguish tissue layers based on position of the suture material. CP OCT images were compared with histological data. Special staining - Sirius Red for collagen types was applied. OCT -visualization of sympathetic nerve was made during open surgery. We found, that a strong signal in orthogonal polarization is produced by structures consisting of Type I collagen. We demonstrated that endoscopic benign and early malignant pathological processes that cannot be detected by standard OCT may be differentiated by CP OCT. Sympathetic nerve of neurovascular bundle gives a strong signal in both polarizations: direct and orthogonal. Based on these CP OCT features we can visualize nerve during operation (open or endoscopic surgery) and thus preserve it.

  3. Detección de anticuerpos para BVDV y BoHV-1 en llamas de la región de Tandil - Provincia de Buenos Aires Detection of antibodies to BVDV and BoHV-1 in llamas from Tandil - Province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Morán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La llama (Lama glama es la especie predominante de camélidos sudamericanos de la República Argentina, con una población aproximada de 200.000 animales. El aumento de la actividad productiva ha incrementado el transporte y la distribución de animales hacia diferentes regiones del país. Como consecuencia, estas especies interactúan con el ganado doméstico posibilitando la diseminación de agentes infecciosos propios y comunes entre especies. Considerando que los camélidos sudamericanos son susceptibles a la infección con pestivirus y herpesvirus, se planteó realizar un relevamiento serológico de anticuerpos neutralizantes para el virus de la diarrea viral bovina (BVDV y el herpesvirus bovino 1 (BoHV-1. Se analizaron 49 animales de dos rebaños de llamas de la región de Tandil mediante la técnica de seroneutralización sobre cultivos celulares de la línea Madin Darby Bovine Kidney. El 22% (11/49 de los animales expresaron seropositividad a BoHV-1, mientras que el 2% (1/49 fue positivo a BVDV. Estos resultados sugieren circulación viral en la población analizada. Es necesario el monitoreo continuo en las poblaciones de estos rumiantes para identificar factores de riesgo involucrados en la epidemiología de estos agentes virales, considerando los potenciales efectos sobre los programas de control y erradicación.Llama (Lama glama is the predominant species of South American camelids in Argentine Republic, with an estimated population of 200.000 animals. The increasing of productive activity raised the animals transport and distribution to different regions of the country. As a result, the direct contact of these species with cattle increase opportunities for spreading own and common infectious agents among species. Considering that American camelids are susceptible to pestivirus and herpesvirus infections, it was proposed to carry out a serological searching of neutralizing antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV and bovine

  4. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties.

  5. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a /GNA in Pichia pastoris : sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Pyati, P.; Fitches, E.; Gatehouse, J A

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast...

  6. HV/EHV circuit breakers status monitoring using the CBW (circuit breaker watcher) system; Monitoramento do estado de disjuntores AT/EAT utilizando o sistema CBW (circuit breaker watcher)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ricardo; Schwarz, Marcos Bernert [Schneider Electric Alta Tensao Ltda., Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: ricardo.duran@vasat.com.br

    2001-07-01

    Taking in consideration the new requirements related with the imposed penalties to the electric sector due to energy supply interruption it is necessary to employ new maintenance techniques. In this direction, a solution is the introduction of digital systems in the substations supervision, facilitating by this way their operation. The introduction of these systems doesn't care if the substation is of the attended type or not. A system that supplies the monitoring of the HV/EHV circuit breaker status can be considered as an important support tool for new techniques of the maintenance in HV/EHV equipment. This document describes the CBW (Circuit Breaker Watcher) system destined to the monitoring of HV/EHV circuit breakers status, with the main objective to monitor the electric characteristics of power supply signals, commands and measurable magnitudes.The text also approaches integrated system through which it is possible to monitor, in a same system, circuit breakers, switchgears, transformers or others required equipment for monitoring.

  7. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  8. 基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法%Capacity Optimization of HV Distribution Lines Based on Load Supply Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 郭寅昌; 刘洪

    2014-01-01

    To reasonably choose current-carrying capacities of HV distribution lines to implement refined planning and intensive construction to select benefiting conductors to reduce invest and increase utilization of supplying equipment, a method to optimize capacity of HV distribution line based on load supply capability analysis is proposed. Firstly, the concepts of power supplying route matrix and operation/wheeling mode vector of main transformer are defined to describe the information of the wireframe of HV distribution network; then based on the analysis of load supply capability of distribution network the minimized demand on capacity of HV distribution line, which makes the load supplying capability of distribution network reaching its limit, is taken as the objective and the constraints are determined through the analysis on normal operation of HV distribution wireframe and N-1 contingency as well as the analysis on operation/wheeling mode and the loop closing of wheeling mode, and then a mathematical model is formed;finally, a modified genetic algorithm is presented and used to solve the proposed optimization model. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method are verified by the calculation of a certain urban distribution network.%为合理选择高压配电线路载流量以实现高压配电网精细化规划和集约型建设,提出一种基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法。首先定义供电路径矩阵和运行/转供方式向量来描述高压配电网网架信息;然后基于配电网供电能力分析,以使配电网供电能力达到极限的最小高压配电线路容量需求为目标,通过配电网高压网架正常运行分析、高压配电线路N-1校验分析以及高压网架运行/转供方式和转供方式的合环情况分析建立约束,最终形成数学模型;最后提出一种改进的遗传算法对模型进行求解。通过某城区电网实例计算证明了算法的有效性和实用性。

  9. 人源电压门控质子通道对乳腺癌细胞迁移与侵袭的影响*%Effects of voltage-gated proton channel(Hv1)on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅蕾; 张尚荣; 王一凡; 孙保存; 李树杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:明确人源电压门控质子通道蛋白(human voltage-gated proton channel 1,Hv1)对乳腺癌细胞迁移及侵袭能力的影响。方法:检测Hv1在不同转移能力的人乳腺癌细胞系中的表达,利用小RNA干扰(siRNA)技术下调Hv1在乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞中的表达,通过细胞划痕和体外侵袭实验方法,观察Hv1对乳腺癌细胞迁移和侵袭的影响并初步探讨相关分子机制。结果:Hv1在高转移的乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB-231中表达较高,Hv1基因的siRNA干扰片段能够抑制Hv1基因及蛋白的表达;细胞划痕和体外侵袭实验表明Hv1降表达的MDA-MB-231细胞迁移和侵袭能力较弱;明胶酶谱和免疫印迹实验证明下调Hv1基因在MDA-MB-231细胞中的表达明显抑制了MMP-2的活性。结论:Hv1能够促进乳腺癌细胞迁移及侵袭。%Objective:To clarify the effect of voltage-gated proton channel 1 (Hv1) on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Methods:The protein expression of Hv1 was detected in human breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic abilities. SiRNA technique was used to down-regulate the expression of Hvl in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Scratch and matrigel invasion methods were used to observe the effect of Hvl on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and the relevant molecular mechanism was explored. Results:Hv1 was highly expressed in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Hvl was more highly expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells with higher metastatic ability. The SiRNA sequence target at Hvl inhibited Hvl expression. Scratch and matrigel invasion experiments showed that the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly attenuated when Hv1 was knocked down by siRNA targeting Hv1. Zymography experiment on matrix metalloproteinase indicated that the enzyme activities of MMP-2 markedly decreased. Conclusion:Hv1 promoted the migration and invasion ability of breast

  10. Research of characteristics of medium response and H/V spectrum of surface wave on microtremor%微动面波的介质响应和H/V谱特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奎; 梁北援; 刘澜波; 孙春岩

    2012-01-01

    At present, the main research method of surface wave on microtremor is the correlation analysis for the Rayleigh wave of surface wave. To be fully effective use of surface wave information and improve recognition accuracy,the principle of H/V spectrum of surface wave on microtremor is used in this paper. The medium response and H/V spectrum are obtained by computation given models, and the characteristics of medium response factor (MRF) and H/V spectrum of Rayleigh wave and Love wave are analyzed. The analysis results show the correspondence between MRF of surface wave on microtremor and formation interfaces of models. By comparing the H/V spectrum, the coherence of the main frequency of the Rayleigh wave and Love wave is found,and the use of love wave enhances the H/V spectrum. It is also pointed out that the problem to be solved of the H/V spectrum method in high frequency application field. Because this method uses surface wave information in microtremor without any special source,it is much more economic, faster and more widely applicable, and it will probably be a new kind of geological respecting methods with good application prospect.%目前,微动面波信息研究的主要方法是对面波中的Rayleigh波成分进行相关性分析.为了充分有效的利用面波信息和提高识别的准确度,本文基于微动面波H/V谱的基本原理,通过对给定模型的数值计算,得到了微动面波的介质响应曲线和H/V谱,分析了面波中Rayleigh波和Love波多模式波的介质响应和H/V谱特征.结果表明微动面波的介质响应特征与地层界面具有一定的对应关系,且在H/V谱中Rayleigh波和Love波的主频具有一致性,Love波的利用对H/V谱具有增强作用,文中也指出了H/V谱法在高频应用领域中有待进一步解决的问题.由于该方法使用的是地微动噪声中的面波信息,不需要专门的震源,因此具有经济快捷、应用范围广泛等优点,将可能成为一种新的有很

  11. Application of Partial Discharge Detection Technique in AC Voltage Withstand Test of HV Cable%局放测试技术在高压电缆交流耐压试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗容波; 詹清华; 王岩

    2013-01-01

      针对交流耐压试验方法在发现电缆缺陷上的不足,提出在高压电缆交流耐压试验中外接局放监视仪来避免耐压试验对电缆造成损伤。通过建立仿真电路和搭建实验室模型,研究了现场干扰信号与电缆自身局放信号的时域、频域、波形和极性的特征,总结出一套适用于高压电缆现场局放测试的方法。应用该方法对新敷设的110 kV高压电缆进行检测,发现了高压电缆终端的缺陷,证实了此测试方法的有效性。%  In view of the shortcomings of AC withstand voltage test method in discovering the faults of HV cable, a partial discharge monitoring instrument is external connected with AC withstand voltage test to avoid the damage of cable. The time domain, frequency domain, waveform and polarity characteristics of the interference signal and the signal of cable were studied by simulation and experimental research, and a method suitable for the partial discharge test of HV cable was summarized. The termination fault of a new HV cable was found by applying the method, which confirms the validity of the method.

  12. 高压交流电机定子绕组端部固定结构研究%Study on the End Winding Support for Stator of HV AC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁苏辉; 梁锐; 祁世发

    2001-01-01

    高压交流电机定子绕组端部固定存在薄弱环节,会引起绕组端部电击穿。通过研究,提出了新型高压电机定子绕组端部固定结构。%The stator end-winding support of HV AC motor exists weakness leading to electric break-down. Accordingly, this paper put forwards a new type of support system.

  13. Recherche du virus BoHV-4 en cas d’avortement bovin en France : enquête auprès des laboratoires départementaux d’analyses vétérinaires

    OpenAIRE

    Chevanne, E.; Grimard, Bénédicte; Remy, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Le BoHV-4 (Bovine HerpesVirus type 4) est un gammaherpèsvirus découvert en 1963. Cosmopolite, il infecte naturellement un large spectre d’hôtes dont les bovins domestiques. La séroprévalence individuelle du virus chez les bovins varie selon les études (5,9 % à 18 % ; Markine- Goriaynoff et al., 2003), mais il reste méconnu en France. Isolé à partir d’individus malades présentant une multitude de signes cliniques mais aussi d’individus sains, il semble préférentiellement engendrer des troubles...

  14. Detection of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in dairy cattle with different prevalences of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in São Paulo State, Brazil/ Detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV em rebanhos leiteiros com diferentes prevalências de herpesvirus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Buzinaro

    Full Text Available Serum samples from three dairy farms classified as high (1, 78.6%, medium (2, 40.0% and low (3, 1.6% prevalence for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 from São Paulo State, were collected to analyze the prevalence to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV by virus neutralization test. The BRSV observed prevalences for farms 1, 2, and 3 were 45.61%, 84.42%, and 54.09%, respectively. Farm 2 showed higher prevalence to BRSV (P

  15. Biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp terpolymer by Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 transformant harboring the highly active PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi, D-N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluates potentials of Cupriavidus necator PHB4 transformant harboring the highly activepolyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene (phaC of a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 for its ability toincorporate 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp monomer.Methodology and results: A mixture of fructose and sodium heptanoate fed to the culture gave rise to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate, [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp] terpolymer synthesis, withtraces of 3HHp monomers confirmed through gas chromatography (GC, proton (1H and carbon (13C NMR spectra.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study has revealed that the PHA synthase of Chromobacteriumsp. USM2 has a broad range of substrate specificity. The synthase is able to polymerize 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomershaving 4–7 carbon atoms.

  16. O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) pode utilizar as rotas olfatória ou trigeminal para invadir o sistema nervoso central de coelhos, dependendo da via de inoculação

    OpenAIRE

    Diel,Diego Gustavo; Fonseca,Erika Toledo da; Souza,Soraia Figueiredo de; Mazzanti,Alexandre; Bauermann,Fernando; Weiblen,Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2005-01-01

    O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) é um agente importante de meningoencefalite em bovinos. Após replicação na mucosa nasal, acredita-se que o vírus invada o cérebro principalmente pela via olfatória. Para investigar a importância dessa via na patogenia da infecção neurológica em um modelo animal, coelhos recém-desmamados (30 dias) foram submetidos à ablação cirúrgica dos bulbos olfatórios (BOs) e posteriormente inoculados pela via intranasal (IN) ou no saco conjuntival (IC) com uma cepa alt...

  17. High-Volume Transanal Surgery with CPH34 HV for the Treatment of III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids: Final Short-Term Results of an Italian Multicenter Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Reboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical chart of 621 patients with III-IV haemorrhoids undergoing Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy (SH with CPH34 HV in 2012–2014 was consecutively reviewed to assess its safety and efficacy after at least 12 months of follow-up. Mean volume of prolapsectomy was significantly higher (13.0 mL; SD, 1.4 in larger prolapse (9.3 mL; SD, 1.2 (p<0.001. Residual or recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 11 of 621 patients (1.8% and in 12 of 581 patients (1.9%, respectively. Relapse was correlated with higher preoperative Constipation Scoring System (CSS (p=0.000, Pescatori’s degree (p=0.000, Goligher’s grade (p=0.003, prolapse exceeding half of the length of the Circular Anal Dilator (CAD (p=0.000, and higher volume of prolapsectomy (p=0.000. At regression analysis, only the preoperative CSS, Pescatori’s degree, Goligher’s grade, and volume of resection were significantly predictive of relapse. A high level of satisfaction (VAS = 8.6; SD, 1.0 coupled with a reduction of 12-month CSS (Δ preoperative CSS/12 mo CSS = 3.4, SD, 2.0; p<0.001 was observed. The wider prolapsectomy achievable with CPH34 HV determined an overall 3.7% relapse rate in patients with high prevalence of large internal rectal prolapse, coupled with high satisfaction index, significant reduction of CSS, and very low complication rates.

  18. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B.; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J.; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M. Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2–7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics.

  19. Experimental infection of rabbits with a recombinant bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 gI, gE and US9-negative Infecção experimental de coelhos com um recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 defectivo na gI, gE e US9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Avila Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 is a major cause of viral meningoencephalitis in cattle. The expression of different viral proteins has been associated with BoHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Among these, gI, gE and US9 have been considered essential for the production of neurological disease in infected animals. To evaluate the role of gI, gE and US9 in neurovirulence, a recombinant from which the respective genes were deleted (BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9- was constructed and inoculated in rabbits of two age groups (four and eight weeks-old. When the recombinant virus was inoculated through the paranasal sinuses of four weeks-old rabbits, neurological disease was observed and death was the outcome in 4 out of 13 (30.7 % animals, whereas clinical signs and death were observed in 11/13 (84.6% of rabbits infected with the parental virus. In eight weeks-old rabbits, the BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9- did not induce clinically apparent disease and could not be reactivated after dexamethasone administration, whereas wild type BoHV-5 caused disease in 55.5% of the animals and was reactivated. These findings reveal that the simultaneous deletion of gI, gE and US9 genes did reduce but did not completely abolish the neurovirulence of BoHV-5 in rabbits, indicating that other viral genes may also play a role in the induction of neurological disease.O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 é uma das principais causas de meningoencefalite viral em bovinos. A expressão de diferentes proteínas virais tem sido associada à neuropatogenia do BoHV-5. Entre estas, a gI, gE e US9 têm sido consideradas essenciais para a indução de sinais neurológicos nos animais infectados. Para avaliar o papel das proteínas gI, gE e US9 na neurovirulência, construiu-se um recombinante no qual os genes que codificam estas proteínas foram deletados, denominado BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9-. Este vírus foi inoculado em coelhos de idades diferentes (quatro e oito semanas de idade. Quando o vírus recombinante foi inoculado

  20. AIRSAR Automated Web-based Data Processing and Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anhua; vanZyl, Jakob; Kim, Yunjin; Lou, Yunling; Imel, David; Tung, Wayne; Chapman, Bruce; Durden, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated, end-to-end synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing system that accepts data processing requests, submits processing jobs, performs quality analysis, delivers and archives processed data. This fully automated SAR processing system utilizes database and internet/intranet web technologies to allow external users to browse and submit data processing requests and receive processed data. It is a cost-effective way to manage a robust SAR processing and archival system. The integration of these functions has reduced operator errors and increased processor throughput dramatically.

  1. 单档距走廊法架设高压输电线路对地闪的影响%The Influence on Ground Flash from the HV Transmission Lines Erected with Statistical Method of Single-span Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志锋; 张耀宇; 刘刚; 唐军

    2011-01-01

    基于引雷空间理论及珠三角地区已有输电线路参数,建立了单档距走廊法统计模型,对不同地形环境下输电线路走廊区域的地闪定位数据进行了筛选,分析了输电线路架设前后雷电活动及地闪幅值概率分布规律,并基于有限元-模拟电荷法,对雷云先导与大地均匀静电场在置入输电杆塔前后的电场进行了计算及模拟仿真,分析了输电线路的架设时于地闪分布规律影响.结果表明:在不同地形环境下输电线路所产生的对于雷击落点的吸引效应是不同的,在山地环境下最为明显.%Based on the theory of attractive volume of lightning and the parameters of existing transmission lines of the Pearl River Delta region, the statistical method of single-span corridor is established in this paper. Selecting the lightning location data of the corridor area of transmission line in various terrain environments, the paper analyzes the probability distribution of lightning activity and lightning current amplitude before and after the erection of HV transmission lines, and makes calculation and simulation on the electrostatic fields of lightning leader and ground for the both cases based on finite element-charge simulation method to analyze the influence on ground flash from the HV transmission lines erected with statistical method of single-span corridor. The results show that the attractive effect from the transmission line is different in various terrain environments, and is greater in mountainous area.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF ALLELES OF HvITR1 GENE ENCODING CMe (BTI-CMe TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WHICH RELATED WITH COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF BEER AMONG BARLEY VARIETIES REGISTERED IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. I. Stepanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnological analysis of modern barley varieties of national and foreign origin for the presence of valuable SE-ve genotypes was done. Identification of the allelic status of the gene was performed among 109 barley samples using the developed multiplex PCR system for SNAP molecular markers. Among the studied varieties SE+ve allele was identified in 75 barley samples and the other contained SE-ve allele. 6 samples which revealed both alleles SE+ve and SE-ve were heterogeneous (+/-. The obtained results were compared with the data of the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine and showed that 8 samples referred to as forage, contained SE+ve allele and none of them were SE-ve allele. Of 38 varieties, which quality was identified as suitable for brewing, 19 contained SE+ve allele, the rest — allele SE-ve. The results of performed analysis of the spring barley collection for allelic composition of HvITR1 gene are of great practical importance as for the correct selection of mating pairs for malting breeding, for the selection of elite plants in breeding populations, or evaluation of barley seeds for beverage brewing purposes.

  3. LAPECR2离子源在320kV高压平台上的试运行%Commissioning Test of LAPECR2 Source on the 320kV HV Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙良亭; 赵力民; 王平治; 刘惠萍; 赵红卫; 马新文; 詹文龙; 李锦钰; 张雪珍; 王辉; 马宝华; 李锡霞; 冯玉成; 宋明涛; 朱玉华

    2007-01-01

    The high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS)LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent magnet ECR ion source No.2)has been successfully put on the 320kV HV platform at IMP and also has been connected with the successive LEBT system.This source is the largest and heaviest all permanent magnet ECRIS in the world.The maximum mirror field is 1.28T (without iron plug)and the effective plasma chamber volume is as large as φ67mm255mm. It was designed to be operated at 14.5GHz and aimed to produce medium charge state and high charge state gaseous and also metallic ion beams.The source has already successfully delivered some intense gaseous ion beams to successive experimental terminals.This paper will give a brief overview of the basic features of this permanent magnet ECRIS.Then commissioning results of this source on the platform,the design of the extraction system together with the successive LEBT system will be presented.

  4. Power-frequency Electric Field and Magnetic Field and the Electric Field Effect of HV Transmission Lines%工频电场、磁场及高压输电线路的电场效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文利; 杨新村; 李海平

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces and analyzes characteristics of the electromagnetic environment of power transmission&transformation infrastructures and indicates that low-frequency electric field and magnetic field have no impact on human health. The paper mainly expounds the electric field effect around HV transmission lines such as in vivo biological effect, in vitro electric field stimulation effect and so on;besides, it indicates that electric shock and response of contact stimulus are fundamentally different, and scientific knowledge should be popularized to eliminate unnecessary worry and panic.%介绍了输变电设施的电磁环境的特点,指出低频电场与磁场对健康并无影响,重点分析了高压输电线路周围的电场效应,如体内生物效应、体外电场刺激效应等,指出触电与感应电的接触刺激有本质的区别,应普及科普知识,消除不必要的焦虑和恐慌。

  5. Non-linear Holocene climate evolution in the North Atlantic: a high-resolution, multi-proxy record of glacier activity and environmental change from Hvítárvatn, central Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2012-04-01

    Iceland is well situated to monitor North Atlantic Holocene climate variability. Terrestrial sites there offer the potential for well-dated, high-resolution, continuous records of environmental change and/or glacier activity. Laminated sediments from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn provide a continuous record of environmental change and the development of the adjacent Langjökull ice cap for the past 10.2 ka. Replicate lake sediment cores, collected from multiple locations in the basin, are placed in a secure geochronology by splicing a varve chronology for the past 3 ka with a tephra-constrained, paleomagnetic secular variation derived chronology for older sediments. Multiple proxies, including sedimentation rate, bulk density, ice-rafted debris, sediment organic matter, biogenic silica, and diatom abundance, allow annual to multi-decadal resolution and reveal a dynamic Holocene terrestrial climate. Following regional deglaciation of the main Iceland Ice Sheet, summer temperatures were high enough that mountain ice caps had already melted, or were contributing insignificant sediment to the lake. Pronounced increases in sedimentation rate, sediment density, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter, between 8.7 and 7.9 ka suggest early Holocene warmth was interrupted by two distinct pulses of cold summers leading to widespread landscape destabilization and possibly glacier growth. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM; 7.9 to 5.5 ka) was characterized by high within-lake productivity and ice-free conditions in the watershed. Neoglaciation is recorded as a non-linear transition toward cooler summers, landscape destabilization, and the inception and expansion of Langjökull beginning ca 5.5 ka, with notable increases in ice cap size and landscape instability at 4.2 and 3.0 ka. The past two millennia are characterized by the abrupt onset of sustained cold periods at ca 550 and 1250 AD, separated by an interval of relative warmth from ca 950 to 1150 AD. The greatest

  6. A Distance Protection Scheme Not Affected by Transient Characteristic of Capacitor Voltage Transformer for HV Long Transmission Line%不受电容式电压互感器暂态特性影响的距离保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦在滨; 齐倩; 杨黎明; 王优胤; 宁荣

    2014-01-01

    受电容式电压互感器(capacitive voltage transformer, CVT)暂态特性的影响,高压输电线路距离保护易发生暂态超越而误动,影响电力系统的安全稳定运行。提出了一种不受 CVT 暂态特性影响的距离保护新原理。该原理以 CVT能够正确传变工频量为基础,通过基于矩阵束的准确工频量提取方法计算保护安装处电压电流的工频量,利用贝瑞龙模型计算长距离输电线路整定点处的电压和电流,最终以整定点为观测点,通过传统的距离保护算法与方向元件配合确定故障点的位置,该原理不受CVT暂态特性的影响,同时考虑了长距离输电线路分布参数效应对距离保护的影响,具有较好的性能,仿真结果验证了所提算法的有效性。%Affected by transient characteristic of capacitor voltage transformer (CVT), the distance protection for HV transmission line is easily to mal-operate due to transient overreach, thus the secure and stable operation of power grid is affected. A new distance protection scheme that is not affected by the transient characteristics of CVT is proposed and its principle is as following:firstly, on the basis that the CVT can transmit and transform power frequency phasor, by means of the matrix pencil based accurate power frequency phasor extraction method the power frequency phasors of voltage and current at the position where the protection is installed are calculated;secondly, the voltage and current at the position of the long distance transmission line, where the protection is set, are calculated by Bergeron model; finally, coordinating with directional element and taking the setting point as the observation point, the fault point is located by traditional distance protection algorithm. The proposed principle is not affected by transient characteristic of CVT and the impacts of distributed parameters of the long distance transmission line are taken into account, thus the

  7. 天线的交叉极化比%Cross Polarization Ratio for Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束咸荣; 董玉良; 王华

    2010-01-01

    极化分集技术的应用,对移动通信基站双极化天线提出了交叉极化比的要求.借助Friis传输公式、Jones矢量和极化匹配因子,分析了天线的交叉极化比,给出了计算任意线极化天线交叉极化比的通用公式.计算表明,±45°双极化天线在两个主平面中偏离法线方向60°处,交叉极化比的理论值仅9.542 dB, 无法满足"不小于10 dB"的要求.

  8. Cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning NMR studies of polymorphism: Cortisone acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robin K.; Kenwright, Alan M.; Say, Barry J.; Yeung, Race R.; Fletton, Richard A.; Lancaster, Robert W.; Hardgrove, George L.

    13C CPMAS spectra have been recorded for nine samples of cortisone acetate (21-acetoxy-17α-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione, C 23H 30O 6) and the observed resonances are attributed to six crystalline forms. Two of these forms are novel. The spectra of all six are entirely distinct. The resonances are assigned to individual carbon atoms on the basis of previously-determined solution-state spectra together with dipolar dephasing experiments and observations of shielding anisotropies as reflected in spinning sideband manifolds. The results are interpreted in relation to known crystal structures. The value of solid-state NMR for analysis of polymorph mixtures is emphasized.

  9. Dual Polarization Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna Array With Very Low Cross-Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Woelders, Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and performance of a wideband dual linear polarization microstrip antenna array used in the Danish high-resolution airborne multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar, EMISAR. The antenna was designed for an operating frequency of 1.25 GHz±50 MHz and...

  10. CROSS-POLARIZED ANGULAR EMISSION PATTERNS FROM LENS-COUPLED TERAHERTZ ANTENNAS. (R827122)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Selective removal of demineralization using near infrared cross polarization reflectance and a carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates.

  12. Evaluation of Dental Shade Guide Variability Using Cross-Polarized Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrea, Jon; Gurrea, Marta; Bruguera, August; Sampaio, Camila S; Janal, Malvin; Bonfante, Estevam; Coelho, Paulo G; Hirata, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated color variability in the A hue between the VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) shade guide and four other VITA-coded ceramic shade guides using a Canon EOS 60D camera and software (Photoshop CC, Adobe). A total of 125 photographs were taken, 5 per shade tab for each of 5 shades (A1 to A4) from the following shade guides: VITA Classical (control), IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS d.SIGN (Ivoclar Vivadent), Initial ZI (GC), and Creation CC (Creation Willi Geller). Photos were processed with Adobe Photoshop CC to allow standardized evaluation of hue, chroma, and value between shade tabs. None of the VITA-coded shade tabs fully matched the VITA Classical shade tab for hue, chroma, or value. The VITA-coded shade guides evaluated herein showed an overall unmatched shade in all tabs when compared with the control, suggesting that shade selection should be made using the guide produced by the manufacturer of the ceramic intended for the final restoration.

  13. Identification of Dynamic Cover Types in Wetlands by using Multitemporal Cross-polarized Sentinel-1 Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    2008; Dronova et al. 2011). These surface dynamics produce transitional states and fine-scale mixtures of classes that may hinder classifications and long-term change detection. Dronova et al. (2015) proposed the term “Dynamic Cover Types" (DCT) to refer to such areas of regimes of periodic or seasonal......, and the Lagoon of Fuente de Piedra, a small wetland in Southern Spain. For that we use a multitemporal change detection procedure for polarimetric SAR imagery based on the Complex Wishart distribution developed recently by Conradsen et al (2015), (to be published) and an innovative open source software...... implementation which makes use of Ipython Notebooks and Docker containers (http://mortcanty.github.io/SARDocker/). The procedure carries out a series of change detection processing routines for the whole time series with a desired significance level. It uses multilook, geocoded and terrain corrected intensity...

  14. Sequencing strategy of mitochondrial HV1 and HV2 DNA with length heteroplasmy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Sørensen, E; Eriksen, Birthe

    2002-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain reliable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences downstream of the homopolymeric stretches with length heteroplasmy in the sequencing direction. The method is based on the use of junction primers that bind to a part of the homopolymeric stretch and the first 2-4 bases...

  15. Assessment of the mapping of fractional woody cover in southern African savannas using multi-temporal and polarimetric ALOS PALSAR L-band images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Urbazaev, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available , and the end of the wet season. The volume components from polarimetric decompositions (Freeman-Durden, Van Zyl) were calculated for the end of wet season, and showed similar correlations to the LiDAR data, when compared to cross-polarized backscatters (HV). We...

  16. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil Construção e caracterização de uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada no Brasil com uma deleção no gene da glicoproteína E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Franco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic DNA of wild type BoHV-1 into bovine cells. Isolation of gE deletion mutant was performed by immunoperoxidase staining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. Viral clones were plaque purified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase digestion and Southern blot hybridization. This gE deletion mutant will be evaluated as a vaccinal virus, in order to determine its potential use for a differential vaccine.Este artigo descreve a construção e caracterização de uma amostra de um herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a que apresenta uma deleção na região genômica que codifica a glicoproteína E (gE. A deleção gênica foi induzida através da co-transfecção de um fragmento de deleção, contendo as regiões 5´e 3´flanqueadoras da gE, com o DNA viral intacto de uma amostra viral isolada de um animal que apresentava doença respiratória. O isolamento do vírus gE negativo (gE- foi realizado com auxílio da técnica de imunoperoxidase em que foi utilizado como anticorpo primário um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. O vírus gE- foi purificado e o DNA isolado desta amostra foi examinado através das técnicas de análise por enzimas de restrição e "Southern blot". Esta amostra gE- será avaliada como candidata para compor uma vacina diferencial contra a rinotraqueíte infecciosa dos bovinos.

  17. O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) pode utilizar as rotas olfatória ou trigeminal para invadir o sistema nervoso central de coelhos, dependendo da via de inoculação Bovine herpesvirus 5 may use the olfactory and trigeminal pathways to invade the central nervous system of rabbits, depending upon the route of inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gustavo Diel; Erika Toledo da Fonseca; Soraia Figueiredo de Souza; Alexandre Mazzanti; Fernando Bauermann; Rudi Weiblen; Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2005-01-01

    O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) é um agente importante de meningoencefalite em bovinos. Após replicação na mucosa nasal, acredita-se que o vírus invada o cérebro principalmente pela via olfatória. Para investigar a importância dessa via na patogenia da infecção neurológica em um modelo animal, coelhos recém-desmamados (30 dias) foram submetidos à ablação cirúrgica dos bulbos olfatórios (BOs) e posteriormente inoculados pela via intranasal (IN) ou no saco conjuntival (IC) com uma cepa alt...

  18. Madeup and Application of New CBS Package Material for 66kV Directly-Buried HV Cable%66 kV 直埋高压电缆新型 CBS 包裹料配制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘纪良; 李炳汉

    2013-01-01

    The new CBS package material is first applied to the 66 kV directly-buried HV cable of CP1 Project, Qatar.The sand-dune sand which is rich locally is utilized as the raw material of the package one.This not only reduces cost but also is convenient for construc-tion and assures the construction quality.In this paper, one new cable package materials satisfying design requirement, namely, CBS ca-ble package material, is described in accordance with the study on the package material for 66 kV directly-buried HV cable.Meanwhile, one package of construction technology and methods which are worth of developing in construction in the gulf region is concluded .It pro-vides potential sequent similar construction with scientific basis.%卡塔尔路赛CP1项目66 kV直埋式高压电缆采用CBS包裹料尚属首次使用,该包裹料选用了当地丰富沙丘沙为原材料,不但节约了施工成本而且易于施工,质量有保证。文章通过对66 kV直埋高压电缆包裹料研究,配制出了一种满足设计要求的新型电缆包裹料,即CBS电缆包裹料,同时根据CBS料的基本特性,总结出一套在中东海湾地区具有推广价值的施工工艺和施工方法,为后续类似工程施工提供科学的依据。

  19. Improvement of a 3D radar backscattering model using matrix-doubling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Radiative transfer models have been widely used to simulate the radar backscattering from forested areas. A three-dimensional radar backscatter model of forest canopy developed in previous studies takes full account of spatial position of trees in a forest stand, and the interactions among crown, trunk and ground surface. The model predicted well for the co-polarized backscatter measurements, but underestimated the backscattering for cross-polarization, primarily because only the first-order scattering within tree crowns was considered in the model. The backscattering at cross-polarization depends strongly on multiple scatter- ing within tree crowns. To produce good estimations for cross-polarized component, the matrix-doubling method is employed here to compute multiple-scattering within the crown. The modified model is compared with the original model, and the field forest measurements and AIRSAR data are used for validation of the modified model. The cross-polarization backscattering is improved in different degrees for different crown structures and at different bands.

  20. O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5 pode utilizar as rotas olfatória ou trigeminal para invadir o sistema nervoso central de coelhos, dependendo da via de inoculação Bovine herpesvirus 5 may use the olfactory and trigeminal pathways to invade the central nervous system of rabbits, depending upon the route of inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gustavo Diel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5 é um agente importante de meningoencefalite em bovinos. Após replicação na mucosa nasal, acredita-se que o vírus invada o cérebro principalmente pela via olfatória. Para investigar a importância dessa via na patogenia da infecção neurológica em um modelo animal, coelhos recém-desmamados (30 dias foram submetidos à ablação cirúrgica dos bulbos olfatórios (BOs e posteriormente inoculados pela via intranasal (IN ou no saco conjuntival (IC com uma cepa altamente neurovirulenta do BoHV-5 (SV-507. Após inoculação IN, 10/10 coelhos no Grupo Controle (com BOs desenvolveram enfermidade neurológica, com início dos sinais clínicos entre os dias 5 e 10 pós-inoculação (pi (média de 7,5 dias; em contraste, no grupo submetido à ablação dos BOs (n=11, apenas um animal (9,1% desenvolveu doença neurológica (início no dia 17pi. Administração de dexametasona aos animais sobreviventes (n=10 no dia 50 pi resultou em excreção viral em secreções nasais e/ou oculares por oito destes, demonstrando que o vírus foi capaz de atingir o gânglio trigêmeo (TG durante a infecção aguda. Esses resultados demonstram que a rota olfatória representa a via principal, mas não única, de acesso ao cérebro de coelhos após inoculação IN. Para investigar o papel de uma segunda possível via de acesso, grupos de coelhos controle (n=12 ou submetidos à ablação dos BOs (n=12 foram inoculados no saco conjuntival (IC, após o qual o vírus poderia utilizar o ramo oftálmico do nervo trigêmeo para invadir o cérebro. Dez coelhos controle (83,3 % desenvolveram doença neurológica após inoculação IC, com início dos sinais entre os dias 11 e 20 (média 15,3 dias. A ablação prévia dos BOs não afetou a freqüência ou o curso da doença neurológica nesse grupo: 10/12 coelhos (83,3 % sem os BOs desenvolveram a doença neurológica, com os sinais iniciando entre os dias 9 e 15pi (média 12,7 dias. Esses

  1. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;

    2015-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally...... by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%. (C) 2015 Optical...

  2. Uni-directional wavelength conversion in silicon using four-wave mixing driven by cross-polarized pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bryn A; Xiong, Chunle; Marpaung, David; McKinstrie, Colin J; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate optical frequency conversion between telecom wavelengths using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering powered by two pump pulses polarized on orthogonal axes of a silicon waveguide. This allows conversion in a single frequency direction while, with co-polarized pumps, the signal is redshifted or blueshifted with similar efficiency. Our approach exploits the birefringence of the waveguide and its effect on the phase matching of the four-wave mixing process. The blue or red direction can be selected by the input polarization of the signal, and 20 dB extinction ratios are observed with the unintended direction. This technique will allow efficient and controlled conversion between specified wavelength channels in integrated photonic devices.

  3. Intermodal and cross-polarization four-wave mixing in large-core hybrid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-03-09

    Degenerate four-wave mixing is considered in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, combining photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance. Co- and orthogonally polarized pump, signal and idler fields are considered numerically by calculating the parametric gain and experimentally by spontaneous degenerate four-wave mixing. Intermodal and birefringence assisted intramodal phase matching is observed. Good agreement between calculations and experimental observations is obtained. Intermodal four-wave mixing is achieved experimentally with a conversion efficiency of 17%.

  4. Cross-polar transport and scavenging of Siberian aerosols containing black carbon during the 2012 ACCESS summer campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, L.; Fast, Jerome D.; Thomas, J. L.; Weinzierl, B.; Law, K. S.; Berg, Larry K.; Roiger, A.; Easter, Richard C.; Heimerl, Katharina; Onishi, T.; Delanoe, Julien; Schlager, H.

    2017-09-15

    During the ACCESS airborne campaign in July 2012, extensive boreal forest fires resulted in significant aerosol transport to the Arctic. A 10 day episode combining intense biomass burning over Siberia and low-pressure systems over the Arctic Ocean resulted in efficient transport of plumes containing black carbon (BC) towards the Arctic, mostly in the upper troposphere (6 − 8 km). A combination of in situ observations (DLR Falcon aircraft), satellite analysis and WRF-Chem simulations are used to understand the vertical and horizontal transport mechanisms of BC with a focus on the role of wet removal. Between the northwestern Norwegian coast and the Svalbard archipelago, the Falcon aircraft sampled plumes with enhanced CO concentrations up to 200 ppbv and BC mixing ratios up to 25 ng kg−1. During transport to the Arctic region, a large fraction of BC particles are scavenged by two wet deposition processes, namely wet removal by large-scale precipitation and removal in wet convective updrafts, with both processes contributing almost equally to the total accumulated deposition of BC. Our results underline that applying a finer horizontal resolution (40 instead of 100 km) improves the model performance, as it significantly reduces the overestimation of BC levels observed at a coarser resolution in the mid-troposphere. According to the simulations at 40 km, the transport efficiency of BC (TEBC) in biomass burning plumes is about 60%, which is impacted by small accumulated precipitation along trajectory (APT) (1 mm). In contrast TEBC is very small (< 30%) and APT is larger (5 − 10 mm) in plumes influenced by urban anthropogenic sources and flaring activities in Northern Russia, resulting in as it significantly reduces the overestimation of BC levels observed at a coarser resolution in the mid-troposphere. According to the simulations at 40 km, the transport efficiency of BC (TEBC) in biomass burning plumes is about 60%, which is impacted by small accumulated precipitation along trajectory (APT) (1 mm). In contrast TEBC is very small (< 30%) and APT is larger (5 − 10 mm) in plumes influenced by urban anthropogenic sources and flaring activities in Northern Russia, resulting in transport to lower altitudes. TEBC due to grid scale precipitation is responsible for a sharp meridional gradient in the distribution of BC concentrations. Wet removal in subgrid parameterized clouds (cumuli) is the cause of modeled vertical gradient of TEBC, especially in the mid-latitudes, reflecting the distribution of convective precipitation, but is dominated in the Arctic region by the grid-scale wet removal associated with the formation of stratocumulus clouds in the PBL that produced frequent drizzle.

  5. Development of Efficient and Robust Heteronuclear Cross-Polarization Techniques for Biological Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sheetal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    →13C and 1H→14N polarization transfers. The deuterium experiments were performed on deuterated glutamine and outer membrane protein G samples, while the nitrogen experiments were carried out on ammonium nitrate and alanine samples. Moreover, experiments with low power on the 2H channel are presented......→13C polarization transfer to facilitate 2-dimensional experiments detecting 14N in the indirect dimension are shown. Finally, to test the polarization transfer efficiency with very large chemical shift anisotropies, 19F→13C polarization transfer experiments for Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (PTFE...

  6. Cross-polar transport and scavenging of Siberian aerosols containing black carbon during the 2012 ACCESS summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis; Fast, Jerome D.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Law, Katharine S.; Berg, Larry K.; Roiger, Anke; Easter, Richard C.; Heimerl, Katharina; Onishi, Tatsuo; Delanoë, Julien; Schlager, Hans

    2017-09-01

    During the ACCESS airborne campaign in July 2012, extensive boreal forest fires resulted in significant aerosol transport to the Arctic. A 10-day episode combining intense biomass burning over Siberia and low-pressure systems over the Arctic Ocean resulted in efficient transport of plumes containing black carbon (BC) towards the Arctic, mostly in the upper troposphere (6-8 km). A combination of in situ observations (DLR Falcon aircraft), satellite analysis and WRF-Chem simulations is used to understand the vertical and horizontal transport mechanisms of BC with a focus on the role of wet removal. Between the northwestern Norwegian coast and the Svalbard archipelago, the Falcon aircraft sampled plumes with enhanced CO concentrations up to 200 ppbv and BC mixing ratios up to 25 ng kg-1. During transport to the Arctic region, a large fraction of BC particles are scavenged by two wet deposition processes, namely wet removal by large-scale precipitation and removal in wet convective updrafts, with both processes contributing almost equally to the total accumulated deposition of BC. Our results underline that applying a finer horizontal resolution (40 instead of 100 km) improves the model performance, as it significantly reduces the overestimation of BC levels observed at a coarser resolution in the mid-troposphere. According to the simulations at 40 km, the transport efficiency of BC (TEBC) in biomass burning plumes was larger (60 %), because it was impacted by small accumulated precipitation along trajectory (1 mm). In contrast TEBC was small (urban anthropogenic sources and flaring activities in northern Russia, resulting in transport to lower altitudes. TEBC due to large-scale precipitation is responsible for a sharp meridional gradient in the distribution of BC concentrations. Wet removal in cumulus clouds is the cause of modeled vertical gradient of TEBC, especially in the mid-latitudes, reflecting the distribution of convective precipitation, but is dominated in the Arctic region by the large-scale wet removal associated with the formation of stratocumulus clouds in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) that produce frequent drizzle.

  7. Understanding the Balance of Dayside and Nightside Reconnection Contributions to the Cross Polar Cap Potential During Solar Wind Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    release; distribution is unlimited. the ionosphere. However, the numerical model solves the MHD equations on a grid, such that the discretization may...magnetometer data are used as the only input for AMIE. Slinker et al. [1999] and Raeder [2005] found that MHD models tend to predict higher CPCP than...AMIE and MHD data, supporting that our qualitative model -data comparison with these CPCP data are reliable. Approved for public release; distribution

  8. Tunable 13C/1H dual channel matching circuit for dynamic nuclear polarization system with cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report initial results of design and practical implementation of tuning and matching circuit to estimate a performance of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a magnetic field of 6.7 T. It is shown that developed circuit for signal observation is compact, easy to make and provides...

  9. GMRT Hv Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Omar; K. S. Dwarakanath

    2005-03-01

    The GMRT HI 21cm-line observations of galaxies in the Eridanus group are presented. The Eridanus group, at a distance of ∼ 23 Mpc, is a loose group of ∼ 200 galaxies. The group extends to more than 10 Mpc in projection. The velocity dispersion of the galaxies in the group is ∼ 240 km s-1. The galaxies are clustered into different sub-groups. The overall population mix of the group is 30% (E + S0) and 70% (Sp + Irr). The observations of 57 Eridanus galaxies were carried out with the GMRT for ∼ 200 h. HI emission was detected from 31 galaxies. The channel rms of ∼ 1 mJy beam-1 was achieved for most of the image-cubes made with 4 h of data. The corresponding HI column density sensitivity (3) is ∼ 1 × 1020 cm-2 for a velocity-width of ∼ 13.4 km s-1. The 3 detection limit of HI mass is ∼ 1.2 × 107 M⊙ for a line-width of 50 km s-1. Total H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ images, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ velocity fields, global H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ line profiles, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ mass surface densities, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ disk parameters and H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ rotation curves are presented. The velocity fields are analysed separately for the approaching and the receding sides of the galaxies. These data will be used to study the H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ and the radio continuum properties, the Tully–Fisher relations, the dark matter halos, and the kinematical and H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ lopsidedness in galaxies.

  10. Minkowski sum of HV-polytopes in Rn

    CERN Document Server

    Delos, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Minkowski sums cover a wide range of applications in many different fields like algebra, morphing, robotics, mechanical CAD/CAM systems ... This paper deals with sums of polytopes in a n dimensional space provided that both H-representation and V-representation are available i.e. the polytopes are described by both their half-spaces and vertices. The first method uses the polytope normal fans and relies on the ability to intersect dual polyhedral cones. Then we introduce another way of considering Minkowski sums of polytopes based on the primal polyhedral cones attached to each vertex.

  11. Kelbessa Urga'* and H.V. Narasimha 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of mineral bioavailability from phytate-containing foods is complicated ... acid fermentation to produce injera, fermented gruel and sourdough bread (Difio dabbo) ..... Establishing a nutrient database containing phytate, calcium ...

  12. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Power transmission is facing its largest challenges ever with regards to handling a transition from today’s fossil‐based power production into renewable sources of generation. We can no longer place power plants close to centres of consumption; they must be located where the natural resources...... the role of interconnecting these generation/load centres, ensuring fair reliability and redundancy of supply. Nowadays, the power transmission system must be able to handle the various sources of renewable generation in a flexible electricity market. This has the consequence that the original layout...... cables is given, and secondly, the modelling approach and validation of this is discussed. Thirdly, making up the main core of the work presented, dynamics of underground cable systems are discussed and important cases to study are highlighted, and next, protection and fault location are discussed...

  13. HV-CMOS detectors in BCD8 technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, A.; Castoldi, A.; Ceriale, V.; Chiodini, G.; Citterio, M.; Darbo, G.; Gariano, G.; Gaudiello, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Joshi, A.; Liberali, V.; Passadore, S.; Ragusa, F.; Ruscino, E.; Sbarra, C.; Shrimali, H.; Sidoti, A.; Stabile, A.; Yadav, I.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the first pixel detector realized using the BCD8 technology of STMicroelectronics. The BCD8 is a 160 nm process with bipolar, CMOS and DMOS devices; mainly targeted for an automotive application. The silicon particle detector is realized as a pixel sensor diode with a dimension of 250 × 50 μm2. To support the signal sensitivity of pixel diode, the circuit simulations have been performed with a substrate voltage of 50 V. The analog signal processing circuitry and the digital operation of the circuit is designed with the supply voltage of 1.8 V. Moreover, an analog processing part of the pixel detector circuit is confined in a unit pixel (diode sensor) to achieve 100 % fill factor. As a first phase of the design, an array of 8 pixels and 4 passive diodes have been designed and measured experimentally. The entire analog circuitry including passive diodes is implemented in a single chip. This chip has been tested experimentally with 70 V voltage capability, to evaluate its suitability. The sensor on a 125 Ωcm resistivity substrate has been characterized in the laboratory. The CMOS sensor realizes a depleted region of several tens of micrometer. The characterization shows a uniform breakdown at 70 V before irradiation and an approximate capacitance of 80 fF at 50 V of reverse bias voltage. The response to ionizing radiation is tested using radioactive sources and an X-ray tube.

  14. Quality assurance for CMS Tracker LV and HV Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Marco; Sertoli, M; Trapani, P; Periale, L; Isabella, L; Landi, C; Lucchesi, A

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the quality assurance measurements that have been carried out on about 2000 Power Supply Units produced in CAEN technology for the CMS Silicon Tracker Detector. The automate procedure and the characteristics of the dedicated Test Fixture developed for this activity are described in details. Magnetic field tolerance and radiation hardness of Tracker power supply units is also discussed at length.

  15. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    are to be found. One very good example of this is offshore wind power plants. The current transmission system is laid out in a traditional manner, which is based on the idea of not transporting power over longer distances as the power plants have been located near centres of consumption. It has merely played....... Many interesting research topics are still open, especially with regards to asset management tools....

  16. Double Layered Sheath in Accurate HV XLPE Cable Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Silva, J. De; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses modelling of high voltage AC underground cables. For long cables, when crossbonding points are present, not only the coaxial mode of propagation is excited during transient phenomena, but also the intersheath mode. This causes inaccurate simulation results for high frequency ...

  17. Fuzzy and Multilayer Perceptron for Evaluation of HV Bushings

    CERN Document Server

    Dhlamini, Sizwe M; Majozi, Thokozani

    2007-01-01

    The work proposes the application of fuzzy set theory (FST) to diagnose the condition of high voltage bushings. The diagnosis uses dissolved gas analysis (DGA) data from bushings based on IEC60599 and IEEE C57-104 criteria for oil impregnated paper (OIP) bushings. FST and neural networks are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Both FST and NN simulations were able to diagnose the bushings condition with 10% error. By using fuzzy theory, the maintenance department can classify bushings and know the extent of degradation in the component.

  18. Descripción inmunohistoquímica de la encefalitis en bovinos brasileños naturalmente infectados con el herpesvirus bovino tipo 5 (HVB-5 Immunohistochemical description of encephalitis in Brazilian cattle naturally infected with bovine herpes virus type 5 (BoHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Pedraza

    2008-01-01

    (gitter cells accompanying great areas of malacia. None of the cases showed intranuclear inclusion bodies. However, in five of them it was possible to isolate the BoHV-5. In order to collect data to allow the description of the inflammatory response in these cases, brain samples from all of the cases were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against CD3 to detect T cells, and against GFAP to detect astrocytes. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies were used against BLA to detect B cells and, against MAC 387 to detect macrophages. The results indicate different degrees of prominent astrocytic response, and at the same time, T lymphocytes constituted a high percentage of the mononuclear cells which characterized the inflammatory response

  19. 基于电容补偿无功电源的长距离架空输电线路融冰仿真实验和方案设计%De-icing scheme and experiment of long distance HV overhead power line based on capacitor compensating reactive current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 赵学增; 王立辉; 彭辉; 卜劲松; 陈永辉; 姜世金; 梁岩; 刘子军

    2011-01-01

    长距离架空输电线路存在线路感抗随着线路长度的增加而增大的问题.采用在融冰线路中串联补偿电容器的方法来抵消融冰线路的感抗,以降低融冰线路的总阻抗,保证电容补偿无功电源融冰方法应用于长线路融冰,系统能够提供有效的融冰电流.针对电容补偿无功电源融冰方法存在的电容器端电压升高问题,提出提高电容器对地绝缘水平的方法和采用电容器多组串联分压的方式,用来解决在融冰过程中电容器过电压导致现有10 kV电容器额定电压无法满足融冰操作要求的问题.通过低电压模拟电路仿真实验,绘制出线路阻抗电压与末端电容器电压随着线路长度变化的向量关系图,并给出利用10 kV电源和10 kV电容器对220 kV输电线路LGJ400导线融冰的参数计算和具体实施融冰的方案.%The inductance of a long distance HV overhead power line increases with the extension of the line. In order to decrease the total impedance of the power line and ensure the system could provide effective de-icing current by using the de-icing method based on capacitor compensation reactive current, the measure of connecting series capacitor banks to the de-icing line for compensating the line inductance is applied. With the capacitor terminal voltage increment by using capacitor compensation de-icing method, a mean of improving the capacitor voltage insulation level to ground and series-mounting multi-group capacitor banks to the de-icing line for partial voltage are proposed to solve the problem that the rated voltage of existing 10 kV capacitor banks can not satisfy the operation requirements, which is caused by capacitor over-voltage during the de-icing process. The voltage vector relationship of capacitor and line impedance with the length of de-icing line variation is given based on the analog low voltage circuit simulation. Furthermore, the specified scheme and calculation for de-icing 220 k

  20. Multi-polarization reconstruction from compact polarimetry based on modified four-component scattering decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjun Yin; Jian Yang

    2014-01-01

    An improved algorithm for multi-polarization recon-struction from compact polarimetry (CP) is proposed. According to two fundamental assumptions in compact polarimetric reconstruc-tion, two improvements are proposed. Firstly, the four-component model-based decomposition algorithm is modified with a new vol-ume scattering model. The decomposed helix scattering compo-nent is then used to deal with the non-reflection symmetry con-dition in compact polarimetric measurements. Using the decom-posed power and considering the scattering mechanism of each component, an average relationship between co-polarized and cross-polarized channels is developed over the original polariza-tion state extrapolation model. E-SAR polarimetric data acquired over the Oberpfaffenhofen area and JPL/AIRSAR polarimetric data acquired over San Francisco are used for verification, and good re-construction results are obtained, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa D Flora

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  2. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Stohl, A.

    2011-04-01

    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2-5 July and 7-10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the difficulty to identify a data set that most realistically represents the actual pollution state of the Arctic atmosphere.

  3. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART, the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT, and for numerical aspects the limited-area chemical transport model WRF-Chem. Retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite are used as a total column CO reference for the two simulations. Main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian models. Aircraft data suggest that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT and WRF-Chem are biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the difficulty to identify a data set that most realistically represents the actual state of the atmosphere.

  4. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the difficulty to identify a data set that most realistically represents the actual pollution state of the Arctic atmosphere.

  5. Episodes of Cross-Polar Transport in the Arctic Troposphere During July 2008 as Seen from Models, Satellite, and Aircraft Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2 5 July and 7 10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the difficulty to identify a data set that most realistically represents the actual pollution state of the Arctic atmosphere.

  6. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  7. Structure of model peptides based on Nephila clavipes dragline silk spidroin (MaSp1) studied by 13C cross polarization/magic angle spinning NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingying; Nakazawa, Yasumoto; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Knight, David; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    To obtain detailed structural information for spider dragline spidroin (MaSp1), we prepared three versions of the consensus peptide GGLGGQGAGAAAAAAGGAGQGGYGGLGSQGAGR labeled with 13C at six different sites. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra were observed after treating the peptides with different reagents known to alter silk protein conformations. The conformation-dependent 13C NMR chemical shifts and peak deconvolution were used to determine the local structure and the fractional compositions of the conformations, respectively. After trifluoroacetic acid (solvent)/diethyl ether (coagulant) treatment, the N-terminal region of poly-Ala (PLA) sequence, Ala8 and Ala10, adopted predominantly the alpha-helix with a substantial amount of beta-sheet. The central region, Ala15, Ala18, and Leu26, and C-terminal region, Ala31, of the peptide were dominated by either 3(1)-helix or alpha-helix. There was no indication of beta-sheet, although peak broadening indicates that the torsion angle distribution is relatively large. After 9 M LiBr/dialysis treatment, three kinds of conformation, beta-sheet, random coil, and 3(1)-helix, appeared, in almost equal amounts of beta-sheet and random coil conformations for Ala8 and Ala10 residues and distorted 3(1)-helix at the central region of the peptide. In contrast, after formic acid/methanol and 8 M urea/acetonitrile treatments, all of the local structure tends to beta-sheet, although small amounts of random coil are also observed. The peak pattern of the Ala Cbeta carbon after 8 M urea/acetonitrile treatment is similar to the corresponding patterns of silk fiber from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini. We also synthesized a longer 13C-labeled peptide containing two PLA blocks and three Gly-rich blocks. After 8 M urea/acetonitrile treatment, the conformation pattern was closely similar to that of the shorter peptide.

  8. MANPRINT Evaluation of the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle-Heavy Variant (HMMWV-HV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    forward detent sets. Incorporate a folding short lumbar support into the attendant’s seat. The back of this folding support, when folded down, could...loading ramp. Traction splint and blanket set bulky - cover fuse box and vision of equipment operating apparatus. Latches 79 catch on litter. Many

  9. Alternative Solder Bond Packaging Approach for High-Voltage (HV) Pulsed Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    speed and high - temperature operation capabilities. However, the advanced capabilities of these switches are a challenge to demonstrate due to the...with a high - temperature anneal. The ohmic contacts to the anode, gate, and the substrate of the devices were formed using annealed nickel (Ni...with isopropyl alcohol. The copper strips and copper terminals underwent an additional cleaning with hydrochloric acid to ensure all oxidation was

  10. U.K. linesmen's experience of microshocks on HV overhead lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y; Rowland, S M

    2009-08-01

    Linesmen working on high voltage equipment occasionally report unpleasant discharges from equipment. The sensation is known as microshocks, which result from capacitive coupling of the linesmen to high voltage sources and subsequent discharging when in very close proximity to grounded objects. Often, this is just an annoyance, but the levels can become such that work has to cease. Microshocks are unpredictable, and therefore, planning maintenance work around them has not been possible. A survey has been developed to investigate and quantify different factors that may have a direct influence on the frequency and intensity of discharges. Transmission line workers (N = 102) from England and Wales participated in the survey and provided details of personal body characteristics as well as their experiences of microshocks. Survey results suggest a correlation between body mass index and certain work activities to the likelihood of a person experiencing microshocks, and their severity. Higher body mass index reduces the likelihood of experiencing painful microshocks. Climbing lattice towers adjacent to energized conductors is the area most associated with the phenomenon. Microshock incidents have increased or are occurring at the same rate as 5 years ago. Results presented will aid the development of policy statements and mitigation techniques that minimize linesmen's exposure to microshocks. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a PDF file containing survey questions.].

  11. Partial Discharge Measurements in HV Rotating Machines in Dependence on Pressure of Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kršňák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the pressure of the coolant used in high voltage rotating machines on partial discharges occurring in stator insulation is discussed in this paper. The first part deals with a theoretical analysis of the topic. The second part deals with the results obtained on a real generator in industrial conditions. Finally, theoretical assumptions and obtained results are compared.

  12. Simple DCM or CRM analog peak current controller for HV capacitor charge-discharge applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analog current controller suitable for buck and boost converter topologies. The controller operates in DCM or CRM, depending on the setup. The experimental results are presented to validate the proposed controller functionality for a high voltage capacitor charge...

  13. Hvězdářství krále Jana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin

    The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.

  14. Thermal radiation effect on the extinction properties of electric arcs in HV circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziani Abderrahmane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of the electric arc at the opening of a high voltage circuit breaker, the generated plasma will be the seat of a very important thermal exchange. Models founded only on conduction and convection thermal transfers don't reproduce the whole thermal exchanges that are governing the extinction process. This paper is devoted to the development of a model of the electric arc extinction in a high voltage circuit breaker taking in account the thermal radiation of the plasma, in addition to the conduction and convection phenomena. The Stefan-Boltzman equation is coupled with the heat equation, and both equations are solved simultaneously in order to follow the evolution of the arc voltage and the conductance of the thermal plasma. The obtained results are found in good agreement with experimental recordings.

  15. Pixel architectures in a HV-CMOS process for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Y.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Lachkar, M.; Liu, J.; Orsini, F.; Pangaud, P.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, design details and simulation results of new pixel architectures designed in LFoundry 150 nm high voltage CMOS process in the framework of the ATLAS high luminosity inner detector upgrade are presented. These pixels can be connected to the FE-I4 readout chip via bump bonding or glue and some of them can also be tested without a readout chip. Negative high voltage is applied to the high resistivity (> 2 kΩ .cm) substrate in order to deplete the deep n-well charge collection diode, ensuring good charge collection and radiation tolerance. In these pixels, the front-end has been implemented inside the diode using both NMOS and PMOS transistors. The pixel pitch is 50 μm × 250 μm for all pixels. These pixels have been implemented in a demonstrator chip called LFCPIX.

  16. Characterization of ferroresonant modes in HV substation with CB grading capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val Escudero, M. [ESB International, 19/21 Stephen Court, Stephen' s, Green, Dublin (Ireland); Dudurych, I. [TSO EirGrid, Ireland, Power System Operations, 27, Lower Fitzwilliam Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Redfern, M.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bath University, Claverton Down, Bath (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    This paper reports a ferroresonant experience involving inductive voltage transformers (VT's) in a 400 kV substation equipped with circuit breaker grading capacitors. Field measurements are presented and compared with ATP/EMTP simulation results, showing very good agreement. A parametric analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of the substation capacitance on the occurrence of ferroresonance. Fundamental frequency and sub-harmonic ferroresonant modes have been identified and compiled in a bifurcation diagram. The methodology presented can be used to create risk maps of avoidable switching operations or substation configurations. (author)

  17. Design and construction of double-Blumlein HV pulse power supply

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak K Gupta; P I John

    2001-10-01

    A double Blumlein pulse generator is constructed using a coaxial cable. This power supply is capable of providing a voltage up to 20 kV across a matched load and 40kV across an open load with a charging voltage of 10 kV. It is designed to provide a pulse width of 110ns. A rise time of ∼10ns is obtained with present spark gap. A rotating spark gap is also designed and constructed to get a pulse repetition rate of 25Hz. Although, in the present work this pulse generator is used to study the streamer discharge in air, it is useful in many other applications also.

  18. Improving zinc accumulation in cereal endosperm using HvMTP1, a transition metal transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menguer, Paloma K; Vincent, Thomas; Miller, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms, including humans. It is estimated that around two billion people are deficient in their Zn intake. Human dietary Zn intake relies heavily on plants, which in many developing countries consists mainly of cereals. The inner part of cereal grain, the endosp...

  19. Electronic Structure of CeRhIn$_{5}$: dHvA and Energy Band Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Donavan; Palm, E; Murphy, T.; Tozer, S.; Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Peabody, Lydia; Li, Charis Quay Huei; Alver, U.; Goodrich, R. G.; Sarrao, J. L.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Wills, J. M.; Fisk, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The de Haas - van Alphen effect and energy band calculations are used to study angular dependent extremal areas and effective masses of the Fermi surface of the highly correlated antiferromagnetic material CeRhIn$_5$. The agreement between experiment and theory is reasonable for the areas measured with the field applied along the (100) axis of the tetragonal structure, but disagree in size for the areas observed for the field applied along the (001) axis where the antiferromagnetic spin align...

  20. Artificial Neural Network and Rough Set for HV Bushings Condition Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mpanza, LJ

    2011-01-01

    Most transformer failures are attributed to bushings failures. Hence it is necessary to monitor the condition of bushings. In this paper three methods are developed to monitor the condition of oil filled bushing. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis function (RBF) and Rough Set (RS) models are developed and combined through majority voting to form a committee. The MLP performs better that the RBF and the RS is terms of classification accuracy. The RBF is the fasted to train. The committee performs better than the individual models. The diversity of models is measured to evaluate their similarity when used in the committee.

  1. Condition Monitoring of HV Bushings in the Presence of Missing Data Using Evolutionary Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Dhlamini, Sizwe M; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    The work proposes the application of neural networks with particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GA) to compensate for missing data in classifying high voltage bushings. The classification is done using DGA data from 60966 bushings based on IEEEc57.104, IEC599 and IEEE production rates methods for oil impregnated paper (OIP) bushings. PSO and GA were compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Both GA and PSO simulations were able to estimate missing data values to an average 95% accuracy when only one variable was missing. However PSO rapidly deteriorated to 66% accuracy with two variables missing simultaneously, compared to 84% for GA. The data estimated using GA was found to classify the conditions of bushings than the PSO.

  2. Proton Irradiations on SJ HV Power MOSFETs to Realize Fast Diode Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Bertuglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of proton irradiations on Super Junction High Voltage power MOSFETs to realize transistors with fast diode. Experiments were performed on a sample of 600 V power MOSFETs and achieved results were compared to standard irradiated devices by electrons.

  3. Role and Significance of Uncertainty in HV Measurement of Porcelain Insulators - a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rahul Raj; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Dayama, Ravindra

    The improved safety margins in complex systems have attained prime importance in the modern scientific environment. The analysis and implementation of complex systems demands the well quantified accuracy and capability of measurements. Careful measurement with properly identified and quantified uncertainties could lead to the actual discovery which further may contribute for social developments. Unfortunately most scientists and students are passively taught to ignore the possibility of definition problems in the field of measurement and are often source of great arguments. Identifying this issue, ISO has initiated the standardisation of methodologies but its Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has yet to be adapted seriously in tertiary education institutions for understanding the concept of uncertainty. The paper has been focused for understanding the concepts of measurement and uncertainty. Further a case study for calculation and quantification of UOM for high voltage electrical testing of ceramic insulators has been explained.

  4. Analysis of the grounding system for a mobile communication site placed on HV power line mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrsan, I.; Munteanu, C.; Horgoș, M.; Ilut, T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential distribution on the soil surface or potential variation on the main directions inside computing mobile site. I want to study a system made the earth a mobile communications site, antennas operator and the system of which the earth is placed on a High Voltage Power Line Mast (LEA 110 KV). I made direct measurements and I use a 3D software for analyze the results and simulating some possible solutions.

  5. An Overview of Dynamic Contact Resistance Measurement of HV Circuit Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhole, A. A.; Gandhare, W. Z.

    2016-06-01

    With the deregulation of the electrical power industry, utilities and service companies are operating in a changing business environment. High voltage circuit breakers are extremely important for the function of modern electric power supply systems. The need to predict the proper function of circuit breaker grew over the years as the transmission networks expanded. The maintenance of circuit breakers deserves special consideration because of their importance for routine switching and for protection of other equipments. Electric transmission system breakups and equipment destruction can occur if a circuit breaker fails to operate because of a lack of preventive maintenance. Dynamic Contact Resistance Measurement (DCRM) is known as an effective technique for assessing the condition of power circuit breakers contacts and operating mechanism. This paper gives a general review about DCRM. It discusses the practical case studies on use of DCRM for condition assessment of high voltage circuit breakers.

  6. An examination of the potential for nano-composites in the formulation of HV cable insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mihir

    In order to find an appropriate cable dielectric material, nanodielectrics consisting of silica particles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) have been formulated using melt-mixing. Various types of chemical modifications were provided to the surface of the nanoparticles in order to understand the mechanism of the particle-polymer interface and to tailor the properties of overall composites. The particulates and the composites formulated have been characterized utilizing several techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and microscopy. These nanomaterials were examined for their electrical attributes, and substantial improvement in electrical voltage endurance was demonstrated. In addition significant improvements in electric strength were measured and other physical properties important to the processing and application of cable dielectrics were not sacrificed. It was established that the interfacial charge build-up that is a common feature of micro-filled material is absent in nanodielectrics, and there was also a reduction in over all permittivity of the nanocomposite below that of the base resin. To understand the mechanism involved in the improvement in the dielectric properties, the chemistry and physics of the particle-polymer interface was crucial. Therefore, some electrical characterizations of the composite materials were performed to find the trap-site separation, trap depth, mobility of the charge carriers, threshold field for internal charge accumulations etc. The chain scission mechanism proposed by Artbauer via free volume theory was extended to the interfacial defects in the composites; the size of such defects being significantly different for the nano- versus micro-composites. The defects resulted in a microcomposite with very low electric strength, and mitigation of the defects via chemical linkage between particle and polymer improved the overall dielectric strength of the nanocomposite. The field at which electron injection occurred was delayed by the surface-treatment provided to the nanoparticles. Particularly the improvement of electric strength for the nano-filled material with polar modifiers was found to be due to charge trapping. For the untreated nano-filled material the charge build-up is absent simply through the leakage via overlapping of conductive interfaces.

  7. Seasonal changes in H/V spectral ratio at high-latitude seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Pancha, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present results demonstrating seasonal variations in the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) at high-latitude seismic stations. We analyze data from two sites at Poker Flat Research Range, near Fairbanks, Alaska. From the first site, we analyze 3 stations installed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in a valley with marshy summer conditions. We also analyze the PASSCAL Instrument Center station PIC2, which is installed on rock approximately 3.2 km from the SNL stations. These stations continuously record data at 125 (SNL) and 200 (PIC2) samples per second. Seasonal changes in HVSR at high frequencies (> 20 Hz) appear to be caused by impedance contrasts between frozen and thawed ground. Thawed active layers are known to have slower shear-wave velocities than frozen layers or bedrock. An estimate of active layer thickness at each station is obtained from the quarter-wavelength approximation. We verify the accuracy of this technique by obtaining ground-truth measurements at the sites for both thickness and shear-wave velocity. We use physical probing for the thickness measurements and active-source Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) surveys for the shear-wave velocities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  8. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  9. Towards Automatic Diagnosis of Minority Carriers Propagation Problems in HV/HT Automotive Smart Power ICs

    OpenAIRE

    Moursy, Yasser; Zou, Hao; Iskander, Ramy; Tisserand, Pierre; Ton, Dieu-My; Pasetti, Giuseppe; Seebacher, Ehrenfried; Steinmair, Alexander; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a proposed methodology to identify the substrate coupling effects in smart power integrated circuits is presented. This methodology is based on a tool called AUTOMICS to extract substrate parasitic network. This network comprises diodes and resistors that are able to maintain the continuity of minority carrier concentration. The contribution of minority carriers in the substrate noise is significant in high-voltage and high temperature applications. The ...

  10. Single phase Ferroresonance oscillations in HV facilities; Einphasige Ferroresonanzschwingungen in Hochspannungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeunlich, Reinhold; Daeumling, Holger; Hofstetter, Martin; Prucker, Udo; Schmid, Joachim; Minkner, Ruthard; Schlierf, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-15

    Ferroresonances occur usually in small parts of a switch device and its circuits which are disconnected from the grid. Due to capacitive coupling by the grid voltage a multitude of complex and nonlinear oscillations are affected if the transformer core is saturated. In this contribution a complex single-phase ferroresonance process is described and remedial measures are presented. (GL)

  11. Ant Colony Optimization of Rough Set for HV Bushings Fault Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Mpanza, J L

    2011-01-01

    Most transformer failures are attributed to bushings failures. Hence it is necessary to monitor the condition of bushings. In this paper three methods are developed to monitor the condition of oil filled bushing. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis function (RBF) and Rough Set (RS) models are developed and combined through majority voting to form a committee. The MLP performs better that the RBF and the RS is terms of classification accuracy. The RBF is the fasted to train. The committee performs better than the individual models. The diversity of models is measured to evaluate their similarity when used in the committee.

  12. Thermal de-icing of HV conductors by using an external DC source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, S.; Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2002-07-01

    The Research Institute of Hydro-Quebec is conducting 2 test programs in climatic chambers. It is also compiling a database for conductors, ground wires and optical power ground wires (OPGW). An in-house computer program has also been developed to evaluate de-icing using the Joule effect. Maps illustrating the power transmission network for the entire province were presented. It was shown that de-icing requires 1800 A per every 735 kV conductor. This upper limit is fixed by the thermal rating of the line. The longest line to be de-iced in Quebec is about 250 km long. This would require 850 kV and 6000 MVA of power. The basic de-icing configuration at 315 kV was also illustrated, along with a simulation of the impact of de-icing on ice loading of power lines.

  13. Progress report on the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.; Imel, D.; Chu, A.; Miller, T.; Moller, D.; Skotnicki, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIRSAR has served as a test-bed for both imaging radar techniques and radar technologies for over a decade. In fact, the polarimetric, cross-track interferometric, and along-track introferometric radar techniques were all developed using AIRSAR.

  14. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region

    OpenAIRE

    Ndounla, J.; Pulgarin, C

    2015-01-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 +/- 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 ...

  15. Translational energy distribution from C sub 2 H sub 2 + hv(193. 3 nm) yields C sub 2 H + H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segall, J.; Wen, Y.; Lavi, R.; Singer, R.; Wittig, C. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-10-17

    The authors report the center-of-mass translational energy distribution for 193.3-nm photolysis of expansion-cooled C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, using high-n Rydberg-level excitation of nascent H atoms to facilitate high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. The observed resolution of {approximately}200 cm{sup {minus}1} is presently limited by the ArF photolysis laser, whose band width is approximately 200 cm{sup {minus}1}. The reported distribution clearly resolves a C{sub 2}H bending progression (v{sub 2}{approximately}400 cm{sup {minus}1}), which reflects the trans-bent C{sub 2}H{sub 2} excited state. A definitive assignment of all features is still not possible on the basis of currently available information of C{sub 2}H. These measurements yield an upper bound to D{sub 0} of 131.8 {plus minus} 0.5 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}.

  16. 高压设备的维护程序模型%Modeling of HV Devices Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to mathematical modeling of maintenance procedures. With regard to the random characteristic of states changes and damage of electrical power devices, the maintenance models of these processes based on Markov random processes theory have been proposed. Simulations based on the proposed models concern the analysis of reliability and probability of damage of electrical power devices as a function of time.

  17. The role of the HvNAC6 transcription factor in response to biotic and abiotic stress in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun

    The thesis is organized in six chapters: Chapter I provides an introduction to NAC transcription factors (TFs), including the regulation of NAC TFs and their functions in abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, several reports have highlighted the NAC TF family for their potential to improve plant...... and abiotic stress. Chapter II is also part of the introduction for the thesis, and represents a review chapter discusses the challenges and the prospects for genetically engineering for disease resistance. My contribution comprised reviewing the progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms of hormones...... and transcription factors in plant immunity, which provides an essential foundation before new strategies for developing transgenic resistance can be designed. The following chapters describe the experimental work and results achieved during the PhD study. Chapters III and IV are two manuscripts presenting...

  18. Monitoring system applicable for 3-phase encapsulated switchgears; Monitoringsystem fuer dreiphasig gekapselte gasisolierte HV-Schaltanlagen. Neuer Kommunikationsstandard IEC 61850

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glock, J.; Heinemann, L. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-02-25

    The monitoring system presented is applicable for 3-phase encapsulated switchgears. It helps to reduce maintenance costs by continuous supervision of primary and secondary equipment. Inspection intervals can be increased and maintenance effort is reduced. Maintenance planning is supported by remaining life time determination and trend analysis. In the unlikely case of a failure the system allows fast and easy access to all relevant information for fault localization and counter-measures. (orig.)

  19. Case note: HvJ EG (C-40/08: Asturcom Telecomunicaciones SL v. Cristina Rodríguez Nogueira)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2010-01-01

    On those grounds, the Court (First Chamber) hereby rules: Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts must be interpreted as meaning that a national court or tribunal hearing an action for enforcement of an arbitration award which has become final and was made i

  20. The Integrated HV, LV and Liquid Radiator Control System for the HMPID in the ALICE Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E; De Cataldo, G; Di Mauro, A; Franco, A; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Piuz, François; Schyns, E M

    2001-01-01

    The complexity and the underground location of the new generation experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires a reliable and user friendly control system to operate such large detectors remotely. Control system experts at CERN are deeply involved in developing the JCOP (Joint Controls Project) 'Framework', a software running in the PVSSII SCADA1 (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system, that will provide a homogeneous and ready to use tool for the control system developers of the LHC experiments. The High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID), one of the ALICE2 sub-detectors, is being equipped with a Detector Control System (DCS) developed within the JCOP Framework. In this paper the basic features and the first results of the DCS prototype are presented.

  1. Rad-hard vertical JFET switch for the HV-MUX system of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Martinez, Pablo; Flores, David; Hidalgo, Salvador; Quirion, David; Lynn, David

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a new silicon vertical JFET (V-JFET) device, based on the trenched 3D-detector technology developed at IMB-CNM, to be used as switches for the High-Voltage powering scheme of the ATLAS upgrade Inner Tracker. The optimization of the device characteristics is performed by 2D and 3D TCAD simulations. Special attention has been paid to the on-resistance and the switch-off and breakdown voltages to meet the specific requirements of the system. In addition, a set of parameter values has been extracted from the simulated curves to implement a SPICE model of the proposed V-JFET transistor. As these devices are expected to operate under very high radiation conditions during the whole experiment life-time, a study of the radiation damage effects and the expected degradation on the device performance is also presented at the end of the paper.

  2. Targeted expression of HvHMA2 increases the mineral content of the inner endosperm in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeparvar, Shahin; Darbani, Behrooz; Tauris, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Cereals are a major source of dietary energy and protein but are nutritionally poor in micronutrients. Zinc (Zn) biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a promising strategy to combat the global challenge of human Zn-deficiency. The aim of this study was to improve the Zn content in...

  3. A Study on the Dependable and Secure Relaying Scheme under High Resistance Earth Faults on HV, EHV Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.D.; Han, K.N. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This report contains following items for the purpose of investigating and analyzing characteristics of high impedance ground faults. - Reason and characteristics identification of HIF - Modeling of power system - Testing of protective relays using RTD(Real Time Digital Simulator) - Staged ground faults test - Development of new algorithm to detect HIF - Protective coordination schemes between different types of relays - HIF monitoring and relaying scheme and H/W prototyping. (author). 22 refs., 28 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Selecting and design of OPGW on HV power transmission line%设计OPGW应考虑的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂峰; 郎需军

    2001-01-01

    OPGW作为一种信息转播媒体,安全性能高,抗干扰能力强,重量轻容量大,已在电力系统中得到广泛采用.OPGW的选型设计直接关系到工程的质量和工程造价,文中根据工程实践对OPGW在工程中的设计原则作简要论述.

  5. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ESTIMATING SOIL MOISTURE OVER BARE SOIL USING FULL-POLARIMETRIC ALOS-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sekertekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging system is one of the most effective way for Earth observation. The aim of this study is to present the preliminary results about estimating soil moisture using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Full-polarimetric (HH, HV, VV, VH ALOS-2 data, acquired on 22.04.2016 with the incidence angle of 30.4o, were used in the study. Simultaneously with the SAR acquisition, in-situ soil moisture samples over bare agricultural lands were collected and evaluated using gravimetric method. Backscattering coefficients for all polarizations were obtained and linear regression analysis was carried out with in situ moisture measurements. The best correlation coefficient was observed with VV polarization. Cross-polarized backscattering coefficients were not so sensitive to soil moisture content. In the study, it was observed that soil moisture maps can be retrieved with the accuracy about 14% (RMSE.

  6. A feasibility study on identification of Basmati (aromatic) rice using SAR data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varunika Jain; C Patnaik; S Panigrahy

    2014-12-01

    Rice areas in India are being mapped for acreage estimation using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data under forecasting agricultural output using space, agrometeorology and land-based observations (FASAL) program for over a decade now. Under this study, an attempt was made to segregate rice areas based on variety in parts of Punjab state. Data acquisition was done at critical stages of rice growth. The shift in transplantation in temporal domain and difference in canopy volume formed the basis of characterization of rice crop into two different varieties namely aromatic and non-aromatic. Multitemporal HH polarization data along with rate of change of cross polarization ratio (HH/HV) from July to September 2011 was used. The aromatic rice could be separated from normal rice with 91% accuracy.

  7. Fish skin provides invisibility in open ocean (image 11)

    National Science Foundation

    2017-02-10

    Full Text Available Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopySkin preparation from fish shows birefringence under cross polarization microscopy Skin pr

  8. The relationship between aboveground biomass and radar backscatter as observed on airborne SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.; Dobson, M. Craig

    1991-01-01

    The initial results of an experiment to examine the dependence of radar image intensity on total above-ground biomass in a southern US pine forest ecosystem are presented. Two sets of data are discussed. First, we examine two L-band (VV-polarization) data sets which were collected 5 years apart. These data sets clearly illustrate the change in backscatter resulting from the growth of a young pine stand. Second, we examine the dependence between radar backscatter and biomass as a function of radar frequency using data from the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and ERIM/NADC P-3 SAR systems. These results show that there is a positive correlation between above-ground biomass and radar backscatter and at C-, L-, and P-bands, but very little correlation at C-band. The biomass level for which this positive correlation holds decreases as radar frequency increases. This positive correlation is stronger at HH and HV polarizations that VV polarization at L- and P-bands, but strongest at VV polarization for C-band.

  9. Significant wave height estimation using azimuth cutoff of C-band RADARSAT-2 single-polarization SAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Lin; YANG Jingsong; ZHENG Gang; WANG Juan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes two simple models, look-up table (LUT) model and empirical model, to directly retrieve significant wave height (Hs) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) azimuth cutoff (λc). Both models aim at C-band VV, HH, VH, and HV single-polarization SAR images. The LUT model relatesHs toλc, while the empirical model relatesHs to bothλc and SAR range-to-velocity (β). The LUT model coefficients are derived by simulation under different sea states and observation conditions, which depend on incidence angle (θ), wave direction (dw), andβbut are independent of polarization. The empirical model coefficients are obtained by fitting the collocated data, which only depend on polarization. To fit empirical model coefficients and validate the two models, C-band RADARSAT-2 fine quad-polarization (VV+HH+VH+HV) single-look complex (SLC) SAR images and collocated buoy data are collected. RetrievedHs, using Yang model and the two models proposed in this paper from four kinds of polarization SAR data, are compared with buoyHs. Results show that both LUT and empirical models have the capacity of retrievingHs from C-band RADARSAT-2 co-polarization SAR data, while Yang model is not suitable for these kinds of SAR data. Moreover, the empirical model is also valid for cross-polarization SAR data showing clear ocean wave stripes.

  10. Investigating the correlation between radar backscatter and in situ soil property measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Deok; Vahedifard, Farshid; Aanstoos, James V.

    2017-05-01

    Utilizing remote sensing techniques to extract soil properties can facilitate several engineering applications for large-scale monitoring and modeling purposes such as earthen levees monitoring, landslide mapping, and off-road mobility modeling. This study presents results of statistical analyses to investigate potential correlations between multiple polarization radar backscatter and various physical soil properties. The study was conducted on an approximately 3 km long section of earthen levees along the lower Mississippi river as part of the development of remote levee monitoring methods. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery from UAVSAR was used along with an extensive set of in situ soil properties. The following properties were analyzed from the top 30-50 cm of soil: texture (sand and clay fraction), penetration resistance (sleeve friction and cone tip resistance), saturated hydraulic conductivity, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and porosity. The results showed some correlation between the cross-polarized (HV) radar backscatter coefficients and most of these properties. A few soil properties, like clay fraction, showed similar but weaker correlations with the co-polarized channels (HH and VV). The correlations between the soil properties and radar backscatter were analyzed separately for the river side and land side of the levee. It was found that the magnitude and direction of the correlation for most of the soil properties noticeably differed between the river and the land sides. The findings of this study can be a good starting point for scattering modelers in a pursuit of better models for radar scattering at cross polarizations which would include more diverse set of soil parameters.

  11. Forecast of wheat yield throughout the agricultural season using optical and radar satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieuzal, R.; Baup, F.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the capabilities of forecasting the yield of wheat using an artificial neural network combined with multi-temporal satellite data acquired at high spatial resolution throughout the agricultural season in the optical and/or microwave domains. Reflectance (acquired by Formosat-2, and Spot 4-5 in the green, red, and near infrared wavelength) and multi-configuration backscattering coefficients (acquired by TerraSAR-X and Radarsat-2 in the X- and C-bands, at co- (abbreviated HH and VV) and cross-polarization states (abbreviated HV and VH)) constitute the input variable of the artificial neural networks, which are trained and validated on the successively acquired images, providing yield forecast in near real-time conditions. The study is based on data collected over 32 fields of wheat distributed over a study area located in southwestern France, near Toulouse. Among the tested sensor configurations, several satellite data appear useful for the yield forecasting throughout the agricultural season (showing coefficient of determination (R2) larger than 0.60 and a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 9.1 quintals by hectare (q ha-1)): CVH, CHV, or the combined used of XHH and CHH, CHH and CHV, or green reflectance and CHH. Nevertheless, the best accurate forecast (R2 = 0.76 and RMSE = 7.0 q ha-1) is obtained longtime before the harvest (on day 98, during the elongation of stems) using the combination of co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients acquired in the C-band (CVV and CVH). These results highlight the high interest of using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data instead of optical ones to early forecast the yield before the harvest of wheat.

  12. Application of SF6 Gas in HV Switehgear%SF6气体在高压开关设备中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文兵; 罗庆文

    2008-01-01

    介绍了SF6气体在高压开关设备中的应用情况,着重阐述了在全球减排温室气体的前提下,高压开关设备中对SF6气体应用的新趋势(如使用混合气体、研制SF6代用品等),并指出合理使用SF6气体和管理是减少SF6气体排放的关键.文中还建议我国尽快出台关于SF6气体回收等的法规或条例

  13. Case note: HvJ EU (zaaknr. C-446/09, C-495/09, LJN BU7493: Philips/Nokia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Verzoeken om een prejudiciële beslissing ingediend door de Rechtbank van eerste aanleg te Antwerpen en de Court of Appeal, England and Wales, (Civil Division) bij beslissingen van 4 respectievelijk 26 november 2009. Bestrijding van binnenbrengen in de Unie van namaakgoederen en door piraterij verkre

  14. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia.

  15. IEC Standard Related to Digital Communication in HV Switchgear%与高压开关设备中数字通信相关的IEC标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas; Schaeffler; Hermann; Koch

    2007-01-01

    数字通信正在进入高压开关设备这个传统的技术领域.当前与高压开关设备中数字通信相关的IEC标准有IEC 61850和IEC 62271-3.IEC 61850横向标准系列旨在用于变电站的通信和系统部分;IEC 62271-3适用于高压开关设备和控制开关设备以及相关的装配件.文章介绍了IEC 62271-3的应用领域、应用示例及对于IEC 61850系列而言的一个主要扩展--开关设备监控;给出了基于IEC 61850和IEC 62271-3的一个变电站(未来)控制系统可能采用的配置.以使数字通信在高压开关设备中的应用对于变电站工程师而言尽可能的实用.

  16. A stochastic simulation model to determine the sample size of repeated national surveys to document freedom from bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwermer Heinzpeter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International trade regulations require that countries document their livestock's sanitary status in general and freedom from specific infective agents in detail provided that import restrictions should be applied. The latter is generally achieved by large national serological surveys and risk assessments. The paper describes the basic structure and application of a generic stochastic model for risk-based sample size calculation of consecutive national surveys to document freedom from contagious disease agents in livestock. Methods In the model, disease spread during the time period between two consecutive surveys was considered, either from undetected infections within the domestic population or from imported infected animals. The @Risk model consists of the domestic spread in-between two national surveys; the infection of domestic herds from animals imported from countries with a sanitary status comparable to Switzerland or lower sanitary status and the summary sheet which summed up the numbers of resulting infected herds of all infection pathways to derive the pre-survey prevalence in the domestic population. Thereof the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and required survey sample sizes were calculated. A scenario for detection of infected herds by general surveillance was included optionally. Results The model highlights the importance of residual domestic infection spread and characteristics of different import pathways. The sensitivity analysis revealed that number of infected, but undetected domestic herds and the multiplicative between-survey-spread factor were most correlated with the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and the resulting sample size, respectively. Compared to the deterministic pre-cursor model, the stochastic model was therefore more sensitive to the previous survey's results. Undetected spread of infection in the domestic population between two surveys gained more importance than infection through animals of either import pathway. Conclusion The model estimated the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection accurately as was shown in the case of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. With this model, a generic tool becomes available which can be adapted to changing conditions related to either importing or exporting countries.

  17. Development of a method for evaluation of the life curve of the HV and EHV cable polymeric insulation: The first results and fields of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkov, I. B.; Ovsienko, V. L.; Shuvalov, M. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A test procedure and an experimental setup are presented that enable derivation of the "life curve," i.e., the electrical tree induction period vs. applied voltage dependence for the low-density crosslinked polyethylene insulation. The developed equipment allows testing samples of materials both made in a laboratory and cut out from commercially manufactured cables at room temperature and at long-term permissible and overload temperatures. The fact of the electrical tree inception is established by light microscopy directly during simultaneous high-voltage test of ten samples. The optical system and the applied micromanipulation technique provide spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 μm, high-precision delivery of the microelectrode to the area of interest inside the sample, a permanent and reliable contact between the microelectrode and the material, and preservation of the residual mechanical stress field. The obtained results can be applied to development of new high-voltage cables with polymer insulation. The derived "life curve" enabled—using the corresponding mathematical model—calculation of the electric insulation thickness, which reaches 19-20 mm for the 220-kV cables.

  18. The Latest Development in the Design of HV Cable Termination%高压电缆终端设计的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫瑞磊

    2006-01-01

    综述了当今国内外品种繁多的高压电缆终端产品,探讨了高压电缆终端的发展过程,指出了采用非线性的半导电材料来改善电缆终端的电场分布是今后电缆终端的发展趋势.

  19. Detection of OvHV-2 from an outbreak of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever from crossbred cattle of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, N; Sreedevi, B; Karthik, A; Vijaya Lakshmi, S; Geetha Reddy, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever in crossbred cattle in a village of Andhra Pradesh, southern India, affected thirteen adult cows and two calves from a population of forty animals. All the affected animals were died between December and January 2013-14. The clinical and gross postmortem findings were typical of MCF in Indian crossbred cattle. Migrating sheep flocks were suspected source of infection for the cattle. The diagnosis was confirmed by heminested PCR in all the affected cattle and the suspected sheep flock. The PCR provided evidence of ovine herpes virus type 2.

  20. Development of HV power transmission technology. Electric power supply until first world war; Entwicklung der Hochspannungsuebertragungstechnik. Die Elektroenergieversorgung bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Frank [Deutsches Museum, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-11-02

    Story of power supply from 1880 to 1935 in Germany starting first with light centers, first public plants for power utilization followed by steam power plants and erection of overhead power lines. (GL)

  1. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) and Simulation and Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    have better performance than BT-based dielectrics in this frequency range because of the PZT lower loss tangent. The reason is that PZT dielectric...during pulse formation the top of the reflected voltage pulse travels faster along the line than its bottom distorting the voltage step into a ramp... inductances due to component geometry or terminals limits the output frequency in NLTLs. As shown in Fig. 6, as expected the permittivity for all

  2. Studies of aging and HV break down problems during development and operation of MSGC and GEM detectors for the Inner Tracking System of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Bagaturia, Yu S; Dreis, H B; Eisele, Franz; Gorbunov, I V; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Hausmann, S A; Hildebrandt, M; Hott, T; Keller, S; Krauss, C; Lomonosov, B N; Negodaev, M A; Richter, C; Robmann, P; Schmidt, B; Straumann, U; Truöl, P; Visbeck, S; Walter, T; Werner, C; Werthenbach, U; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Ziegler, M

    2002-01-01

    The results of five years of development of the inner tracking system of the HERA-B experiment and first experience from the data taking period of the year 2000 are reported. The system contains 184 chambers, covering a sensitive area of about 20 * 20 cm2 each. The detector is based on microstrip gas counters (MSGCs) with diamond like coated (DLC) glass wafers and gas electron multipliers (GEMs). The main problems in the development phase were gas discharges in intense hadron beams and aging in a high radiation dose environment. The observation of gas discharges which damage the electrode structure of the MSGC led to the addition of the GEM as a first amplification step. Spurious sparking at the GEM cannot be avoided completely. It does not affect the GEM itself but can produce secondary damage of the MSGC if the electric field between the GEM and the MSGC is above a threshold depending on operation conditions. We observed that aging does not only depend on the dose but also on the spot size of the irradiated...

  3. Research on NWELL Resistor SPICE Model of HV Process%高压工艺N阱电阻SPICE模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月影; 李冰; 何小东

    2007-01-01

    文章对0.5μm/40V高压工艺中形成的N阱电阻的SPICE模型进行研究.因为高压电路的实际应用,N阱电阻的寄生效应不可忽略,所以精确反应其电学特性的SPICE模型也显得尤为重要.从N阱电阻的测量结果反映其IV曲线的非线性特性和结型栅场效应管JFET输出特性曲线具有相似性,并通过对高压阱电阻与JFET的结构分析认为可以采用JFET的电压电流关系来建立合理的数学模型反映高压阱电阻的这种非线性特性.因此在文中借用JFET的SPICE模型作为基础,用宏模型的方法为高压N阱电阻建立了一套精确的SPICE模型.此模型适用于各类仿真器,具有一定的通用性.

  4. Potential performance analysis and future trend prediction of electric vehicle with V2G/V2H/V2B capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalong Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intermittent nature, renewable energy sources (RES has brought new challenges on load balancing and energy dispatching to the Smart Grid. Potentially served as distributed energy storage, Electric Vehicle’s (EV battery can be used as a way to help mitigate the pressure of fluctuation brought by RES and reinforce the stability of power systems. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the current situation of EV technology and mainly emphasizing three EV discharging operations which are Vehicle to Grid (V2G, Vehicle to Home (V2H, and Vehicle to Building (V2B, respectively. When needed, EV’s battery can discharge and send its surplus energy back to power grid, residential homes, or buildings. Based on our data analysis, we argue that V2G with the largest transmission power losses is potentially less efficient compared with the other two modes. We show that the residential users have the incentive to schedule the charging, V2G, and V2H according to the real-time price (RTP and the market sell-back price. In addition, we discuss some challenges and potential risks resulting from EVs’ fast growth. Finally we propose some suggestions on future power systems and also argue that some incentives or rewards need to be provided to motivate EV owners to behave in the best interests of the overall power systems.

  5. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  6. A Study to Assess the Long-term Performance of SmartSet® HV and SmartSet® GHV Bone Cements in Primary Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-02

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Post-traumatic Arthritis; Collagen Disorders; Avascular Necrosis; Traumatic Femoral Fractures; Nonunion of Femoral Fractures; Congenital Hip Dysplasia; Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

  7. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins.

  8. Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...

  9. Investigation of Localized Production of HV XLPE Insulation Compound%高压交联聚乙烯电缆绝缘料的国产化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈彬华

    2010-01-01

    简述我国高压交联聚乙烯(XLPE)绝缘电力电缆及其绝缘料的市场情况,以国产商品化中压XLPE电缆的绝缘料为基准,分析国内外高压XLPE电缆绝缘料及其制品的绝缘性能,介绍了新上化高分子材料有限公司高压XLPE电缆绝缘料国产化的研发过程.

  10. HvJ EU 18-12-2014, C-364/13, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2451 (met noot)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, Floor

    2015-01-01

    In deze zaak heeft International Stem Cell Corporation (hierna: “ISC”) verzocht om inschrijving van twee nationale octrooien bij het United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office (Bureau voor intellectuele eigendom van het Verenigd Koninkrijk) voor Parthenogenetische activatie van oöcyten voor de prod

  11. Atmospheric pressure operation of a repetitive KrF laser-plasma x-ray source at hv = 1.1 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, I. C. Edmond; O'Neill, Fergus; Tallents, Gregory J.; Hannon, T.; Batani, Dimitri; Giulietti, Antonio; Wharton, C. W.; Meldrum, R. A.

    1990-08-01

    A repetitively pulsed (5Hz) KrF laser-based X-ray source producing photons at i-ru 1.1 keV (copper, L-shell) from a copper coated rotating target has been used to study soft X-ray induced DNA damage effects in Chinese hamster cells. The source was computer controlled for accurate delivery to the biological material of pre-set doses. DNA damage was induced by exposures lasting 7s for V79 cells and 40s for AA8 cells. To minimise the debris from the laser-plasma source and for convenient handling of biological specimens, the target chamber contained helium at 1 atmosphere with a slow flow. The X-ray yield of the source decreased by only at most 10-20% compared to vacuum operation and a further 16% of X-rays were absorbed in helium between target and the biological material placed outside the target chamber behind a beryllium filter. The measured spectral and spatial distribution of the copper X-ray emission was found to be largely independent of the ambient helium pressure. The time resolved X-ray signal lasted for only 3 ns starting at the beginning of the 2lns laser pulse and its shape was independent of helium pressure in the target chamber.

  12. 高压架空输电线路OPGW的选型与设计%Selecting and Design of OPGW on HV Power Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂峰; 郎需军

    2001-01-01

    OPGW做为一种信息转播媒体,安全性能高,抗干扰能力强,重量轻容量大,已在电力系统中得到广泛的采用.OPGW的选型设计直接关系到工程的质量和工程造价,本文对OPGW在工程中的设计原则作简要论述,并简单介绍OPGW的施工注意事项.

  13. Polarimetric ALOS PALSAR Time Series in Mapping Biomass of Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Antropov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we examined multitemporal behavior of fully polarimetric SAR (PolSAR parameters at L-band in relation to the stem volume of boreal forests. The PolSAR parameters were evaluated in terms of their temporal consistency, inter-dependence and suitability for forest stem volume estimation across several seasonal conditions (frozen, thaw and unfrozen. The satellite SAR data were represented by a time series of PolSAR images acquired during several seasons in the years 2006 to 2009 by the ALOS PALSAR sensor. The study area was in central Finland, and represented a managed area in typical boreal mixed forest land. Utility of different PolSAR parameters, their temporal stability and cross-correlations were studied along with reference stand-level stem volume data from forest inventory. Further, two polarimetric parameters, cross-polarization backscatter and co-polarization coherence, were chosen for further investigation and stem volume retrieval. A relationship between forest stem volume and PolSAR parameters was established using the kNN regression approach. Ways of optimally combining PolSAR images were evaluated as well. For a single scene, best results were observed with polarimetric coherence (RMSE ≈ 38.8 m3/ha for scene acquired in frozen conditions. An RMSE of 40.8 m3/ha (42.9%, R2 = 0.66 was achieved for cross-polarization backscatter in the best case. Cross-polarization backscatter was a better predictor than polarimetric coherence for few summer scenes. Multitemporal aggregation of selected PolSAR scenes improved estimates for both studied PolSAR parameters. Stronger improvement was observed for coherence with RMSE down to 34 m3/ha (35.8%, R2 = 0.77 compared to 38.8–51.6 m3/ha (40.8–54.3% from separate scenes. Finally, the accuracy statistics reached RMSE of 32.2 m3/ha (34%, R2 = 0.79 when multitemporal HHVV coherence was combined with multitemporal HV-backscatter.

  14. Simulation of SAR backscatter for forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Richa; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most recent imaging technology to study the forest parameters. The invincible characteristics of microwave acquisition in cloudy regions and night imaging makes it a powerful tool to study dense forest regions. A coherent combination of radar polarimetry and interferometry (PolInSAR) enhances the accuracy of retrieved biophysical parameters. This paper attempts to address the issue of estimation of forest structural information caused due to instability of radar platforms through simulation of SAR image. The Terai Central Forest region situated at Haldwani area in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the study area. The system characteristics of PolInSAR dataset of Radarsat-2 SAR sensor was used for simulation process. Geometric and system specifications like platform altitude, center frequency, mean incidence angle, azimuth and range resolution were taken from metadata. From the field data it was observed that average tree height and forest stand density were 25 m and 300 stems/ha respectively. The obtained simulated results were compared with the sensor acquired master and slave intensity images. It was analyzed that for co-polarized horizontal component (HH), the mean values of simulated and real master image had a difference of 0.3645 with standard deviation of 0.63. Cross-polarized (HV) channel showed better results with mean difference of 0.06 and standard deviation of 0.1 while co-polarized vertical component (VV) did not show similar values. In case of HV polarization, mean variation between simulated and real slave images was found to be the least. Since cross-polarized channel is more sensitive to vegetation feature therefore better simulated results were obtained for this channel. Further the simulated images were processed using PolInSAR inversion modelling approach using three different techniques DEM differencing, Coherence Amplitude Inversion and Random Volume over Ground Inversion. DEM differencing

  15. Potential of C and X Band SAR for Shrub Growth Monitoring in Sub-Arctic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Duguay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and sub-Arctic environments have seen a rapid growth of shrub vegetation at the expense of the Arctic tundra in recent decades. In order to develop better tools to assess and understand this phenomenon, the sensitivity of multi-polarized SAR backscattering at C and X band to shrub density and height is studied under various conditions. RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images were acquired from November 2011 to March 2012 over the Umiujaq community in northern Quebec (56.55°N, 76.55°W and compared to in situ measurements of shrub vegetation density and height collected during the summer of 2009. The results show that σ0 is sensitive to changes in shrub coverage up to 20% and is sensitive to changes in shrub height up to around 1 m. The cross-polarized backscattering (σ0 HV displays the best sensitivity to both shrub height and density, and RADARSAT-2 is more sensitive to shrub height, as TerraSAR-X tends to saturate more rapidly with increasing volume scattering from the shrub branches. These results demonstrate that SAR data could provide essential information, not only on Remote Sens. 2015, 7 9411 the spatial expansion of shrub vegetation, but also on its vertical growth, especially at early stages of colonization.

  16. Mangrove vegetation structure in Southeast Brazil from phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Francisca Rocha; Kampel, Milton; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia

    2016-07-01

    The potential use of phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data for discriminating distinct physiographic mangrove types with different forest structure developments in a subtropical mangrove forest located in Cananéia on the Southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, is investigated. The basin and fringe physiographic types and the structural development of mangrove vegetation were identified with the application of the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test to the SAR backscatter values of 10 incoherent attributes. The best results to separate basin to fringe types were obtained using copolarized HH, cross-polarized HV, and the biomass index (BMI). Mangrove structural parameters were also estimated using multiple linear regressions. BMI and canopy structure index were used as explanatory variables for canopy height, mean height, and mean diameter at breast height regression models, with significant R2=0.69, 0.73, and 0.67, respectively. The current study indicates that SAR L-band images can be used as a tool to discriminate physiographic types and to characterize mangrove forests. The results are relevant considering the crescent availability of freely distributed SAR images that can be more utilized for analysis, monitoring, and conservation of the mangrove ecosystem.

  17. Study on dry mica tape plus VPI insulation system for large and medium size HV motors%大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏景生; 赵莹; 张波; 张健; 孙依农

    2003-01-01

    对大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘体系进行了探讨和研究,通过开展绝缘结构老化试验及不同绝缘厚度的模拟线圈测试等工作,证明了不饱和聚酯亚胺绝缘体系可满足10kV级及以下电机性能要求,投入批量生产,结果表明全部达到JB/T2593-91标准的要求.

  18. 大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘体系工艺研究%Research on Technology of Few Rubber VPI Insulation System for Large/Middle HV Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张穗生; 谭清盛

    2003-01-01

    论文对大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘体系进行了探讨和研究,通过开展绝缘结构老化实验及不同绝缘厚度的模拟线圈测试等工作,证明了不饱和聚酯亚胺绝缘体系可满足10kV及以下伏级电机性能要求,并已投入了批量生产.

  19. 大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘体系工艺研究%R & D of the poor-resin VPI insulating system for large- and medium-sized HV motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张穗生; 谭清盛

    2003-01-01

    对大中型高压电动机少胶VPI绝缘体系进行了探讨和研究,通过开展绝缘结构老化实验及不同绝缘厚度的模拟线圈测试等工作,证明了不饱和聚酯亚胺绝缘体系可满足10 kv及以下伏级电机性能要求,并已投入了批量生产.

  20. Design and Implementation of On-line Inspection System for HV Motor Insulation%在线高压电机绝缘检测系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世弘; 刘振兴; 廖雪超; 呙娟

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了在线高压电机绝缘检测系统的工艺流程和硬件结构,以及检测系统中通信网络的构成.分析了系统串口通信操作模式和读、写数据协议帧格式.并据此给出了采用轮询方式分时检测多台高压电机的绝缘值,并实时采集检测数据的软件实现方法.针对系统实现过程中遇到的干扰信号,对多组不同工况下的实验数据进行了分析,并给出了系统硬件的改进方法.经系统实际运行表明,检测过程安全、便捷,检测结果准确、可靠.

  1. Quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in the flat antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone of NpRhGa{sub 5} studied by dHvA experiments and energy band calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Dai [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamagami, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Homma, Yoshiya [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshinobu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamamoto, Etsuji [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, Akio [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Haga, Yoshinori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Settai, Rikio [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Onuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-05-04

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpRhGa{sub 5} by the Ga-flux method and observed the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation in the antiferromagnetic state. Four kinds of nearly cylindrical Fermi surfaces, which correspond to main Fermi surfaces, were clearly detected. These quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces are formed in the flat antiferromagnetic Brillouin zone and are well explained on the basis of spin- and orbital-polarized LAPW energy band calculations. The cyclotron masses are moderately enhanced, ranging from 8.1 to 11.7 m{sub 0}, which are approximately four times larger than the corresponding band masses. This is the first case where the 5f-itinerant band model is applicable to a neptunium magnetic compound. (letter to the editor)

  2. Studies on the nasal epithelium toxicity of adjuvants and recombination hirudin (rHV2) nasal spary%重组水蛭素鼻腔喷雾剂及辅料的鼻黏膜毒性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉杰; 侯俊玲; 马长华; 王筱亮; 陈明霞; 张强

    2005-01-01

    目的:考察重组水蛭素鼻腔喷雾剂及其辅料的鼻黏膜毒性作用.方法:采用在体蟾蜍上腭模型法,光学显微镜下观察纤毛持续运动时间,考察辅料和重组水蛭素的纤毛毒性作用;采用病理学检查法考察长期给予家兔重组水蛭素鼻腔喷雾剂对鼻黏膜结构的影响.结果和结论:辅料SDS, Brij 35, azone, lecithin, EDTA, menthol, nipagin,thiomersal可显著抑制纤毛运动(与PBS组比较P<0.05),而HP-β-CD, tween 80,甘草酸单胺盐, benzalkonium bromide, sodium benzoate及黏附性材料对纤毛运动影响较小;重组水蛭素鼻腔喷雾剂长期给药对鼻黏膜结构有一定影响,但此作用可在停止给药后恢复.表明辅料SDS,Brij35, azone, lecithin, EDTA, menthol, nipagin, thiomersal等的纤毛毒性较大;而HP-β-CD, tween 80,甘草酸单胺盐, benzalkonium bromide, sodium benzoate及黏附性材料的纤毛毒性较小,可用于鼻腔给药;黏附性材料壳聚糖可能会加重某些辅料的纤毛毒性;重组水蛭素鼻腔给药具有可行性.

  3. High-resolution threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments performed on beamline 9.0.2.2: Kinetic energy release study of the process SF{sub 6} + hv {yields} SF{sub 5}{sup +} F + e{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Hsu, C.W.; Heimann, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used extensively to determine the energetics of neutral radicals and radical cations, as well as to study the dynamics of the dissociative photoionization process. Very often these measurements are concerned with determining the appearance energy (AE) for a dissociative ionization process, as well as determining the heats of formation of the species involved. One such photoionization mass spectrometric technique employed on End Station 2 of the Chemical Dynamics Beamline (9.0.2.2) at the Advanced Light Source is the threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) method. TPEPICO involves measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrum of a given cation in coincidence with threshold photoelectrons at a known photoionization energy.

  4. Effect of the microstructure on tribological phenomena occurring on the surface of a mill roll made of SA5T cast iron (GJSL-HV600 - GJSL-330NiMoCr12-8-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of the microstructure in the tribological wear processes occurring in a cast iron mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll, made in Italy, was collected. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed on the roll working surface in conjunction with metallographic tests effected within its surface layer. There was established the relation between the microstructure of the roll and the process of its tribological wear. The following was ascertained: micro-shrinkages or graphite precipitations nearby the working area cause cracks between those places and the working area; in the surface layer, cracks occur usually in the zone of ledeburitic cementite. At places of considerable precipitations of ledeburitic cementite, the tribological wear intensity of the roll is lower. A banded layout of precipitations of ledeburitic cementite facilitates a selective spalling of some parts of the roll material. The results of this study allow broadening the data base related to the effect of the microstructure on tribological wear of mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design their proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls.

  5. 相量图在三相三线高压电能表接线检查中的应用%Application of Phasor Diagram in Wiring Checking of Three-phase Three-line HV Energy Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽红

    2005-01-01

    三相三线高压电能表在现场安装中容易出现接线错误,使用相量图方法可以有效检查错误接线,但使用相量图方法时应参考功率传送方向、负载性质(感性或容性)及功率因数,才能正确分析错误接线的原因.本文以一起变电站出线电量差错故障为例,实际应用该方法找出错误接线的原因,减少了电量损失,提高了电能计量的准确性.

  6. 适用于PEA空间电荷测量系统的高压脉冲发生器设计%Design of HV Pulse Generator Applied in PEA Space Charge Measurement System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国斌; 刘昱; 鲍克勤; 陈炯

    2014-01-01

    电声脉冲法(PEA)是一种目前较为流行的空间电荷分布测量技术,使用该法的一个前提条件是必须产生一个高压脉冲.阐述了电声脉冲法(PEA)测量电介质中空间电荷的原理,并分析了高压脉冲波形对测量信号的影响.在分析传统高压脉冲发生器的基础上,介绍了一台新型带相位检测的高压脉冲发生器,从而使PEA空间电荷测量系统能够适合交流电压下的电缆绝缘测试,该发生器能够形成50 ns、100 ns和200 ns的5 kV陡脉冲电压信号.

  7. 高压LDMOS器件ESD初始失效问题及其优化方向研究%Study on the ESD Initial Failure Mechanism and Its Improvement for HV LDMOS Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向明; 苏庆; 金锋; 王邦麟

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism of ESD and secondary trigger phenomenon for LD-MOS was studied. The initial failure on LDMOS devices has been overcome by the design optimization of device key dimensions and structure combined with TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) simulation, TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) testing and FA (Failure Analysis) techniques, resulting in great improvement for ESD robustness of LDMOS. In addition, the ESD design proposal of LDMOS device has been given.%研究了LDMOS在ESD放电过程中的机理及二次触发的现象,通过对LDMOS器件关键尺寸的优化设计与结构的改进,结合器件计算机辅助设计技术(TCAD)仿真、传输线脉冲(TLP)测试以及失效分析(FA)等手段,改善了其初始失效问题.同时大幅提升了LDMOS的ESD泄放能力,并进一步总结了LDMOS器件的ESD性能的优化方向.

  8. 厦门华电:VEP-24kV户内中压固封式真空断路器%Xiamen Huadian: VEP-24kV Indoor HV Solid Closure Vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建新

    2008-01-01

    @@ VEP-24kV户内中压固封式真空断路器是厦门华电开关有限公司和德国GELPAG公司联合研发的第三代中压固封式真空断路器,适用于电厂、电网、石化、冶金、城市基础设施建设(如地铁、机场、楼宇)等场合.

  9. Study of the UHF Bowtie Antenna Used for Partial Discharge in HV Cable Accessories%检测高压电缆附件局部放电用超高频蝶形天线的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪沨; 石倩; 刘烨; 姚亚利; 张广东

    2013-01-01

    针对电缆附件的结构及附件内部易发生绝缘故障导致局部放电的特点,设计了用于电缆附件局部放电信号检测的内置超高频超宽带蝶形天线传感器.仿真和实测表明,该蝶形天线的有效工作频带为350~585 MHz.模拟实验表明该天线传感器灵敏度高、性能优越,能在有效频率范围内检测到局部放电信号,可以用于电缆附件局部放电超高频信号的检测.%Considering cable accessories structure and the characteristic that insulation failure easily occurs in internal attachment resulting in partial discharge, this paper designed a built-in UHF and UWB bowtie antennas sensor to detect partial discharge signal for cable accessories. Simulation results show that the effective bandwidth of the antenna is 350~585 MHz. Measurement results also show that the antenna sensor has high sensitivity and superior performance, and can be applied to PD UHF signal detection of cable accessories.

  10. 高压断路器智能控制技术的原理及应用实例%Principle of Intellectual Control Technology for HV Circuitbreaker and Application Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勤建

    2002-01-01

    简要介绍开关智能控制技术(CAT)精确控制断路器触头的分、合瞬间、以降低操作电压的基本原理、电力系统中的适用范围、基本使用方法及在500 kV江门变电所中的应用情况。

  11. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 2 and bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected cattle by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Franco, A C; Oliveira, M T; Firpo, R; Strelczuk, G; Fontoura, F E; Kulmann, M I R; Maidana, S; Romera, S A; Spilki, F R; Silva, A D; Hübner, S O; Roehe, P M

    2014-06-25

    Establishment of latent infection within specific tissues in the host is a common biological feature of the herpesviruses. In the case of bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2), latency is established in neuronal tissues, while bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) latent virus targets on cells of the monocytic lineage. This study was conducted in quest of BoHV-2, BoHV-4 and OvHV-2 DNA in two hundred trigeminal ganglia (TG) specimens, derived from one hundred clinically healthy cattle, majority of them naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5). Total DNA extracted from ganglia was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify part of the genes coding for BoHV-2, and BoHV-4 glycoprotein B and, for OvHV-2, the gene coding for phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase-like protein. BoHV-2 DNA was detected in TG samples of two (2%) and BoHV-4 DNA in nine (9%) of the animals, whereas OvHV-2 DNA could not be detected in any of the TG DNA. The two animals in which BoHV-2 DNA was identified were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Within the nine animals in which BoHV-4 DNA was detected, six were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This report provides for the first time evidence that viral DNA from BoHV-2 and BoHV-4 can be occasionally detected in TG of naturally infected cattle. Likewise, in this report we provided for the first time evidence that the co-infection of cattle with three distinct bovine herpesviruses might be a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  12. STORM: A New Airborne Polarimetric Real-Aperture Radar for Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvin, D. Hauser. T.; Dechambre, M.; Valentin, R.; Caudal, G.; Daloze, J.-F.

    2003-04-01

    The successful launch of the Envisat in March 2002 offers new possibilities for estimating geophysical quantities characterizing continental or sea surface using the multi-polarization ASAR. In addition, in the context of the preparation of future missions which will embark polarimetric SAR (e.g. RADARSAT2) it is important to better assess the benefit of multi-polarization or polarimetric SAR systems. Airborne radar systems remain a very useful way to validate satellite measurements and to develop or validate algorithms needed to retrieve geophysical quantities from the radar measurements. CETP has designed and developed a new airborne radar called STORM] , which has a full polarimetric capability. STORM is derived from two previous versions of airborne radars developed at CETP, namely RESSAC (Hauser et al, JGR 1992) and RENE (Leloch-Duplex et al, Annales of Telecommunications, 1996). STORM is a real-aperture, C-Band system with a FM/CW transmission and with a rotating antenna to explore in azimuth. It offers a polarization diversity, receiving the complex signal in amplitude and phase simultaneously in H and V polarizations, which makes it possible to analyze the radar cross-section in HH, VV, HV, and other cross-polarized terms related to the scattering matrix. The antenna are pointed towards the surface with a mean incidence angle of 20° and a 3-dB aperture of about 30° in elevation and 8° in azimuth. The backscattered signal is analyzed from nadir to about 35° along the look-direction in 1012 range gates every 1.53m. The first tests with this system have been carried out in October 2001 over corner reflectors , over grass and ocean. In this workshop, we will present a validation of this system based on the results obtained with this first data set. In particular, we will present the calibration method of the complex signal (amplitude, phase), and distribution of phase differences (HH/VV, HV/VH) obtained over the different scatters (corner reflectors, grass

  13. Tracing the spatio-temporal evolution of the Merapi 2010 erupted deposits based on object-oriented classification and object-based image analysis of multi-temporal VHR optical and ALOS radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, J. C.; Solikhin, A.; Pinel, V.; Kassouk, Z.; Gupta, A.; Liew, S. C.; Oehler, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the extent to which VHR optical and radar images delineate the eruption impacts and trace the evolution of erupted deposits on active volcanoes. We could identify about 75% of the 2010 Merapi erupted deposits recognized in traditional geological mapping using object-oriented classification and spectral indices on sub-metric GeoEye and Pléiades images. We recognized sixteen PDC depositional units including high-energy surge deposits on the upper south flank, valley-confined BAF deposits channeled in the Gendol River, and overbank BAF with ash-cloud surge deposits on valley margins. We used an innovative method to map PDC and tephra-fall deposits exploiting direct- and cross-polarized L-band SAR data from ALOS-PALSAR before and after the eruption and combining changes in amplitude of the radar signal with temporal decorrelation. Deposits were separated according to increase or decrease in ground backscattering in direct (HH) and cross (HV) polarizations. The maximum likelihood classification applied to ALOS images provided a result consistent with previous studies with 70% classification accuracy for deposits overall. Scatter diagrams of NDWI, NDVI and NDRSI from three VHR images and morphometric analysis of the initial drainage network enabled us to trace the spatio-temporal evolution (2010-2012) of impacted areas against re-vegetation and surficial erosion. In two years after the eruption, the drainage network was fully developed in the upper catchment devastated by high energy surges but far less developped on fans formed by overbank BAF deposits in the middle valley, suggesting the importance of slope gradient and the deposit grain size, permeability and thickness. We updated the Merapi hazard assessment using Pleiades images as the 2010 eruption changed the summit crater morphology and valley channels. Potential sites favorable to future lahar overbank were identified by computing three morphometric parameters of the river channels.

  14. Preventing Children's Aggression: Outcomes of an Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Corpuz, Randy; Schwartz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Mothers of medically at-risk infants were randomly assigned to a Healthy Start intervention (HV) or a cognitive reframing intervention (HV+). Outcome measures were taken at the conclusion of the intervention (1 year) and at the 3-year follow-up visit. At age 3, children in the HV+ condition (in comparison with those in the HV condition) showed…

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHK669 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FTHATPTLFNAGTPSP QMSSCFLVQMKEDSIDGIYDTLKQCALIS--- ---qvkslvamnaxnxtlptftvvvf*qvnsqlsxnnyskxswnwaxghxr*riksll...hv vpfnpsvasnxdlkelyktvweirqrtlidmaadrgafidqsqsfnvfxxeptfxkltsm hxyswkkglktwyvlss

  16. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2013-09-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation.

  17. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J.; Halford, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation. PMID:24748715

  18. Diversidade, estrutura populacional e caracterização fisiológica de raças de Hemileia vastatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Patrícia Gonçalves Castro

    2013-01-01

    O fungo Hemileia vastatrix possui várias raças fisiológicas que refletem consideravelmente na sua diversidade genética. Nesse estudo, trinta e oito isolados monopustulares de H. vastatrix foram caracterizados em dezenove raças fisiológicas, dentre elas, as raças XXIX e XXX, relatadas pela primeira vez no Brasil. Onze novas raças, com diferentes combinações de genes de virulência, denominadas de UFV-Hv-01, UFV-Hv-02, UFV-Hv-03, UFV-Hv-04, UFV-Hv-05, UFV-Hv-06, UFV-Hv-07, UFV-Hv-08, UFV-Hv-09, ...

  19. Design and Analysis of Printed Reflectarrays with Irregularly Positioned Array Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min; Sørensen, Stig; Meincke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and an irregular layout, generating the same contoured beam pattern to cover an European region with cross-polar and sidelobe suppression have been designed. Simulations show that better performance in the cross-polar radiation can be obtained by using the irregular reflectarray, thus demonstrating the potential...

  20. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-10-01

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  1. Potassium channels in barley: cloning, functional characterization and expression analyses in relation to leaf growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Alexandre; Clément, Mathilde; Volkov, Vadim; Golldack, Dortje; Hybiak, Jolanta; Miller, Anthony J; Amtmann, Anna; Fricke, Wieland

    2009-12-01

    It is not known how the uptake and retention of the key osmolyte K(+) in cells are mediated in growing leaf tissue. In the present study on the growing leaf 3 of barley, we have cloned the full-length coding sequence of three genes which encode putative K(+) channels (HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1/HvTPK1), and of one gene which encodes a putative K(+) transporter (HvHAK4). The functionality of the gene products of HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 was tested through expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both are inward-rectifying K(+) channels which are inhibited by Cs(+). Function of HvAKT1 in oocytes requires co-expression of a calcineurin-interacting protein kinase (AtCIPK23) and a calcineurin B-like protein (AtCBL9) from Arabidopsis, showing cross-species complementation of function. In planta, HvAKT1 is expressed primarily in roots, but is also expressed in leaf tissue. HvAKT2 is expressed particularly in leaf tissue, and HvHAK4 is expressed particularly in growing leaf tissue. Within leaves, HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 are expressed predominantly in mesophyll. Expression of genes changes little in response to low external K(+) or salinity, despite major changes in K(+) concentrations and osmolality of cells. Possible contributions of HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1 and HvHAK4 to regulation of K(+) relations of growing barley leaf cells are discussed.

  2. Ocean Environment Sensing using Polarimetric and Interferometric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    A wave system with an estimated dominant wavelength of 156m is propagating through the site with a wind/wave direction of 320o (NDBC Buoy, Bodega ...mean square slope < 2 > of these perturbed waves was calculated as 1.72 o. II . RECENT SAR/AT-INSAR INVESTIGATIONS A. AIRSAR Study of Coastal Eddies

  3. Integrating Radar Image Data with Google Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce D.; Gibas, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A public Web site has been developed as a method for displaying the multitude of radar imagery collected by NASA s Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) instrument during its 16-year mission. Utilizing NASA s internal AIRSAR site, the new Web site features more sophisticated visualization tools that enable the general public to have access to these images. The site was originally maintained at NASA on six computers: one that held the Oracle database, two that took care of the software for the interactive map, and three that were for the Web site itself. Several tasks were involved in moving this complicated setup to just one computer. First, the AIRSAR database was migrated from Oracle to MySQL. Then the back-end of the AIRSAR Web site was updated in order to access the MySQL database. To do this, a few of the scripts needed to be modified; specifically three Perl scripts that query that database. The database connections were then updated from Oracle to MySQL, numerous syntax errors were corrected, and a query was implemented that replaced one of the stored Oracle procedures. Lastly, the interactive map was designed, implemented, and tested so that users could easily browse and access the radar imagery through the Google Maps interface.

  4. Monitoring Tree Moisture Using an Inversion Algorithm Applied to SAR Data from BOREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    During several field campaigns in spring and summer of '94, the NASA/JPL air-borne sythetic aperature radar (AIRSAR) collected data over the southern and northern study sites of BOREAS. Among the areas over which radar data were collected was the young jack pine tower site, which is generally characterized as have shot but closely space trees with a dense crown layer.

  5. Estimating Subcanopy Soil Moisture with RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.; Cuenca, R. H.

    1998-01-01

    The subcanopy soil moisture of a boreal old jack pine forest is estimated using polarimetric L- and P-band AIRSAR data. Model simulations have shown that for this stand, the principal scattering mechanism responsible for radar backscatter is the double-bounce mechanism between the tree trunks and the ground.

  6. High Voltage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  7. The identification of new cytosolic glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and their expression during leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Marmagne, Anne; Talbotec, Joël; Krupinska, Karin; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2015-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase are two master enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation in plants. Their roles in nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen use efficiency have been proposed. In this report, the genes coding for the cytosolic glutamine synthetases (HvGS1) and asparagine synthetases (HvASN) in barley were identified. In addition to the three HvGS1 and two HvASN sequences previously reported, two prokaryotic-like HvGS1 and three HvASN cDNA sequences were identified. Gene structures were then characterized, obtaining full genomic sequences. The response of the five HvGS1 and five HvASN genes to leaf senescence was then studied. Developmental senescence was studied using primary and flag leaves. Dark-exposure or low-nitrate conditions were also used to trigger stress-induced senescence. Well-known senescence markers such as the chlorophyll and Rubisco contents were monitored in order to characterize senescence levels in the different leaves. The three eukaryotic-like HvGS1_1, HvGS1_2, and HvGS1_3 sequences showed the typical senescence-induced reduction in gene expression described in many plant species. By contrast, the two prokaryotic-like HvGS1_4 and HvGS1_5 sequences were repressed by leaf senescence, similar to the HvGS2 gene, which encodes the chloroplast glutamine synthetase isoenzyme. There was a greater contrast in the responses of the five HvASN and this suggested that these genes are needed for N remobilization in senescing leaves only when plants are well fertilized with nitrate. Responses of the HvASN sequences to dark-induced senescence showed that there are two categories of asparagine synthetases, one induced in the dark and the other repressed by the same conditions.

  8. Differences in eeg oscillations during vasoactive stress reactions in extroverts and introverts

    OpenAIRE

    Kustubayeva, A.; Matthews, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Hyperventilation (HV) and breath-holding (BH) are informative psychophysiological tests resulting in rapidly changing cerebral blood flow. The aim of our research was to determine differential EEG spectra of introverts/extroverts with induced HV and BH. Introverts revealed more intensive EEG reaction during HV, which was specifically shown by increased theta and gamma activity in all cortical areas.

  9. Digital Control of a High Voltage (2.5 kV) Bidirectional Flyback DC-DC Converter for Driving a Capacitive Incremental Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Maksimovic, Dragan; Zhang, Zhe;

    2016-01-01

    on the output high-voltage (HV) side. Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of a high voltage flyback converter are presented, using a 3 kV polypropylene film capacitor as the load. The energy loss distributions of the converter when 4 kV and 4.5 kV HV MOSFETs are used on HV side...

  10. Atividade de três drogas antivirais sobre os herpesvírus bovino tipos 1, 2 e 5 em cultivo celular Activity of three antiviral drugs against bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 5 in cell culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renata Dezengrini; Sara C. da Silva; Marcelo Weiss; Luiz C Kreutz; Rudi Weiblen; Eduardo F Flores

    2010-01-01

    ... herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 (BoHV-1), 2 (BoHV-2) e 5 (BoHV-5). Para isso, utilizou-se o teste de reducao de placas virais em cultivo celular, testando-se diferentes concentracoes dos farmacos frente a 100 doses infectantes para 50...

  11. Atividade de três drogas antivirais sobre os herpesvírus bovino tipos 1, 2 e 5 em cultivo celular

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dezengrini, Renata; Silva, Sara C. da; Weiss, Marcelo; Kreutz, Luiz C; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2010-01-01

    ... aos herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 (BoHV-1), 2 (BoHV-2) e 5 (BoHV-5). Para isso, utilizou-se o teste de reducao de placas virais em cultivo celular, testando-se diferentes concentracoes dos farmacos frente a 100 doses infectantes para 50...

  12. Cropping history affects nodulation and symbiotic efficiency of distinct hairy vetch genotypes with resident soil rhizobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of compatible rhizobia strains is essential for nodulation and BNF of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, HV). We evaluated how past HV cultivation affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation across host genotypes. Five groups of HV genotypes were inoculated with soil dilutions from six paired fields,...

  13. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  14. Sentinel-1 backscatter sensitivity to vegetation dynamics at the field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Eder, Alexander; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Cao, Senmao; Naeimi, Vahid; Oismueller, Markus; Strauss, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    four different cropfields. An in situ soil moisture network provides continuous soil moisture measurements at 31 locations within the catchment. Different polarizations and ratios thereof were calculated and compared, both spatially and temporally, to the in situ measurements of vegetation height, LAI, vegetation water content and soil moisture. Preliminary results show a clear spatial pattern in cross-polarized backscatter, which is related to different crop types. Time series analysis suggests that a ratio between cross- and co-polarized backscatter is affected by both vegetation water content and vegetation structure. This presentation will provide a comprehensive assessment of Sentinel-1's capability for monitoring of vegetation over croplands, using in situ reference data obtained over a full growing season.

  15. Mapping Inundation and Changes in Wetland Extent with L-band SAR: A Combined Data and Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; Samanta, A.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate mapping of seasonal and inter-annual changes in inundation and wetland extent is a key requisite for the estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG, e.g., methane) emissions from land surfaces to the atmosphere. This task would benefit from the 1- to 3-km spatial resolution L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and 3-day revisit time of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in 2014. With a view to utilizing this unique capability, we propose a method for mapping the fraction of area inundated using a combination of semi-empirical models of radar backscatter and L-band SAR data. Inundation exhibits a characteristic radar backscatter that is affected by a set of factors, including roughness of soil and water surfaces, and presence of vegetation cover. Further, the impact of vegetation cover on radar backscatter from underlying soil and/or water surface will depend on biome type. The effects of these factors on both the like-polarized (HH, VV) and cross-polarized (HV) radar backscatter was investigated using semi-empirical models. A key step in devising an inundation fraction retrieval algorithm is to benchmark and calibrate the backscatter simulated with semi-empirical models against SAR data. This task was undertaken using data from the Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) instrument onboard Japan's Earth Resources Satellite's (JERS, e.g., Fig. 1). This calibration was performed in the following way. First, using a Monte-Carlo type of approach, a large set of random backscatter samples was extracted from different landcover classes, including dry forests and clear-cut areas, inundated forests (wetlands), and open water. Second, mean backscatter was calculated at varying spatial resolutions: 100 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 3 km and 10 km. Third, the mean model backscatter was set to the mean PALSAR backscatter for each landcover class, but the model dispersion was retained. Finally, using these calibrated values

  16. Creating a Nurse-Led Culture to Minimize Horizontal Violence in the Acute Care Setting: A Multi-Interventional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen M; Harrington, Ann; Smith, Charlene M; Sellers, Kathleen F; Millenbach, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal violence (HV) is prevalent in nursing. However, few strategies are identified to address this phenomenon that undermines communication and patient safety. Nurses at an acute care hospital implemented multiple interventions to address HV resulting in increased knowledge of hospital policies regarding HV, and significantly (p < .05) less HV prevalence than was reported by nurses in other organizations throughout New York State. With the aid and oversight of nursing professional development specialists, evidence-based interventions to address HV were developed including policies, behavioral performance reviews, and staff/manager educational programs.

  17. Intraspecific bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants carrying glycoprotein E deletion as a vaccine marker are virulent in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; Farnir, Frédéric; Pourchet, Aldo; Bardiau, Marjorie; Gogev, Sacha; Thiry, Julien; Cuisenaire, Adeline; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-08-01

    Vaccines used in control programmes of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) utilize highly attenuated BoHV-1 strains marked by a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. Since BoHV-1 recombinants are obtained at high frequency in experimentally coinfected cattle, the consequences of recombination on the virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 were investigated. Thus, gE-negative BoHV-1 recombinants were generated in vitro from several virulent BoHV-1 and one mutant BoHV-1 deleted in the gC and gE genes. Four gE-negative recombinants were tested in the natural host. All the recombinants were more virulent than the gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine and the gC- and gE-negative parental BoHV-1. The gE-negative recombinant isolated from a BoHV-1 field strain induced the highest severe clinical score. Latency and reactivation studies showed that three of the recombinants were reexcreted. Recombination can therefore restore virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 by introducing the gE deletion into a different virulence background.

  18. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for measurement of trichechid herpesvirus 1 load in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason A; Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Archer, Linda L; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-07-01

    Trichechid herpesvirus 1 (TrHV-1) is currently the only known herpesvirus in any sirenian. We hypothesized that stress may lead to recrudescence of TrHV-1 in manatees, thus making TrHV-1 a potential biomarker of stress. We optimized and validated a TrHV-1 real-time quantitative probe hybridization PCR (qPCR) assay that was used to quantify TrHV-1 in manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Average baseline TrHV-1 loads in a clinically healthy wild Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) population ( n = 42) were 40.9 ± SD 21.2 copies/100 ng DNA; 19 of 42 manatees were positive. TrHV-1 loads were significantly different between the 2 field seasons ( p manatees.

  19. GIS高压电器SF6气体密度、湿度及泄漏检测技术%On Line Test Technology for SF6 Gas Density and Humidity and Leakage in GIS H.V Electrical Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振生

    2007-01-01

    SF6高压电器故障中,SF6泄漏、SF6中微水超标造成的故障要占70%~80%.而且SF6气体又属温室效应气体,因此SF6泄漏、SF6中微水含量在线监测愈来愈受到重视.文章详细介绍了密度、微水及泄漏的在线检测方法.

  20. Možnosti využití vzdělávací nabídky Hvězdárny a planetária České Budějovice v předškolním vzdělávání.

    OpenAIRE

    VYŽRALOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to find and verify suitable methods and forms of work in the field of science education carried out in Observatory and planetarium České Budějovice in regard of the education of kindergarten. It is possible to make even the smallest children interested in astronomy with use of suitable didactic methods and instil them with basic knowledge on witch they can build in the subsequent education.