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Sample records for hv channel vsd

  1. Voltage-gated proton (H(v)1) channels, a singular voltage sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Karen; Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Contreras, Gustavo F; Morera, Francisco J; Neely, Alan; Latorre, Ramon; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-11-14

    The main role of voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is to extrude protons from the intracellular milieu when, mediated by different cellular processes, the H(+) concentration increases. Hv1 are exquisitely selective for protons and their structure is homologous to the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels like sodium, potassium, and calcium channels. In clear contrast to the classical voltage-dependent channels, Hv1 lacks a pore domain and thus permeation necessarily occurs through the voltage sensing domain. Hv1 channels are activated by depolarizing voltages, and increases in internal proton concentration. It has been proposed that local conformational changes of the transmembrane segment S4, driven by depolarization, trigger the molecular rearrangements that open Hv1. However, it is still unclear how the electromechanical coupling is achieved between the VSD and the potential pore, allowing the proton flux from the intracellular to the extracellular side. Here we provide a revised view of voltage activation in Hv1 channels, offering a comparative scenario with other voltage sensing channels domains.

  2. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels: Molecular Biology, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the HV Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (HV) are unique, in part because the ion they conduct is unique. HV channels are perfectly selective for protons and have a very small unitary conductance, both arguably manifestations of the extremely low H+ concentration in physiological solutions. They open with membrane depolarization, but their voltage dependence is strongly regulated by the pH gradient across the membrane (ΔpH), with the result that in most species they normally conduct only outward current. The HV channel protein is strikingly similar to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD, the first four membrane-spanning segments) of voltage-gated K+ and Na+ channels. In higher species, HV channels exist as dimers in which each protomer has its own conduction pathway, yet gating is cooperative. HV channels are phylogenetically diverse, distributed from humans to unicellular marine life, and perhaps even plants. Correspondingly, HV functions vary widely as well, from promoting calcification in coccolithophores and triggering bioluminescent flashes in dinoflagellates to facilitating killing bacteria, airway pH regulation, basophil histamine release, sperm maturation, and B lymphocyte responses in humans. Recent evidence that hHV1 may exacerbate breast cancer metastasis and cerebral damage from ischemic stroke highlights the rapidly expanding recognition of the clinical importance of hHV1. PMID:23589829

  3. Evidence for functional diversity between the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 and its closest related protein HVRP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris H Kim

    Full Text Available The Hv1 channel and voltage-sensitive phosphatases share with voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels the ability to detect changes in membrane potential through voltage-sensing domains (VSDs. However, they lack the pore domain typical of these other channels. NaV, KV, and CaV proteins can be found in neurons and muscles, where they play important roles in electrical excitability. In contrast, VSD-containing proteins lacking a pore domain are found in non-excitable cells and are not involved in neuronal signaling. Here, we report the identification of HVRP1, a protein related to the Hv1 channel (from which the name Hv1 Related Protein 1 is derived, which we find to be expressed primarily in the central nervous system, and particularly in the cerebellum. Within the cerebellar tissue, HVRP1 is specifically expressed in granule neurons, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of subcellular distribution via electron microscopy and immunogold labeling reveals that the protein localizes on the post-synaptic side of contacts between glutamatergic mossy fibers and the granule cells. We also find that, despite the similarities in amino acid sequence and structural organization between Hv1 and HVRP1, the two proteins have distinct functional properties. The high conservation of HVRP1 in vertebrates and its cellular and subcellular localizations suggest an important function in the nervous system.

  4. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifan [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Pan, Juncheng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe, E-mail: cheli@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yin, Jian [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060 (China); Zhao, Qing [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  5. The role of Hv1 and CatSper channels in sperm activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishko, Polina V; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2010-12-01

    Elevations of sperm intracellular pH and Ca(2+) regulate sperm motility, chemotaxis, capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and play a vital role in the ability of the sperm cell to reach and fertilise the egg. In human spermatozoa, the flagellar voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is the main H(+) extrusion pathway that controls sperm intracellular pH, and the pH-dependent flagellar Ca²(+) channel CatSper is the main pathway for Ca²(+) entry as measured by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Hv1 and CatSper channels are co-localized within the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. Hv1 is dedicated to proton extrusion from flagellum and is activated by membrane depolarisation, an alkaline extracellular environment, the endocannabinoid anandamide, and removal of extracellular zinc, a potent Hv1 blocker. The CatSper channel is strongly potentiated by intracellular alkalinisation. Since Hv1 and CatSper channels are located in the same subcellular domain, proton extrusion via Hv1 channels should induce intraflagellar alkalinisation and activate CatSper ion channels. Therefore the combined action of Hv1 and CatSper channels in human spermatozoa can induce elevation of both intracellular pH and Ca²(+) required for sperm activation in the female reproductive tract. Here, we discuss how Hv1 and CatSper channels regulate human sperm physiology and the differences in control of sperm intracellular pH and Ca²(+) between species.

  6. Microglial Hv1 proton channel promotes cuprizone-induced demyelination through oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Tian, Daishi; Murugan, Madhuvika; Eyo, Ukpong B; Dreyfus, Cheryl F; Wang, Wei; Wu, Long-Jun

    2015-10-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in inflammatory cells including microglia plays an important role in demyelination and free radical-mediated tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism underlying microglial ROS production and demyelination remains largely unknown. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of microglial Hv1 proton channels in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, a model for MS. Following cuprizone exposure, wild-type mice presented obvious demyelination, decreased myelin basic protein expression, loss of mature oligodendrocytes, and impaired motor coordination in comparison to mice on a normal chow diet. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1(-/-) ) are partially protected from demyelination and motor deficits compared with those in wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1(-/-) mice in cuprizone-induced demyelination is accompanied by reduced ROS production, ameliorated microglial activation, increased oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (NG2) proliferation, and increased number of mature oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate that the Hv1 proton channel is required for cuprizone-induced microglial oxidative damage and subsequent demyelination. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for controlling NOX-dependent ROS production in the pathogenesis of MS.

  7. The Voltage–gated Proton Channel, Hv1, Enhances Brain Damage from Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Long–Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Baker, Amanda; Jia, Yonghui; H. Fahey, Frederic; Luo, Hongbo; Feener, Edward Paul; Clapham, David Eldon

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. Here we show that NOX–mediated damage can be inhibited by suppression of the voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1. Hv1 is required for full NOX activity since it compensates for loss of NOX–exported charge. We show that Hv1 is required for NOX–dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and...

  8. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enhances brain damage from ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long-Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Akhavan Sharif, M Reza; Baker, Amanda; Jia, Yonghui; Fahey, Frederic H; Luo, Hongbo R; Feener, Edward P; Clapham, David E

    2012-03-04

    Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 enables NOX function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Accordingly, we investigated whether NOX-mediated brain damage in stroke can be inhibited by suppression of Hv1. We found that mouse and human brain microglia, but not neurons or astrocytes, expressed large Hv1-mediated currents. Hv1 was required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and in vivo. Mice lacking Hv1 were protected from NOX-mediated neuronal death and brain damage 24 h after stroke. These results indicate that Hv1-dependent ROS production is responsible for a substantial fraction of brain damage at early time points after ischemic stroke and provide a rationale for Hv1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  9. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1/VSOP inhibits neutrophil granule release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Aratani, Yasuaki; Adissu, Hibret A; Miyawaki, Nana; Sasaki, Mari; Suzuki, Kazuo; Okamura, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granule exocytosis is crucial for host defense and inflammation. Neutrophils contain 4 types of granules, the exocytotic release of which is differentially regulated. This exocytosis is known to be driven by diverse mediators, including calcium and nucleotides, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We show in the present study that voltage-gated proton (Hv) channels are necessary for the proper release of azurophilic granules in neutrophils. On activation of NADPH oxidase by PMA and IgG, neutrophils derived from Hvcn1 gene knockout mouse exhibited greater secretion of MPO and elastase than WT cells. In contrast, release of LTF enriched in specific granules was not enhanced in these cells. The excess release of azurophilic granules in Hv1/VSOP-deficient neutrophils was suppressed by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and, in part, by valinomycin, a potassium ionophore. In addition, Hv1/VSOP-deficient mice exhibited more severe lung inflammation after intranasal Candida albicans infection than WT mice. These findings suggest that the Hv channel acts to specifically dampen the release of azurophilic granules through, in part, the suppression of increased positive charges at the plasma membrane accompanied by the activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. A specialized molecular motion opens the Hv1 voltage-gated proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Laetitia; Berger, Thomas K; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2015-04-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is unique among voltage-gated channels for containing the pore and gate within its voltage-sensing domain. Pore opening has been proposed to include assembly of the selectivity filter between an arginine (R3) of segment S4 and an aspartate (D1) of segment S1. We determined whether gating involves motion of S1, using Ciona intestinalis Hv1. We found that channel opening is concomitant with solution access to the pore-lining face of S1, from the cytoplasm to deep inside the pore. Voltage- and patch-clamp fluorometry showed that this involves a motion of S1 relative to its surroundings. S1 motion and the S4 motion that precedes it are each influenced by residues on the other helix, thus suggesting a dynamic interaction between S1 and S4. Our findings suggest that the S1 of Hv1 has specialized to function as part of the channel's gate.

  11. VSOP/Hv1 proton channels sustain calcium entry, neutrophil migration, and superoxide production by limiting cell depolarization and acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Chemaly, Antoun; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Arnaudeau, Serge; Okamura, Yasushi; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    .... Voltage-gated proton channels (voltage-sensing domain only protein [VSOP]/Hv1) are required for high-level superoxide production by phagocytes, but the mechanism of this effect is not established...

  12. Selectivity Mechanism of the Voltage-gated Proton Channel, HV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Musset, Boris; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.; Smith, Susan M. E.; Mazmanian, Karine; Decoursey, Thomas E.; Lim, Carmay

    2015-05-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, trigger bioluminescence in dinoflagellates, enable calcification in coccolithophores, and play multifarious roles in human health. Because the proton concentration is minuscule, exquisite selectivity for protons over other ions is critical to HV1 function. The selectivity of the open HV1 channel requires an aspartate near an arginine in the selectivity filter (SF), a narrow region that dictates proton selectivity, but the mechanism of proton selectivity is unknown. Here we use a reduced quantum model to elucidate how the Asp-Arg SF selects protons but excludes other ions. Attached to a ring scaffold, the Asp and Arg side chains formed bidentate hydrogen bonds that occlude the pore. Introducing H3O+ protonated the SF, breaking the Asp-Arg linkage and opening the conduction pathway, whereas Na+ or Cl- was trapped by the SF residue of opposite charge, leaving the linkage intact, thus preventing permeation. An Asp-Lys SF behaved like the Asp-Arg one and was experimentally verified to be proton-selective, as predicted. Hence, interacting acidic and basic residues form favorable AspH0-H2O0-Arg+ interactions with hydronium but unfavorable Asp--X-/X+-Arg+ interactions with anions/cations. This proposed mechanism may apply to other proton-selective molecules engaged in bioenergetics, homeostasis, and signaling.

  13. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is expressed in pancreatic islet β-cells and regulates insulin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Che, Yongzhe [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shangrong [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Gao, Ying-Tang [Key Laboratory of Artificial Cell, Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300170 (China); Wang, Yifan; Wang, Xudong; Xi, Wang; Zuo, Weiyan [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-12-25

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells. Knockdown of Hv1 with RNA interference significantly reduces glucose- and K{sup +}-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets and INS-1 (832/13) β-cells and has an impairment on glucose- and K{sup +}-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis. Our data demonstrated that the expression of Hv1 in pancreatic islet β-cells regulates insulin secretion through regulating Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis.

  14. Human voltage-gated proton channel hv1: a new potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exist in a hypoxic microenvironment, and possess high-glycolytic metabolites. To avoid the acidosis, tumor cells must exhibit a dynamic cytosolic pH regulation mechanism(s. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 mediates NADPH oxidase function by compensating cellular loss of electrons with protons. Here, we showed for the first time, that Hv1 expression is increased in colorectal tumor tissues and cell lines, associated with poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Hv1 is strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas but not or lowly expressed in normal colorectal or hyperplastic polyps. Hv1 expression in colorectal cancer is significantly associated with the tumor size, tumor classification, lymph node status, clinical stage and p53 status. High Hv1 expression is associated significantly with shorter overall and recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that Hv1 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer cell lines, SW620, HT29, LS174T and Colo205, but not in SW480. Inhibitions of Hv1 expression and activity in the highly metastatic SW620 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA and Zn(2+ respectively, markedly decrease the cell invasion and migration, restraint proton extrusion and the intracellular pH recovery. Our results suggest that Hv1 may be used as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma, and a potential target for anticancer drugs in colorectal cancer therapy.

  15. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed.

  16. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field.

  17. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  18. Unconventional role of voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) in regulation of microglial ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takafumi; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Imura, Yoshio; Koizumi, Schuichi; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Yamashita, Toshihide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. ) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. ). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. ). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia. Extracellular ROS production was lower in neutrophils of Hvcn1(-/-) mice than WT mice as reported. In contrast, it was drastically enhanced in isolated Hvcn1(-/-) microglia as compared with cells from WT mice. Actin dynamics was altered in Hvcn1(-/-) microglia and intracellular distribution of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit, p67, was changed. When expression levels of oxidative stress responsive antioxidant genes were compared between WT and Hvcn1(-/-) in cerebral cortex at different ages of animals, they were slightly decreased in Hvcn1(-/-) mice at younger stage (1 day, 5 days, 3 weeks old), but drastically increased at aged stage (6 months old), suggesting that the regulation of microglial ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is age-dependent. We also performed brain ischemic stroke experiments and found that the neuroprotective effect of VSOP/Hv1deficiency on infarct volume depended on the age of animals. Taken together, regulation of ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is more complex than previously thought and significance of VSOP/Hv1 in microglial ROS production depends on age. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. VSOP/Hv1 proton channels sustain calcium entry, neutrophil migration, and superoxide production by limiting cell depolarization and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chemaly, Antoun; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Arnaudeau, Serge; Okamura, Yasushi; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2010-01-18

    Neutrophils kill microbes with reactive oxygen species generated by the NADPH oxidase, an enzyme which moves electrons across membranes. Voltage-gated proton channels (voltage-sensing domain only protein [VSOP]/Hv1) are required for high-level superoxide production by phagocytes, but the mechanism of this effect is not established. We show that neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1-/- mice lack proton currents but have normal electron currents, indicating that these cells have a fully functional oxidase that cannot conduct protons. VSOP/Hv1-/- neutrophils had a more acidic cytosol, were more depolarized, and produced less superoxide and hydrogen peroxide than neutrophils from wild-type mice. Hydrogen peroxide production was rescued by providing an artificial conductance with gramicidin. Loss of VSOP/Hv1 also aborted calcium responses to chemoattractants, increased neutrophil spreading, and decreased neutrophil migration. The migration defect was restored by the addition of a calcium ionophore. Our findings indicate that proton channels extrude the acid and compensate the charge generated by the oxidase, thereby sustaining calcium entry signals that control the adhesion and motility of neutrophils. Loss of proton channels thus aborts superoxide production and causes a severe signaling defect in neutrophils.

  20. Deficiency in the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 increases M2 polarization of microglia and attenuates brain damage from photothrombotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dai-Shi; Li, Chun-Yu; Qin, Chuan; Murugan, Madhuvika; Wu, Long-Jun; Liu, Jun-Li

    2016-10-01

    Microglia become activated during cerebral ischemia and exert pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory role dependent of microglial polarization. NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in microglia plays an important role in neuronal damage after ischemic stroke. Recently, NOX and ROS are consistently reported to participate in the microglial activation and polarization; NOX2 inhibition or suppression of ROS production are shown to shift the microglial polarization from M1 toward M2 state after stroke. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent ROS generation in the brain. However, the effect of Hv1 proton channel on microglial M1/M2 polarization state after cerebral ischemia remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of microglial Hv1 proton channel in modulating microglial M1/M2 polarization during the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury using a mouse model of photothrombosis. Following photothrombotic ischemic stroke, wild-type mice presented obvious brain infarct, neuronal damage, and impaired motor coordination. However, mice lacking Hv1 (Hv1(-/-)) were partially protected from brain damage and motor deficits compared to wild-type mice. These rescued phenotypes in Hv1(-/-) mice in ischemic stroke is accompanied by reduced ROS production, shifted the microglial polarization from M1 to M2 state. Hv1 deficiency was also found to shift the M1/M2 polarization in primary cultured microglia. Our study suggests that the microglial Hv1 proton channel is a unique target for modulation of microglial M1/M2 polarization in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is selectively expressed in microglia and is required for NOX-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. ROS participate in microglial activation and polarization. However, the effect of Hv1 on microglial M1/M2 polarization state after

  1. The cytoplasmic coiled-coil mediates cooperative gating temperature sensitivity in the voltage-gated H(+) channel Hv1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takeshita, Kohei; Kobayashi, Megumi; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-05-08

    Hv1/VSOP is a dimeric voltage-gated H(+) channel in which the gating of one subunit is reportedly coupled to that of the other subunit within the dimer. The molecular basis for dimer formation and intersubunit coupling, however, remains unknown. Here we show that the carboxy terminus ends downstream of the S4 voltage-sensor helix twist in a dimer coiled-coil architecture, which mediates cooperative gating. We also show that the temperature-dependent activation of H(+) current through Hv1/VSOP is regulated by thermostability of the coiled-coil domain, and that this regulation is altered by mutation of the linker between S4 and the coiled-coil. Cooperative gating within the dimer is also dependent on the linker structure, which circular dichroism spectrum analysis suggests is α-helical. Our results indicate that the cytoplasmic coiled-coil strands form continuous α-helices with S4 and mediate cooperative gating to adjust the range of temperatures over which Hv1/VSOP operates.

  2. Multimeric nature of voltage-gated proton channels

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Hans P.; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Okamura, Yasushi; Larsson, H. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are comprised of four subunits, and each subunit has a pore domain and a voltage-sensing domain (VSD). The four pore domains assemble to form one single central pore, and the four individual VSDs control the gate of the pore. Recently, a family of voltage-gated proton channels, such as HV or voltage sensor only protein (VSOP), was discovered that contain a single VSD but no pore domain. It has been assumed that VSOP channels are monomeric and contain a single ...

  3. Multimeric nature of voltage-gated proton channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Hans P; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Okamura, Yasushi; Larsson, H Peter

    2008-07-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are comprised of four subunits, and each subunit has a pore domain and a voltage-sensing domain (VSD). The four pore domains assemble to form one single central pore, and the four individual VSDs control the gate of the pore. Recently, a family of voltage-gated proton channels, such as H(V) or voltage sensor only protein (VSOP), was discovered that contain a single VSD but no pore domain. It has been assumed that VSOP channels are monomeric and contain a single VSD that functions as both the VSD and the pore domain. It remains unclear, however, how a protein that contains only a VSD and no pore domain can conduct ions. Using fluorescence measurements and immunoprecipitation techniques, we show here that VSOP channels are expressed as multimeric channels. Further, FRET experiments on constructs with covalently linked subunits show that VSOP channels are dimers. Truncation of the cytoplasmic regions of VSOP reduced the dimerization, suggesting that the dimerization is caused mainly by cytoplasmic protein-protein interactions. However, these N terminus- and C terminus-deleted channels displayed large proton currents. Therefore, we conclude that even though VSOP channels are expressed mainly as dimers in the cell membrane, single VSOP subunits could function independently as proton channels.

  4. Functionality of the voltage-gated proton channel truncated in S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Nørholm, Morten H H; Takagi, Masahiro; Okochi, Yoshifumi; von Heijne, Gunnar; Okamura, Yasushi

    2010-02-02

    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) is the key module for voltage sensing in voltage-gated ion channels and voltage-sensing phosphatases. Structurally, both the VSD and the recently discovered voltage-gated proton channels (Hv channels) voltage sensor only protein (VSOP) and Hv1 contain four transmembrane segments. The fourth transmembrane segment (S4) of Hv channels contains three periodically aligned arginines (R1, R2, R3). It remains unknown where protons permeate or how voltage sensing is coupled to ion permeation in Hv channels. Here we report that Hv channels truncated just downstream of R2 in the S4 segment retain most channel properties. Two assays, site-directed cysteine-scanning using accessibility of maleimide-reagent as detected by Western blotting and insertion into dog pancreas microsomes, both showed that S4 inserts into the membrane, even if it is truncated between the R2 and R3 positions. These findings provide important clues to the molecular mechanism underlying voltage sensing and proton permeation in Hv channels.

  5. Voltage-dependent BK and Hv1 channels expressed in non-excitable tissues: New therapeutics opportunities as targets in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Francisco J; Saravia, Julia; Pontigo, Juan Pablo; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Lorenzo, Yenisleidy; Castillo, Karen; Tilegenova, Cholpon; Cuello, Luis G; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are the molecular determinants of cellular excitability. This group of ion channels is one of the most important pharmacological targets in excitable tissues such as nervous system, cardiac and skeletal muscle. Moreover, voltage-gated ion channels are expressed in non-excitable cells, where they mediate key cellular functions through intracellular biochemical mechanisms rather than rapid electrical signaling. This review aims at illustrating the pharmacological impact of these ion channels, highlighting in particular the structural details and physiological functions of two of them - the high conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-gated K(+) (BK) channels and voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels- in non-excitable cells. BK channels have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes ranging from regulation of smooth muscle tone to modulation of hormone and neurotransmitter release. Interestingly, BK channels are also involved in modulating K(+) transport in the mammalian kidney and colon epithelium with a potential role in the hyperkalemic phenotype observed in patients with familial hyperkalemic hypertension type 2, and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. In addition, BK channels are responsible for resting and stimulated Ca(2+)-activated K(+) secretion in the distal colon. Hv1 channels have been detected in many cell types, including macrophages, blood cells, lung epithelia, skeletal muscle and microglia. These channels have a central role in the phagocytic system. In macrophages, Hv1 channels participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the respiratory burst during the process of phagocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSD124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U03055-1 VSD124P (Link to Original site) VSD1...24F 530 VSD124Z 437 VSD124P 967 - - Show VSD124 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-A/VSD124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...24P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD124 (VSD124Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-A/VSD1...ing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSD124 (VSD124Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-A/VSD124Q.

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSD187 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD187 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16468-1 VSD187P (Link to Original site) VSD1...87F 531 VSD187Z 532 VSD187P 1063 - - Show VSD187 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-D/VSD187Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...87P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD187 (VSD187Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-D/VSD1...y vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSD187 (VSD187Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-D/VSD1

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSD137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12366-1 VSD137P (Link to Original site) VSD1...37F 304 VSD137Z 282 VSD137P 586 - - Show VSD137 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD137Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...37P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD137 (VSD137Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD1...-151 VSE776 (VSE776Q) /CSM/VS/VSE7-D/VSE776Q.Seq.d/ 535 e-151 VSD137 (VSD137Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD137Q.Seq.d/

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSD141 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD141 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12568-1 VSD141P (Link to Original site) VSD1...41F 203 VSD141Z 229 VSD141P 432 - - Show VSD141 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD141Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...41P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD141 (VSD141Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD1...kfsgkhvifiaq Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSD141 (VSD141Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1

  10. The potential role of cobalt ions released from metal prosthesis on the inhibition of Hv1 proton channels and the decrease in Staphyloccocus epidermidis killing by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Samira; El Chemaly, Antoun; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Bernard, Louis; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Demaurex, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a devastating complication of metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty (THA). Neutrophils are the first line of defense against infection, and these innate immune cells are potentially exposed to Co(2+) ions released in the peri-prosthetic tissue by the wear of MM THA. The toxicity of Co(2+) is still debated, but Co(2+) is a potential inhibitor of the Hv1 proton channel that sustains the production of superoxide by neutrophils. In this study, we show that the Co(2+) concentration in peri-prosthetic tissue from patients with MM THA averages 53 μM and that such high concentrations of Co(2+) alter the antibacterial activity of human neutrophils in vitro by inhibiting Hv1 proton channels. We show that submillimolar concentrations of Co(2+) inhibit proton currents, impair the extrusion of cytosolic acid, and decrease the production of superoxide in human neutrophils. As a result, Co(2+) reduces the ability of human neutrophils to kill two strains of Staphyloccocus epidermidis by up to 7-fold at the maximal concentration tested of 100 μM Co(2+). By inhibiting proton channels, the Co(2+) ions released by metal prostheses might therefore promote bacterial infections in patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSD106 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD106 (Link to dictyBase) - G21311 DDB0190177 Contig-U15329-1 VSD1...06P (Link to Original site) VSD106F 520 VSD106Z 71 VSD106P 591 - - Show VSD106 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1...ntig-U15329-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-A/VSD1...06Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD106P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD106 (VSD106Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1...-A/VSD106Q.Seq.d/ AAAATTTTTAAAAAATGAATATAAGAGAAAAAAAGAAAACCAGTCATAGATCAACAGTTG CAGTCCATA

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSD131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14496-1 VSD131P (Link to Original site) VSD1...31F 509 VSD131Z 495 VSD131P 1004 - - Show VSD131 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD131Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...31P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD131 (VSD131Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-B/VSD1...D50338 |D50338.1 Dictyostelium discoideum DNA for ribosomal protein, complete cds. 910 0.0 2 BI863538 |BI863538.1 kx45d1

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSD172 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd, single read. 36 0.10 3 CD101287 |CD101287.1 AGENCOURT_13997107 NICHD_XGC_Tad1...VS (Link to library) VSD172 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16123-1 VSD172P (Link to Original site) VSD1...72F 214 VSD172Z 198 VSD172P 412 - - Show VSD172 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD1... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSD1-C/VSD172Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD1...72P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSD172 (VSD172Q) /CSM/VS/VSD1-C/VSD1

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSD680 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSD680 (VSD680Q) /CSM/VS/VSD6-D/VSD680Q.Seq.d/ 228 1e-59...ology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N (...quences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q6UK63) RecName: Full=Protein pirA; &AY368270_1(AY36

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSD403 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S/VSD4-A/VSD403Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD403F (Link to Original site) Representative...as ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/V

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S/VSD8-B/VSD826Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD826F (Link to Original site) Representative...as ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/V

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSD712 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S/VSD7-A/VSD712Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD712F (Link to Original site) Representative...as ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/V

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSD116 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S/VSD1-A/VSD116Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSD116Z (Link to Original site) Representative...as ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/V

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD789 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSD789 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14805-1 VSD789Z (Link... to Original site) - - VSD789Z 565 - - - - Show VSD789 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSD789 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U14805-1 Original site URL http://dict...e 2001. 3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---*LVDFNFGIFICTRFLIFQPNNQYRETNGFILFFDVTNKSSFLQLSSLIELVRAKCA DEN...QMKIKERERQ KLLKQKHIKKD Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---*LVDFNFGIFICT

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD586 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available re E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSD586 (VSD586Q) /C...L649Q.Seq.d/ 32 1.5 own update 2004. 8. 5 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...omology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value

  1. 人源电压门控质子通道对乳腺癌细胞迁移与侵袭的影响*%Effects of voltage-gated proton channel(Hv1)on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅蕾; 张尚荣; 王一凡; 孙保存; 李树杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:明确人源电压门控质子通道蛋白(human voltage-gated proton channel 1,Hv1)对乳腺癌细胞迁移及侵袭能力的影响。方法:检测Hv1在不同转移能力的人乳腺癌细胞系中的表达,利用小RNA干扰(siRNA)技术下调Hv1在乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞中的表达,通过细胞划痕和体外侵袭实验方法,观察Hv1对乳腺癌细胞迁移和侵袭的影响并初步探讨相关分子机制。结果:Hv1在高转移的乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB-231中表达较高,Hv1基因的siRNA干扰片段能够抑制Hv1基因及蛋白的表达;细胞划痕和体外侵袭实验表明Hv1降表达的MDA-MB-231细胞迁移和侵袭能力较弱;明胶酶谱和免疫印迹实验证明下调Hv1基因在MDA-MB-231细胞中的表达明显抑制了MMP-2的活性。结论:Hv1能够促进乳腺癌细胞迁移及侵袭。%Objective:To clarify the effect of voltage-gated proton channel 1 (Hv1) on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Methods:The protein expression of Hv1 was detected in human breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic abilities. SiRNA technique was used to down-regulate the expression of Hvl in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Scratch and matrigel invasion methods were used to observe the effect of Hvl on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, and the relevant molecular mechanism was explored. Results:Hv1 was highly expressed in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Hvl was more highly expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells with higher metastatic ability. The SiRNA sequence target at Hvl inhibited Hvl expression. Scratch and matrigel invasion experiments showed that the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly attenuated when Hv1 was knocked down by siRNA targeting Hv1. Zymography experiment on matrix metalloproteinase indicated that the enzyme activities of MMP-2 markedly decreased. Conclusion:Hv1 promoted the migration and invasion ability of breast

  2. Mitochondrial DNA HV1 and HV2 variation in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sørensen, Erik; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;

    2010-01-01

    Sequences from the two hypervariable regions (HV1 and HV2) of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA were obtained from a total of 201 Danes and five individuals who later were recognized to be of non-West European origin. Two fractions of each region were amplified separately and sequenced ...

  3. Molecular biology and biophysical properties of ion channel gating pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Adrien; Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Chahine, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    The voltage sensitive domain (VSD) is a pivotal structure of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) and plays an essential role in the generation of electrochemical signals by neurons, striated muscle cells, and endocrine cells. The VSD is not unique to VGICs. Recent studies have shown that a VSD regulates a phosphatase. Similarly, Hv1, a voltage-sensitive protein that lacks an apparent pore domain, is a self-contained voltage sensor that operates as an H⁺ channel. VSDs are formed by four transmembrane helices (S1-S4). The S4 helix is positively charged due to the presence of arginine and lysine residues. It is surrounded by two water crevices that extend into the membrane from both the extracellular and intracellular milieus. A hydrophobic septum disrupts communication between these water crevices thus preventing the permeation of ions. The septum is maintained by interactions between the charged residues of the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center. Mutating the charged residue of the S4 segment allows the water crevices to communicate and generate gating pore or omega pore. Gating pore currents have been reported to underlie several neuronal and striated muscle channelopathies. Depending on which charged residue on the S4 segment is mutated, gating pores are permeant either at depolarized or hyperpolarized voltages. Gating pores are cation selective and seem to converge toward Eisenmann's first or second selectivity sequences. Most gating pores are blocked by guanidine derivatives as well as trivalent and quadrivalent cations. Gating pores can be used to study the movement of the voltage sensor and could serve as targets for novel small therapeutic molecules.

  4. Manual de uso del programa VSD (Video Stereo Digitalizador)

    OpenAIRE

    Almagro, Antonio; López Hernández, Gerardo

    2001-01-01

    El Vídeo Estéreo Digitalizador (VSD) de AGH, creado por el profesor J.J. Jachimski y el informático J.M. Zielinski del Departamento de Fotogrametría y Teledetección informática de la Universidad de Minería y Metalurgia de Cracovia, es un estereorrestituidor concebido para la producción de dibujos vectoriales a partir de pares de imágenes fotogramétricas digitales, en blanco y negro o color (estereopares u ortoestereopares). El VSD utiliza imágenes digitales, lo cual se traduce en la posibilid...

  5. Recent Developments in VSD Imaging of Small Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Evan S.; Bruno, Angela M.; Frost, William N.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging is a powerful technique that can provide, in single experiments, a large-scale view of network activity unobtainable with traditional sharp electrode recording methods. Here we review recent work using VSDs to study small networks and highlight several results from this approach. Topics covered include circuit…

  6. Sequencing of mitochondrial HV1 and HV2 DNA with length heteroplasmy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E. Michael; Eriksen, Birthe; Larsen, Hans Jakob

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a fast method for sequencing the poly C/G regions in HV1 and HV2 in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)......This study presents a fast method for sequencing the poly C/G regions in HV1 and HV2 in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

  7. X-ray crystal structure of voltage-gated proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Kohei; Sakata, Souhei; Yamashita, Eiki; Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Kawanabe, Akira; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Matsuda, Makoto; Narita, Hirotaka; Okamura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 (or VSOP) has a voltage-sensor domain (VSD) with dual roles of voltage sensing and proton permeation. Its gating is sensitive to pH and Zn(2+). Here we present a crystal structure of mouse Hv1 in the resting state at 3.45-Å resolution. The structure showed a 'closed umbrella' shape with a long helix consisting of the cytoplasmic coiled coil and the voltage-sensing helix, S4, and featured a wide inner-accessible vestibule. Two out of three arginines in S4 were located below the phenylalanine constituting the gating charge-transfer center. The extracellular region of each protomer coordinated a Zn(2+), thus suggesting that Zn(2+) stabilizes the resting state of Hv1 by competing for acidic residues that otherwise form salt bridges with voltage-sensing positive charges on S4. These findings provide a platform for understanding the general principles of voltage sensing and proton permeation.

  8. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Tyerman, Stephen D; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M; Howitt, Susan M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.

  9. NMR investigation of the isolated second voltage-sensing domain of human Nav1.4 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A S; Lyukmanova, E N; Myshkin, M Yu; Shulepko, M A; Kulbatskii, D S; Petrosian, N S; Chugunov, A O; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P; Arseniev, A S; Shenkarev, Z O

    2017-03-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are essential for the functioning of cardiovascular, muscular, and nervous systems. The α-subunit of eukaryotic Na(+) channel consists of ~2000 amino acid residues and encloses 24 transmembrane (TM) helices, which form five membrane domains: four voltage-sensing (VSD) and one pore domain. The structural complexity significantly impedes recombinant production and structural studies of full-sized Na(+) channels. Modular organization of voltage-gated channels gives an idea for studying of the isolated second VSD of human skeletal muscle Nav1.4 channel (VSD-II). Several variants of VSD-II (~150a.a., four TM helices) with different N- and C-termini were produced by cell-free expression. Screening of membrane mimetics revealed low stability of VSD-II samples in media containing phospholipids (bicelles, nanodiscs) associated with the aggregation of electrically neutral domain molecules. The almost complete resonance assignment of (13)C,(15)N-labeled VSD-II was obtained in LPPG micelles. The secondary structure of VSD-II showed similarity with the structures of bacterial Na(+) channels. The fragment of S4 TM helix between the first and second conserved Arg residues probably adopts 310-helical conformation. Water accessibility of S3 helix, observed by the Mn(2+) titration, pointed to the formation of water-filled crevices in the micelle embedded VSD-II. (15)N relaxation data revealed characteristic pattern of μs-ms time scale motions in the VSD-II regions sharing expected interhelical contacts. VSD-II demonstrated enhanced mobility at ps-ns time scale as compared to isolated VSDs of K(+) channels. These results validate structural studies of isolated VSDs of Na(+) channels and show possible pitfalls in application of this 'divide and conquer' approach.

  10. (e)-operations and Hv-fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas VOUGIOUKLIS

    2008-01-01

    The hyperoperations,called theta-operations (e),are motivated from the usual property,which the derivative has on the derivation of a product of functions.Using any map on a set,one can define(e) -operatious.In this paper,we continue our study on the(e) -operations on groupoids,rings,fields and vector spaces or on the corresponding hyperstructures.Using(e) -operations one obtains,mainly,Hv-structures,which form the largest class of the hyperstructures.For representation theory of hyperstructures,by hypermatrices,one needs special Hv-rings or Hv-fields,so these hyperstructures can be used.Moreover,we study the relation of these(e)-structures with other classes of hyperstructures,especially with the Hy-structures.

  11. [Omega pore, an alternative ion channel permeation pathway involved in the development of several channelopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Adrien; Chahine, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Voltage gated ion channels (VGIC) constitute a large family of ion channels. VGIC are responsible for ions to cross the membrane. They are composed of a pore domain associated to voltage sensor domains (VSD), which regulate the function of the pore. The VSD has been recognized as the unit responsible for sensing electrical signals of all VGIC. Recently, mutations within the VSD have been studied and revealed the creation of a new permeation pathway directly through the usually non-conductive VSD. This new permeation pathway has been called omega pore or gating pore. Given the number, the diversity and the large roles of VSD, gating pores might become an important pathological defect. Indeed, several mutations have been associated to the development of several pathologies such as periodic paralysis, arrhythmias and cardiac dilatation or also the peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  12. VSD a compressor that automatically reduces the power consumption; VSD un compresor que reduce automaticamente el consumo energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda L, Pedro [Atlas Copco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    With the purpose of verifying the behavior in the demand of air in the different plants Copco Atlas made a sampling of 135 measurements, from which it was concluded, that the air consumption of the plants behaves under three main profiles. In the following graphs the behavior of the demand of air with one color for every day of the week and 24 hours per day. In this sample Profile No. 1 is typical of the industries that work 24 hours a day and have low demand of air at night. This type of profile represents a percentage of 64% of the total of the measurements made. The second profile represents industries that work 5 days per week with two shifts and represents a percentage of 28%. The third profile is typical for applications of fixed consumption during the 5 days of the week, this represents an 8% of the measurements. With the purpose of improving the efficiency in the compressors energy consumption, Atlas Copco has been pioneering in the development of compressors with Variable Speed Drive (VSD), that offers the possibility of adapting with extreme precision the capacity of the compressor to the variable demand of compressed air of the plant. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de verificar el comportamiento en la demanda de aire en las diferentes plantas Atlas Copco realizo un muestreo de 135 mediciones, del cual se concluyo, que el consumo de aire de las plantas se comporta bajo tres perfiles principales. En las siguientes graficas se muestra el comportamiento de la demanda de aire con un color por cada dia de la semana y 24 horas al dia . En esta muestra el Perfil No. 1 es tipico de las Industrias que trabajan las 24 horas del dia y tiene baja demanda de aire en las noches. Este tipo de perfil representa un porcentaje de 64% del total de las mediciones realizadas. El segundo perfil representa industrias que traban 5 dias a la semana con dos turnos y representa un porcentaje de 28%. El tercer perfil estetico para aplicaciones de consumo fijo durante 5 dias a la semana

  13. The Variability Of RSG : HV2576

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Jiang, B. W.

    2008-10-01

    The Harvard Variable HV2576, as a red supergiant in the Large Magallanic Cloud, has a complex light variation, which is not explained well. The existing one-period non-linear pulsation model deviated clearly from its light curve. We tried to fit the light curve by a superposition of several harmonic pulsations. By using the PDM, PERIOD04 and SparSpec codes to analyze the light variation, two periods with 525 and 261 days are well established. Furthermore, the 261-day period is found to change according to the wavelet analysis. In addition, the noise obeying the 1/f law. Based on all these facts, we suggest that the light variation of HV2576 may be due to huge convection cells that interplay with oscillation or the third very long period.

  14. Herpesvirus bovino 4 (BoHV-4)

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger,Ernesto Renato

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: BoHV-4 é membro da sub-família Gammaherpesvirinae, gênero Rhadinovirus e está associado a diversas manifestações clínicas, em que estudos demonstram uma forte correlação entre infecção por este vírus com metrite pós-parto e aborto em bovinos. Objetivos: este trabalho teve por propósito caracterizar uma amostra viral isolada a partir de secreção uterina de fêmea de bovino e desenvolver técnica de ensaio imunoenzimático - ELISA indireto - para detecção de anticorpos específicos ao BoHV-...

  15. FCV-VBS isolated from cats with typical symptoms caused VSD in experimental cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Kyoko; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Daisuke; Hara, Motonobu

    2008-02-01

    Commercially available vaccines have been used widely to prevent feline calicivirus infection (FCI). However, with their widespread use, field strains, which are weakly cross-reactive with the live-virus vaccine strain F9, have posed the problem of vaccine breakdown. Recently the existence of FCV--associated virulent systemic disease (VSD) has been published. But their molecular diversity, antigenic mutations and physicochemical property have not been sufficiently clarified. Thus, we experimentally gave the vaccine breakdown strain (VBS) H10 to cats that had been inoculated with an F9 live vaccine. After the administration of strain H10, vaccinated cats (1 through 4) had no respiratory symptoms, whereas the non-vaccinated cat 5 showed clinical symptoms such as a fever of over 40 degrees C, loss of vitality, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and nasal discharge after receiving strain H10, and died. Lethal FCV is rare, and may be a virulent systemic disease (VSD)--inducing strain. This is the initial report on VSD in Japan. It has been reported that symptoms of VSD were similar in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cats on experimental infection. However, no VSD-like symptoms developed, and the incidence of the disease varied depending on the presence or absence of vaccination, suggesting that there are two mechanisms of vaccine breakdown: one is associated with the vaccine immunity level, and the other is not. The characteristics of the VBS revealed were: (1) the duration of virus excretion was short when the originally carried antibody titer before virus challenge was high, (2) the excreted viral molecular species varied daily, not being limited to a specific species with time, and (3) the acquired physicochemical properties did not persist, and altered daily. FCV-VBS alters the molecular species and physicochemical properties daily due to the reduction of host immunity, which may lead to VSD.

  16. The variable speed drive VSD as ideal method for starting electric induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alberto Carrillo-Romero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By programming parameters, implementation of VSD reference CFW-11, and conducting starts with electric induction motors, with different characteristics, we analyze the behavior of the variables: voltage, current, torque and engine velocity to verify that the starting VSD method is the ideal. System graphs are obtained by implementing the tool "Trend" from SuperDriveG2 software, which are analyzed to determine the behavior of the application.

  17. A Microscopic Capacitor Model of Voltage Coupling in Membrane Proteins: Gating Charge Fluctuations in Ci-VSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-01-28

    the Ci-VSD activation at "zero" (depolarization) membrane potential. Significantly, the resultant voltage dependent energetics enables a direct evaluation of capacitance-voltage relationship (C-V curve) as well as charge-voltage relationship (Q-V curve) that is in a good agreement with the observed measurement of Ci-VSD voltage activation. Importantly, an extension of our kinetic/thermodynamic model of voltage dependent activation in VSMP allows for novel derivations of voltage-dependent rate constants, whose parameters are expressed by the intrinsic properties of VSMP. These novel closed-form expressions offer a physicochemical foundation for the semiempirical Eyring-type voltage dependent rate equations that have been the cornerstone for the phenomenological (kinetic) descriptions of gating and membrane currents in the mechanistic study of ion channels and transporters. Our extended theoretical framework developed in the present study has potential implications on the roles played by gating charge fluctuations for the spike generations in nerve cells within the framework of the Hodgkin-Huxley-type model.

  18. The CMS ECAL Barrel HV system

    CERN Document Server

    Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The CMS electro-magnetic calorimeter comprises 75848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals. 61200 crystals are contained in the ECAL Barrel section and these are readout by avalanche photodiodes (APD) with internal gain. The APD gain strongly depends on the bias voltage that, for a gain G=50, is around 400 V. In order to match the requirements for gain stability, the power supply voltage must be stable to within 0.01\\%. In this talk we describe our experience with the installed Barrel HV power supply system which has been used for data taking at the LHC since 2008.

  19. Cooling Performance Test of the SCT LV&HV Power Supply Rack

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, J; Vacek, V

    2005-01-01

    The cooling performance test of the 52U rack, housing SCT LV&HV power supplies for 192 detector modules, being located in USA15 cavern, has been curried out. The rack was equipped with two air-water heat exchangers, air turbine, four vertical fan tray units under crates and horizontal fans in four Artesyn AC/DC power supply units. The resistive dummy loads for 192 power supply channels have been placed in four crates and housed in the adjacent rack.

  20. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of two barley thioredoxin h isozymes, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Björnberg, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Barley thioredoxin h isozymes 1 (HvTrxh1) and barley thioredoxin h isozymes 2 (HvTrxh2) show distinct spatiotemporal distribution in germinating seeds. Using a novel approach involving measurement of bidirectional electron transfer rates between Escherichia coli thioredoxin, which exhibits redox......-dependent fluorescence, and the barley isozymes, reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties were readily determined. The reaction constants were 60% higher for HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2, while their redox potentials were very similar. The primary nucleophile, Cys(N), of the active site Trp-Cys(N)-Gly-Pro-Cys...

  1. 冷胁迫下大麦幼苗根质膜水通道蛋白基因的表达%Expression of RootHvPIPsof Barley Seedling under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段瑞君; 熊辉岩; 且原真木

    2014-01-01

    The plant plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, PIPs) is a kind of mem-brane intrinsic proteins which has high selectivity and water transport. They play important roles in many phys-iological activities in plant growth and development. In this study, seedlings of barley variety ‘Haruna-nijo’ were treated with chilling stress. Expression of water channel protein PIPs of root in two processes which were stress period (4℃, 48 h) and recovery period (16℃, 48 h) were analyzed with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). And root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr), root length and seedling height were ana-lyzed at the same time. The results showed that: after 4℃ and 48 h stress, the growth of the barley seedlings was signiifcantly inhibited, but root growth was no signiifcant changed; after 16℃, 48 h recovery, shoot height of stressed-seedling caught up that of control seedlings and root growth did not change signiifcantly; root hy-draulic conductivity decreased in the period of chilling stress and increased rapidly in recovery period but there were no significant difference. The results of qRT-PCR showed: the highest expression were HvPIP1;2 and HvPIP1;3, the lowest expressionwereHvPIP1;1 andHvPIP2;3. Compared with the control group,HvPIPsex-pression were decreased in all after cold treatment, in which HvPIP1;2, HvPIP1;3, HvPIP1;4, HvPIP1;5, HvPIP2;1,HvPIP2;2 were down-regulated signiifcantly. In recovery period, most ofHvPIPs expression were increased, espeacallyHvPIP1;1,HvPIP1;2, HvPIP1;5,HvPIP2;3were up-regulated significantly, but HvPIP1;4, HvPIP2;5 were down-regulated. This study found thatHvPIPs expressions of barley root were down-regulated overall in chilling stress and in recovery growth mostHvPIPs were up-regulated. Combined with changes of root hydraulic conductivity and plant growth, the role of barleyHvPIPs in chilling resistance reaction speculated thatHvPIPs effected water absorption were different in

  2. Fusion to snowdrop lectin magnifies the oral activity of insecticidal ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a peptide by enabling its delivery to the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Fitches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider-venom peptide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a targets insect voltage-gated calcium channels, acting directly at sites within the central nervous system. It is potently insecticidal when injected into a wide variety of insect pests, but it has limited oral toxicity. We examined the ability of snowdrop lectin (GNA, which is capable of traversing the insect gut epithelium, to act as a "carrier" in order to enhance the oral activity of Hv1a. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A synthetic Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was produced by recombinant expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. When injected into Mamestra brassicae larvae, the insecticidal activity of the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was similar to that of recombinant Hv1a. However, when proteins were delivered orally via droplet feeding assays, Hv1a/GNA, but not Hv1a alone, caused a significant reduction in growth and survival of fifth stadium Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth larvae. Feeding second stadium larvae on leaf discs coated with Hv1a/GNA (0.1-0.2% w/v caused ≥ 80% larval mortality within 10 days, whereas leaf discs coated with GNA (0.2% w/v showed no acute effects. Intact Hv1a/GNA fusion protein was delivered to insect haemolymph following ingestion, as shown by Western blotting. Immunoblotting of nerve chords dissected from larvae following injection of GNA or Hv1a/GNA showed high levels of bound proteins. When insects were injected with, or fed on, fluorescently labelled GNA or HV1a/GNA, fluorescence was detected specifically associated with the central nerve chord. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to mediating transport of Hv1a across the gut epithelium in lepidopteran larvae, GNA is also capable of delivering Hv1a to sites of action within the insect central nervous system. We propose that fusion to GNA provides a general mechanism for dramatically enhancing the oral activity of insecticidal peptides and proteins.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Fermenticin HV6b Isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC10770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermenticin HV6b is a class IIa antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b MTCC 10770 isolated from human vaginal ecosystem. It shows growth inhibition of a wide range of opportunistic pathogens of humans, for example, Bacteroides, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Staphylococci, and Streptococci, associated with bacterial vaginosis in humans. It does possess an impressive sperm immobilization and spermicidal activity tested against human sperms which makes it an attractive proposition for formulating antibacterial vaginosis and contraceptive products. Apart from this, in vitro studies conducted against four different tissue models have indicated its potential to be used as a component of anticancerous drug therapy as it is reported to induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. This information could be integrated in future studies focusing on in vivo assessment of anticancerous activity of lactic acid bacterial toxins or bacteriocins.

  4. Interval Valued Intuitionistic (S,T)-fuzzy Hv-submodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming ZHAN; W. A. DUDEK

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of the interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets introduced by K. Atanassov, the notion of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy Hv-submodules of an Hv-module with respect to a t-norm T and an s-norm S is given and the characteristic properties are described. The homomorphic image and the inverse image are investigated. In particular, the connections between interval valued intuitionistic (S, T)-fuzzy Hv-submodules and interval valued intuitionistic (S,T)-fuzzy submodules are discussed.

  5. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  6. HV1 acts as a sodium sensor and promotes superoxide production in medullary thick ascending limb of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Sun, Jingping; Stilphen, Carly A; Smith, Susan M E; Ocasio, Hiram; Bermingham, Brent; Darji, Sandip; Guha, Avirup; Patel, Roshan; Geurts, Aron M; Jacob, Howard J; Lambert, Nevin A; O'Connor, Paul M

    2014-09-01

    We previously characterized a H(+) transport pathway in medullary thick ascending limb nephron segments that when activated stimulated the production of superoxide by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Importantly, the activity of this pathway was greater in Dahl salt-sensitive rats than salt-resistant (SS.13(BN)) rats, and superoxide production was enhanced in low Na(+) media. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular identity of this pathway and its relationship to Na(+). We hypothesized that the voltage-gated proton channel, HV1, was the source of superoxide-stimulating H(+) currents. To test this hypothesis, we developed HV1(-/-) null mutant rats on the Dahl salt-sensitive rat genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease gene targeting. HV1 could be detected in medullary thick limb from wild-type rats. Intracellular acidification using an NH4Cl prepulse in 0 sodium/BaCl2 containing media resulted in superoxide production in thick limb from wild-type but not HV1(-/-) rats (Pthick limb and peritoneal macrophages only when HV1 was present. When fed a high-salt diet, blood pressure, outer medullary renal injury (tubular casts), and oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal staining) were significantly reduced in HV1(-/-) rats compared with wild-type Dahl salt-sensitive rats. We conclude that HV1 is expressed in medullary thick ascending limb and promotes superoxide production in this segment when intracellular Na(+) is low. HV1 contributes to the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

  7. Hysteresis of KcsA potassium channel's activation- deactivation gating is caused by structural changes at the channel's selectivity filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Cortes, D Marien; Cuello, Luis G

    2017-03-21

    Mode-shift or hysteresis has been reported in ion channels. Voltage-shift for gating currents is well documented for voltage-gated cation channels (VGCC), and it is considered a voltage-sensing domain's (VSD) intrinsic property. However, uncoupling the Shaker K(+) channel's pore domain (PD) from the VSD prevented the mode-shift of the gating currents. Consequently, it was proposed that an open-state stabilization of the PD imposes a mechanical load on the VSD, which causes its mode-shift. Furthermore, the mode-shift displayed by hyperpolarization-gated cation channels is likely caused by structural changes at the channel's PD similar to those underlying C-type inactivation. To demonstrate that the PD of VGCC undergoes hysteresis, it is imperative to study its gating process in the absence of the VSD. A back-door strategy is to use KcsA (a K(+) channel from the bacteria Streptomyces lividans) as a surrogate because it lacks a VSD and exhibits an activation coupled to C-type inactivation. By directly measuring KcsA's activation gate opening and closing in conditions that promote or halt C-type inactivation, we have found (i) that KcsA undergoes mode-shift of gating when having K(+) as the permeant ion; (ii) that Cs(+) or Rb(+), known to halt C-inactivation, prevented mode-shift of gating; and (iii) that, in the total absence of C-type inactivation, KcsA's mode-shift was prevented. Finally, our results demonstrate that an allosteric communication causes KcsA's activation gate to "remember" the conformation of the selectivity filter, and hence KcsA requires a different amount of energy for opening than for closing.

  8. Steric hindrance between S4 and S5 of the KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel hampers pore opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Koichi; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-12

    In voltage-gated K(+) channels, membrane depolarization induces an upward movement of the voltage-sensing domains (VSD) that triggers pore opening. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated K(+) channel and its gating behaviour is substantially modulated by auxiliary subunit KCNE proteins. KCNE1, for example, markedly shifts the voltage dependence of KCNQ1 towards the positive direction and slows down the activation kinetics. Here we identify two phenylalanine residues on KCNQ1, Phe232 on S4 (VSD) and Phe279 on S5 (pore domain) to be responsible for the gating modulation by KCNE1. Phe232 collides with Phe279 during the course of the VSD movement and hinders KCNQ1 channel from opening in the presence of KCNE1. This steric hindrance caused by the bulky amino-acid residues destabilizes the open state and thus shifts the voltage dependence of KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel.

  9. Potassium channels in barley: cloning, functional characterization and expression analyses in relation to leaf growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Alexandre; Clément, Mathilde; Volkov, Vadim; Golldack, Dortje; Hybiak, Jolanta; Miller, Anthony J; Amtmann, Anna; Fricke, Wieland

    2009-12-01

    It is not known how the uptake and retention of the key osmolyte K(+) in cells are mediated in growing leaf tissue. In the present study on the growing leaf 3 of barley, we have cloned the full-length coding sequence of three genes which encode putative K(+) channels (HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1/HvTPK1), and of one gene which encodes a putative K(+) transporter (HvHAK4). The functionality of the gene products of HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 was tested through expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both are inward-rectifying K(+) channels which are inhibited by Cs(+). Function of HvAKT1 in oocytes requires co-expression of a calcineurin-interacting protein kinase (AtCIPK23) and a calcineurin B-like protein (AtCBL9) from Arabidopsis, showing cross-species complementation of function. In planta, HvAKT1 is expressed primarily in roots, but is also expressed in leaf tissue. HvAKT2 is expressed particularly in leaf tissue, and HvHAK4 is expressed particularly in growing leaf tissue. Within leaves, HvAKT1 and HvAKT2 are expressed predominantly in mesophyll. Expression of genes changes little in response to low external K(+) or salinity, despite major changes in K(+) concentrations and osmolality of cells. Possible contributions of HvAKT1, HvAKT2, HvKCO1 and HvHAK4 to regulation of K(+) relations of growing barley leaf cells are discussed.

  10. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro-Nunez, Alonzo; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F.;

    2016-01-01

    of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected...

  11. Profile optimization for an HV insulator in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egiziano, L.; Spagnuolo, G.; Tucci, V. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dell`Informazione e Ingegneria Elettrica; Lupo, G.; Petrarca, C. [Univ. di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica

    1996-12-31

    The exposition of HV solid insulators in vacuum to relevant voltage differences could determine the surface flashover along the solid dielectric-vacuum interface. Insulator holdoff capabilities can be significantly improved by limiting the field intensity in proximity of the electrodes by means of a Geometrical Field Control, namely designing the insulator profile so that the region subjected to high field is shifted away from the regions where the electrodes join the solid dielectric-vacuum interface. In this paper a new profile for an HV insulator in vacuum is presented. An axially symmetrical configuration constituted by a couple of coaxial cylindrical electrodes is considered, with the insulator shape designed to guarantee similar performances for both field polarities. The effectiveness of the design is validated by means of numerical simulations and by experimental results involving D.C. and impulse flashover performances.

  12. AUDISON(欧迪臣)THESIS HV VENTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    点评:THESIS HV VENTI产品刚刚上市几个月,就斩获2004-2005届欧洲汽车移动音响的最高大奖——EISA奖。拥有双重立体功放,含有超强电流、超强功率两种功放模式,在经过AUDISON“欧迪臣”工程师们对汽车音响功放理念的最深刻的研究,导入了一流散热技术和再加上超级审美艺术,最终造就了这款有王者风范的汽车立体音响功放——THESIS HV VENTI。

  13. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wales, Nathan; Balazs, George H; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals' clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP.

  14. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5 latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5 has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP, a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals’ clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP.

  15. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency: high levels of ChHV5 DNA detected in clinically healthy marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Wales, Nathan; Balazs, George H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals’ clinical conditions. Hence, these results support the theory that ChHV5 is a near ubiquitous virus with latency characteristics requiring co-factors, possibly environmental or immune related, to induce FP. PMID:27547576

  16. Das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste

    OpenAIRE

    Trösch, Mirl

    2016-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste als dual kodierendes Gen charakterisiert. Damit wurde ein solches Gen erstmals in Pflanzen beschrieben. Der alternative S40+1-Leserahmen, der den kanonischen Leserahmen im 5'-Bereich überragt, konnte auch in anderen monokotylen, jedoch nicht in dikotylen Arten gefunden werden. Das S40-Protein, das durch den kanonischen Leserahmen S40+3 kodiert wird, kann der pflanzenspezifischen Proteinfamilie DUF584 zugeordnet...

  17. Reliability 'H' scheme of HV/MV substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Substations (HV/MV connect transmission and distribution systems with consumers of electric energy. The selective search method was used for calculation of substation reliability, where all arrangement elements were grouped into blocks. Subject of the analysis was H-arrangements comprising air-insulated switchgears on the high voltage side of HV/MV substations with different number of feeder and transformer bays and diverse scope of the installed switching equipment. Failure rate and duration were used as main HV/MV substation equipment reliability indices. A large number of arrangements were classified into groups, and within a group the arrangements were ranked with the use of multiple criteria. It is shown that the reliability of the electricity transit depends on the equipment of field for the transit of electricity, which favors poorly equipped field. On the other hand, the reliability of transformation of the full power depends mostly on the equipment in coupling field. It is essential that in the coupling field, there are at least two disconnectors. Installation of the switch in the coupling field is meaningful only with appropriate protection, because it further improves reliability. Conclusions are drawn for phased construction and expansion of the single pole diagram with an additional field for the transmission line.

  18. PIP2 regulation of KCNQ channels: biophysical and molecular mechanisms for lipid modulation of voltage-dependent gating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Alan Zaydman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels contain voltage-sensing (VSD and pore-gate (PGD structural domains. During voltage-dependent gating, conformational changes in the two domains are coupled giving rise to voltage-dependent opening of the channel. In addition to membrane voltage, KCNQ (Kv7 channel opening requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Recent studies suggest that PIP2 serves as a cofactor to mediate VSD-PGD coupling in KCNQ1 channels. In this review, we put these findings in the context of the current understanding of voltage-dependent gating, lipid modulation of Kv channel activation, and PIP2-regulation of KCNQ channels. We suggest that lipid-mediated coupling of functional domains is a common mechanism among KCNQ channels that may be applicable to other Kv channels and membrane proteins.

  19. PIP2 regulation of KCNQ channels: biophysical and molecular mechanisms for lipid modulation of voltage-dependent gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels contain voltage-sensing (VSD) and pore-gate (PGD) structural domains. During voltage-dependent gating, conformational changes in the two domains are coupled giving rise to voltage-dependent opening of the channel. In addition to membrane voltage, KCNQ (Kv7) channel opening requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Recent studies suggest that PIP2 serves as a cofactor to mediate VSD-PGD coupling in KCNQ1 channels. In this review, we put these findings in the context of the current understanding of voltage-dependent gating, lipid modulation of Kv channel activation, and PIP2-regulation of KCNQ channels. We suggest that lipid-mediated coupling of functional domains is a common mechanism among KCNQ channels that may be applicable to other Kv channels and membrane proteins.

  20. Surgical repair of true left ventricular aneurysm in an infant: a rare complication after unsuccessful perventricular VSD closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Saygi, Murat; Yildiz, Okan; Erek, Ersin; Guzeltas, Alper

    2014-10-01

    A 2.5-month-old female patient presented for closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large muscular ventricular septal defect. After perventricular closure of the defect was performed with an Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder, peroperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the device had been implanted in the wrong area of the ventricular septum. The device was retrieved and a large mid-muscular defect with extension to the outlet septum was closed with a patch of Dacron which was secured with 5-0 sutures. A perforation in the ventricular septum due to attempted perventricular device delivery was seen, and it was repaired primarily. In the eighth month of follow-up, transthoracic echocardiography revealed an aneurysm in the posterior wall of the left ventricle. The patient's electrocardiogram showed pathological Q waves and ST-segment elevation in leads DII, DIII, and aVF consistent with subacute inferior myocardial infarction. At subsequent surgery, this was found to be a true aneurysm, located in area of distribution of the obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery in the posterior wall of the left ventricle. The aneurysm was closed off using a Dacron patch, and the sac was resected. Development of a true aneurysm is a rare but important complication of attempted perventricular VSD closure.

  1. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  2. Effect of ozone combining with VSD on breast abscess%三氧包裹在乳腺脓肿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程斌; 程海燕; 吕园园

    2016-01-01

    Objective To introduce the application of ozone and compare clinical effect combined incision and vaccum suction with ozone in treatment of breast abscess. Methods Forty patients with acute mastitis and breast abscess were performed surgical drainage ,.in which 20 casesunderwent incision and vacuum suction. (VSD group),.another 20 cases were treated by using a combined treatment of VSD plus ozone (VSD+ozone group). The clinical effect between two groups were compared. Results All cases were cured in two group..The healing time of breast abscess in VSD+ozone group was shorter than that in VSD group,.and no side effect was found in VSD+ozone group. Conclusion The ozone combing with negative pressure drainage has an advantage over the traditional VSD alone in treatment of breast abscess.%目的:介绍三氧包裹在乳腺脓肿中的应用以及比较传统切开引流+负压吸引(VSD)、传统切开引流+三氧包裹(臭氧)+VSD引治疗乳腺脓肿的临床效果。方法对20例乳腺脓肿患者采用传统切开引流+VSD,并与20例传统切开引流+三氧包裹+VSD,从切口愈合时间上进行比较。结果传统切开引流+三氧包裹+负压吸引从切口愈合时间明显低于前者(P<0.01)。结论三氧包裹可以帮助乳腺脓肿患者快速的痊愈。

  3. Inversion of H/V ratio in layered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina Flores, J.; García-Jerez, A.; Luzon, F.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Both coda of earthquakes and microtremors are assumed to be diffuse fields resulting from multiple scattering. From the diffuse field theory, the average of the autocorrelation of displacement components at a given receiver measures the directional energy densities that are proportional to the imaginary parts of the Green's function for source and receiver at the same point. The directional energies have been recently related to the calculation of microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR). These ratios are widely used in the assessment of the dominant frequency of soil sites and their measurements are relatively simple as only one station is required. The H/V spectral ratios have also been interpreted as representing either directly the S wave amplification or the Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Moreover, the H/V ratios can be also used for a finer characterization of the site assuming horizontally layered media without lateral heterogeneities. In that case and for an appropriate noise normalization the experimental spectral ratios H2/V2 should correspond to their theoretical counterpart: the ratio 2 ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary parts of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively and for horizontally layered media. In order to guarantee a viable inversion, the imaginary part of the theoretical Green's functions must be efficiently computed using both an integral in the complex k plane (in terms of homogeneous plane waves) and the pole contributions due to Rayleigh and Love normal modes, which result from the (application of the) Cauchy residue theorem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712 and the AXA Research Fund.

  4. An Experimental Approach Using Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) to Investigate the Kinetics of Vesiculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholis, M. G.; Kilinc, A. I.

    2001-05-01

    The exsolution of volatiles in magma initiates the formation of gas bubbles as a result of the development of a state of supersaturation from either magma ascending in the conduit, decrease in temperature, or the crystallization of anhydrous solid phases. In this analysis bubble-free rhyolitic glasses were isothermally decompressed in a series of controlled nucleation experiments to investigate the kinetics of bubble nucleation and growth. A two-fold approach was used to synthetically saturate the high silica melt. The first method is based on using blocks of solid obsidian placed in gold capsules with > 10 wt.% H2O and saturated for 72 hours. The second technique uses powdered obsidian that was saturated with H2O at a given pressure and temperature for 48 hours, quenched, reground, and then repeated one more time. The use of powdered obsidian in the second method evenly saturates the melt by minimizing the volume to surface area ratio, hence the diffusion distance. In all experiments glass charges were saturated with H2O at 100 MPa and 850\\deg C, and than isothermally decompressed at a rate of approximately 0.26 MPa/sec to a final confining pressure of 30, 50, and 70 MPa. Samples were held at the final pressure for a period ranging from 5 to 300 seconds (residence time) to allow for nucleation to take place. Bubble-bearing glass charges were cut, polished, imaged under SEM and Nikon petrographic microscopes, and digitally analyzed with "Scion Image". All glass charges produced by the block method contained either no bubbles or only a few bubbles. The only indication of bubble nucleation was limited in a zone on the outer periphery of the glass charges. This leads us to believe that in the block method the time given for hydration was insufficient for homogeneous saturation of the melt. We directed our attention to the bubble-bearing glasses generated by the powder experiments. Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) was used to determine the kinetic behavior of bubbles

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of the voltage-gated proton channel in zebrafish neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanayotha, Adisorn; Kawai, Takafumi; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-08-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1/VSOP) are expressed in various cells types, including phagocytes, and are involved in diverse physiological processes. Although hvcn1, the gene encoding Hv1, has been identified across a wide range of species, most of the knowledge about its physiological function and expression profile is limited to mammals. In this study, we investigated the basic properties of DrHv1, the Hv1 ortholog in zebrafish (Danio rerio) which is an excellent animal model owing to the transparency, as well as its functional expression in native cells. Electrophysiological analysis using a heterologous expression system confirmed the properties of a voltage-gated proton channel are conserved in DrHv1 with differences in threshold and activation kinetics as compared to mouse (Mus musculus) Hv1 (mHv1). RT-PCR analysis revealed that hvcn1 is expressed in zebrafish neutrophils, as is the case in mammals. Subsequent electrophysiological analysis confirmed the functional expression of DrHv1 in zebrafish neutrophils, which suggests Hv1 function in phagocytes is conserved among vertebrates. We also found that DrHv1 is comparatively resistant to extracellular Zn(2+), which is a potent inhibitor of mammalian Hv1, and this phenomenon appears to reflect variation in the Zn(2+)-coordinating residue (histidine) within the extracellular linker region in mammalian Hv1. Notably, the serum Zn(2+) concentration is much higher in zebrafish than in mouse, raising the possibility that Zn(2+) sensitivity was acquired in accordance with a change in the serum Zn(2+) concentration. This study highlights the biological variation and importance of Hv1 in different animal species. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Regulation of Na(+) channel inactivation by the DIII and DIV voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Eric J; Zhu, Wandi; Schubert, Angela R; Voelker, Taylor; Varga, Zoltan; Silva, Jonathan R

    2017-03-06

    Functional eukaryotic voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels comprise four domains (DI-DIV), each containing six membrane-spanning segments (S1-S6). Voltage sensing is accomplished by the first four membrane-spanning segments (S1-S4), which together form a voltage-sensing domain (VSD). A critical NaV channel gating process, inactivation, has previously been linked to activation of the VSDs in DIII and DIV. Here, we probe this interaction by using voltage-clamp fluorometry to observe VSD kinetics in the presence of mutations at locations that have been shown to impair NaV channel inactivation. These locations include the DIII-DIV linker, the DIII S4-S5 linker, and the DIV S4-S5 linker. Our results show that, within the 10-ms timeframe of fast inactivation, the DIV-VSD is the primary regulator of inactivation. However, after longer 100-ms pulses, the DIII-DIV linker slows DIII-VSD deactivation, and the rate of DIII deactivation correlates strongly with the rate of recovery from inactivation. Our results imply that, over the course of an action potential, DIV-VSDs regulate the onset of fast inactivation while DIII-VSDs determine its recovery.

  7. Edge-TCT measurements on irradiated HV CMOS sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Weisser, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Passive $100 \\times 100 \\,\\mu$m test diodes in an unirradiated and an irradiated HV2FEI4v3 HV-CMOS silicon sensor were analysed using the edge TCT technique. To integrate the sensor into the setup a PCB was designed to extract the signals, a cooling mechanism was constructed and the system housed in a shielding box. The observed signal had fast and slow contributions, that were interpreted as drift and diffusion. The former peaked in a region, that was interpreted as the depletion region, while the latter peaked further in the bulk material. Raising the bias voltage increased the depth of the former region, while pushing the latter region further into the bulk. The irradiated sample lost signal strength mainly in its slow part compared to the unirradiated sample, while its quick signal remained largely unaffected. As only the signal interpreted as drift is fast enough to be useful in LHC operation the investigated sensors could be considered radiation hard for this purpose. This gives further promise to ...

  8. 骨科创伤及感染创面应用负压封闭引流(VSD)治疗的护理体会%Orthopaedic Trauma and Infection Wound Application Negative Pressure Closed Drainage (VSD) Treatment of Nursing Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建莉

    2012-01-01

      Objective to explore in the treatment of Vsd orthopaedic trauma and infection wound application effect and nursing experience. Methods the treatment of orthopaedic trauma and infection Vsd wound 68 cases. Results 68 cases of pa-tients cured by the Vsd after treatment,50 cases wound granuloma growth,fresh blood circulation is good. Bacterial culture were all negative. line free skin graft or direct suture after wound repair. 18 routine multiple drainage,flap to repair wounds af-ter success. Conclusion the treatment of Vsd orthopaedic trauma and infection wound can reduce the number of dressing,and effectively avoid the cross infection. nursing key is to keep the negative pressure drainage unobstructed and strengthen nutrition.%  目的探讨 Vsd 在治疗骨科创伤及感染创面的应用效果及护理体会.方法采用 Vsd 治疗骨科创伤及感染创面68例.结果68例患者经 Vsd 治疗后,50例创面肉芽肿生长,新鲜血液循环良好.细菌培养均阴性.行游离植皮或直接缝合后创面修复.18例行多次引流,皮瓣转移后创面修复成功.结论 Vsd 治疗骨科创伤及感染创面可减少换药次数,有效地避免了交叉感染.护理重点是保持负压引流通畅和加强营养.

  9. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  10. A STUDY ON THE INTERPRETATION OF WAVE COMPONENTS IN MICROTREMOR H/V SPECTRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Yamada, Masayuki; Nozu, Atsushi

    The peak information in microtremor H/V spectrum is often used in the evaluation of amplification characteristics of earthquake ground motion. Although characteristics of microtremor H/V spectrum can be generally explained by those of surface waves, the assumption that microtremor only consists of surface wave is hardly valid considering the fact that peak amplification is finite and often correlates with amplification characteristics of earthquake ground motion. This study presents a new in terpretation of wave components of microtremor H/V spectrum using medium response analysis. Mixture rates of surface wave and body wave that well explain microtremor H/V spectrum was studied.

  11. COS FUV Detector Response to New HV Management System at LP3 {LENA4}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This program uses a series of 205s WAVECALS and 60s DCE dumps to exercise the new HV Management System. We first ramp to the Maximum HV for Both Segment FUVA/FUVB = 178/175, we then transition to the minimum HV {A/B = 167/163} using the new HV management system, then transition back to the Maximum HV. The WAVECAL exposures at the Maximum HV will be taken with G160M/1611 {C1611} and the minimums are taken with G160M/1623 {C1623}. The CENWAVE change is required to allow time for the HV change. The sequence is repeated with FUVA ON {FUVB OFF}, and then with FUVB ON {FUVA OFF}. DCE Dumps are included before and after each WAVECAL.All exposures in the program should execute at the LP3 position, using the ALTERNATE lifetime position.This program will use a special HV Table with the following changes to the normal HV/Aperture table:CENWAVE Lifetime Position HVA/HVB--------------------------1611 Alternate {LP3} 178/1751623 Alternate {LP3} 167/163LP3 FUV aperture positions and SIAF file updates are not absolutely required, as these are all internals, but they are desired.

  12. Identification of a vacuolar proton channel that triggers the bioluminescent flash in dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan D.; Haq, Saddef; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan; Nowak, Kristine F.; Nowak, Scott J.; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.; Sapp, Maredith M.; Bernstein, Steven; Bolt, Andrew; DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Place, Allen R.; Smith, Susan M. E.

    2017-01-01

    In 1972, J. Woodland Hastings and colleagues predicted the existence of a proton selective channel (HV1) that opens in response to depolarizing voltage across the vacuole membrane of bioluminescent dinoflagellates and conducts protons into specialized luminescence compartments (scintillons), thereby causing a pH drop that triggers light emission. HV1 channels were subsequently identified and demonstrated to have important functions in a multitude of eukaryotic cells. Here we report a predicted protein from Lingulodinium polyedrum that displays hallmark properties of bona fide HV1, including time-dependent opening with depolarization, perfect proton selectivity, and characteristic ΔpH dependent gating. Western blotting and fluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated L. polyedrum scintillons immunostained with antibody to LpHV1 confirm LpHV1’s predicted organellar location. Proteomics analysis demonstrates that isolated scintillon preparations contain peptides that map to LpHV1. Finally, Zn2+ inhibits both LpHV1 proton current and the acid-induced flash in isolated scintillons. These results implicate LpHV1 as the voltage gated proton channel that triggers bioluminescence in L. polyedrum, confirming Hastings’ hypothesis. The same channel likely mediates the action potential that communicates the signal along the tonoplast to the scintillon. PMID:28178296

  13. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 is an integral voltage sensor-interacting beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4.2 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin; Tu, Liwei; Deutsch, Carol; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary beta-subunits dictate the physiological properties of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in excitable tissues. In many instances, however, the underlying mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6) is a specific beta-subunit of neuronal K(V)4 channels, which may promote gating through interactions between the single transmembrane segment of DPP6 and the channel's voltage sensing domain (VSD). A combination of gating current measurements and protein biochemistry (in-vitro translation and co-immunoprecipitations) revealed preferential physical interaction between the isolated K(V)4.2-VSD and DPP6. Significantly weaker interactions were detected between DPP6 and K(V)1.3 channels or the K(V)4.2 pore domain. More efficient gating charge movement resulting from a direct interaction between DPP6 and the K(V)4.2-VSD is unique among the known actions of K(V) channel beta-subunits. This study shows that the modular VSD of a K(V) channel can be directly regulated by transmembrane protein-protein interactions involving an extrinsic beta-subunit. Understanding these interactions may shed light on the pathophysiology of recently identified human disorders associated with mutations affecting the dpp6 gene.

  14. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eSun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  15. Acid extrusion from human spermatozoa is mediated by flagellar voltage-gated proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishko, Polina V; Botchkina, Inna L; Fedorenko, Andriy; Kirichok, Yuriy

    2010-02-05

    Human spermatozoa are quiescent in the male reproductive system and must undergo activation once introduced into the female reproductive tract. This process is known to require alkalinization of sperm cytoplasm, but the mechanism responsible for transmembrane proton extrusion has remained unknown because of the inability to measure membrane conductance in human sperm. Here, by successfully patch clamping human spermatozoa, we show that proton channel Hv1 is their dominant proton conductance. Hv1 is confined to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum, where it is expressed at unusually high density. Robust flagellar Hv1-dependent proton conductance is activated by membrane depolarization, an alkaline extracellular environment, endocannabinoid anandamide, and removal of extracellular zinc, a potent Hv1 blocker. Hv1 allows only outward transport of protons and is therefore dedicated to inducing intracellular alkalinization and activating spermatozoa. The importance of Hv1 for sperm activation makes it an attractive target for controlling male fertility.

  16. Copy number variation at the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major component of frost resistance in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Enrico; Morcia, Caterina; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Milc, Justyna Anna; Rizza, Fulvia; Terzi, Valeria; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pedobacter sp. Strain Hv1, an Isolate from Medicinal Leech Mucosal Castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Beka, Lidia; Graf, Joerg; Rio, Rita V M

    2015-12-17

    The Pedobacter sp. Hv1 strain was isolated from the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, mucosal castings. These mucosal sheds have been demonstrated to play a role in horizontal symbiont transmission. Here, we report the draft 4.9 Mbp genome sequence of Pedobacter sp. strain Hv1.

  18. Two distinct voltage-sensing domains control voltage sensitivity and kinetics of current activation in CaV1.1 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Benedetti, Bruno; Coste de Bagneaux, Pierre; Grabner, Manfred; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle CaV1.1 voltage-gated calcium channel gives rise to two channel variants with very different gating properties. The currents of both channels activate slowly; however, insertion of exon 29 in the adult splice variant CaV1.1a causes an ∼30-mV right shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Existing evidence suggests that the S3-S4 linker in repeat IV (containing exon 29) regulates voltage sensitivity in this voltage-sensing domain (VSD) by modulating interactions between the adjacent transmembrane segments IVS3 and IVS4. However, activation kinetics are thought to be determined by corresponding structures in repeat I. Here, we use patch-clamp analysis of dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes reconstituted with CaV1.1 mutants and chimeras to identify the specific roles of these regions in regulating channel gating properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the structure and/or hydrophobicity of the IVS3-S4 linker is critical for regulating voltage sensitivity in the IV VSD, but by itself cannot modulate voltage sensitivity in the I VSD. Swapping sequence domains between the I and the IV VSDs reveals that IVS4 plus the IVS3-S4 linker is sufficient to confer CaV1.1a-like voltage dependence to the I VSD and that the IS3-S4 linker plus IS4 is sufficient to transfer CaV1.1e-like voltage dependence to the IV VSD. Any mismatch of transmembrane helices S3 and S4 from the I and IV VSDs causes a right shift of voltage sensitivity, indicating that regulation of voltage sensitivity by the IVS3-S4 linker requires specific interaction of IVS4 with its corresponding IVS3 segment. In contrast, slow current kinetics are perturbed by any heterologous sequences inserted into the I VSD and cannot be transferred by moving VSD I sequences to VSD IV. Thus, CaV1.1 calcium channels are organized in a modular manner, and control of voltage sensitivity and activation kinetics is accomplished by specific molecular mechanisms

  19. S3-S4 linker length modulates the relaxed state of a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Michael F; Lacroix, Jérôme J; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-11-19

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are membrane protein modules found in ion channels and enzymes that are responsible for a large number of fundamental biological tasks, such as neuronal electrical activity. The VSDs switch from a resting to an active conformation upon membrane depolarization, altering the activity of the protein in response to voltage changes. Interestingly, numerous studies describe the existence of a third distinct state, called the relaxed state, also populated at positive potentials. Although some physiological roles for the relaxed state have been suggested, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for the development and modulation of VSD relaxation. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the linker (S3-S4 linker) between the third (S3) and fourth (S4) transmembrane segments of the VSD alters the equilibrium between resting and active conformations. By measuring gating currents from the Shaker potassium channel, we demonstrate here that shortening the S3-S4 linker stabilizes the relaxed state, whereas lengthening the linker or splitting it and coinjecting two fragments of the channel have little effect. We propose that natural variations of the length of the S3-S4 linker in various VSD-containing proteins may produce differential VSD relaxation in vivo.

  20. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  1. A vesicle-trafficking protein commandeers Kv channel voltage sensors for voltage-dependent secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefen, Christopher; Karnik, Rucha; Larson, Emily; Lefoulon, Cécile; Wang, Yizhou; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhang, Ben; Hills, Adrian; Blatt, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Growth in plants depends on ion transport for osmotic solute uptake and secretory membrane trafficking to deliver material for wall remodelling and cell expansion. The coordination of these processes lies at the heart of the question, unresolved for more than a century, of how plants regulate cell volume and turgor. Here we report that the SNARE protein SYP121 (SYR1/PEN1), which mediates vesicle fusion at the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, binds the voltage sensor domains (VSDs) of K(+) channels to confer a voltage dependence on secretory traffic in parallel with K(+) uptake. VSD binding enhances secretion in vivo subject to voltage, and mutations affecting VSD conformation alter binding and secretion in parallel with channel gating, net K(+) concentration, osmotic content and growth. These results demonstrate a new and unexpected mechanism for secretory control, in which a subset of plant SNAREs commandeer K(+) channel VSDs to coordinate membrane trafficking with K(+) uptake for growth.

  2. Emergence of fatal European genotype CyHV-3/KHV in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfu; Li, Xuezhu; Weng, Shaoping; Xie, Shaoxia; He, Jianguo

    2013-02-22

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a highly infectious causative agent to common carp and koi worldwide. The virus is mainly consisted of European and Asian genotype isolates. To date, no European genotype CyHV-3 has been found emerging in the East and Southeast Asian regions. In late March 2011, an outbreak of CyHV-3 disease occurred in Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China, resulting in the deaths of approximately 200 large-sized adult koi within four weeks. One moribund koi was sampled for CyHV-3 isolation. Thus, a CyHV-3 was isolated in KCF-1 cells and designated as KHV-GZ11. Abundant mature or immature virions in infected KCF-1 cells were observed under a transmission electron micrograph. In addition, intra-nuclear inclusion body-like structures with masses of virions were also observed. Based on the TK and ORF136H genes, the sequence analyses revealed that KHV-GZ11 is a distinct European genotype of CyHV-3. Moreover, the infectivity experiment showed that KHV-GZ11 was highly virulent to koi. In summary, we are the first to confirm the emergence of fatal European genotype CyHV-3/KHV in East and Southeast Asia. Our study will provide new insight to explore the virus origin and epidemiology, as well as its pathogenicity.

  3. Baseline HV-interval predicts complete AV-block secondary to transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-In; Merx, Marc W; Meyer, Christian; Kirmanoglou, Kiriakos; Hellhammer, Katharina; Ohlig, Jan; Katsani, Dimitra; Zeus, Tobias; Westenfeld, Ralf; Eickholt, Christian; Linke, Axel; Kelm, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Development of AV-block is a frequent complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). To date little is known about the predictive value of the HV-interval prior to TAVI with respect to the risk of AV-block development. HV-interval was determined in 25 consecutive elderly patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) before and immediately after TAVI. All patients subsequently underwent TAVI and 8 of these 25 patients (32%) developed complete AV-block during the TAVI procedure requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Six of these 8 patients (75%) had marked HV prolongation (>54 ms). Pre-procedural HV-interval was significantly prolonged in the subgroup developing complete AV-block (62.1 ms±13.0 vs 49.2 ms±12.9; P=0.029). Prolongation of the HV-interval above 54 ms was associated with a higher rate of complete AV-block (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 77.8%, P=0.01). HV-interval was prolonged in approximately one third of our elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis and associated with a high rate of complete AV-block following TAVI. HV-interval is easily obtained during TAVI screening procedures, thus facilitating identification of patients at risk for complete AV-block due to TAVI and consequently enabling bespoke risk management.

  4. Transcriptome-Based Discovery of Fusarium graminearum Stress Responses to FgHV1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangchao; Zhang, Jingze; Li, Pengfei; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua

    2016-11-17

    Fusarium graminearum hypovirus 1 (FgHV1), which is phylogenetically related to Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), is a virus in the family Hypoviridae that infects the plant pathogenic fungus F. graminearum. Although hypovirus FgHV1 infection does not attenuate the virulence of the host (hypovirulence), it results in defects in mycelial growth and spore production. We now report that the vertical transmission rate of FgHV1 through asexual spores reached 100%. Using RNA deep sequencing, we performed genome-wide expression analysis to reveal phenotype-related genes with expression changes in response to FgHV1 infection. A total of 378 genes were differentially expressed, suggesting that hypovirus infection causes a significant alteration of fungal gene expression. Nearly two times as many genes were up-regulated as were down-regulated. A differentially expressed gene enrichment analysis identified a number of important pathways. Metabolic processes, the ubiquitination system, and especially cellular redox regulation were the most affected categories in F. graminearum challenged with FgHV1. The p20, encoded by FgHV1 could induce H₂O₂ accumulation and hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Moreover, hypovirus FgHV1 may regulate transcription factors and trigger the RNA silencing pathway in F. graminearum.

  5. Mapping the sites of latency and reactivation by bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 and a thymidine kinase-deleted BoHV-5 in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Cadore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A thymidine kinase (tk-deleted bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5tkΔ was previously shown to establish latent infection and reactivate - even poorly - in a sheep model (Cadore et al. 2013. As TK-negative alphaherpesviruses are unlike to reactivate in neural tissue, this study investigated the sites of latency and reactivation by this recombinant in lambs. For this, groups of lambs were inoculated intranasally with the parental BoHV-5 strain (SV-507/99 or with the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ. During latent infection (40 days post-inoculation, pi, the distribution of recombinant virus DNA in neural and non-neural tissues was similar to that of the parental virus. Parental and recombinant virus DNA was consistently detected by PCR in trigeminal ganglia (TGs; frequently in palatine and pharyngeal tonsils and, less frequently in the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. In addition, latent DNA of both viruses was detected in several areas of the brain. After dexamethasone (Dx administration (day 40pi, the recombinant virus was barely detected in nasal secretions contrasting with marked shedding of the parental virus. In tissues of lambs euthanized at day 3 post-Dx treatment (pDx, reverse-transcription-PCR (RT-PCR for a late viral mRNA (glycoprotein D gene demonstrated reactivation of parental virus in neural (TGs and lymphoid tissues (tonsils, lymph node. In contrast, recombinant virus mRNA was detected only in lymphoid tissues. These results demonstrate that BoHV-5 and the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ do establish latent infection in neural and non-neural sites. Reactivation of the recombinant BoHV-5tkΔ, however, appeared to occur only in non-neural sites. In anyway, the ability of a tk-deleted strain to reactivate latent infection deserves attention in the context of vaccine safety.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3 Encoded MicroRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen H Donohoe

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Some viruses encode their own miRNAs and these are increasingly being recognized as important modulators of viral and host gene expression. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 is a highly pathogenic agent that causes acute mass mortalities in carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi (Cyprinus carpio koi worldwide. Here, bioinformatic analyses of the CyHV-3 genome suggested the presence of non-conserved precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA fractions prepared from in vitro CyHV-3 infections led to the identification of potential miRNAs and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs derived from some bioinformatically predicted pre-miRNAs. DNA microarray hybridization analysis, Northern blotting and stem-loop RT-qPCR were then used to definitively confirm that CyHV-3 expresses two pre-miRNAs during infection in vitro. The evidence also suggested the presence of an additional four high-probability and two putative viral pre-miRNAs. MiRNAs from the two confirmed pre-miRNAs were also detected in gill tissue from CyHV-3-infected carp. We also present evidence that one confirmed miRNA can regulate the expression of a putative CyHV-3-encoded dUTPase. Candidate homologues of some CyHV-3 pre-miRNAs were identified in CyHV-1 and CyHV-2. This is the first report of miRNA and moRNA genes encoded by members of the Alloherpesviridae family, a group distantly related to the Herpesviridae family. The discovery of these novel CyHV-3 genes may help further our understanding of the biology of this economically important virus and their encoded miRNAs may have potential as biomarkers for the diagnosis of latent CyHV-3.

  7. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eGeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  8. Cattle are a potential reservoir of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, S. S.; Delgado, F.; Vagnoni, L.; Mauroy, A.; Thiry, E.; Romera, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1). Two bovine and two buffalo calves were infected with BuHV1 (20287N isolate) by intranasal aerosolisation. Two sentinel cattle did not receive the virus challenge, but were housed with infected buffaloes to evaluate horizontal transmission. All experimentally inoculated animals showed viral infection and respiratory clinical signs. BuHV1 experimentally infected calves showed intermittent viral excretion between 2 days and 18 days postinfection (dpi) with a maximum titre of excretion of 106 TCID50/ml and moderate rhinitis between 2 dpi and 20 dpi. BuHV1 experimentally inoculated buffaloes showed mild respiratory signs, which consisted mainly of serous nasal secretions during the infection period. Sentinel calves showed mucosal specific IgG1 antibodies at seven days postcontact. Viral DNA was detected by PCR and sequencing in both buffaloes and sentinel calves, which could be associated with latency. In conclusion, this study showed the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 after both experimental infection and contact with infected buffaloes. These data increase the scarce knowledge on the pathogenesis in natural host and the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 experimental infection. PMID:28074144

  9. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    2016-01-01

    of ChHV5 DNA, recent PCR-based studies have demonstrated that large proportions of asymptomatic marine turtles are also carriers of ChHV5. We used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the levels of ChHV5 Glycoprotein B (gB) DNA in both tumour and non-tumour skin tissues, from clinically affected...... and healthy turtles drawn from distant ocean basins across four species. In agreement with previous studies, higher ratios of viral to host DNA were consistently observed in tumour versus non-tumour tissues in turtles with FP. Unexpectedly however, the levels of ChHV5 gB DNA in clinically healthy turtles were...... significantly higher than in non-tumour tissues from FP positive turtles. Thus, a large proportion of clinically healthy sea turtle populations worldwide across species carry ChHV5 gB DNA presumably through persistent latent infections. ChHV5 appears to be ubiquitous regardless of the animals' clinical...

  10. Phylogenetic position and replication kinetics of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h isolated from Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Insect-specific ascoviruses with a circular genome are distributed in the USA, France, Australia and Indonesia. Here, we report the first ascovirus isolation from Spodoptera exigua in Hunan, China. DNA-DNA hybridization to published ascoviruses demonstrated that the new China ascovirus isolate is a variant of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a, thus named HvAV-3h. We investigated the phylogenetic position, cell infection, vesicle production and viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h, as well as its host-ranges. The major capsid protein (MCP gene and the delta DNA polymerase (DNA po1 gene of HvAV-3h were sequenced and compared with the available ascovirus isolates for phylogenetic analysis. This shows a close relationship with HvAV-3g, originally isolated from Indonesia, HvAV-3e from Australia and HvAV-3c from United States. HvAV-3h infection induced vesicle production in the SeE1 cells derived from S. exigua and Sf9 cells derived from S. frugiperda, resulting in more vesicles generated in Sf9 than SeE1. Viral DNA replication kinetics of HvAV-3h also demonstrated a difference between the two cell lines tested. HvAV-3h could readily infect three important insect pests Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius from two genera in different subfamilies with high mortalities.

  11. Neurological and epidemiological aspects of a BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lunardi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 is a DNA virus that has been associated with meningoencephalitis in young cattle. While its clinical diagnosis is obscured by other major diseases that also produce similar neurological disease in cattle, the use of conventional virological techniques is hampered by the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in the host and the difficulty in differentiating BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. The aim of the current report is to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects observed in a natural outbreak of BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis in a dairy cattle herd from Brazil. In the outbreak, the affected animals consisted of nine calves, which presented three possible forms of the neurological disease, subjectively classified as peracute, acute, and subacute/chronic. In contrast to conventional herpetic meningoencephalitis, characterized mainly by progressive multifocal brain dysfunctions, BoHV-5 infection resulted in focal non-progressive caudal brainstem dysfunction (pontomedullary syndrome in an animal presented with subacute/chronic BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. The evaluation of CNS tissue of affected calves through both histological examination and multiplex-PCR was able to confirm BoHV-5 infection. Additionally, the analysis of CSF samples through PCR allowed ante-mortem BoHV-5 diagnosis during the outbreak, which enabled the implementation of several measures of control for the disease.O herpesvírus bovino 5 é um vírus DNA que tem sido associado a casos de meningoencefalite em bovinos jovens. Enquanto o diagnóstico clínico da doença é dificultado pelo fato de outras enfermidades importantes também determinarem quadro neurológico em bovinos, a utilização de técnicas virológicas convencionais no diagnóstico laboratorial tem sido inviabilizada pela latência viral que ocorre no hospedeiro e pela dificuldade em se diferenciar o BoHV-1 do BoHV-5. O objetivo deste relato é o de descrever alguns aspectos clínicos e

  12. 负压封闭引流治疗慢性骨髓炎的疗效观察%Clinical observation of VSD in treatment of chronic osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 宁建; 徐爱飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察负压封闭引流(VSD)治疗慢性骨链炎的临床疗效.方法 12例慢性骨髓炎患者先采取病灶清除处理,再给予负压封闭引流治疗,Ⅰ期封闭创面,Ⅱ期植骨,伴有软组织缺损较多者植皮或皮瓣移植修复肢体.结果 12例患者病灶清除后创面肉芽组织生长良好,血液循环丰富,局部组织无水肿,通过Ⅱ期植骨、植皮或皮瓣移植修复,均愈合,无复发.结论 负压封闭引流治疗慢性骨髓炎疗效显著,安全可靠,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of VSD in treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Methods 12 patients with chronic osteomyelitis were first treated with debridement. then treated with VSD. Ⅰ period of wound clo-sure. Ⅱ period of transplanting bone. The limbs of soft tissue defects higher were treated with transplanting skin or transplanting flap repair. Results The granulation tissue of facial trauma in 12 patients after debridement grew well, blood circulation were rich, local tissue was no edema. Patients were healed without recurrence through Ⅱ period of transplanting bone, transplanting skin and transplanting flap repair. Conclusion The treatment of VSD for chronic osteomyelitis has a significant effect, safe and reliable. It should be worthy of clinical application.

  13. Efficacy of an inactivated, recombinant bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Dezen, D; Antunes, D A; Santos, H F; Arantes, T S; Cenci, A; Gomes, F; Lima, F E S; Brito, W M E D; Filho, H C K; Batista, H B C R; Spilki, F R; Franco, A C; Rijsewijk, F A M; Roehe, P M

    2011-02-24

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of bovine herpetic encephalitis. In countries where BoHV-5 is prevalent, attempts to vaccinate cattle to prevent clinical signs from BoHV-5-induced disease have relied essentially on vaccination with BoHV-1 vaccines. However, such practice has been shown not to confer full protection to BoHV-5 challenge. In the present study, an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared with a recombinant BoHV-5 from which the genes coding for glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9 were deleted (BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-)), was evaluated in cattle in a vaccination/challenge experiment. The vaccine was prepared from a virus suspension containing a pre-inactivation antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.69) TCID(50)/dose. Three mL of the inactivated vaccine were administered subcutaneously to eight calves serologically negative for BoHV-5 (vaccinated group). Four other calves were mock-vaccinated with an equivalent preparation without viral antigens (control group). Both groups were boostered 28 days later. Neither clinical signs of disease nor adverse effects were observed during or after vaccination. A specific serological response, revealed by the development of neutralizing antibodies, was detected in all vaccinated animals after the first dose of vaccine, whereas control animals remained seronegative. Calves were subsequently challenged on day 77 post-vaccination (pv) with 10(9.25) TCID(50) of the wild-type BoHV-5 (parental strain EVI 88/95). After challenge, vaccinated cattle displayed mild signs of respiratory disease, whereas the control group developed respiratory disease and severe encephalitis, which led to culling of 2/4 calves. Searches for viral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) of vaccinated calves indicated that wild-type BoHV-5 did not replicate, whereas in CNS tissues of calves on the control group, viral DNA was widely distributed. BoHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions was significantly

  14. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  15. A new method for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) using real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Recavarren, M; Pagnuco, I; Späth, E; Pérez, S; Odeón, A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are antigenically and genetically similar. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable one-step real time PCR assay with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Optimization of assay conditions was performed with DNA from reference strains. Then, DNA from field isolates, clinical samples and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals were studied by real time PCR-HRM. An efficient amplification of real time PCR products was obtained, and a clear melting curve and appropriate melting peaks for both viruses were achieved in the HRM curve analysis for BoHV type identification. BoHV was identified in all of the isolates and clinical samples, and BoHV types were properly differentiated. Furthermore, viral DNA was detected in 12/18 and 7/18 samples from BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves, respectively. Real time PCR-HRM achieved a higher sensitivity compared with virus isolation or conventional PCR. In this study, HRM was used as a novel procedure. This method provides rapid, sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine alpha-herpesviruses DNA. Thus, this technique is an excellent tool for diagnosis, research and epidemiological studies of these viruses in cattle.

  16. Expression patterns of HvCKX genes indicate their role in growth and reproductive development of barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zalewski

    Full Text Available Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase proteins (CKX are encoded by a multigene family of CKX genes with a varying number of members depending on species. For some of the genes, spectacular effects on grain production in selected cereals have been observed. Despite the fact that partial or full length sequences of most HvCKX genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare have already been published, in most cases their specific biological functions have not been reported. Detailed expression patterns for five HvCKX genes in different organs/tissues of developing barley plants coupled with analysis of RNAi silent for two genes are presented to test the hypothesis that these expression profiles might indicate their function. Elevated expression for four of them - HvCKX1, HvCKX9, HvCKX4, and HvCKX11 - was found in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to other tissues. HvCKX5 was mainly expressed in leaf tissue. Lower expression was noted for HvCKX1 in seedling roots and for HvCKX9 in leaves. The documented effect of RNAi silencing of HvCKX1 and a trend for HvCKX9 was higher plant productivity, and the trait was inherited through four generations. Higher plant yield was determined by higher numbers of seeds and spikes. Increased productivity was significantly greater in HvCKX1 silenced plants showing higher relative expression of HvCKX1 in developing kernels of wild-type plants compared to the expression of HvCKX9. Both HvCKX1 silenced T1 seedlings of cv. Golden Promise and the newly transformed breeding line STH7308 showed greater root mass, but this trait was not inherited in the next generation. Similarly HvCKX9 silenced T1 seedlings exhibited greater plant height without inheritance in the next generation. It is suggested that these effects were not inherited because of compensation by other genes co-ordinately regulating reproductive development. One line with untypically changed, inherited phenotype, which was selected from several dozen silenced lines

  17. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  18. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  19. Prototyping of an HV-CMOS demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Benoit, M.; Casanova, R.; Casse, G.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Peric, I.; Vossebeld, J.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS sensors can offer important advantages in terms of material budget, granularity and cost for large area tracking systems in high energy physics experiments. This article presents the design and simulated results of an HV-CMOS pixel demonstrator for the High Luminosity-LHC. The pixel demonstrator has been designed in the 0.35 μm HV-CMOS process from ams AG and submitted for fabrication through an engineering run. To improve the response of the sensor, different wafers with moderate to high substrate resistivities are used to fabricate the design. The prototype consists of four large analog and standalone matrices with several pixel flavours, which are all compatible for readout with the FE-I4 ASIC. Details about the matrices and the pixel flavours are provided in this article.

  20. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  1. On the Computation of H/V and its Application to Microzonation and Seismic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Martínez, J. A.; Lermo, J. F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The H/V ratio is the square root of the ratio of horizontal to vertical energies of ground motion. It has been observed that the frequency of the main peak is well suited for the characterization of site effects and had been widely used for micro-zonation and seismic structural design. Historically that ratio was made from the average of individual H/V ratios obtained from noise autocorrelations. Nevertheless, it has been recently pointed out that the H/V ratio should be calculated differently as the ratio of the average of H over the average of V. This calculation is based on the relation between the directional energies (the imaginary part of Green's function) and the noise autocorrelations. In general, the average of ratios is different from the ratio of averages. Although the frequency of the main response was correctly obtained, the associated amplification factor has generally been badly predicted, having little matching with the amplification observed during strong earthquakes. The unexpected decay behavior of such ratios at high frequency and the lack of stability and reproducibility of the H/V ratios are other problems that face the method. These problems are addressed here from the point of view of normalization of noise correlations. In fact, several normalization techniques have already been proposed in order to correctly retrieve the Green's function. Some of them are well suited for the retrieval of the surface wave contribution, while others are more appropriate for bulk wave incidence. Since the H/V ratio may be used for various purposes like surface wave tomography, micro-zonation or seismic design, different normalizations are discussed in functions of the objectives. The H/V obtained from local historical earthquakes on top or far away from the subduction zone are also discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712 and the AXA Research Fund.

  2. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  3. Usage of mechanically switching devices for HV electrostatic elements of beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We are considering usage of gas-filled mechanical relays-Kilovacs and Gigavacs- for power supply of HV electrical dipoles, quadrupoles etc., where even a time dependent regime required. One can expect the physical switching time on few nanosecond level with such devices operating up to 70kV with currents~50A.

  4. Pressure measurement in HV circuit-breaker; Mesure de pression dans un disjoncteur H.T.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottet, C. [Schneider Electric, Groupe appareillage, Lab. d' Essai A1, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-06-01

    Electric arc pressure measurement in an HV circuit-breaker is fraught with difficulties concerning insulation, equi-potentiality, electromagnetic interference, corrosiveness of SF{sub 6} gas, and pressure and temperature rise. None of the many measurement methods attempted to data has proved wholly satisfactory. This article sets out an optical solution that does overcome the difficulties involved in measuring arc pressure. (author)

  5. Regulation of Voltage-Activated K(+) Channel Gating by Transmembrane β Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohui; Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-activated K(+) (K(V)) channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. K(V) channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD) surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many K(V) channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the K(V) β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM) segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of K(V) α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening, and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into K(V) channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  6. GMRT Hv Observations of the Eridanus Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Omar; K. S. Dwarakanath

    2005-03-01

    The GMRT HI 21cm-line observations of galaxies in the Eridanus group are presented. The Eridanus group, at a distance of ∼ 23 Mpc, is a loose group of ∼ 200 galaxies. The group extends to more than 10 Mpc in projection. The velocity dispersion of the galaxies in the group is ∼ 240 km s-1. The galaxies are clustered into different sub-groups. The overall population mix of the group is 30% (E + S0) and 70% (Sp + Irr). The observations of 57 Eridanus galaxies were carried out with the GMRT for ∼ 200 h. HI emission was detected from 31 galaxies. The channel rms of ∼ 1 mJy beam-1 was achieved for most of the image-cubes made with 4 h of data. The corresponding HI column density sensitivity (3) is ∼ 1 × 1020 cm-2 for a velocity-width of ∼ 13.4 km s-1. The 3 detection limit of HI mass is ∼ 1.2 × 107 M⊙ for a line-width of 50 km s-1. Total H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ images, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ velocity fields, global H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ line profiles, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ mass surface densities, H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ disk parameters and H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ rotation curves are presented. The velocity fields are analysed separately for the approaching and the receding sides of the galaxies. These data will be used to study the H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ and the radio continuum properties, the Tully–Fisher relations, the dark matter halos, and the kinematical and H${\\rm\\tiny I}$ lopsidedness in galaxies.

  7. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our home-made device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)-1β expression, and downregulating IL-10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen I and III were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD-induced PP on wound healing by regulating inflammation, secretion

  8. The ladder-shaped polyether toxin gambierol anchors the gating machinery of Kv3.1 channels in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Ivan; Labro, Alain J; de Block, Tessa; Rainier, Jon D; Tytgat, Jan; Snyders, Dirk J

    2013-03-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) and sodium (Nav) channels are key determinants of cellular excitability and serve as targets of neurotoxins. Most marine ciguatoxins potentiate Nav channels and cause ciguatera seafood poisoning. Several ciguatoxins have also been shown to affect Kv channels, and we showed previously that the ladder-shaped polyether toxin gambierol is a potent Kv channel inhibitor. Most likely, gambierol acts via a lipid-exposed binding site, located outside the K(+) permeation pathway. However, the mechanism by which gambierol inhibits Kv channels remained unknown. Using gating and ionic current analysis to investigate how gambierol affected S6 gate opening and voltage-sensing domain (VSD) movements, we show that the resting (closed) channel conformation forms the high-affinity state for gambierol. The voltage dependence of activation was shifted by >120 mV in the depolarizing direction, precluding channel opening in the physiological voltage range. The (early) transitions between the resting and the open state were monitored with gating currents, and provided evidence that strong depolarizations allowed VSD movement up to the activated-not-open state. However, for transition to the fully open (ion-conducting) state, the toxin first needed to dissociate. These dissociation kinetics were markedly accelerated in the activated-not-open state, presumably because this state displayed a much lower affinity for gambierol. A tetrameric concatemer with only one high-affinity binding site still displayed high toxin sensitivity, suggesting that interaction with a single binding site prevented the concerted step required for channel opening. We propose a mechanism whereby gambierol anchors the channel's gating machinery in the resting state, requiring more work from the VSD to open the channel. This mechanism is quite different from the action of classical gating modifier peptides (e.g., hanatoxin). Therefore, polyether toxins open new opportunities in structure

  9. Mapping of sites facing aqueous environment of voltage-gated proton channel at resting state: a study with PEGylation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Okamura, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Hv1 (also named, voltage-sensor only protein, VSOP) lacks an authentic pore domain, and its voltage sensor domain plays both roles in voltage sensing and proton permeation. The activities of a proton channel are intrinsic to protomers of Hv1, while Hv1 is dimeric in biological membranes; cooperative gating is exerted by interaction between two protomers. As the signature pattern conserved among voltage-gated channels and voltage-sensing phosphatase, Hv1 has multiple arginines intervened by two hydrophobic residues on the fourth transmembrane segment, S4. S4 moves upward relative to other helices upon depolarization, causing conformational change possibly leading to the formation of a proton-selective conduction pathway. However, detailed mechanisms of proton-selectivity and gating of Hv1 are unknown. Here we took an approach of PEGylation protection assay to define residues facing the aqueous environment of mouse Hv1 (mHv1). Accessibilities of two maleimide molecules, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 4-acetamido-4'-maleimidylstilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (AMS), were examined on cysteine introduced into individual sites. Only the first arginine on S4 (R1: R201) was inaccessible by NEM and AMS in mHv1. This is consistent with previous results of electrophysiology on the resting state channel, suggesting that the accessibility profile represents the resting state of mHv1. D108, critical for proton selectivity, was accessible by AMS and NEM, suggesting that D108 faces the vestibule. F146, a site critical for blocking by a guanidinium-reagent, was accessible by NEM, suggesting that F146 also faces the inner vestibule. These findings suggest an inner vestibule lined by several residues on S2 including F146, D108 on S1, and the C-terminal half of S4. © 2013.

  10. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (KV channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD, the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins.

  11. A triple gene mutant of BoHV-1 administered intranasally in lambs replicates efficiently in the nasal epithelium and induces neutralizing antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory infections and abortions in cattle, and is an important component of Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). BoHV-1 has also been isolated from sheep with respiratory disorder. Experimentally, sheep and goats are infected productively with BoHV-1...

  12. Molecular mechanism of voltage sensing in voltage-gated proton channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Santiago; Perez, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton (Hv) channels play an essential role in phagocytic cells by generating a hyperpolarizing proton current that electrically compensates for the depolarizing current generated by the NADPH oxidase during the respiratory burst, thereby ensuring a sustained production of reactive oxygen species by the NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to neutralize engulfed bacteria. Despite the importance of the voltage-dependent Hv current, it is at present unclear which residues in Hv channels are responsible for the voltage activation. Here we show that individual neutralizations of three charged residues in the fourth transmembrane domain, S4, all reduce the voltage dependence of activation. In addition, we show that the middle S4 charged residue moves from a position accessible from the cytosolic solution to a position accessible from the extracellular solution, suggesting that this residue moves across most of the membrane electric field during voltage activation of Hv channels. Our results show for the first time that the charge movement of these three S4 charges accounts for almost all of the measured gating charge in Hv channels. PMID:23401575

  13. Hydrophobic plug functions as a gate in voltage-gated proton channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Adam; Qiu, Feng; Rebolledo, Santiago; Wang, Yibo; Noskov, Sergei Y; Larsson, H Peter

    2014-01-14

    Voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels play important roles in the respiratory burst, in pH regulation, in spermatozoa, in apoptosis, and in cancer metastasis. Unlike other voltage-gated cation channels, the Hv1 channel lacks a centrally located pore formed by the assembly of subunits. Instead, the proton permeation pathway in the Hv1 channel is within the voltage-sensing domain of each subunit. The gating mechanism of this pathway is still unclear. Mutagenic and fluorescence studies suggest that the fourth transmembrane (TM) segment (S4) functions as a voltage sensor and that there is an outward movement of S4 during channel activation. Using thermodynamic mutant cycle analysis, we find that the conserved positively charged residues in S4 are stabilized by countercharges in the other TM segments both in the closed and open states. We constructed models of both the closed and open states of Hv1 channels that are consistent with the mutant cycle analysis. These structural models suggest that electrostatic interactions between TM segments in the closed state pull hydrophobic residues together to form a hydrophobic plug in the center of the voltage-sensing domain. Outward S4 movement during channel activation induces conformational changes that remove this hydrophobic plug and instead insert protonatable residues in the center of the channel that, together with water molecules, can form a hydrogen bond chain across the channel for proton permeation. This suggests that salt bridge networks and the hydrophobic plug function as the gate in Hv1 channels and that outward movement of S4 leads to the opening of this gate.

  14. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  15. Some Properties of Multiplicative Hv-Rings of Polynomials over Multiplicative Hyperrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The set of all polynomials Rx, over a multiplicative hyperring R, +, ·, form a commutative group with respect to the component-wise addition (+ of the polynomials. For polynomials f, g in Rx, f*g is a set of polynomials whose k+1th components k∈N∪0 are chosen from the set ∑i+j=kai·bj, where ai and bj are the i+1th and the j+1th components of f and g, respectively. A multiplicative hyperring is polynomially structured if the hyperstructure Rx, +, * is a multiplicative Hv-ring. The purpose of the paper is to study the properties of the multiplicative Hv-ring Rx, +, *, corresponding to those of a polynomially structured multiplicative hyperring R.

  16. HV substation earth grid commissioning using current injection test (CIT method: Worst case scenario determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing of the High Voltage (HV infrastructure creates a unique set of safety circumstances. The earthing system is one of the main elements to mitigate any unsafe conditions. Commissioning the earth grid certifies that the implemented system fulfills to the pertinent necessities. This paper endeavors to present vital information on how to perform the earth grid commissioning of an HV infrastructure. This paper will minutiae the minimum needs to guarantee the test will symbolize the actual fault case that the design was based on. A flow chart diagram is established and presented in this paper, which allows the determination of the most suitable injection route. The results of the case study are discussed, and the results are shown in this paper.

  17. Crystal structures of barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 reveal features involved in protein recognition and possibly in discriminating the isoform specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine;

    2008-01-01

    H-type thioredoxins (Trxs) constitute a particularly large Trx sub-group in higher plants. Here, the crystal structures are determined for the two barley Trx h isoforms, HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, in the partially radiation-reduced state to resolutions of 1.7 angstrom, and for HvTrxh2 in the oxidized...... state to 2.0 angstrom. The two Trxs have a sequence identity of 51% and highly similar fold and active-site architecture. Interestingly, the four independent molecules in the crystals of HvTrxh1 form two relatively large and essentially identical protein-protein interfaces. In each interface, a loop......) of the bound loop segment in the proximity of the Cys40 thiol. The interaction involves three characteristic backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like arrangement, similar to the arrangement observed in the structure of an engineered, covalently bound complex between Trx...

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Voltage Gated Cation Channels: Insights on Voltage-Sensor Domain Function and Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie eDelemotte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the 1950s, the structure and function of voltage gated cation channels (VGCC has been largely understood thanks to results stemming from electrophysiology, pharmacology, spectroscopy and structural biology. Over the past decade, computational methods such as molecular dynamics (MD simulations have also contributed, providing molecular level information that can be tested against experimental results, thereby allowing the validation of the models and protocols. Importantly, MD can shed light on elements of VGCC function that cannot be easily accessed through classical experiments. Here, we review the results of recent MD simulations addressing key questions that pertain to the function and modulation of the VGCC’s voltage sensor domain (VSD highlighting: 1 the movement of the S4-helix basic residues during channel activation, articulating how the electrical driving force acts upon them; 2 the nature of the VSD intermediate states on transitioning between open and closed states of the VGCC; and 3 the molecular level effects on the VSD arising from mutations of specific S4 positively charged residues involved in certain genetic diseases.

  19. Opposite Effects of the S4-S5 Linker and PIP(2) on Voltage-Gated Channel Function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and Other Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choveau, Frank S; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Coyan, Fabien C; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Baró, Isabelle; Loussouarn, Gildas

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6), with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5(L)) and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6(T)) in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5(L) is acting like a ligand binding to S6(T) to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5(L), the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated) require PIP(2) to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel cofactor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP(2) leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP(2) and S4S5(L)), and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  20. Opposite effects of the S4-S5 linker and PIP2 on voltage-gated channel function: KCNQ1/KCNE1 and other channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank S Choveau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are tetramers, each subunit presenting six transmembrane segments (S1-S6, with each S1-S4 segments forming a voltage-sensing domain (VSD and the four S5-S6 forming both the conduction pathway and its gate. S4 segments control the opening of the intracellular activation gate in response to changes in membrane potential. Crystal structures of several voltage-gated ion channels in combination with biophysical and mutagenesis studies highlighted the critical role of the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L and of the S6 C-terminal part (S6T in the coupling between the VSD and the activation gate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe the coupling at a molecular scale. This review summarizes the mechanisms suggested for various voltage-gated ion channels, including a mechanism that we described for KCNQ1, in which S4S5L is acting like a ligand binding to S6T to stabilize the channel in a closed state. As discussed in this review, this mechanism may explain the reverse response to depolarization in HCN-like channels. As opposed to S4S5L, the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2, stabilizes KCNQ1 channel in an open state. Many other ion channels (not only voltage-gated require PIP2 to function properly, confirming its crucial importance as an ion channel co-factor. This is highlighted in cases in which an altered regulation of ion channels by PIP2 leads to channelopathies, as observed for KCNQ1. This review summarizes the state of the art on the two regulatory mechanisms that are critical for KCNQ1 and other voltage-gated channels function (PIP2 and S4-S5L, and assesses their potential physiological and pathophysiological roles.

  1. Mechanism of functional interaction between potassium channel Kv1.3 and sodium channel NavBeta1 subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tomoya; Correa, Ana M.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily A member 3 (Kv1.3) dominantly expresses on T cells and neurons. Recently, the interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 subunits has been explored through ionic current measurements, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We explored the functional interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 through gating current measurements using the Cut-open Oocyte Voltage Clamp (COVC) technique. We showed that the N-terminal 1–52 sequence of hKv1.3 disrupts the channel expression on the Xenopus oocyte membrane, suggesting a potential role as regulator of hKv1.3 expression in neurons and lymphocytes. Our gating currents measurements showed that NavBeta1 interacts with the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of Kv1.3 through W172 in the transmembrane segment and modifies the gating operation. The comparison between G-V and Q-V with/without NavBeta1 indicates that NavBeta1 may strengthen the coupling between hKv1.3-VSD movement and pore opening, inducing the modification of kinetics in ionic activation and deactivation. PMID:28349975

  2. Radiation Hard GaNFET High Voltage Multiplexing (HV Mux) for the ATLAS Upgrade Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The outer radii of the inner tracker (ITk) for the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus. We have developed circuitry consisting of a GaNFET transistor and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. We will present two variants of the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results. We will also discuss the reliability of the HV Mux circuitry and show plans to ensure reliability during production.

  3. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a transgenic approach to constitutively silence HvNAC6 expression, using RNA interference (RNAi), to investigate the in vivo functions of HvNAC6 in basal resistance responses in barley in relation to the phytohormone ABA. The HvNAC6 RNAi plants displayed reduced HvNAC6 transcript levels and were more...... susceptible to Bgh than wild-type plants. Application of exogenous ABA increased basal resistance against Bgh in wild-type plants, but not in HvNAC6 RNAi plants, suggesting that ABA is a positive regulator of basal resistance which depends on HvNAC6. Silencing of HvNAC6 expression altered the light....../dark rhythm of ABA levels which were, however, not influenced by Bgh inoculation. The expression of the two ABA biosynthetic genes HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was compromised, and transcript levels of the ABA conjugating HvBG7 enzyme were elevated in the HvNAC6 RNAi lines, but this effect was not clearly associated...

  4. Homemade-device-induced negative pressure promotes wound healing more efficiently than VSD-induced positive pressure by regulating inflammation, proliferation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyan; Hu, Feng; Tang, Jintian; Tang, Shijie; Xia, Kun; Wu, Song; Yin, Chaoqi; Wang, Shaohua; He, Quanyong; Xie, Huiqing; Zhou, Jianda

    2017-04-01

    Vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) is an effective technique used to promote wound healing. However, recent studies have shown that it exerts positive pressure (PP) rather than negative pressure (NP) on skin. In this study, we created a homemade device that could maintain NP on the wound, and compared the therapeutic effects of VSD-induced PP to those of our homemade device which induced NP on wound healing. The NP induced by our device required less time for wound healing and decreased the wound area more efficiently than the PP induced by VSD. NP and PP both promoted the inflammatory response by upregulating neutrophil infiltration and interleukin (IL)‑1β expression, and downregulating IL‑10 expression. Higher levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and lower levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were observed in the wound tissue treated with NP compared to the wound tissue exposed to PP. Proliferation in the wound tissue exposed to NP on day 10 was significantly higher than that in wound tissue exposed to PP. NP generated more fibroblasts, keratinized stratified epithelium, and less epithelia with stemness than PP. The levels of ccollagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ were both decreased in both the NP and PP groups. NP induced a statistically significant increase in the expression of fibronectin (FN) on days 3 and 10 compared to PP. Furthermore, the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13 increased in the NP group, but decreased in the PP group on day 3. NP also induced a decrease in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)‑1 and TIMP‑2 during the early stages of wound healing, which was significantly different from the increasing effect of PP on TIMP‑1 and TIMP‑2 levels at the corresponding time points. On the whole, our data indicate that our homemade device which induced NP, was more efficient than VSD‑induced PP on wound healing by

  5. Identification of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) in endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Wei-Li; Lan, Yu-Ching; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Tseng, Cheng-Tsung; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP), a debilitating tumor disease of sea turtles, was first identified in green turtles [Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758)] in Florida in 1938. In recent decades, FP has been observed globally and is an emerging panzootic disease in sea turtles. However, few reports of FP in Asia exist. Here, we provide the first evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) DNA associated with FP in endangered green turtles from Taiwan, through molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis, and histopathological examination. In our study, ChHV5 was successfully detected by PCR in the FP tumor lesions of green turtles. The sequences were found to be consistent with those of tumor-inducing viruses shown to affect sea turtles in the other parts of the world. ChHV5 RNA from the FP tissues was further detected by RT-PCR, indicating active replication of the viruses inside FP tumors. In addition to the molecular evidence of ChHV5 in FP, epidermal intranuclear inclusions were identified in tumor lesions upon histopathological examination. This further suggests that ChHV5 should be in a transcriptionally active (i.e., non-latent) state in FP tumors of affected green turtles. The phylogenetic tree revealed that ChHV5 from the green turtles in Taiwan were closest to the ChHV5 from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Sao Tome. For conservation of endangered sea turtles, ChHV5 should be considered an emerging virus, which threatens sea turtles in marine waters in Asia.

  6. Isolation and characterization of BoHV-1 from seropositive cows after inducing artificial stress in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tapabrata; Guha, Chanchal; Chakraborty, Dhruba; Pal, Biplab; Biswas, Ujjwal; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Koenig, Patricia; Beer, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India. With an aim to reactivate BoHV-1 from latently infected sero-positive cattle for molecular characteristics of the isolates prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India and further epidemiological investigations on IBR infections this study had been conducted. Artificial stress with dexamethasone at the dose rate of 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 5 consecutive days was induced in BoHV-1 sero-positive cows. Then isolation from nasal swabs was attempted in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line to find out the prevalent strain in India. The virus was isolated from all the three cows. All the three isolates were typed as BoHV-1.2 (Strain India 4, India 5 and India 6). The reactivation obtained in this study with dexamethasone suggests the usefulness of BoHV-1 cow latency model for epidemiological investigations on BoHV-1 infections in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India, Pakistan etc.

  7. 负压封闭引流联合氧气治疗压疮创面细菌量研究%Study on bacterial count in pressure ulcers treated by VSD combined with oxygen therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 任海鹏; 任传成; 陈刚; 李海龙; 陈敏; 杨涛; 杨义明; 朱振安

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨负压封闭引流(VSD)联合氧气治疗压疮对创面组织细菌量的影响。方法选择压疮患者60例,随机分为两组,对照组采取 VSD 治疗,观察组采用 VSD 治疗为主,并辅以间断高浓度氧气治疗。对两组治疗前后的疗效及创面细菌量进行对比分析。结果观察组治疗后总有效率为83.33%,明显高于对照组的总有效率(53.33%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者在治疗前的创面组织细菌量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),观察组在治疗1、3、7、10 d 后创面组织细菌量均显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 VSD 联合氧气治疗对压疮创面感染的防治效果良好。%Objective To investigate the influence of vacuum sealing drainage(VSD )combined with oxygen therapy for treating pressure ulcers on bacterial count .Methods 60 patients with pressure ulcer in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups .The control group adopted the VSD therapy ,while the observation group received VSD combined with interrupted high concentration oxygen therapy .The treatment effects and bacteri‐al count of wound surface were comparatively analyzed .Results The total effective rate after treatment in the obser‐vation group was 83 .33% ,which was significantly higher than 53 .33% in the control group ,the difference was sta‐tistically significant(P 0 .05) ,the bacterial count on 1 ,3 ,7 ,10 d of treatment in the observation group were sig‐nificantly lower than those in the control group ,the differences were statistically significant(P< 0 .01) .Conclusion VSD combined with oxygen therapy has better effect for preventing wound infection of pressure ulcer .

  8. VSD在治疗急慢性骨髓炎中的应用%Application of VSD in the treatment of acute and chronic osteomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申运山; 贺超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the effect of Vacuum Sealing Drainage on the treatment of acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Methods Take after debridement treatment with VSD on acute and chronic osteomyelitis. Using suturing, skin-grafting and skin flap transplation to repair the wound after the granulation tissue turn to be fresh and infection was controlled. Results Most symptoms of patients were controlled soon. After 3-6 months, they get the second stage bone grafting or bone flap operation. All of the wound were healing or not infection again after 6-18 months follow-up. Conclusion VSD is one of the effective methods for the treatment of acute and chronic osteomyelitis.%目的 总结封闭式负压引流治疗急慢性骨髓炎的效果. 方法 对急慢性骨髓炎清创后应用VSD治疗,待创面肉芽组织新鲜、感染控制后,采用缝合、植皮及皮瓣修复创面. 结果 绝大多数患者症状很快得以控制,3~6个月后行二期植骨术或骨瓣转移术,术后随访6~18个月,未出现伤口不愈合或感染复发. 结论 封闭式负压引流是治疗急慢性骨髓炎的有效方法之一.

  9. Voltage-gated proton channel is expressed on phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Mari; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2009-05-01

    Voltage-gated proton channel has been suggested to help NADPH oxidase activity during respiratory burst of phagocytes through its activities of compensating charge imbalance and regulation of pH. In phagocytes, robust production of reactive oxygen species occurs in closed membrane compartments, which are called phagosomes. However, direct evidence for the presence of voltage-gated proton channels in phagosome has been lacking. In this study, the expression of voltage-gated proton channels was studied by Western blot with the antibody specific to the voltage-sensor domain protein, VSOP/Hv1, that has recently been identified as the molecular correlate for the voltage-gated proton channel. Phagosomal membranes of neutrophils contain VSOP/Hv1 in accordance with subunits of NADPH oxidases, gp91, p22, p47 and p67. Superoxide anion production upon PMA activation was significantly reduced in neutrophils from VSOP/Hv1 knockout mice. These are consistent with the idea that voltage-gated proton channels help NADPH oxidase in phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species.

  10. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/- Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is the etiological agent of human (MPX. It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV, and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the population is currently unprotected against MPXV infection. Disease control hinges on deterring zoonotic exposure to the virus and, barring that, interrupting person-to-person spread. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies against MPX, and current vaccines are limited due to safety concerns. For this reason, new studies on pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapeutics are still of great interest, not only for the scientific community but also for the governments concerned that MPXV could be used as a bioterror agent. In the present study, a new vaccination strategy approach based on three recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 vectors, each expressing different MPXV glycoproteins, A29L, M1R and B6R were investigated in terms of protection from a lethal MPXV challenge in STAT1 knockout mice. BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK were successfully constructed by recombineering, and their capacity to express their transgene was demonstrated. A small challenge study was performed, and all three recombinant BoHV-4 appeared safe (no weight-loss or obvious adverse events following intraperitoneal administration. Further, BoHV-4-A-EF1α-M1RgD106ΔTK alone or in combination with BoHV-4-A-CMV-A29LgD106ΔTK and BoHV-4-A-EF1α-B6RgD106ΔTK, was shown to be able to protect, 100% alone and 80% in combination, STAT1(-/- mice

  11. Cell layer-specific distribution of transiently expressed barley ESCRT-III component HvVPS60 in developing barley endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Kapusi, Eszter; Stoger, Eva; Ibl, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III in cereal endosperm has been shown by the identification of the recessive mutant supernumerary aleurone layer1 (SAL1) in maize. ESCRT-III is indispensable in the final membrane fission step during biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), responsible for protein sorting to vacuoles and to the cell surface. Here, we annotated barley ESCRT-III members in the (model) crop Hordeum vulgare and show that all identified members are expressed in developing barley endosperm. We used fluorescently tagged core ESCRT-III members HvSNF7a/CHMP4 and HvVPS24/CHMP3 and the associated ESCRT-III component HvVPS60a/CHMP5 for transient localization studies in barley endosperm. In vivo confocal microscopic analyses show that the localization of recombinantly expressed HvSNF7a, HvVPS24 and HvVPS60a differs within barley endosperm. Whereas HvSNF7a induces large agglomerations, HvVPS24 shows mainly cytosolic localization in aleurone and subaleurone. In contrast, HvVPS60a localizes strongly at the plasma membrane in aleurone. In subaleurone, HvVPS60a was found to a lesser extent at the plasma membrane and at vacuolar membranes. These results indicate that the steady-state association of ESCRT-III may be influenced by cell layer-specific protein deposition or trafficking and remodelling of the endomembrane system in endosperm. We show that sorting of an artificially mono-ubiquitinated Arabidopsis plasma membrane protein is inhibited by HvVPS60a in aleurone. The involvement of HvVPS60a in different cell layer-specific trafficking pathways, reflected by localization of HvVPS60a at the plasma membrane in aleurone and at the PSV membrane in subaleurone, is discussed.

  12. MuPix7 - A fast monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip for Mu3e

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, H; Dittmeier, S; Hammerich, J; Hartenstein, U; Huang, Q; Huth, L; Immig, D; Kozlinskiy, A; Aeschbacher, F Meier; Perić, I; Perrevoort, A -K; Schöning, A; Shrestha, S; Sorokin, I; Tyukin, A; Bruch, D vom; Wauters, F; Wiedner, D; Zimmermann, M

    2016-01-01

    The MuPix7 chip is a monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip, thinned down to 50 \\mu m. It provides continuous self-triggered, non-shuttered readout at rates up to 30 Mhits/chip of 3x3 mm^2 active area and a pixel size of 103x80 \\mu m^2. The hit efficiency depends on the chosen working point. Settings with a power consumption of 300 mW/cm^2 allow for a hit efficiency >99.5%. A time resolution of 14.2 ns (Gaussian sigma) is achieved. Latest results from 2016 test beam campaigns are shown.

  13. Mapping the geophysical bedrock of the Moesian Platform using H/V ratios and borehole data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinela Manea, Elena; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The strong effects at long periods observed in the extra-Carpathian area of Romania during large Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes were explained by the influence of both source mechanism and mechanical properties of the geological structure. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic velocities of the sediments are the primary responsible for the large amplification and long duration of the seismic records from the extra-Carpathian area during intermediate-depth earthquakes. The aim of this study is to map the geophysical bedrock of this area correlating and interpolating the results obtained from local resonance phenomena evaluation with the available surface geological data. The site was investigated through the computation of H/V spectral ratios from three-directional single station measurements of ambient vibration. The first step was to estimate the depth of the geophysical bedrock at all the Romanian seismic stations located in the extra-Carpathian area (velocity sensors) using the fundamental frequency retrieved from the H/V curves. In the second stage of the study all the relevant peaks from the H/V curves were interpreted in consonance with the available information of the geology. The geological data were obtained from the database developed in the national BIGSEES project by National Institute of Earth Physics. In this database are integrated all the geological, geophysical data from all the past projects, contracts, studies (as refraction, reflexion, etc.), geotechnical drillings and other information publicly available. The mapping of the geophysical bedrock was done interpolating the geological database and information gathered/resulted from H/V using a geographical informational system(GIS). The geology of this area displays very complex features as outcrops in small zones/lines/ near the Danube and then is gradually dipping to about 2 km depth in the N-NE. The depth of the bedrock is (nearly) constant around 100 m depth on the right side of

  14. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    OpenAIRE

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to ch...

  15. Evaluation of local site effect in the western side of the Suez Canal area by applying H/V and MASW techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Emad K.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Hassoup, Awad; Helal, A. M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The soft sediments are one of the most important factors responsible for the amplification of the seismic ground motion in an area of study. Three components, single-station microtremor measurements were performed at 61 sites along the Suez Canal to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil and corresponding H/V amplitude ratios by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. We have applied the investigations of the shear wave velocity for supplementing the existing seismic microzonation of the Suez Canal. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) tests were done along the Suez Canal in the three cities, Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said using 24 channels digital engineering seismograph with 4.5 Hz geophones from September 2014 to January 2015 to get the shear wave velocity VS30. The SeisImager/SW software was used for analyzing the data, and 1D-shear wave velocity model have achieved for each site. The HVSR curves show that the fundamental frequency values are ranging from 0.57 to 1.08 Hz, and H/V amplitude ratios are ranging from 4.05 to 6.46. The average values of VS30 are (548, 301), (241, 319), (194, 110, 238) for Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said respectively. The average of shear wave velocity up to 30 m depth is estimated and used for site classification based on the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification. The majority of the sites was classified as Class D (stiff soil) except one site at Port Said city is classified as Class E (soft soils), and another site in the Suez city is classified as Class C (hard rock).

  16. Ambient noise H/V spectral ratio in site effects estimation in Fateh jang area, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Talha Qadri; Bushra Nawaz; S.H.Sajjad; Riaz Ahmad Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Local geology or local site effect is a crucial component while conducting seismic risk assessment studies.Investigations made by utilization of ambient noise are an effective tool for local site estimation.The present study is conducted to perform site response analysis at 13 different sites within urban settlements of Fateh jang area (Pakistan).The aim of this study was achieved by utilizing Nakamura method or H/V spectral ratio method.Some important local site parameters,e.g.,the fundamental frequencies f0 of soft sediments,amplitudes A0 of corresponding H/V spectral ratios,and alluvium thicknesses over 13 sites within the study area,were measured and analyzed.The results show that the study area reflects low fundamental frequency f0.The fundamental frequencies of the sediments are highly variable and lie in a range of 0.6-13.0 Hz.Similarly,amplification factors at these sites are in the range of 2.0-4.0.

  17. Characterisation of capacitively coupled HV/HR-CMOS sensor chips for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kremastiotis, Iraklis; Campbell, Michael; Dannheim, Dominik; Fiergolski, Adrian; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The capacitive coupling between an active sensor and a readout ASIC has been considered in the framework of the CLIC vertex detector study. The CLICpix Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector (C3PD) is a High-Voltage CMOS sensor chip produced in a commercial 180 nm HV-CMOS process for this purpose. The sensor was designed to be connected to the CLICpix2 readout chip. It therefore matches the dimensions of the readout chip, featuring a matrix of 128 × 128 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The sensor chip has been produced with the standard value for the substrate resistivity (∼ 20 Ωcm) and it has been characterised in standalone testing mode, before receiving and testing capacitively coupled assemblies. The standalone measurement results show a rise time of ∼ 20 ns for a power consumption of 5 μW/pixel. Production of the C3PD HV-CMOS sensor chip with higher substrate resistivity wafers (∼ 20, 80, 200 and 1000 Ωcm) is foreseen. The expected benefits of the higher substrate resistivity will be studied using...

  18. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  19. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00211411; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F.A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Peric, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Vicente Barrero Pinto, M.; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the $4^{\\mathrm{th}}$ generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between $1\\cdot 10^{14}$ and $5\\cdot 10^{15}$ 1-MeV-n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of $85\\,$V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of $1\\cdot 10^{15}$ n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ - a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker - exhibited 99.7% average hit ...

  20. Active pixel sensors in AMS H18/H35 HV-CMOS technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement signal processing electronics in deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150 V leading to a depletion depth of several 10 μm. Prototype sensors in the AMS H18 180 nm and H35 350 nm HV-CMOS processes were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiations with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses of 1 Grad while Edge-TCT studies assessed the effects of radiation on the charge collection. The sensors showed high detection efficiencies after neutron irradiation to 1015neq cm-2 in testbeam experiments. A full reticle size demonstrator chip, implemented in the H35 process is being submitted to prove the large scale feasibility of the HV-CMOS concept.

  1. Detecção de herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 em bovinos do Sudeste Brasileiro Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 in cattle in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Gomes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the detection of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 by a specific nested PCR assay. Samples were collected from the central nervous system (CNS of cattle from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, Brazil. All animals died presenting neurological symptoms. Nineteen frozen CNS samples analyzed had been previously tested by fluorescence antibody test for rabies virus and showed negative results. Three paraffin-embedded brain tissue samples were examined by histopatology and the observed alterations suggested nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. BoHV-5 was detected in five (22.7% among 22 tested samples. The occurrence of BoHV-5 infection is reported in the Southeast region of Brazil, indicating that epidemiological studies should be carried out.

  2. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The high voltage diodes D5 to D10 are used to protect the HV switch against negative back swing voltage, while D4 diode for reverse current ...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0001 STUDY OF HV DIELECTRICS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION IN LINEAR & NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES & SIMULATION & DEVELOPMENT...AFOSR Final Performance Report Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Simulation

  3. Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carus H. Y.; King, Glenn F.; Mobli, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are modular transmembrane domains of voltage-gated ion channels that respond to changes in membrane potential by undergoing conformational changes that are coupled to gating of the ion-conducting pore. Most spider-venom peptides function as gating modifiers by binding to the VSDs of voltage-gated channels and trapping them in a closed or open state. To understand the molecular basis underlying this mode of action, we used nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate the atomic details of the interaction between the VSD of the voltage-gated potassium channel KvAP and the spider-venom peptide VSTx1. Our data reveal that the toxin interacts with residues in an aqueous cleft formed between the extracellular S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops of the VSD whilst maintaining lipid interactions in the gaps formed between the S1-S4 and S2-S3 helices. The resulting network of interactions increases the energetic barrier to the conformational changes required for channel gating, and we propose that this is the mechanism by which gating modifier toxins inhibit voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:27677715

  4. Molecular basis of the interaction between gating modifier spider toxins and the voltage sensor of voltage-gated ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carus H. Y.; King, Glenn F.; Mobli, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are modular transmembrane domains of voltage-gated ion channels that respond to changes in membrane potential by undergoing conformational changes that are coupled to gating of the ion-conducting pore. Most spider-venom peptides function as gating modifiers by binding to the VSDs of voltage-gated channels and trapping them in a closed or open state. To understand the molecular basis underlying this mode of action, we used nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate the atomic details of the interaction between the VSD of the voltage-gated potassium channel KvAP and the spider-venom peptide VSTx1. Our data reveal that the toxin interacts with residues in an aqueous cleft formed between the extracellular S1-S2 and S3-S4 loops of the VSD whilst maintaining lipid interactions in the gaps formed between the S1-S4 and S2-S3 helices. The resulting network of interactions increases the energetic barrier to the conformational changes required for channel gating, and we propose that this is the mechanism by which gating modifier toxins inhibit voltage-gated ion channels.

  5. Isolation and In vitro characterization of anti-Gardnerellavaginalisbacteriocin producing Lactobacillus fermentum HV6b isolated from human vaginal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin producing strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy andfecund females and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against pathogens causing important humandiseases such as gastrointestinal infections, nosocomial and skin diseases. Vaginal isolate HV6b is anagent that could be used to combat growing prevalence of sexually transmitted microbial infections andviral diseases. Therapeutic application of this probiotic strain to protect against gastrointestinal infectionsmay be of great importance for future medicinal use. Bacteriocin HV6b shows maximum inhibitionagainst bacterial vaginosis causing G. vaginalis. It was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum on the basisof biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity profiles vaginalLABs, HV6b was suggested as a strain for formulating topical personal care therapeutics aimed atprevention and treatment of many human diseases.

  6. Resultsobservation of VSD in reducing plastic surgery infection%VSD在降低整形外科感染中的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 方园; 钱洪军; 陈铮; 郭燕飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of VSD in reducing plastic surgery infection. Methods 86 patients with cosmetic plastic surgery in our hospital from March 2011 to October 2013, they were divided into observation group and control group, 43 cases in each group, the control group was given conventional treatment process, the observation group was given the VSD treatment, the treatment effect, wound repair time and the incidence of infection in two groups were compared. Results The wound healed well, no solutions in 40 cases (93.02%) of observation group, the wound healed well, no solutions in 34 cases (79.07%) of observation group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). patients with 1 week the healing rate was 48.8%in observation group, significantly higher than the control group 20.9%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The infection rate was 4.65%in observation group, the control group was 18.60%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The VSD in reducing plastic surgery infection in clinical effect is remarkable.%目的:探讨VSD在降低整形外科感染中的临床效果。方法将本院2011年3月~2013年10月整形外科收治的86例整形患者分为观察组和对照组,每组各43例,对照组给予常规换药处理,观察组给予VSD治疗,比较两组患者的治疗效果、创面修复时间和感染发生率。结果观察组患者的创面愈合良好、无渗液者40例(93.02%),对照组创面愈合良好、无渗液者34例(79.07%),两组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组患者的1周愈合率为48.8%,明显高于对照组的20.9%,两组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组患者的感染发生率为4.65%,对照组为18.60%,两组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 VSD在降低整形外科感染中的临床效果显著。

  7. First Description of Infection of Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 in Goats in Mainland France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suavet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological situation of the caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 infection in nine districts in mainland France, mostly in the south, near Italy or Spain, where high seroprevalence has been observed. Two more central areas were also included in the study. The serosurvey was carried out in 9564 goats (275 herds using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 glycoprotein B and E ELISAs. To confirm the presence of specific CpHV-1 antibodies, some of the samples were tested in neutralization assay. Results demonstrate, for the first time, CpHV-1 infection in goat herds on the French mainland. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence. Moreover, in the Alpes-Maritimes district, the seroprevalence seemed to be higher in older goats (79.45% of animals 6 years old or more than in younger animals (40.99% of one-year-olds. This result suggests frequent virus re-excretion and circulation in herds. Results analysis also shows that the seroprevalence was higher when the herd size increased. In addition, the first French CpHV-1 strain was isolated from nasal swabs taken on an infected goat. The data reported herein demonstrate that CpHV-1 circulates in mainland France, which should henceforth be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained abortion in goats.

  8. The inversion of spectral ratio H/V in a layered system using the diffuse field assumption (DFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the diffuse field assumption from both the experimental and the modelling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modelling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.

  9. The inversion of spectral ratio H/V in a layered system using the Diffuse Field Assumption (DFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Flores, José; Perton, Mathieu; García-Jerez, Antonio; Carmona, Enrique; Luzón, Francisco; Molina-Villegas, Juan C.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the site effects on seismic ground motion and establish preventive measures to mitigate these effects, the dynamic characterization of sites is mandatory. Among the various geophysical tools aimed to this end, the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) is a simple way to assess the dominant frequency of a site from seismic ambient noise. The aim of this communication is contributing to enhance the potential of this measurement with a novel method that allows extracting from the H/V the elastic properties of the subsoil, assumed here as a multilayer medium. For that purpose, we adopt the Diffuse Field Assumption from both the experimental and the modeling perspectives. At the experimental end, the idea is to define general criteria that make the data processing closely supported by theory. On the modeling front, the challenge is to compute efficiently the imaginary part of Green's function. The Cauchy's residue theory in the horizontal wavenumber complex plane is the selected approach. This method allows both identifying the contributions of body and surface waves and computing them separately. This permits exploring the theoretical properties of the H/V under different compositions of the seismic ambient noise. This answers some questions that historically aroused and gives new insights into the H/V method. The efficient forward calculation is the prime ingredient of an inversion scheme based on both gradient and heuristic searches. The availability of efficient forward calculation of H/V allows exploring some relevant relationships between the H/V curves and the parameters. This allows generating useful criteria to speed up inversion. As in many inverse problems, the non-uniqueness issues also emerge here. A joint inversion method that considers also the dispersion curves of surface waves extracted from seismic ambient noise is presented and applied to experimental data. This joint scheme mitigates effectively the non-uniqueness.

  10. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; King, Glenn F.

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a), an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide’s stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide. PMID:26516914

  11. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; King, Glenn F

    2015-10-26

    The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a), an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide's stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide.

  12. The Cystine Knot Is Responsible for the Exceptional Stability of the Insecticidal Spider Toxin ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Herzig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitor cystine knot (ICK is an unusual three-disulfide architecture in which one of the disulfide bonds bisects a loop formed by the two other disulfide bridges and the intervening sections of the protein backbone. Peptides containing an ICK motif are frequently considered to have high levels of thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability due to cross-bracing provided by the disulfide bonds. Experimental studies supporting this contention are rare, in particular for spider-venom toxins, which represent the largest diversity of ICK peptides. We used ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a, an insecticidal toxin from the deadly Australian funnel-web spider, as a model system to examine the contribution of the cystine knot to the stability of ICK peptides. We show that Hv1a is highly stable when subjected to temperatures up to 75 °C, pH values as low as 1, and various organic solvents. Moreover, Hv1a was highly resistant to digestion by proteinase K and when incubated in insect hemolymph and human plasma. We demonstrate that the ICK motif is essential for the remarkable stability of Hv1a, with the peptide’s stability being dramatically reduced when the disulfide bonds are eliminated. Thus, this study demonstrates that the ICK motif significantly enhances the chemical and thermal stability of spider-venom peptides and provides them with a high level of protease resistance. This study also provides guidance to the conditions under which Hv1a could be stored and deployed as a bioinsecticide.

  13. Biophysics, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Ion Channel Gating Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eMoreau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sensor domain (VSDs are a feature of voltage gated ion channel (VGICs and voltage sensitive proteins. They are composed of four transmembrane (TM segments (S1 to S4. Currents leaking through VSDs are called omega or gating pore currents.Gating pores are caused by mutations of the highly conserved positively charged amino acids in the S4 segment that disrupt interactions between the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center (GCTC. The GCTC separates the intracellular and extracellular water crevices. The disruption of S4–GCTC interactions allows these crevices to communicate and create a fast activating and non-inactivating alternative cation-selective permeation pathway of low conductance, or a gating pore.Gating pore currents have recently been shown to cause periodic paralysis phenotypes. There is also increasing evidence that gating pores are linked to several other familial diseases. For example, gating pores in Nav1.5 and Kv7.2 channels may underlie mixed arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM phenotypes and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH respectively. There is little evidence for the existence of gating pore blockers. Moreover, it is known that a number of toxins bind to the VSD of a specific domain of Na+ channels. These toxins may thus modulate gating pore currents. This focus on the VSD motif opens up a new area of research centered on developing molecules to treat a number of cell excitability disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and pain.The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, biophysics, and pharmacology of gating pore currents and to serve as a guide for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of gating pores and their pathophysiological roles.

  14. Radiation hardness studies of AMS HV-CMOS 350 nm prototype chip HVStripV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisauskas, K.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hiti, B.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, B. T.; John, J.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Liang, Z.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; MacMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Peric, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Staniztki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2017-02-01

    CMOS active pixel sensors are being investigated for their potential use in the ATLAS inner tracker upgrade at the HL-LHC. The new inner tracker will have to handle a significant increase in luminosity while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and pulse shaping times. This paper focuses on the prototype chip "HVStripV1" (manufactured in the AMS HV-CMOS 350nm process) characterization before and after irradiation up to fluence levels expected for the strip region in the HL-LHC environment. The results indicate an increase of depletion region after irradiation for the same bias voltage by a factor of ≈2.4 and ≈2.8 for two active pixels on the test chip. There was also a notable increase in noise levels from 85 e‑ to 386 e‑ and from 75 e‑ to 277 e‑ for the corresponding pixels.

  15. Recent results with HV-CMOS and planar sensors for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims for the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) impose high precision requirements on the vertex detector which has to match the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of 3μm, 10 ns time stamping capabilities, low mass (⇠0.2% X0 per layer), low power dissipation and pulsed power operation. Recent results of test beam measurements and GEANT4 simulations for assemblies with Timepix3 ASICs and thin active-edge sensors are presented. The 65 nm CLICpix readout ASIC with 25μm pitch was bump bonded to planar silicon sensors and also capacitively coupled through a thin layer of glue to active HV-CMOS sensors. Test beam results for these two hybridisation concepts are presented.

  16. HV/CVD Grown Relaxed SiGe Buffer Layers for SiGe HMOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文韬; 罗广礼; 史进; 邓宁; 陈培毅; 钱佩信

    2003-01-01

    High-vacuum/chemical-vapor deposition (HV/CVD) system was used to grow relaxed SiGe buffer layers on Si substrates. Several methods were then used to analyze the quality of the SiGe films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the upper layer was almost fully relaxed. Second ion mass spectroscopy showed that the Ge compositions were step-graded. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the misfit dislocations were restrained to the graded SiGe layers. Tests of the electrical properties of tensile-strained Si on relaxed SiGe buffer layers showed that their transconductances were higher than that of Si devices. These results verify the high quality of the relaxed SiGe buffer layer. The calculated critical layer thicknesses of the graded Si1-xGex layer on Si substrate and a Si layer on the relaxed SiGe buffer layer agree well with experimental results.

  17. Comparative Investigation of Pollution Accumulation and Natural Cleaning for Different HV Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dimitropoulou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High Voltage insulators are scattered throughout any HV network and a single insulator fault may cause an excessive outage. Reliability is a key issue for electric power systems and fault-free performance of insulators greatly reflects on the reliability of the system. Environmental influence is rather important for the optimum selection of outdoor insulators and, therefore, field measurements provide valuable information. Utilities perform such measurements in order to decide upon the location/route of new HV installations (substations, lines etc and also to optimize the selection, maintenance and replacement of already installed insulators. A rather interesting case in Greek territory is the island of Crete, due to the coastal development of the network and the local weather conditions. The Greek utility has employed a variety of remedies to cope with the pollution problem. Following the positive feedback after the installation on certain tower in the past, a large project to replace all ceramic insulators with new polymer ones of hydrophobic surface is now in progress. Polymer coatings have also been extensively applied on substations and also on certain areas/towers of the transmission network in the past. In order to investigate the pollution accumulation and the impact of natural washing on different insulator types, a series of periodical ESDD and NSDD pollution measurements were conducted in HEDNO’s TALOS High Voltage Test Station for a 3-months period. Multiple measurements were performed on each insulator every month in order to collect additional data. Five different insulators were selected based on the types historically used in the Cretan Network. Along with the standard glass disc profile, two strings of glass fog profile (the one coated with RTV and two long-rod composite insulators of different shed profile and material were used. Results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Profile structures of the voltage-sensor domain and the voltage-gated K+-channel vectorially oriented in a single phospholipid bilayer membrane at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces determined by x-ray interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Liu, J.; Strzalka, J.; Blasie, J. K.

    2011-09-01

    One subunit of the prokaryotic voltage-gated potassium ion channel from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) is comprised of six transmembrane α helices, of which S1-S4 form the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and S5 and S6 contribute to the pore domain (PD) of the functional homotetramer. However, the mechanism of electromechanical coupling interconverting the closed-to-open (i.e., nonconducting-to-K+-conducting) states remains undetermined. Here, we have vectorially oriented the detergent (OG)-solubilized VSD in single monolayers by two independent approaches, namely “directed-assembly” and “self-assembly,” to achieve a high in-plane density. Both utilize Ni coordination chemistry to tether the protein to an alkylated inorganic surface via its C-terminal His6 tag. Subsequently, the detergent is replaced by phospholipid (POPC) via exchange, intended to reconstitute a phospholipid bilayer environment for the protein. X-ray interferometry, in which interference with a multilayer reference structure is used to both enhance and phase the specular x-ray reflectivity from the tethered single membrane, was used to determine directly the electron density profile structures of the VSD protein solvated by detergent versus phospholipid, and with either a moist He (moderate hydration) or bulk aqueous buffer (high hydration) environment to preserve a native structure conformation. Difference electron density profiles, with respect to the multilayer substrate itself, for the VSD-OG monolayer and VSD-POPC membranes at both the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces, reveal the profile structures of the VSD protein dominating these profiles and further indicate a successful reconstitution of a lipid bilayer environment. The self-assembly approach was similarly extended to the intact full-length KvAP channel for comparison. The spatial extent and asymmetry in the profile structures of both proteins confirm their unidirectional vectorial orientation within the reconstituted membrane and

  19. The role of the HvNAC6 transcription factor in response to biotic and abiotic stress in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun

    -mediated transformation methods could be used to study stress responses at the whole-plant level. The abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were measured during Bgh infection to investigate the involvement of these hormones and TF in the basal resistance. HvNAC6 RNAi plants were also subjected to dehydration...

  20. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  1. Mapping a part of Neuquen Basin in Argentina by global-phase H/V spectral ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Ruigrok, E.; Gomez, M.; Draganov, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of global phases (epicentral distances of ≥ 120° and ≥ 150°) for the H/V spectral ratio to identify the fundamental resonance frequency. We applied the method to delineate a part of Neuquén basin in Argentina without the need for active seismic sources. We obtained

  2. Constraints on the variable subglacial structure of Whillans Ice Stream from ambient noise Rayleigh wave H/V ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M. J.; Shen, W.; Wiens, D.; Winberry, J. P.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) ellipticity ratios of Rayleigh waves have been used to determine shallow (reflection imaging showing a deeper sedimentary package that extends to an unknown depth. It is also known that the frictional properties of the WIS ice-bed interface at 700 m depth are highly heterogeneous, including stick-spots of high friction, possibly as a result of compacted sediment or bedrock, and active subglacial lakes where frictional coefficients are effectively zero. Ambient noise cross-correlations are calculated between all station pairs, restricting the minimum interstation distance to 20 km, as well as constraining valid H/V ratios of radial and vertical sources between the same station pair to wave energy with good signal-to-noise between 6 s and 20 s that are sensitive to the shear velocity of the shallowest sedimentary layers beneath the ice stream and is combined with average phase and group velocity of the area to help constrain the inversion. H/V ratio modeling results suggest that ratios are highly susceptible to sedimentary layer thickness. Ratios also increase over the observed frequency band with the presence of a shallow, saturated sedimentary layer with high Vp/Vs. In preliminary results, we observe an increase in H/V ratio towards the grounding line as well as at stations where hydro-potential surface is high. These higher ratios can be attributed to higher water content within sediments, or an increase in the sedimentary layer thickness.

  3. Transgenic plants expressing ω-ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA) fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin ω-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6 ± 4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after 7 days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50 = 0.73 mg/ml after 2 days against LC50 = 1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae), as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  4. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  5. Fine mapping of a HvCBF gene cluster at the frost resistance locus Fr-H2 in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, E; Barabaschi, D; Tondelli, A; Laidò, G; Rizza, F; Stanca, A M; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Stockinger, E J; Pecchioni, N

    2007-11-01

    Barley is an economically important model for the Triticeae tribe. We recently developed a new resource: the 'Nure' x 'Tremois' mapping population. Two low temperature QTLs were found to segregate on the long arm of chromosome 5H (Fr-H1, distal; Fr-H2, proximal). With the final aim of positional cloning of the genetic determinants of Fr-H1 and Fr-H2, a large segregating population of 1,849 F(2) plants between parents 'Nure' and 'Tremois' was prepared. These two QT loci were first validated by using a set of F(3) families, marker-selected to harbor pairs of reciprocal haplotypes, with one QTL fixed at homozygosity and the alternate one in heterozygous phase. The study was then focused towards the isolation of the determinant of Fr-H2. Subsequent recombinant screens and phenotypic evaluation of F(4) segregants allowed us to estimate (P < or = 0.01) a refined genomic interval of Fr-H2 (4.6 cM). Several barley genes with the CBF transcription factor signature had been already roughly mapped in cluster at Fr-H2, and they represent likely candidate genes underlying this QTL. Using the large segregating population (3,698 gametes) a high-resolution genetic map of the HvCBF gene cluster was then constructed, and after fine mapping, six recombinations between the HvCBFs were observed. It was therefore possible to genetically divide seven HvCBF subclusters in barley, in a region spanning 0.81 cM, with distances among them varying from 0.03 to 0.32 cM. The few recombinants between the different HvCBF subclusters are being marker-selected and taken to homozygosity, to phenotypically separate the effects of the single HvCBF genes.

  6. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  7. Transgenic plants expressing -ACTX-Hv1a and snowdrop lectin (GNA fusion protein show enhanced resistance to aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Y.T. Nakasu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant fusion proteins containing arthropod toxins have been developed as a new class of biopesticides. The recombinant fusion protein Hv1a/GNA, containing the spider venom toxin w-ACTX-Hv1a linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA was shown to reduce survival of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae when delivered in artificial diet, with survival <10% after 8 days exposure to fusion protein at 1 mg/ml. Although the fusion protein was rapidly degraded by proteases in the insect, Hv1a/GNA oral toxicity to M. persicae was significantly greater than GNA alone. A construct encoding the fusion protein, including the GNA leader sequence, under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was transformed into Arabidopsis; the resulting plants contained intact fusion protein in leaf tissues at an estimated level of 25.6±4.1 ng/mg FW. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Hv1a/GNA induced up to 40% mortality of M. persicae after seven days exposure in detached leaf bioassays, demonstrating that transgenic plants can deliver fusion proteins to aphids. Grain aphids (Sitobion avenae were more susceptible than M. persicae to the Hv1a/GNA fusion protein in artificial diet bioassays (LC50=0.73 mg/ml after two days against LC50=1.81 mg/ml for M. persicae, as they were not able to hydrolyze the fusion protein as readily as M. persicae. Expression of this fusion protein in suitable host plants for the grain aphid is likely to confer higher levels of resistance than that shown with the M. persicae/Arabidopsis model system.

  8. Imaging the crustal structure of the valley of Mexico and higher mode identification using H/V spectral ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, D.; Campillo, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F.; Singh, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 19 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise records for the 8 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 11 VMEX stations. We use surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 3 seconds. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This observation suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure beneath the valley, an identification of these dominants modes is required. To identify the modes of surface waves we use the spectral ratio of the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V for the velocity model deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. H/V ratio in the coda is computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium following Margerin et al. [2009] and Sánchez-Sesma et al. [2011]. We processed several events to ensure that the observed H/V is stable. The comparison of the modelled dispersion and H/V ratio allows for mode identification, and consequently to recover the velocity model of the structure. We conclude on the predominance of higher modes in our observations. The excitation of higher modes is key element of explanation for the long duration and amplification of the seismic signals observed in the Valley of Mexico.

  9. Caution Is Required in Interpretation of Mutations in the Voltage Sensing Domain of Voltage Gated Channels as Evidence for Gating Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisher M. Kariev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gating mechanism of voltage sensitive ion channels is generally considered to be the motion of the S4 transmembrane segment of the voltage sensing domains (VSD. The primary supporting evidence came from R→C mutations on the S4 transmembrane segment of the VSD, followed by reaction with a methanethiosulfonate (MTS reagent. The cys side chain is –SH (reactive form –S−; the arginine side chain is much larger, leaving space big enough to accommodate the MTS sulfonate head group. The cavity created by the mutation has space for up to seven more water molecules than were present in wild type, which could be displaced irreversibly by the MTS reagent. Our quantum calculations show there is major reorientation of three aromatic residues that face into the cavity in response to proton displacement within the VSD. Two phenylalanines reorient sufficiently to shield/unshield the cysteine from the intracellular and extracellular ends, depending on the proton positions, and a tyrosine forms a hydrogen bond to the cysteine sulfur with its side chain –OH. These could produce the results of the experiments that have been interpreted as evidence for physical motion of the S4 segment, without physical motion of the S4 backbone. The computations strongly suggest that the interpretation of cysteine substitution reaction experiments be re-examined in the light of these considerations.

  10. Characterization of BoHV-5 field strains circulation and report of transient specific subtype of bovine herpesvirus 5 in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiry Julien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae responsible for meningo-encephalitis in young cattle. The first case of bovine meningo-encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus infection was reported in Australia. The current geographical distribution of BoHV-5 infection is mainly restricted to South America, especially Brazil and Argentina. Outbreaks of BoHV-5 are regularly observed in Argentina suggesting the circulation of the virus in the bovine population. Results Seventeen field strains of BoHV-5 isolated from 1984 to now were confirmed by differential PCR and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis (REA. Viral DNA was cleaved with BstEII which allows the differentiation among subtypes a, b and non a, non b. According to the REA with BstEII, only one field strain showed a pattern similar to the Argentinean A663 strain (prototype of BoHV-5b. All other isolates showed a clear pattern similar to the Australian N569 strain (prototype of BoHV-5a consistent with the subtypes observed in Brazil, the other South-American country where BoHV-5 is known to be prevalent. The genomic region of subtype b responsible for the distinct pattern was determined and amplified by PCR; specifically a point mutation was identified in glycoprotein B gene, on the BstEII restriction site, which generates the profile specific of BoHV-5b. Conclusions This is the first report of circulation of BoHV-5a in Argentina as the prevailing subtype. Therefore the circulation of BoHV-5b was restricted to a few years in Argentina, speculating that this subtype was not able to be maintained in the bovine population. The mutation in the gB gene is associated with the difference in the restriction patterns between subtypes "a" and "b".

  11. 200 Open Heart Operations on Patients with Ventricular Septal Defects%200例室间隔缺损(VSD)手术体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲智; 郑德珍; 高玲; 郭志和; 高国庆; 陆进; 姜娟; 刘岚

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred open heart operations for VSD were performed between 1979.8 and 1987.5.77% of the patients aged below 5 years,and 68% weighed below 15kg and 16% below 10kg.98 out of 163(60%),on whom cardiac catherization was performed,showed moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension.197 patients su cvived,and 3 died duting hospitalization.Discussions involve:1) The age for operation.Patients with large defects and henrt failure;or repeated infection of respivatory tract,or hyposomia should be operated on earlier,better before the age of 2 years.As for patients with small defects operationts may be delayed to Presehool age.2) The type of operation.The defect with a diameter bigger than 1cm should be patched.The pladget mattress suture gives a better security sealing than the simple running suture does.3) The treatment of the associated cardiac deformities.PDA may be ligated before or after the cardiopulmonary bypass.4) The consi derations of a re-operation.Based on the experiences of 2 successful re-operations,it is suggested that in case of a serious complication responding Poorly to the medicaltreatmeat,a re-operation had better not be hesitated.%作者自1979年8月至1987年5月共进行了200例VSD心内直视手术,其中5岁以下占77%,体重15公斤以下占68%.手术取得良好的效果,存活率达到98.5%. 通过200例VSD手术经验,作者从手术时机的选择,修补方法的选择,合并畸形的处理以及再手术的决定等四个方面谈谈体会.

  12. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Temporary Tricuspid Valve Detachment as Approach to VSD Repair without Consequent Tricuspid Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Gianluca; Rossetti, Lucia; Faggian, Giuseppe; Luciani, Giovanni B

    2016-10-01

    Temporary tricuspid valve detachment improves the operative view of certain congenital ventricular septal defects (VSDs), but its long-term effects on tricuspid valve function are still debated. From 2002 through 2012, we performed a prospective study of 68 children (mean age, 1.28 ± 1.01 yr) who underwent transatrial closure of VSDs following temporary tricuspid valve detachment. Sixty patients had conoventricular and 8 had mid-muscular VSDs. All were in sinus rhythm. Seventeen patients had systemic pulmonary artery pressures. Preoperative echocardiograms showed trivial-to-mild tricuspid regurgitation in 62 patients and tricuspid dysplasia with severe regurgitation in 6 patients. Patients were clinically and echocardiographically monitored at 30 postoperative days, 3 months, 6 months, every 6 months thereafter for the first 2 years, and then once a year. No in-hospital or late death was observed at the median follow-up evaluation of 5.9 years. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stays were 1.6 ± 1.1 and 7.3 ± 2.7 days, respectively. Residual small VSDs occurred in 3 patients, and temporary atrioventricular block in one. After VSD repair, 62 patients (91%) had trivial or mild tricuspid regurgitation, and 6 moderate. Five of these last had severe tricuspid regurgitation preoperatively and had undergone additional tricuspid valve repair during the procedure. The grade of residual tricuspid regurgitation remained stable postoperatively, and no tricuspid stenosis was documented. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I at follow-up. Temporary tricuspid valve detachment is a simple and useful method for a complete visualization of certain VSDs without incurring substantial tricuspid dysfunction.

  13. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V., E-mail: fadeyev@ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A.A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, O. Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-21

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  14. Optimum Scheme for Insulation System in HV Generator Based on Electromagnetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gholami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical insulations are one of the basic parts of electrical machinery in any sizes and characteristics. Focusing on insulating, studies on the operation of industrial-electrical machinery came to the fact that the most important part of a machine is the Stator. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electromagnetic tensions. Therefore with respect to insulation system improvement of stator, the HV generator can be optimized. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electromagnetic performance is Finite Element Method (FEM which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. These processes of optimization have been done according the proposed algorithm. In this algorithm the technical constraints have been considered. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot’s insulation with respect to objective function and constraints.

  15. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    CERN Document Server

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on Partially Depleted High Voltage SOI technology (PD-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer while FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The XFAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry witch mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neu...

  16. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  17. New Simulation Method of New HV Power Supply for Industrial Microwave Generators with N=2 Magnetrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. El Ghazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This original work treats a new simulation method of a new type of high voltage power supply for microwave generators with N magnetrons (treated case: N=2 magnetrons, used as a source of energy in the industrial applications. This new power supply is composed of a single-phase HV transformer with magnetic leakage flow, supplying two parallel cells, which multiplies the voltage and stabilizes the current. The doubler supplies one magnetron. The transformer is presented by its p equivalent circuit. Each inductance of the model is characterized by its relation "flow-current". In this paper, we present a new approach validation of the p model of the special transformer using Matlab-Simulink code. The theoretical results compared with the experimental measurements, is in good agreement with them. The use of this tool Matlab-Simulink, has allowed us to confirm the possibility of the operation of this new system without interaction between magnetrons, with a view to a possible optimization which lead to reduce the weight, the volume and the cost of implementation while ensuring the process of regulating the current in each magnetron.

  18. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  19. Reliability assessment of an OVH HV power line truss transmission tower subjected to seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Karol; Jakubowska, Patrycja; Soltysik, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The study focuses on the reliability of a transmission tower OS24 ON150 + 10, an element of an OVH HV power line, under seismic loading. In order to describe the seismic force, the real-life recording of the horizontal component of the El Centro earthquake was adopted. The amplitude and the period of this excitation are assumed random, their variation is described by Weibull distribution. The possible space state of the phenomenon is given in the form of a structural response surface (RSM methodology), approximated by an ANOVA table with directional sampling (DS) points. Four design limit states are considered: stress limit criterion for a natural load combination, criterion for an accidental combination (one-sided cable snap), vertical and horizontal translation criteria. According to these cases the HLRF reliability index β is used for structural safety assessment. The RSM approach is well suited for the analysis - it is numerically efficient, not excessively time consuming, indicating a high confidence level. Given the problem conditions, the seismic excitation is shown the sufficient trigger to the loss of load-bearing capacity or stability of the tower.

  20. Application Of The Wavelet Packet Transform For Selecting Transient Seismic Noise And Study Of Its Effect On Estimates Of The H/V Spectral Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana-Merino, J.; Parolai, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio of seismic noise has become a widely used tool in microzonation, although it has not yet been clearly established whether or not only the stationary part of the recorded signal may be used. In fact, while some studies have suggested the use of only stationary signals others have shown that including transients may improve the results. In this study, we have employed a filtering method based on the wavelet packet transform for removing the stationary part of the noise recordings in the frequency band of interest for the H/V spectral ratio. In this way, we have obtained filtered seismograms with only transients, which have been used for performing the H/V spectral ratio calculation. Moreover, we have also calculated the H/V spectral ratio selecting only stationary noise windows from the seismograms and without making any a priori selection on them. Finally, we have compared the results and analysed the influence of transient noise on the shape of the H/V spectral ratio. The analysis has been carried out on noise recordings collected at 7 stations installed in the Cologne-Bonn region (Germany). Results show that the H/V spectral ratios calculated using only stationary noise do not significantly differ from those obtained without performing any data selection, independent of the site resonance frequency and of the frequency content of the transient. On the contrary, H/V spectral ratios obtained using only transients show a large variability that may be attributed to the kind of source and the source to receiver distance. These results indicate that the effect of transient noise is negligible when the H/V spectral ratios are calculated without performing any data selection, making the H/V spectral ratio technique more attractive for urban area measurements.

  1. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W.; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara Agata;

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...

  2. S-Wave Velocity Structure of Taipei Basin by Using the Simulation of Microtremor H/V Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Yi, Lin; Kuo-Liang, Wen; Che-Min, Lin

    2014-05-01

    In this report here the investigation of the S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei basin which is located in the northern Taiwan. Previous study, the dense microtremor measurement analysis have been confirmed in Taipei Basin. However, within the basin around the layer effects on seismic site characterization and contribution have still needed to clarify more details, as the strata in Taipei basin with reference to estimate ground motion prediction. The detail site response all over the Taipei basin has been studied by using the H/V ratios of dense microtremor surveys. In this study, a method, GA-Haskell, combining Genetic Algorithm and Thomson-Haskell propagator matrix was used to simulate the microtremor H/V ratios according to the previous results of dense microtremor surveys. The near-surface S-wave velocity structures of over 400 sites in the Taipei basin were evaluated by the simulations of the H/V ratios. Through the numerous microtremor data are helpful to figure the S-wave velocity and thickness of the Sungshan Formation and the other deeper formations which control the seismic site-effect in the basin. While many strong motion stations have also been performed microtremor measurement and single station spectrum to understand the earthquake site characteristics analysis. Compared with other research results, confirmed the applicability of the method for estimating the velocity structure in Taipei Basin. Finally, accord with the actual site earthquake and microtremor response, established a complete and detailed S-wave velocity model of the Taipei basin. It will benefit the strong motion prediction and simulation in the future. Key Words: Taipei Basin, Microtremor, H/V Ratio, S-wave Velocity, Site Effect

  3. Bio-plastic (P-3HB-co-3HV) from Bacillus circulans (MTCC 8167) and its biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukon, Pinkee; Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Konwar, Bolin Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally occurring polyesters synthesized by bacteria for carbon and energy storage and it has commercial potential as bioplastic. The bacterial species Bacillus circulans MTCC 8167, isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, can efficiently produce medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (P-3HB-co-3HV) from cheap carbon sources like dextrose. The molecular mass of P-3HB-co-3HV was reported as 5.1×10(4)Da with polydispersity index of 1.21 by gel permeation chromatography. In the present investigation different bacteria and fungi species were used for testing the biodegradability of the extracted polymer. The FTIR spectra of the biodegraded PHBV film showed a decrease in the peak from 1735 cm(-1) (untreated film) to 1675 cm(-1), and disappearance of a peak present in the control at 2922 cm(-1) indicating the breakdown of ester (>C=O) or O-R group and -C=H bond, respectively. From biodegradability testing, the tested microorganisms were found to have decisive contribution to the biodegradation of P-3HB-co-3HV polymer.

  4. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  6. Seismic ambient noise H/V spectral ratio using the ACA (autocorrelations of coda of autocorrelations) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Piña, J.; Campillo, M.; Luzón, F.; García-Jerez, A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (NHVSR) are valuable for microzonation, and seismic prospecting. This is particularly true for low-cost dense spatial sampling projects. Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) proposed to use average energy densities to compose the ratios. It means that H/V comes from the square root of the ratio of averages. On the other hand, a popular approach makes the average of spectral ratios. For ergodic processes peak values are usually the same using these two approaches. Sometimes however, the observations are insufficient and computed values for low frequencies display large variability and the corresponding H/V estimates may be inaccurate. The bias caused by localized sources may be the source of errors in the estimates. In this work we propose to compute the NHVSR using the Autocorrelations of Coda of Autocorrelations. This ACA approach is inspired in the work by Stehly et al. (2008). They used the Correlations of Coda of Correlations (C3) to isotropize the field. In our ACA approach the whole time series, say of 30 minutes, for each component is autocorrelated and the averages of the spectral density of selected windows (late coda windows are eliminated) are then improved estimates of directional energy densities. The computation of NHVSR using ACA appears more stable and free of transient effects. It remains to establish how this may be accounted for in forward calculation of H/V spectral ratios for models like a layered medium (e.g. Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011; Albarello and Lunedei, 2011). This will require further scrutiny. References. Albarello, D. & E. Lunedei (2011). Structure of ambient vibration wavefield in the frequency range of engineering interest ([0.5, 20] Hz): insights from numerical modelling. Near Surface Geophysics 9, 543-559. Arai, H. & K. Tokimatsu (2004). S-wave velocity profiling by inversion of microtremor H/V spectrum, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94, 53-63. Sánchez-Sesma, F. J., M. Rodr

  7. Transfer impedance simulation and measurement methods to analyse shielding behaviour of HV cables used in Electric-Vehicles and Hybrid-Electric-Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Abid; Frei, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    In the power drive system of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), High Voltage (HV) cables play a major role in evaluating the EMI of the whole system. Transfer impedance (ZT) is the most commonly used performance parameter for the HV cable. To analyse and design HV cables and connectors with better shielding effectiveness (SE), appropriate measurement and simulation methods are required. In this paper, Ground Plate Method (GPM) with improvements has been proposed to measure ZT. Use of low-frequency ferrites to avoid ground-loop effects has also been investigated. Additionally, a combination of analytical model with a circuit model has been implemented to simulate limitations (frequency response) of the test setup. Also parametrical studies using the analytical model have been performed to analyse the shielding behaviour of HV cables.

  8. Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Shailesh; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2017-02-01

    We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831

  9. Structural Dynamics of an Isolated-Voltage Sensor Domain in Lipid Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Sudha; Cuello, Luis G.; Cortes, Marien D.; Perozo, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary A strong interplay between the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and the pore domain (PD) underlies voltage-gated channel functions. In a few voltage-sensitive proteins, the VSD has been shown to function without a canonical PD, although its structure and oligomeric state remain unknown. Here using EPR spectroscopy we show that the isolated-VSD of KvAP can remain monomeric in reconstituted bilayer and retain a transmembrane conformation. We find that water-filled crevices extend deep into the membrane around S3, a scaffold conducive to transport of proton/cations is intrinsic to the VSD. Differences in solvent accessibility in comparison to the full-length KvAP, allowed us to define an interacting footprint of the PD on the VSD. This interaction is centered around S1 and S2 and shows a rotation of 70–100° relative to Kv1.2-Kv2.1 chimera. Sequence-conservation patterns in Kv channels, Hv channels and voltage-sensitive phosphatases reveal several near-universal features suggesting a common molecular architecture for all VSDs. PMID:18334215

  10. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P(1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination.

  11. The S4-S5 linker of KCNQ1 channels forms a structural scaffold with the S6 segment controlling gate closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Alain J; Boulet, Inge R; Choveau, Frank S; Mayeur, Evy; Bruyns, Tine; Loussouarn, Gildas; Raes, Adam L; Snyders, Dirk J

    2011-01-07

    In vivo, KCNQ1 α-subunits associate with the β-subunit KCNE1 to generate the slowly activating cardiac potassium current (I(Ks)). Structurally, they share their topology with other Kv channels and consist out of six transmembrane helices (S1-S6) with the S1-S4 segments forming the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). The opening or closure of the intracellular channel gate, which localizes at the bottom of the S6 segment, is directly controlled by the movement of the VSD via an electromechanical coupling. In other Kv channels, this electromechanical coupling is realized by an interaction between the S4-S5 linker (S4S5(L)) and the C-terminal end of S6 (S6(T)). Previously we reported that substitutions for Leu(353) in S6(T) resulted in channels that failed to close completely. Closure could be incomplete because Leu(353) itself is the pore-occluding residue of the channel gate or because of a distorted electromechanical coupling. To resolve this and to address the role of S4S5(L) in KCNQ1 channel gating, we performed an alanine/tryptophan substitution scan of S4S5(L). The residues with a "high impact" on channel gating (when mutated) clustered on one side of the S4S5(L) α-helix. Hence, this side of S4S5(L) most likely contributes to the electromechanical coupling and finds its residue counterparts in S6(T). Accordingly, substitutions for Val(254) resulted in channels that were partially constitutively open and the ability to close completely was rescued by combination with substitutions for Leu(353) in S6(T). Double mutant cycle analysis supported this cross-talk indicating that both residues come in close contact and stabilize the closed state of the channel.

  12. Role of hydrophobic and ionic forces in the movement of S4 of the Shaker potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J S; Neale, Edward J; Munsey, Tim S; Bannister, John P; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2012-12-01

    Voltage-gated ion (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)) channels contain a pore domain (PD) surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSD). Each VSD is made up of four transmembrane helices, S1-S4. S4 contains 6-7 positively charged residues (arginine/lysine) separated two hydrophobic residues, whereas S1-S3 contribute to two negatively charged clusters. These structures are conserved among all members of the voltage-gated ion channel family and play essential roles in voltage gating. The role of S4 charged residues in voltage gating is well established: During depolarization, they move out of the membrane electric field, exerting a mechanical force on channel gates, causing them to open. However, the role of the intervening hydrophobic residues in voltage sensing is unclear. Here we studied the role of these residues in the prototypical Shaker potassium channel. We have altered the physicochemical properties of both charged and hydrophobic positions of S4 and examined the effect of these modifications on the gating properties of the channel. For this, we have introduced cysteines at each of these positions, expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes, and examined the effect of in situ addition of charge, via Cd(2+), on channel gating by two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results reveal a face of the S4 helix (comprising residues L358, L361, R365 and R368) where introduction of charge at hydrophobic positions destabilises the closed state and removal of charges from charged positions has an opposite effect. We propose that hydrophobic residues play a crucial role in limiting gating to a physiological voltage range.

  13. The Microtremor H/V Spectral Ratio: The Physical Basis of the Diffuse Field Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is popular to obtain the dominant frequency at a site. Despite the success of MHVSR some controversy arose regarding its physical basis. One approach is the Diffuse Field Assumption, DFA. It is then assumed that noise diffuse features come from multiple scattering within the medium. According to theory, the average of the autocorrelation is proportional to directional energy density (DED) and to the imaginary part of the Green's function for same source and receiver. Then, the square of MHVSR is a ratio of DEDs which, in a horizontally layered system, is 2xImG11/ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary parts of Green's functions for horizontal and vertical components. This has physical implications that emerge from the duality DED-force, implicit in the DFA. Consider a surface force at a half-space. The radiated energy is carried away by various wave types and the proportions of each one are precisely the fractions of the energy densities of a diffuse elastic wave field at the free surface. Thus, some properties of applied forces are also characteristics of DEDs. For example, consider a Poisson solid. For a normal point load, 67 per cent of energy is carried away by Rayleigh waves. For the tangential case, it is less well known that, 77 per cent of energy goes as shear waves. In a full space, 92 per cent of the energy is emitted as shear waves. The horizontal DED at the half-space surface implies significant emission of down-going shear waves that explains the curious stair-like resonance spectrum of ImG11. Both ImG11 and ImG33 grow linearly versus frequency and this represents wave emission. For a layered medium, besides wave emission, the ensuing variations correspond to reflected waves. For high frequencies, ImG33 depends on the properties of the top layer. Reflected body waves are very small and Rayleigh waves behave in the top layer as in a kind of mini half-space. From HVSR one can invert the velocity model

  14. Continuous H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise: a necessity to understand microzonation results obtained by mobile stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the resonance frequency (f0) and amplification factor of unconsolidated sediments by H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of seismic ambient noise has been widely used since Nakamura's proposal in 1989. To measure f0 properly, Nakamura suggested to perform microzonation surveys at night when the artificial microtremor is small and does not fully disrupt the ambient seismic noise. As nightly fieldwork is not always a reasonable demand, we propose an alternative workflow of Nakamura's technique to improve the quality of HVSR results obtained by ambient noise measurements of mobile stations during the day. This new workflow includes the automated H/V calculation of continuous seismic data of a stationary or permanent station installed near the microzonation site for as long as the survey lasts in order to control the error in the HVSR analysis obtained by the mobile stations. In this presentation, we apply this workflow on one year of seismic data at two different case studies; i.e. a rural site with a shallow bedrock depth of 30 m and an urban site (Brussels, capital of Belgium, bedrock depth of 110 m) where human activity is continuous 24h/day. By means of an automated python script, the fundamental peak frequency and the H/V amplitude are automatically picked from H/V spectra that are calculated from 50% overlapping, 30 minute windows during the whole year. Afterwards, the f0 and amplitude picks are averaged per hour/per day for the whole year. In both case studies, the H/V amplitude and the fundamental frequencies range considerable, up to ˜15% difference between the daily and nightly measurements. As bedrock depth is known from boreholes at both sites, we concluded that the nightly picked f0 is the true one. Our results thus suggest that changes in the determined f0 and H/V amplitude are dominantly caused by the human behaviour which is stored in the ambient seismic noise (e.g. later onset of traffic in a weekend, quiet Sundays, differences between

  15. Identification of a 49-bp fragment of the HvLTP2 promoter directing aleurone cell specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Divon, Hege Hvattum; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Kalla, Roger; Hammond-Kosack, Michael; Shimamoto, Ko; Kohli, Ajay

    2004-10-27

    Identification of regulatory elements directing definite and specific spatiotemporal expression patterns is a prerequisite to the next generation of transgenic plants with commercial and ethical feasibility for producing plantibodies or other pharmaceutically important compounds. Here we describe the functional dissection of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein gene promoter, HvLTP2. The gene is specifically expressed in aleurone cells of cereals and used as an aleurone marker in maize and rice. The transcript is uniformly localised in the barley aleurone cells from around 10 DAP. Patchy expression in aleurone cells of transgenic rice has been reported and explained by silencing of transgenes. We have performed deletion analyses of the 801-bp HvLTP2 promoter to gain insight into the molecular basis of its regulation and the presence of putative regulatory elements. From the deletion studies, a 49-bp promoter region directing aleurone-specific expression was identified. Simultaneously, in vivo footprinting was carried out to identify promoter elements bound by putative regulatory proteins. Within the 49-bp fragment, the most promising candidate for a minimal cis-acting regulatory region directing aleurone specificity is the ds-sequence. Based on our results, we hypothesise that the ds-sequence directs aleurone specificity, possibly through a concerted action with elements directing general expression in the seed. Moreover, we present an overview of LTP2 elements putatively involved in directing seed, endosperm, and aleurone expression. Additionally, we report HvLTP2 expression in the embryo, not previously detected. The regulatory element(s) directing expression in embryo is located downstream of the 49-bp fragment directing aleurone specificity, thus demonstrating independent control of aleurone and embryo-localised expression. Finally, we discuss the existence of several endosperm-specific boxes and whether alternative promoter elements and combinations

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel barley gene,HvORG4,induced by Fusarium graminearum infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theo; Van-Der; Lee

    2007-01-01

    Barley Fusarium head blight(FHB),caused by species of the Fusarium fungus,is a devastating disease that is reemerging worldwide in recent years.In this study,a novel gene,HvORG4,was cloned from barley by using cDNA library and suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) library strategies.The SSH library and cDNA library were constructed from the Chinese barley cultivar Jing02-461(resistance to FHB) infected by Fusarium graminearum isolate Huanggang-1.For the SSH analysis,more than 120 differentially express...

  17. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan; Mohamed Abdalla Fadol; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed Salih; Abdel Rahim Mohamed El Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97), placenta (n=15), whole blood (n=19), uterine fluid (n=1), and serum (n=8) were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and p...

  18. Induction of Barley Silicon Transporter HvLsi1 and HvLsi2, increased silicon concentration in the shoot and regulated Starch and ABA Homeostasis under Osmotic stress and Concomitant Potassium Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major stress factors reducing cereal production worldwide. There is ample evidence that the mineral nutrient status of plants plays a critical role in increasing plant tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this regard, the important role of various nutrients e.g., potassium (K or silicon (Si in the mitigation of different stress factors, such as drought, heat or frost has been well documented. Si application has been reported to ameliorate plant nutrient deficiency. Here, we used K and Si either solely or in combination to investigate whether an additive positive effect on barley growth can be achieved under osmotic stress and which mechanisms contribute to a better tolerance to osmotic stress. To achieve this goal, barley plants were subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG-induced osmotic stress under low or high K supply and two Si regimes. The results showed that barley silicon transporters HvLsi1 and HvLsi2 regulate the accumulation of Si in the shoot only when plant suffered from K deficiency. Si, in turn, increased the starch level under both osmotic stress and K deficiency and modulated the glycolytic and TCA pathways. Hormone profiling revealed that the beneficial effect of Si is most likely mediated also by ABA homeostasis and active cytokinin isopentenyl adenine (iP. We conclude that Si may effectively improve stress tolerance under K deficient condition in particular when additional stress like osmotic stress interferes.

  19. Assessment of the Group 3-4 (HV-S1, HV-S2, IHLW-S1) Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2013-01-01

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 3-4 exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The HV-S1, HV-S2, and IHLW-S1 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 3-4) because they share a geometric attribute: the common factor in their design is that the last significant flow disturbance upstream of the air sampling probe is a jog (i.e., two conjoined bends of equal and opposite curvature resulting in a change in elevation of the duct). Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  20. Comparison between two methods for forward calculation of ambient noise H/V spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jerez, A.; Luzón, F.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Santoyo, M. A.; Albarello, D.; Lunedei, E.; Campillo, M.; Iturrarán-Viveros, U.

    2011-12-01

    The analysis of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of ambient noise (NHVSR) is a valuable tool for seismic prospecting, particularly if both a dense spatial sampling and a low-cost procedure are required. Unfortunately, the computation method still lacks of a unanimously accepted theoretical basis and different approaches are currently being used for inversion of the ground structure from the measured H/V curves. Two major approaches for forward calculation of NHVSRs in a layered medium are compared in this work. The first one was developed by Arai and Tokimatsu (2004) and recently improved by Albarello and Lunedei (2011). It consists of a description of the wavefield as generated by Far Surface point Forces (FSF method). The second one is based on the work of Sánchez-Sesma et al. (2011) who consider ambient noise as a Diffuse WaveField (DWF method), taking advantage of the proportionality between its Fourier-transformed autocorrelation (power spectrum) and the imaginary part of the Green function when source and receiver are the same. In both methods, the NHVSR is written as (PH/PV)1/2, where PH and PV are the horizontal and vertical power spectra. In the FSF method these quantities are given by PV∝⊙m(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2 PH∝⊙m{(1+1/2χm2α2)(ARm/kRm)2χm2+1/2α2(ALm/kLm)2} where kRm, χm and ARm are wavenumber, ellipticity and medium response of the m-th Rayleigh wave mode; kLm and ALm correspond to the m-th Love wave mode and α is the horizontal-to-vertical load ratio of the ambient noise sources. Some common factors are omitted in the expressions of PV and PH. On the other hand, the DWF method deals with the full wavefield including both surface and body waves. In order to make the comparison easier, and taking into account that surface waves are often the dominant components in wide spectral ranges, body wave contributions are neglected here. In this case, the PH and PV power spectra for the DWF method are reduced to the simple expressions: PV

  1. Molecular Characterization of the First Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) Strains Isolated from In Vitro Bovine Embryos production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Altamiranda, Erika; Manrique, Julieta M.; Pérez, Sandra E.; Ríos, Glenda L.; Odeón, Anselmo C.; Leunda, María R.; Jones, Leandro R.; Verna, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as “starting material” for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these strains circulate

  2. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  3. Presence of anti-BoHV-1 antibodies in caprine herds from Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carvalho Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in serum samples from caprines. This way, one analyzed 337 samples from 5 properties, 2 of them located at the state of Minas Gerais and the other 3 at the state of Sao Paulo. The samples underwent the virusneutralization test using the Nebraska viral strain, in order to verify the presence of antibodies against BoHV-1. Despite the geometric mean of antibody titers was 3, the occurrence of reactivity in animals achieved 62% (209/337, being positive 57.2% (151/264 of samples from the properties at the state of Minas Gerais and 79.5% (58/73 of samples from the state of Sao Paulo. Due to the fact that caprines don’t constitute a target species of this virus, the high occurrence of anti-BOHV-1 antibodies awakens an epidemiological alert on consortium herds, a fact driving the need for further studies to show the importance of infection in this animal species.

  4. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.

  5. An Inactivated Vaccine from a Field Strain of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) has High Antigenic Mass and Induces Strong Efficacy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Ruiz-Sáenz; Jairo Jaime; Victor Vera

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is a DNA virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae,subfamily Alfaherpesvirinae;it is a worldwide pathogen,causing serious economic losses in livestock.In Colombia there have been multiple isolates of BoHV-1 that have been subjected to molecular characterization,classifying most of the country isolates as BoHV-1.1.In the present study we developed and evaluated an ethyleneimine binary inactivated isolate from the native BoHV-1 strain (Córdoba-2) in a rabbit model of vaccination and infection.The vaccine was evaluated in two phases,one of immunogenicity with vaccination and a booster after 21 days,and an evaluation phase of protection against challenge with a highly virulent reference strain.The results demonstrate optimum serum-conversion,with protective neutralizing antibody titers 28 days post vaccination and optimal protection against challenge with the reference strain with decreased clinical signs of infection,protection against the onset of fever and decrease of virus excretion post challenge.In conclusion,our results show the enormous potential that an immunogenic inactivated vaccine has produced from the native BoHV-1.1 strain,which produces a high antigen mass to the vaccine to induce optimal immunity and protection,and it is a strong candidate for evaluation and possible future use in different cattle populations.

  6. Tracking and flavour-tagging performance for HV-CMOS sensors in the context of the ATLAS ITK pixel simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandri, A.; Vacavant, L.; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A.; Djama, F.

    2016-12-01

    The HV-CMOS (High Voltage - Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) pixel technology has recently risen interest for the upgrade of the pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment towards the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . HV-CMOS sensors can be employed in the pixel outer layers (R >15 cm), where the radiation hardness requirements are less stringent, as they could instrument large areas at a relatively low cost. In addition, smaller pixel granularity can be achieved by exploiting sub-pixel encoding technology. Therefore, the largest impact on physics performance, tracking and flavour tagging, could be reached if exploited in the innermost layer (in place of the current IBL) or in the next-to-innermost layer. This proceeding will present studies on tracking and flavour-tagging performance in presence of HV-CMOS sensors in the innermost layer of the ATLAS detector.

  7. Being flexible: the voltage-controllable activation gate of Kv channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain J. Labro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kv channels form voltage-dependent potassium selective pores in the outer cell membrane and are composed out of four -subunits, each having six membrane-spanning -helices (S1-S6. The -subunits tetramerize such that the S5-S6 pore domains co-assemble into a centrally located K+ pore which is surrounded by four operational voltage sensing domains (VSD that are each formed by the S1-S4 segments. Consequently, each subunit is capable of responding to changes in membrane potential and dictates whether the pore should be conductive or not. K+ permeation through the pore can be sealed off by two separate gates in series: (a at the inner S6 bundle crossing (BC gate and (b at the level of the selectivity-filter (SF gate located at the extracellular entrance of the pore. Within the last years a general consensus emerged that a direct communication between the S4S5-linker and the bottom part of S6 (S6c constitutes the coupling with the VSD thus making the BC gate the main voltage-controllable activation gate. While the BC gate listens to the VSD, the SF changes its conformation depending on the status of the BC gate. Through the eyes of an entering K+ ion, the operation of the BC gate apparatus can be compared with the iris-like motion of the diaphragm from a camera whereby its diameter widens. Two main gating motions have been proposed to create this BC gate widening: (1 tilting of the helix whereby the S6 converts from a straight -helix to a tilted one or (2 swiveling of the S6c whereby the S6 remains bent. Such motions require a flexible hinge that decouples the pre- and post-hinge segment. Roughly at the middle of the S6 there exists a highly conserved glycine residue and a tandem proline motif that seem to fulfill the role of a gating hinge which allows for tilting/swiveling/rotations of the post-hinge S6 segment. In this review we delineate our current view on the operation of the BC gate for controlling K+ permeation in Kv channels.

  8. Transcriptome comparative profiling of barley eibi1 mutant reveals pleiotropic effects of HvABCG31 gene on cuticle biogenesis and stress responsive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Tao; Li, Guangrong; Chen, Guoxiong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-10-14

    Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  9. Transcriptome Comparative Profiling of Barley eibi1 Mutant Reveals Pleiotropic Effects of HvABCG31 Gene on Cuticle Biogenesis and Stress Responsive Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eviatar Nevo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  10. HvEXPB7, a novel β-expansin gene revealed by the root hair transcriptome of Tibetan wild barley, improves root hair growth under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Jianbin; Cao, Fangbin; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Zhang, Guoping; Vincze, Eva; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Tibetan wild barley is a treasure trove of useful genes for crop improvement including abiotic stress tolerance, like drought. Root hair of single-celled structures plays an important role in water and nutrition uptake. Polyethylene-glycol-induced drought stress hydroponic/petri-dish experiments were performed, where root hair morphology and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes (drought-tolerant XZ5 and drought-sensitive XZ54) and drought-tolerant cv. Tadmor were compared. Drought-induced root hair growth was only observed in XZ5. Thirty-six drought tolerance-associated genes were identified in XZ5, including 16 genes specifically highly expressed in XZ5 but not Tadmor under drought. The full length cDNA of a novel β-expansin gene (HvEXPB7), being the unique root hair development related gene in the identified genes, was cloned. The sequence comparison indicated that HvEXPB7 carried both DPBB_1 and Pollon_allerg_1 domains. HvEXPB7 is predominantly expressed in roots. Subcellular localization verified that HvEXPB7 is located in the plasma membrane. Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) of HvEXPB7 led to severely suppressed root hairs both under control and drought conditions, and significantly reduced K uptake. These findings highlight and confer the significance of HvEXPB7 in root hair growth under drought stress in XZ5, and provide a novel insight into the genetic basis for drought tolerance in Tibetan wild barley.

  11. Risk factors associated with BoHV-1 and BVDV seropositivity in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis from the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise Gomes Fernandes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BoHV-1 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV infections in buffaloes in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, using 136 female buffaloes ? 24 months old from 14 herds. For the serological diagnosis of the BoHV-1 and BVDV infections, the virus-neutralization test (VN was used and in each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain data to be used in the risk factor analysis. Of the 136 animals 86 (63.2% were positive for BoHV-1 and 12 (8.8% for BVDV. The presence of watering points (odds ratio = 17.68; 95% CI = 3.74 – 83.04 was identified as risk factor for BoHv-1, and animal purchasing was a risk factor for both BoHV-1 (odds ratio = 68.64; 95% CI = 12.28 – 383.73 and BVDV (odds ratio = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.04 – 12.76. The results from the present study showed an evidence of the presence of BoHV-1 and BVDV infections in buffaloes from the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. It is suggested that control and prevention measures should be adopted, such as the use of diagnostic tests prior to animal purchasing and the use of vaccines to avoid the introduction of infected animals into the herds and the consequent dissemination of the infections, minimizing economic losses.

  12. Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA HV1 Region of Shed Hairs%脱落毛发线粒体DNA HV1区序列测定的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 陈松; 张纯斌; 赵鑫

    1999-01-01

    目的对脱落毛发线粒体DNA HV1区序列测定方法进行研究.方法嵌合扩增结合末端荧光标记DNA测序.结果对20例脱落毛发进行分析获得了明确的测序结果,与来自同一个体的血液所测得的DNA序列进行比较,完全相同.结论嵌合扩增在对脱落毛发进行线粒体DNA多变区序列分析中是一种有效的方法,在法医DNA检验中具有实用价值.

  13. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  14. Mechanosensitive Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  15. Installation of a TCT set-up for characterization of novel HV-CMOS planar silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    For future upgrades of the LHC it is necessary to develop new tracking detectors: more radiation hard and cost efficient pixel detectors with high spacial resolution are required for the planned high luminosity version of the LHC (HL-LHC). For future tracking devices HV-CMOS active pixel sensors are great candidates since they fulfill all the demands mentioned above. First prototypes of these sensors are assembled on custom test boards and together with FE-I4 readout chips they make up the first test pixel detectors. One approach for testing these chips is through using lasers to induce electron-hole-pairs into the depletion zone of the sensor chip diodes to simulate an ionizing particle crossing through the bulk. Comparison measurements of irradiated/non-irradiated sensors are used to explore the radiation hardness of the sensors.

  16. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis for HV Circuit Breakers Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Energy Entropy and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation process of the high voltage circuit breaker, the changes of vibration signals can reflect the machinery states of the circuit breaker. The extraction of the vibration signal feature will directly influence the accuracy and practicability of fault diagnosis. This paper presents an extraction method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD. Firstly, the original vibration signals are decomposed into a finite number of stationary intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. Secondly, calculating the envelope of each IMF and separating the envelope by equal-time segment and then forming equal-time segment energy entropy to reflect the change of vibration signal are performed. At last, the energy entropies could serve as input vectors of support vector machine (SVM to identify the working state and fault pattern of the circuit breaker. Practical examples show that this diagnosis approach can identify effectively fault patterns of HV circuit breaker.

  17. Integration of V2H/V2G Hybrid System for Demand Response in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yubo; Sheikh, Omar; Hu, Boyang; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-11-03

    Integration of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with power grid not only brings new challenges for load management, but also opportunities for distributed storage and generation in distribution network. With the introduction of Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), EVs can help stabilize the operation of power grid. This paper proposed and implemented a hybrid V2H/V2G system with commercialized EVs, which is able to support both islanded AC/DC load and the power grid with one single platform. Standard industrial communication protocols are implemented for a seamless respond to remote Demand Respond (DR) signals. Simulation and implementation are carried out to validate the proposed design. Simulation and implementation results showed that the hybrid system is capable of support critical islanded DC/AC load and quickly respond to the remote DR signal for V2G within 1.5kW of power range.

  18. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  19. Analysis of Abnormal Chromatographic Data of Transformer HV Bushing%变压器高压套管色谱异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜军; 何镔; 刘红春

    2012-01-01

    The reason of abnormal chromatographic data of 220kV capacitive oil-paper HV bushing is analyzed. The preventive measures are presented.%分析了一起220kV电容式油纸高压套管色谱异常的故障原因,并提出了预防措施。

  20. Overexpression of the barley aquaporin HvPIP2;1 increases internal CO(2) conductance and CO(2) assimilation in the leaves of transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanba, Yuko T; Shibasaka, Mineo; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Hayakawa, Takahiko; Kasamo, Kunihiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Katsuhara, Maki

    2004-05-01

    The internal conductance for CO(2) diffusion (g(i)) and CO(2) assimilation rate were measured and the related anatomical characteristics were investigated in transgenic rice leaves that overexpressed barley aquaporin HvPIP2;1. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that aquaporin facilitates CO(2) diffusion within leaves. The g(i) value was estimated for intact leaves by concurrent measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope ratio. The leaves of the transgenic rice plants that expressed the highest levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1 showed a 40% increase in g(i) as compared to g(i) in the leaves of wild-type rice plants. The increase in g(i) was accompanied by a 14% increase in CO(2) assimilation rate and a 27% increase in stomatal conductance (g(s)). The transgenic plants that had low levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1 showed decreases in g(i) and CO(2) assimilation rate. In the plants with high levels of Aq-anti-HvPIP2;1, mesophyll cell size decreased and the cell walls of the epidermis and mesophyll cells thickened, indicating that the leaves had become xeromorphic. Although such anatomical changes could partially offset the increase in g(i) by the aquaporin, the increase in aquaporin content overcame such adverse effects.

  1. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grain...

  2. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating...

  3. Gas Transport Through Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-25

    HvPlP2;l increases internal CO; conductance and CO; assimilation in the leaves of transgenic rice plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 45, 521 529. Harris...human Rhesus-associated RhAG protein and a kidney homologue promote ammonium transport in yeast . Nat Genet 26 341-344 42. Payne JA, Forbush B (1994

  4. Characterization of H/V Spectral Ratios for the Assessment of Slope Stability in the Gas Hydrate-rich Area: an Example from Offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Tsia, C. H.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Lin, S. S.; Liang, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Nakamura's method, which calculates the ratios between horizontal and vertical component spectra of seismic signals (H/V), is widely used in the inland area. However, few related estimations were performed for the offshore area and little knowledge for the marine sediments were obtained. From 2013 to 2015, three passive ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) experiments were conducted in gas hydrate-rich area offshore SW Taiwan in the aim of acquiring information related to the physical properties of seafloor sediments. The H/V of the seafloor sediments in the three areas were estimated by using the ambient noise and seismic signal recorded by OBSs. The resonance frequency of each site was estimated from the main peak of H/V distribution and a range between 5 and 10 Hz were obtained. Based on the empirical law, this resonance frequency range should correspond to a sediment thickness of approximately several to ten of meters. This estimation is consistent with the thickness of the sedimentary cover imaged by chirp sonar survey, suggesting that the site response of seafloor is dominantly controlled by the unconsolidated sedimentary layer on the top of the sea bed. Remarkably, the H/V ratios obtained in our study area are much larger than that calculated for the inland areas. The magnification can reach as high as 50 to more than 100. This observation infers that the sea water movement might emphasize the horizontal motion of the marine sediments, which is crucial for the slope stability assessment. Moreover, for most stations located in the active margin, no distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. However, in the passive margin, the H/V peak calculated from ambient noise and earthquakes is mostly identical. This phenomenon may suggest that relatively unclear sedimentary boundary exist in the active margin environment. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the OBSs deployed in the southwest Taiwan offshore area offers a

  5. A voltage-gated H+ channel underlying pH homeostasis in calcifying coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison R Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine coccolithophorid phytoplankton are major producers of biogenic calcite, playing a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires improved knowledge of cellular calcification mechanisms. Uniquely amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores produce calcified scales (coccoliths in an intracellular compartment and secrete them to the cell surface, requiring large transcellular ionic fluxes to support calcification. In particular, intracellular calcite precipitation using HCO₃⁻ as the substrate generates equimolar quantities of H+ that must be rapidly removed to prevent cytoplasmic acidification. We have used electrophysiological approaches to identify a plasma membrane voltage-gated H+ conductance in Coccolithus pelagicus ssp braarudii with remarkably similar biophysical and functional properties to those found in metazoans. We show that both C. pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi possess homologues of metazoan H(v1 H+ channels, which function as voltage-gated H+ channels when expressed in heterologous systems. Homologues of the coccolithophore H+ channels were also identified in a diversity of eukaryotes, suggesting a wide range of cellular roles for the H(v1 class of proteins. Using single cell imaging, we demonstrate that the coccolithophore H+ conductance mediates rapid H+ efflux and plays an important role in pH homeostasis in calcifying cells. The results demonstrate a novel cellular role for voltage gated H+ channels and provide mechanistic insight into biomineralisation by establishing a direct link between pH homeostasis and calcification. As the coccolithophore H+ conductance is dependent on the trans-membrane H+ electrochemical gradient, this mechanism will be directly impacted by, and may underlie adaptation to, ocean acidification. The presence of this H+ efflux pathway suggests that there is no obligate

  6. Comparative analysis of replication characteristics of BoHV-1 subtypes in bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants: a phylogenetic enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steukers Lennert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In general, members of the Alphaherpesvirinae use the epithelium of the upper respiratory and/or genital tract as a preferential site for primary replication. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 may replicate at both sites and cause two major clinical entities designated as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis/balanoposthitis (IPV/IPB in cattle. It has been hypothesized that subtype 1.1 invades preferentially the upper respiratory mucosa whereas subtype 1.2 favors replication at the peripheral genital tract. However, some studies are in contrast with this hypothesis. A thorough study of primary replication at both mucosae could elucidate whether or not different BoHV-1 subtypes show differences in mucosa tropism. We established bovine respiratory and genital organ cultures with emphasis on maintenance of tissue morphology and viability during in vitro culture. In a next step, bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants of the same animals were inoculated with several BoHV-1 subtypes. A quantitative analysis of viral invasion in the mucosa was performed at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post inoculation (pi by measuring plaque latitude and penetration depth underneath the basement membrane. All BoHV-1 subtypes exhibited a more profound invasion capacity in respiratory tissue compared to that in genital tissue at 24 h pi. However, at 24 h pi plaque latitude was found to be larger in genital tissue compared to respiratory tissue and this for all subtypes. These similar findings among the different subtypes take the edge off the belief of the existence of specific mucosa tropisms of different BoHV-1 subtypes.

  7. Knockdown of WHIRLY1 Affects Drought Stress-Induced Leaf Senescence and Histone Modifications of the Senescence-Associated Gene HvS40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Janack

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The plastid-nucleus located protein WHIRLY1 has been described as an upstream regulator of leaf senescence, binding to the promoter of senescence-associated genes like HvS40. To investigate the impact of WHIRLY1 on drought stress-induced, premature senescence, transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the HvWHIRLY1 gene were grown under normal and drought stress conditions. The course of leaf senescence in these lines was monitored by physiological parameters and studies on the expression of senescence- and drought stress-related genes. Drought treatment accelerated leaf senescence in WT plants, whereas WHIRLY 1 knockdown lines (RNAi-W1 showed a stay-green phenotype. Expression of both senescence-associated and drought stress-responsive genes, was delayed in the transgenic plants. Notably, expression of transcription factors of the WRKY and NAC families, which are known to function in senescence- and stress-related signaling pathways, was affected in plants with impaired accumulation of WHIRLY1, indicating that WHIRLY1 acts as an upstream regulator of drought stress-induced senescence. To reveal the epigenetic indexing of HvS40 at the onset of drought-induced senescence in WT and RNAi-W1 lines, stress-responsive loading with histone modifications of promoter and coding sequences of HvS40 was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantified by qRT-PCR. In the wildtype, the euchromatic mark H3K9ac of the HvS40 gene was low under control conditions and was established in response to drought treatment, indicating the action of epigenetic mechanisms in response to drought stress. However, drought stress caused no significant increase in H3K9ac in plants impaired in accumulation of WHIRLY1. The results show that WHIRLY1 knockdown sets in motion a delay in senescence that involves all aspects of gene expression, including changes in chromatin structure.

  8. Herpesvírus bovinos (BoHV-1.1 e BoHV-1.2b em forma infecciosa em encéfalos de bovinos submetidos ao diagnóstico de raiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.C.R. Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a incidência de herpesvírus bovinos (BoHVs em encéfalos de bovinos submetidos ao diagnóstico de raiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para tanto, amostras coletadas durante dois anos (n=70 foram submetidas ao isolamento viral em cultivos celulares. Os BoHVs foram isolados em dois (2,9% encéfalos. Após serem submetidas à caracterização antigênica e molecular, as amostras foram subtipadas como BoHV-1.1 e BoHV-1.2b. A BoHV-1.1 foi isolada de um encéfalo que foi também positivo para raiva. O vírus da raiva foi identificado em 11 amostras (15,7%. Estes achados revelam que a incidência de BoHVs em forma infecciosa em bovinos com encefalite foi baixa, embora represente 16,7% (2/12 dos encéfalos nos quais um agente viral foi identificado. Tal fato confirma a já reportada associação entre BoHV-1 e encefalites. Esse é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de BoHV-1.2b, um subtipo considerado menos patogênico, em um caso de doença neurológica em bovinos.

  9. A low on-resistance buried current path SOI p-channel LDMOS compatible with n-channel LDMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Kun; Luo Xiao-Rong; Fan Yuan-Hang; Luo Yin-Chun; Hu Xia-Rong; Zhang Bo

    2013-01-01

    A novel low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) p-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor (pLDMOS) compatible with high voltage (HV) n-channel LDMOS (nLDMOS) is proposed.The pLDMOS is built in the N-type SOI layer with a buried P-type layer acting as a current conduction path in the on-state (BP SOI pLDMOS).Its superior compatibility with the HV nLDMOS and low voltage (LV) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry which are formed on the N-SOI layer can be obtained.In the off-state the P-buried layer built in the N-SOI layer causes multiple depletion and electric field reshaping,leading to an enhanced (reduced) surface field (RESURF)effect.The proposed BP SOI pLDMOS achieves not only an improved breakdown voltage (BV) but also a significantly reduced Ron,sp.The BV of the BP SOI pLDMOS increases to 319 V from 215 V of the conventional SOI pLDMOS at the same half cell pitch of 25 μm,and Ron,sp decreases from 157 mΩ·cm2 to 55 mΩ·cm2.Compared with the PW SOI pLDMOS,the BP SOI pLDMOS also reduces the Ron,sp by 34% with almost the same BV.

  10. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  11. Positron Channeling

    CERN Document Server

    Badikyan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of channeling the low-energy relativistic positrons around separate crystallographic axes with coaxial symmetry of negative ions in some types of crystals is shown. The process of annihilation of positrons with electrons of medium was studied in detail.

  12. Brands & Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Brands" and "Channels" are the two most important things in Ku-Hai Chen's eyes when doing business with Main-land China. Ku-Hai Chen, Executive Director of the International Trade Institute of Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), flies frequently between Chinese Taipei and Mainland China, and was in Beijing earlier this month for his seminar.

  13. Effect of combination of oxygen, ozone and VSD in healing traumatic wound surface%氧、臭氧及负压封闭引流联合应用对创面的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显凯; 王韬; 朱渝军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨联合应用负压封闭引流、局部氧疗及臭氧治疗对创伤创面的治疗作用.方法 选择2009年8月~2010年9月期间收治的50例胸腹壁、背部、四肢严重皮肤及软组织损伤病人,男性30例,女性20例;年龄16~58岁,平均35.8岁.平均创面面积124.5cm2.清创后30例采用氧、臭氧及负压封闭引流综合治疗(简称综合组):20例按常规方法换药(常规组).观察综合治疗和常规治疗对创伤性创面愈合的细菌及组织学变化影响.结果 综合组创面愈合时间及创面植皮时间均较常规组明显缩短(P<0 05);综合治疗组第5、7天创面细菌数显著低于常规组(P<0.01).光镜下观察综合治疗组肌纤维水肿程度较轻,炎性细胞浸润及血管扩张充血均较常规组轻.结论 联合应用负压封闭引流、局部氧疗及臭氧治疗可以优势互补,显著提高皮肤及软组织创面的治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the therapeutical effect of combination of oxygen, ozone and VSD on traumatic wound surface. Methods We studied fifty patients with severe skin and soft tissue injury in thoracic and abdominal wall,back and limbs,who admitted to our hospital from Aug. 2009 to Sep. 2010. There were 30 males and 20 females,aging from 16 to 58 ( average 35.8 ) years. The mean area of wound surface was 124.5cm2. Thirty patients(the combined therapy group) were debrided in common way and disposed by combined therapy of oxygen,ozone and VSD. While the other 20 patients ( the routine therapy ) were treated with the routine disposal. The effect of hemostasis and healing on wound surface was observed. Results The healing time and skin grafting time of the wound surface in the combined therapy group were all shortened apparently in contrast with the routine group (P <0. 05 ). The bacterial number of the wound surface in the combined therapy group in the 5th and 7th day ( P <0. 01) was remarkably less than the routine group. Under light

  14. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key compon

  15. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  16. Modelling Sediment Thickness for Site-Effect Characterisation using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Watlet, Arnaud; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The H/V Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient seismic noise has been widely used to estimate the fundamental site resonance frequency in the context of site-effect characterisation. In regions of unknown subsurface structure, in which there is a significant acoustic impedance contrast between sediments and the underlying bedrock, HVSR can be a very powerful tool to map bedrock morphology and sediment thickness. Calibrating the power-law relationship between the variation in fundamental frequency and sediment thickness around these unknown sites is crucial for sediment thickness mapping. This empirical relationship can be easily calculated by conducting HVSR analysis of ambient noise measurements above boreholes with known bedrock depth. Additional local H/V measurements above near-surface geophysical profiles, for instance created by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), allow training and improving the power-law relationship for sites with a shallow bedrock depth. As the compaction of sediments influences the Vs, one has however to take into account that this empirical relationship can only be applied in relative small areas with a similar local geology. Between 2008 and 2010, a seismic swarm (MLmax = 3.2) occurred in a hilly area, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). 60 of the 300 recorded events were felt/heard by the local residents and were reported in the corresponding 'Did You Feel It' internet inquiries held by Royal Observatory of Belgium. Several low-magnitude events show a distinct macroseismic intensity variation that can be explained by the geological site effect, i.e. the local sediment thickness, affecting the human perception of these earthquake-induced ground motions. In this presentation, we apply the above described methodology and discuss the results of a geophysical survey including ERT-profiling, ambient noise recording, HVSR analysis in Geopsy and DEM-modelling to characterise the local site effects. The resulting sediment thickness model

  17. Seismic microzonation and velocity models of El Ejido area (SE Spain) from the diffuse-field H/V method

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Navarro, Manuel; Piña-Flores, José; Luzón, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Aranda, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    El Ejido town is located in the Campo de Dalías coastal plain (Almería province, SE Spain), emplaced in one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. The municipality has 84000 inhabitants and presented a high growth rate during the last twenty years. The most recent intense seismic activity occurred close to this town was in 1993 and 1994, with events of Mb = 4.9 and Mb = 5.0, respectively. To provide a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, we first carried out a seismic microzonation of this town in terms of predominant periods and geotechnical properties. The predominant periods map was obtained from ambient noise observations on a grid of 250 x 250 m in the main urban area, and sparser measurements on the outskirts. These broad-band records, of about 20 minutes long each, were analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique (H/V). Dispersion curves obtained from two array measurements of ambient noise and borehole data provided additional geophysical information. All the surveyed points in the town were found to have relatively long predominant periods ranging from 0.8 to 2.3 s and growing towards the SE. Secondary high-frequency (> 2Hz) peaks were found at about the 10% of the points only. On the other hand, Vs30 values of 550 - 650 m/s were estimated from the array records, corresponding to cemented sediments and medium-hard rocks. The local S-wave velocity structure has been inverted from the H/V curves for a subset of the measurement sites. We used an innovative full-wavefield method based on the diffuse-wavefield approximation (Sánchez-Sesma et al., 2011) combined with the simulated annealing algorithm. Shallow seismic velocities and deep boreholes data were used as constraints. The results show that the low-frequency resonances are related with the impedance contrast between several hundred meters of medium-hard sedimentary rocks (marls and calcarenites) with the stiffer basement of the basin, which dips to the SE. These

  18. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  19. Measurement of Ballooning Gap Size of Irradiated Fuels Using Neutron Radiography Transfer Method and HV Image Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Tae Joo; Oh, Hwa Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Cheol [Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A transfer method of neutron radiography was developed to measure the size of the end plug and a gap of an intact K102L-2, the irradiated fuel of a ballooned K174L-3, a ballooned and ruptured K98L-3. A typical irradiation time of 25 min. was determined to obtain a film density of between 2 and 3 of SR X-ray film with neutrons of 1.5x10{sup 11}n{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. To validate and calibrate the results, a RISO fuel standard sample, Cd plate and ASTM-BPI/SI were used. An activated latent image formed in the 100 {mu}m Dy foil was subsequently transferred in a dark room for more than 8 hours to the SR film which is a maximum of three half-lives. Due to the L/D ratio an unsharpness of 9.82-14{mu}m and a magnification of 1.0003 were given. After digitizing an image of SR film, the ballooning gap of the plug was discernible by an H/V filter of image processing. The gap size of the ballooned element, K174L-3, is equal to or greater than 1.2 mm. The development of a transfer method played a pivotal role in developing high burn-up of Wolsung and PWR nuclear fuel type.

  20. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miucci, A; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Rosa, A.La; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J.C.; Liu, J; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C050642014 JINST 9 C05064 A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation a...

  1. A computer code for forward calculation and inversion of the H/V spectral ratio under the diffuse field assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Piña-Flores, José; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    During a quarter of a century, the main characteristics of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise HVSRN have been extensively used for site effect assessment. In spite of the uncertainties about the optimum theoretical model to describe these observations, over the last decade several schemes for inversion of the full HVSRN curve for near surface surveying have been developed. In this work, a computer code for forward calculation of H/V spectra based on the diffuse field assumption (DFA) is presented and tested. It takes advantage of the recently stated connection between the HVSRN and the elastodynamic Green's function which arises from the ambient noise interferometry theory. The algorithm allows for (1) a natural calculation of the Green's functions imaginary parts by using suitable contour integrals in the complex wavenumber plane, and (2) separate calculation of the contributions of Rayleigh, Love, P-SV and SH waves as well. The stability of the algorithm at high frequencies is preserved by means of an adaptation of the Wang's orthonormalization method to the calculation of dispersion curves, surface-waves medium responses and contributions of body waves. This code has been combined with a variety of inversion methods to make up a powerful tool for passive seismic surveying.

  2. A computer code for forward calculation and inversion of the H/V spectral ratio under the diffuse field assumption

    CERN Document Server

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    During a quarter of a century, the main characteristics of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise HVSRN have been extensively used for site effect assessment. In spite of the uncertainties about the optimum theoretical model to describe these observations, several schemes for inversion of the full HVSRN curve for near surface surveying have been developed over the last decade. In this work, a computer code for forward calculation of H/V spectra based on the diffuse field assumption (DFA) is presented and tested.It takes advantage of the recently stated connection between the HVSRN and the elastodynamic Green's function which arises from the ambient noise interferometry theory. The algorithm allows for (1) a natural calculation of the Green's functions imaginary parts by using suitable contour integrals in the complex wavenumber plane, and (2) separate calculation of the contributions of Rayleigh, Love, P-SV and SH waves as well. The stability of the algorithm at high frequencies is preserv...

  3. Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers%Numerical Prediction on the Thermal Interrupting Capability of HV SF6Gas Circuit Breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jingwei; GUO Jin; DENG Xiang'e

    2013-01-01

    The design technology for HV SF6 gas circuit breakers is very demanding.A numerical method for prediction of the thermal interruption capability of SF6 gas circuit breakers is established based on the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model and a commercial CFD(computational fluid dynamics) software,FLUENT.Nozzle ablation effect is considered by introducing an independent mass conservation equation for the ablated material to the overall conservation equations of mass,momentum,and energy.The ohmic heating and the radiation of the electric arc are considered in the model by adding relevant source terms.To predict the thermal interruption capability,the arc conductance 200 ns before current zero is used as an indicator.The CFD model is applied for the high current arcing phase,and Mayr arc model is used near the current zero period.The arc conductance at 200 ns before current zero(G200) for various arcing periods are computed by the present method.It shows that there exist a limit of the G200.For those whose arcing periods are within the arcing window,the related G200 are below the limit,therefore result a successful current interruption,and vice versa.The validation of the developed computer simulation tool is therefore verified.The numerical prediction by the simulation tool is verified by the direct interrupting test of 550 kV gas circuit breaker (GCB).The developed computer simulation tool was applied in the design of a 550 kV GCB.Significant benefits have been achieved in terms of both the cost saving and shorten of the development cycle.

  4. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s−1·mM−1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s−1·mM−1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases. PMID:28208765

  5. 高压交联电缆材料及工艺发展综述%A Review about Development of HV XLPE Cable Materials and Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳本红; 华明; 邓显波

    2016-01-01

    The history of production and application of HV XLPE cables was reviewed. The influence of the content, shape, and dielectric parameters of impurity in materials, interfacial smoothness between insu-lation layer and semiconductive shielding layer, and manufacturing process on the performance of cables was analyzed. The progress of HV cables technology was reviewed from materials and processes, and the development direction of performance and technology improvement for HV cables was proposed.%回顾了高压交联聚乙烯(XLPE)电缆的生产和应用历史,分析了材料中杂质含量、形状、介电参数、绝缘层与半导电屏蔽层界面光滑程度和电缆制造工艺对电缆性能的影响,从材料和工艺两个方面对高压电缆技术的进展进行了综述,并展望了高压交联电缆绝缘性能提升和技术进步的发展方向。

  6. Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, Tomá; Kalous, Luká; Vesel, Tomá; Krásová, Eva; Reschová, Stanislava; Rylková, Katerˇina; Kulich, Pavel; L, Miloslav Petrt; Pokorová, Dagmar; Knytl, Martin

    2012-12-27

    From 22 May to 10 June 2011 massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio was observed in alluvial Lake Řehacˇka close to the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. More than 1400 kg of dead fish were collected and no other fish species were affected. Further molecular and cytogenetic investigation of fish (n = 232) revealed that the Rˇehacˇka population of Prussian carp consisted exclusively of gynogenetic triploid females. The causative agent was identified by means of molecular and electron microscopy as a herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2). This is the first report of CyHV-2 from the Czech Republic and the second finding worldwide of CyHV-2 causing mass mortality of C. gibelio. Some other localities in the upper Elbe River basin where C. gibelio was affected are also noted. We assume that the massive wave of deaths of all female gynogenetic Prussian carp can be attributed to limited genetic variation and the favourable conditions for development of viral disease.

  7. Barley HvHMA1 is a heavy metal pump involved in mobilizing organellar Zn and Cu and plays a role in metal loading into grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela;

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated...... interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we...... suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling...

  8. BACKGROUND TRACK DENSITY REDUCTION OF 50-HZ-HV ECE-PROCESSED THICK POLYCARBONATE DETECTORS TO IMPROVE LOWER DETECTION LIMIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Hakimi, A; Soltani, Z

    2016-12-01

    A recent novel development of 50-Hz-HV ECE of 1-mm-thick and 250-µm-thick polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) has proved some promising results for some health physics, dosimetry and ion-beam-related applications. The method while proved having some good characteristics for some applications provided a relatively higher background track density (BGTD) in particular when very high voltages are applied to the PCTDs. In order to decrease the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the PCTDs and to further promote its applications for low dose, the BGTD was reduced by applying a layer removal methodology applying ethylendiamine (EDA). The effects of EDA concentrations (50, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 %) in water at room temperature (26°C) and soaking durations up to 100 min at different EDA concentration on BGTD reduction were studied. The thickness of the layer removed from the surface of a PCTD highly depends on the soaking time and EDA concentration; it increases as the EDA concentration increases up to for example 700 µm after 2 h of soaking in the EDA solution. After ∼10 min of soaking duration at any of the above-stated concentrations, the BGTD reaches its minimum value, a value which differs from concentration to concentration. An EDA concentration of 85 % in water provided the lowest BGTD of 64.06 ± 3.12 tracks cm(- 2); ∼6 times lower than that of its original value. It is shown that the layer removal process does not change the registration characteristics of the PCTD and its appearance significantly. The MDL of the PCTDs depends strongly on the BGTD. The MDL values for a desired confidence level were also studied by three calculation methods. The results of the BGTD and the MDL studies under different conditions applied are presented and discussed.

  9. SAK -HV 蛋白通过上调 ABCG5/ABCG8的表达降低胆固醇的吸收%SAK-HV Protein Inhibits Cholesterol Absorption through Up -regulation of ABCG5/ABCG8 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁敏; 王旻; 付文亮; 蔡贵玲; 徐东刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms through that SAK-HV protein reduces cholesterol level.Methods We admin-istrated high fat fed ApoE-/-C57 mice with SAK-HV protein of 0.5mg/kg concentration.Blood lipid levels were analysed in enzymic method.qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the small intestinal.To see whether the cholesterol absorption in the caco-2, cells was inhibited by SAK-HV protein.We pretreated the cells with SAK-HV protein of 100μg/ml concentration at different time followed by examination of the changes of cholesterol absorption in these SAK-HV-treated cells.Fi-nally we determined whether SAK-HV protein affects the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 by both Western blot analysis and qPCR quantification.Results SAK-HV protein can reduce serum cholesterol levels of high fat fed ApoE-/-C57 mice and up-regulate the ex-pression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 at both mRNA and protein level in the small intestine.The SAK-HV protein can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in caco-2 cells and up-regulate the expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 at both mRNA and protein level.Conclusion SAK-HV protein inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption through up-regulation of ABCG5 and ABCG8 expression.%目的:通过动物实验和体外细胞实验探讨SAK-HV蛋白降胆固醇的机制。方法以0.5mg/kg浓度的SAK-HV蛋白治疗高脂喂养的ApoE-/-C57小鼠,酶法检测ApoE-/-C57小鼠血脂水平,定量PCR法( real-time quantitative PCR,qPCR)和蛋白质印迹( Western blot)法检测小肠ABCG5和ABCG8 mRNA和蛋白的表达水平。100μg/ml的SAK-HV蛋白作用caco-2细胞不同时间后,NBD胆固醇作为荧光探针检测SAK-HV蛋白对caco-2细胞胆固醇吸收的影响,q-PCR和Western blot法检测SAK-HV蛋白对caco-2细胞ABCG5和ABCG8 mRNA和蛋白表达水平的影响。结果 SAK-HV蛋白可以降低高脂喂养的ApoE-/-C57小鼠的血清胆固醇

  10. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  11. Inversion of H/V in layered media from seismic ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory and on improved calculation of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    The microtremor H/V spectral ratio (MHVSR) is widely used to assess the dominant frequency of soil sites. Measurements are relatively simple as only one station is needed. It has been recently proposed a theoretical basis linking ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory. In this theory the directional energy density computed as the average spectral density of motion at a point, is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function at the observation point. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio ImG11 / ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In order to efficiently compute the imaginary part of Green's functions in a layered medium we start from an integral on the complex k plane and, using Harkrider's nomenclature, separate formulae for body-, Rayleigh-, and Love-wave components to the spectral densities are obtained. Then the poles allow for integration using the Cauchy residue theorem plus some contributions from branch integrals. It is possible to isolate pseudo reflections from ImG11 and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (from an a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V )2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer controls the slope in high frequency. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the estimate of ImG11 will be improved. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research has been partially supported by DGAPA-UNAM under Project IN104712, by the MINECO research project CGL2010-16250, Spain, by the EU with FEDER, and the AXA Research Fund.

  12. Investigation of the attenuation properties of the HV board grid of electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchung der Daempfungseigenschaften des Hochvoltbordnetzes in Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obholz, Martin; Baerenfaenger, Joerg [EMC Test NRW GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Maarleveld, Marc; Hirsch, Holger [Duisburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energietransport und -speicherung

    2012-11-01

    Power electronics components with transient switching processes cause AC components in the HV on-board supply system, with current and voltage harmonics with frequencies in the two-digit MHz range. Depending on their length and design, the HV lines can act as effective antenna structures. It is already common to shield HV lines for better EMP but the shield should be continued also in the connected casings. Material characteristics must be considered for weight and cost optimisation. For this reason, shield attenuation dimensions are calculated for exemplary casings for the frequency ranges that are relevant in electromobility. Afater this, the intrinsic sheild attenuation values of three different materials are measured in the frequency range of 10 - 100 MHz, and their relevance for applications in electormobility is assessed. The coaxial HV lines differ from other coaxial lines in their system characteristics; coupling attenuation and transfer impedance are important characteristics. To measure these characteristics, measuring tools must be adapted to the concrete applications. The methodology and the identified characteristics are discussed in detail. [German] Baugruppen der Leistungselektronik mit transienten Schaltvorgaengen verursachen Wechselspannungsanteile im Hochvoltbordnetz, die Strom- und Spannungsoberschwingungen mit Frequenzauspraegungen bis in den zweistelligen MHz-Bereich zeigen. Die Hochvoltleitungen koennen dann abhaengig von Laenge und Ausfuehrung als effektive Antennenstrukturen agieren. Zur Einhaltung der elektromagnetischen Vertraeglichkeit, werden bereits Schirmungen der Hochvoltleitungen eingesetzt. Jedoch muss fuer eine effektive elektromagnetische Entkopplung die Schirmung auch in den angeschlossenen Gehaeusen konsequent weitergefuehrt werden. Hierbei sind materialspezifische Anforderungen zu beachten, die Gewichts- und Kostenoptimierungen unterliegen. Daher wird fuer die in der Elektromobilitaet relevanten Frequenzbereiche eine

  13. VSD联合人工真皮复合自体刃厚皮移植在手足电击伤创面中的应用%Application of VSD combined with artificial dermis composite autologous split-thickness skin graft in electric injury of hands and feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德恒; 刘继松; 李勇; 章祥洲; 余勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察应用负压封闭引流术( VSD)联合人工真皮复合自体刃厚皮移植修复手足电击伤创面的效果。方法:选取2011年1月-2014年12月应用VSD联合人工真皮支架复合自体刃厚皮片移植修复手足电击伤创面的病例,共11例创面,对创面先行扩创+VSD,10 d~3周创面基底肉芽发育良好后行人工真皮移植,2周后进行自体刃厚皮片移植。结果:11处电击伤创面移植皮片全部成活,皮片质地柔软形态饱满、弹性佳,手足关节功能满意,供皮区瘢痕不明显。结论:应用VSD联合人工真皮复合自体刃厚皮片移植修复手足电击伤创面能较好地保护患肢的形态和功能。%Objective:To observe application and effect of VSD combined with artificial dermis composite autologous split-thickness skin graft in the repair of electrically damaged wound of hands and feet.Methods:11cases of wounds of electrically damaged hands and feet were chosen which were treated with VSD combined with artificial dermis composite autologous split-thickness skin graft from Janu-ary 2011 to December 2014.Debridement of the wound was first conducted added with VSD.Artificial dermis transplantation was carried out after 10 days to 3 weeks when granulation tissues were well developed at the wound base.Autologous split-thickness skin grafting was given 2 weeks later.Results:All the 11cases of electrically damaged wounds survived after the surgery.The skin was soft in texture and good in elasticity.The joint function of hands and feet was satisfactory.Scar was not obvious.Conclusion:The application of VSD combined with artificial dermis composite antilogous split-thickness skin graft to repair electrically damaged wound of hands and feet can better protect the form and function of suffered limbs.

  14. Microtremor measurements in the northern coast of İzmir Bay, Turkey to evaluate site-specific characteristics and fundamental periods by H/V spectral ratio method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuğba Eskişar; Şenol Özyalin; Mehmet Kuruoğlu; H Recep Yilmaz

    2013-02-01

    Seventy-two microtremor measurements were conducted in the northern coast of İzmir Bay. The dataset has been processed using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The fundamental period contour map obtained showed that the fundamental period at rock sites of the northern coast of İzmir Bay was between 0.15 and 0.35 s. However, the fundamental period increased towards the western direction where thick soft sediments exist, the fundamental period varied between 0.5 and 2.0 s. A soil classification map of the area was prepared based on the data estimated from SPT- values of 25 boreholes. It is seen that major portion of the study area, including the shore line of the northern coast had SPT- values lower than 15. The fundamental periods obtained by H/V spectral ratio method and the periods derived from shear wave velocity data available in 11 of 25 boreholes were well-correlated. Fundamental period map obtained from H/V spectral ratio method illustrated the characteristics of weak soil conditions and the presence of bedrock level under thick alluvial soils. Finally, microtremor investigations have proved to be an effective tool for assessment of local soil conditions in case of thick soft sediments in the northern coast of İzmir Bay.

  15. Bio-Safety Technology in Production of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 (BoHV-5 Using an Alternative Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and growth of bovine herpes virus type 5 (BoHV-5 was evaluated in three different media without foetal bovine serum or animal protein by infecting three different cell lines. The OPTI-PRO, VP-SFM and RPMI 1640 media were supplemented by L-glutamine, antibiotics added by 5µg of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and used to adapt CER, MDBK and CRIB cells in a statistic continuous culture system. The results obtained by CRIB and MDBK cells adaptation showed steady growth after 10th passages in OPTI-PRO medium, 20th passages in VP-SFM medium and 30th passages in RPMI 1640 medium, respectively. The OPTI-PRO and RPMI 1640 media were not able to support CER growth, even supplemented by IGF-1 and present apoptotic cells at 72h post-infection. The CER cells seeded after adaptation by 10th passages in VP-SFM medium added by 5µg/20ml of IGF-1 growth factor revealed the best virus titres compared to MDBK and CRIB cell lines. It was concluded that CER, MDBK and CRIB cells infected by BoHV-5 serotype could be used for laboratory diagnosis propagated on much safer culture system of high biotechnology advances.

  16. Residual Prolapse in Patients with III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids Undergoing Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy with CPH34 HV: Results of an Italian Multicentric Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Reboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CPH34 HV, a high volume stapler, was tested in order to assess its safety and efficacy in reducing residual/recurrent haemorrhoids. The clinical charts of 430 patients with third- to fourth-degree haemorrhoids undergoing SH in 2012-2013 were consecutively reviewed, excluding those with obstructed defecation (rectocele >2 cm; Wexner’s score >15. Follow-up was scheduled at six and 12 months. Rectal prolapse exceeding more than half of CAD was reported in 341 patients (79.3%; one technical failure was reported (0.2% without any serious untoward effect; and 1.3 stitch/patient (SD, 1.7 was required to achieve complete haemostasis. Doughnuts volume was higher (13.8 mL; SD, 1.5 in patients with a large rectal prolapse than with smaller one (8.9 mL; SD, 0.7 (P value <0.05. Residual and recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 8 of 430 patients (1.8% and 5 of 254 patients (1.9%, respectively. A high index of patient satisfaction (visual analogue scale = 8.9; SD, 0.9 coupled with a persistent reduction of constipation scores (CSS = 5.0, SD, 2.2 was observed. The wider prolapse resection well correlated with a clear-cut reduction of haemorrhoidal relapse, a high index of patient satisfaction, and clinically relevant reduction of constipations scores coupled with satisfactory haemostatic properties of CPH34 HV.

  17. HvLUX1 is a candidate gene underlying the early maturity 10 locus in barley: phylogeny, diversity, and interactions with the circadian clock and photoperiodic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Pankin, Artem; Drosse, Benedikt; Casao, Cristina M; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Photoperiodic flowering is a major factor determining crop performance and is controlled by interactions between environmental signals and the circadian clock. We proposed Hvlux1, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis circadian gene LUX ARRHYTHMO, as a candidate underlying the early maturity 10 (eam10) locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The link between eam10 and Hvlux1 was discovered using high-throughput sequencing of enriched libraries and segregation analysis. We conducted functional, phylogenetic, and diversity studies of eam10 and HvLUX1 to understand the genetic control of photoperiod response in barley and to characterize the evolution of LUX-like genes within barley and across monocots and eudicots. We demonstrate that eam10 causes circadian defects and interacts with the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 to accelerate flowering under long and short days. The results of phylogenetic and diversity analyses indicate that HvLUX1 was under purifying selection, duplicated at the base of the grass clade, and diverged independently of LUX-like genes in other plant lineages. Taken together, these findings contribute to improved understanding of the barley circadian clock, its interaction with the photoperiod pathway, and evolution of circadian systems in barley and across monocots and eudicots.

  18. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Affolder, A.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buckland, M.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, B. T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, J.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; McMahon, S.; Meng, L.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Peric, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  19. Polyphasic characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (p(HB-co-HV)) metabolizing and denitrifying Acidovorax sp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloe, K; Gillis, M; Hoste, B; Pot, B; Vancanneyt, M; Mergaert, J; Swings, J; Biedermann, J; Süssmuth, R

    2000-10-01

    For the purpose of denitrification in small drinking water plants, a bacterial mixed population was isolated from a packed bed column bioreactor with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) as a substrate for the denitrification of ground water (10 degrees C). Isolates 2nIII from the mixed culture, with the ability to denitrify and metabolize P(HB-co-HV), were used as starter cultures for the elimination of nitrate in ground water. The strains were characterized by diverse techniques. Classical phenotypic studies lead to rRNA group III of the genus Pseudomonas. Results obtained by molecular techniques demonstrated that the 2nIII strains are members of the Comamonadaceae and shows similarities to the genus Acidovorax. However, an integration of the 2nIII isolates within one of the known Acidovorax species is not possible for the moment. The 2nIII starter cultures clustered close to Av. temperans according to their whole cell proteins and fatty acids, whereas in DNA/DNA hybridization no significant DNA binding (< 25%) was found. In contrast a significant but low degree of DNA/DNA hybridization was found between the 2nIII strains and Av. facilis and Av. delafieldii. Our polyphasic results lead to the conclusion that the 2nIII strains may constitute a separate Acicdovorax species.

  20. Role of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) during meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Silva Barbosa, Aline; Freitas Versiani, Alice; Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Larissa; Silva de Miranda, Aline; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Brant, Fátima; Silva, Daniele Gonçalves; Luisa Quintino-de-Carvalho, Iracema; Marianetti Soriani, Frederico; Guimarães da Fonseca, Flávio; César Vasconcelos, Anilton; da Silva Barcelos, Lucíola; Martins Teixeira, Mauro; Lúcio Teixeira, Antônio; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2016-08-01

    The role of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in meningoencephalitis caused by Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) was evaluated by intracranial infection in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and SOCS2 deficient mice (SOCS2(-/-)). Both infected groups presented weight loss, ruffled fur and hunched posture. Additionally, infected SOCS2(-/-) mice showed swollen chamfer and progressive depression. Infected WT animals developed mild meningitis, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells. Moreover, viral DNA was detected in liver and lung from infected WT group. This group also showed elevated brain levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with non-infected WT animals. Brain inflammation was exacerbated in infected SOCS2(-/-) mice with widespread distribution of the virus and increased brain levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12, CXCL1 and CCL5, when compared with WT infected mice. Moreover, infected SOCS2 deficient mice exhibited reduced brain mRNA expression of IFNα and IFNβ and increased expression of mRNA of SOCS1, compared with infected WT mice. Taken together, our study provides an insight into the role of SOCS2 in modulating the immune response to BoHV-5 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Residual Prolapse in Patients with III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids Undergoing Stapled Haemorrhoidopexy with CPH34 HV: Results of an Italian Multicentric Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboa, Giuliano; Gipponi, Marco; Rattaro, Andrea; Ciotta, Giovanni; Tarantello, Marco; Caviglia, Angelo; Pagliazzo, Antonio; Masoni, Luigi; Caldarelli, Giuseppe; Gaj, Fabio; Masci, Bruno; Verdi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    CPH34 HV, a high volume stapler, was tested in order to assess its safety and efficacy in reducing residual/recurrent haemorrhoids. The clinical charts of 430 patients with third- to fourth-degree haemorrhoids undergoing SH in 2012-2013 were consecutively reviewed, excluding those with obstructed defecation (rectocele >2 cm; Wexner's score >15). Follow-up was scheduled at six and 12 months. Rectal prolapse exceeding more than half of CAD was reported in 341 patients (79.3%); one technical failure was reported (0.2%) without any serious untoward effect; and 1.3 stitch/patient (SD, 1.7) was required to achieve complete haemostasis. Doughnuts volume was higher (13.8 mL; SD, 1.5) in patients with a large rectal prolapse than with smaller one (8.9 mL; SD, 0.7) (P value <0.05). Residual and recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 8 of 430 patients (1.8%) and 5 of 254 patients (1.9%), respectively. A high index of patient satisfaction (visual analogue scale = 8.9; SD, 0.9) coupled with a persistent reduction of constipation scores (CSS = 5.0, SD, 2.2) was observed. The wider prolapse resection well correlated with a clear-cut reduction of haemorrhoidal relapse, a high index of patient satisfaction, and clinically relevant reduction of constipations scores coupled with satisfactory haemostatic properties of CPH34 HV.

  2. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  3. Soil characterization in urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin (Southeast Spain) using H/V, F-K and ESAC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Cintas, S.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Molina-Palacios, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; García-Fernández, M.; Jiménez, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Bajo Segura Basin, placed in the south of Alicante province (southeast Spain), is a region of moderate seismicity, which presents frequent seismic episodes. This region, as the rest of south-eastern part of Spain, is growing both economically and demographically. Hence, the presence of soft soils in a seismic region where many towns and villages are placed shows the importance of an adequate characterization of the site effects study in this area. The present work investigates the use of noise measurements for soil characterization by the application of H/V method and array techniques: extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) and frequency-wave number (F-K) in three urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin. The application of these methods will help us to estimate the resonance frequencies, as well as shear-wave velocity profiles, having a better understanding of the sediment depth and site effects phenomena at the studied places. The estimated velocity profiles are used to model the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves and the S-wave site transfer functions. Finally, the correlation between this curves and the experimental H/V analysis has allowed us a better assessment of the site response in the studied areas.

  4. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  5. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  6. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  7. Application of the H/V and SPAC Method to Estimate a 3D Shear Wave Velocity Model, in the City of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. E. A. P.; Aguirre, J.; Vazquez Rosas, R.; Suarez, G.; Contreras Ruiz-Esparza, M. G.; Farraz, I.

    2014-12-01

    Methods that use seismic noise or microtremors have become very useful tools worldwide due to its low costs, the relative simplicity in collecting data, the fact that these are non-invasive methods hence there is no need to alter or even perforate the study site, and also these methods require a relatively simple analysis procedure. Nevertheless the geological structures estimated by this methods are assumed to be parallel, isotropic and homogeneous layers. Consequently precision of the estimated structure is lower than that from conventional seismic methods. In the light of these facts this study aimed towards searching a new way to interpret the results obtained from seismic noise methods. In this study, seven triangular SPAC (Aki, 1957) arrays were performed in the city of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, varying in sizes from 10 to 100 meters. From the autocorrelation between the stations of each array, a Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curve was calculated. Such dispersion curve was used to obtain a S wave parallel layers velocity (VS) structure for the study site. Subsequently the horizontal to vertical ratio of the spectrum of microtremors H/V (Nogoshi and Igarashi, 1971; Nakamura, 1989, 2000) was calculated for each vertex of the SPAC triangular arrays, and from the H/V spectrum the fundamental frequency was estimated for each vertex. By using the H/V spectral ratio curves interpreted as a proxy to the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve, a series of VS structures were inverted for each vertex of the SPAC array. Lastly each VS structure was employed to calculate a 3D velocity model, in which the exploration depth was approximately 100 meters, and had a velocity range in between 206 (m/s) to 920 (m/s). The 3D model revealed a thinning of the low velocity layers. This proved to be in good agreement with the variation of the fundamental frequencies observed at each vertex. With the previous kind of analysis a preliminary model can be obtained as a first

  8. A 3000-year varved record of glacier activity and climate change from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2011-09-01

    A suite of environmental proxies in annually laminated sediments from Hvítárvatn, a proglacial lake in the central highlands of Iceland, are used to reconstruct regional climate variability and glacial activity for the past 3000 years. Sedimentological analysis is supported by tephrostratigraphy to confirm the continuous, annual nature of the laminae, and a master varve chronology places proxies from multiple lake cores in a secure geochronology. Varve thickness is controlled by the rate of glacial erosion and efficiency of subglacial discharge from the adjacent Langjökull ice cap. The continuous presence of glacially derived clastic varves in the sediment fill confirms that the ice cap has occupied the lake catchment for the duration of the record. Varve thickness, varve thickness variance, ice-rafted debris, total organic carbon (mass flux and bulk concentration), and C:N of sedimentary organic matter, reveal a dynamic late Holocene climate with abrupt and large-scale changes in ice-cap size and landscape stability. A first-order trend toward cooler summers and ice-cap expansion is punctuated by notable periods of rapid ice cap growth and/or landscape instability at ca 1000 BC, 600 BC, 550 AD and 1250 AD. The largest perturbation began ca 1250 AD, signaling the onset of the Little Ice Age and the termination of three centuries of relative warmth during Medieval times. Consistent deposition of ice-rafted debris in Hvítárvatn is restricted to the last 250 years, demonstrating that Langjökull only advanced into Hvítárvatn during the coldest centuries of the Little Ice Age, beginning in the mid eighteenth century. This advance represents the glacial maximum for at least the last 3 ka, and likely since regional deglaciation 10 ka. The multi-centennial response of biological proxies to the Hekla 3 tephra deposition illustrates the significant impact of large explosive eruptions on local environments, and catchment sensitivity to perturbations.

  9. Research on genetic diversities of Asiatic beaver (Castor fiber birulai)on mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰin Xinjiang,China%新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜聪聪; 赵晶; 初红军; 刘元超; 端肖楠; 陈刚

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversities of Asiatic beaver(Castor fiber)in Xinjiang was investigated by analyzing the HV-Ⅰsequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop)of 16 individuals from the Ulungur watershed of Xinjiang in China.Results showed that the length of mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of Xinjiang beaver was 569 bp,with nucle-otide frequencies of 27.0%,32.7%,24.0% and 16.2% for A,T,G and C respectively,and the frequencies of A and T was higher than that of G and C,which indicated the preference of nucleotides;that 10 polymorphic sites (2.03% of total analyzed sites) were found in the mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of Xinjiang beaver compared with that (AY623632)of Mongolia beaver,of which there were four transitions sites,five transversions sites and one missing site;that Xinjiang beaver and Mongolia beaver were in one cluster by phylogenetic analyses based on the open mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ sequence of beaver in other regions on GenBank,suggesting Xinjiang beaver also belonged to the sub-species of C.f.birulai;that Xinjiang beaver population had two unique haplotypes,whose haplotype diversity(Hd), nucleotide diversity(Pi)and average number of nucleotide differences(K)were 0.233 00 ±0.015 78,0.001 23 ±0.015 90 and 0.700,indicating a low level of genetic diversity,deeply related to its limited environment and human factors.%通过测定和分析我国新疆乌伦古河流域16只河狸的 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区序列,对新疆河狸的遗传多样性进行了研究。结果表明,新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区序列长度为569 bp,A、T、G 和 C 四种核苷酸的平均比例分别为27.0%、32.7%、24.0%和16.2%,新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区 A +T 含量高于 G +C 含量,表现出碱基组成的偏倚性。与蒙古国河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区(AY623632)比对后,发现我国新疆河狸 mtDNA D-loop HV-Ⅰ区10个变异位点,占分析位点总数的2.03%,其中转换位点4个,颠换位点5个,缺失位点1

  10. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 inactivated vaccine Eficácia de uma vacina inativada, gE-deletada, contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D. Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE-deleted virus (265gE-. In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50 of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 é reconhecido como um importante agente de perdas econômicas em bovinos. Vacinação tem sido amplamente empregada para minimizar as perdas conseqüentes a infecções com o BoHV-1. Reportamos previamente o desenvolvimento de uma vacina

  11. REEVALUATION OF EXISTING GROUND STRUCTURE MODEL GAINED THROUGH MICROTREMOR ARRAY METHOD BY USING FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF MODEL SURVEIED THROUGH H/V SPECTRUM - ON GROUND STRUCTURE OF FUKUI PLAIN -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yuzuru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Takao

    In order to reduce discrepancies between ground models based on the microtremor array observation in Fukui Plain and models by the H/V survey method and gravity analysis, the existing array ground models were reevaluated. The representative of the dispersion curves was selected so as to fit a theoretical fundamental mode dispersion curve of the H/V ground model. By using the method of selection, a reasonable reevaluation became possible. As a result the correspondences among the three models were much improved as a whole, but in the edge site of the Plain the differences against the gravity model are not reduced.

  12. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  13. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  14. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    . Within this channel were smaller erosional structures (hardgrounds, and locally have a basal fill of granular phosphorite. The entire channel system was progressively infilled by chalk, as demonstrated by the expanded succession...

  15. Readout electronics for low dark count Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E; Arbat, A; Alonso, O; Vila, A; Dieguez, A [Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Comerma, A; Trenado, J; Gascon, D; Garrido, L, E-mail: evilella@el.ub.es [Department of Structure and Constituents of Matter, University of Barcelona (UB) MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This work presents low noise readout circuits for silicon pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes. Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes offer a high intrinsic gain as well as an excellent timing accuracy. In addition, they can be compatible with standard CMOS technologies. However, they suffer from a high intrinsic noise, which induces false counts indistinguishable from real events and represents an increase of the readout electronics area to store the false counts. We have developed new front-end electronic circuitry for Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in a conventional 0.35 {mu}m HV-CMOS technology based on a gated mode of operation that allows low noise operation. The performance of the pixel detector is triggered and synchronized with the particle beam thanks to the gated acquisition. The circuits allow low reverse bias overvoltage operation which also improves the noise figures. Experimental characterization of the fabricated front-end circuit is presented in this work.

  16. Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by the barley cystatin Hv-CPI (gene Icy) is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M; López-Solanilla, E; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P; Carbonero, P; Díaz, I

    2003-10-01

    The recombinant barley cystatin Hv-CPI inhibited the growth of three phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum graminicola, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina) and the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma viride. Several mutants of barley cystatin were generated by polymerase chain reaction approaches and both their antifungal and their cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties investigated. Point mutants R38-->G, Q63-->L, and Q63-->P diminished their capacity for inhibiting papain and cathepsin B, retaining their antifungal properties. However, mutant C68-->G was more active for papain and cathepsin B than the wild type. These results indicate that in addition to the consensus cystatin-reactive site, Q63-V64-V65-A66-G67, the A37-R38-F39-A40-V41 region, common to all cereal cystatins, and the C68 residue are important for barley cystatin activity. On the other hand, the K92-->P mutant is inactive as a fungicide, but still retains measurable inhibitory activity for papain and cathepsin B. Against B. cinerea, the antifungal effect of Hv-CPI and of its derived mutants does not always correlate with their activities as proteinase inhibitors, because the Q63-->P mutant is inactive as a cystatin, while still inhibiting fungal growth, and the K92-->P mutant shows the reciprocal effects. These data indicate that inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by barley cystatin is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory activity. Moreover, these results are corroborated by the absence of inhibition of intra- and extramycelia-proteinase activities by barley cystatin and by other well-known inhibitors of cysteine-proteinase activity in the fungal zymograms of B. cinerea.

  17. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德

    2002-01-01

    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  18. Field evaluation of safety during gestation and horizontal spread of a recombinant differential bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 vaccine Avaliação a campo da segurança para vacas prenhes e capacidade de disseminação horizontal de uma vacina diferencial recombinante contra o Herpes-vírus Bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of respiratory, reproductive disease and abortion in cattle. Vaccination is widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections; however, vaccination of dams during pregnancy with modified live virus (MLV vaccines has been occasionally associated to abortions. We have previously reported the development of a BoHV-1 recombinant virus, constructed with basis on a Brazilian BoHV-1 (Franco et al. 2002a from which the gene coding for glycoprotein E (gE was deleted (gE- by genetic manipulation. Such recombinant has been previously evaluated in its potential as a differential vaccine (gE- vaccine that allows differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Here, in the first part of the present study, the safety of the gE- vaccine during pregnancy was evaluated by the intramuscular inoculation of 10(7.4 tissue culture 50 % infective doses (TCID50 of the virus into 22 pregnant dams (14 BoHV-1 seronegative; 8 seropositive, at different stages of gestation. Other 15 pregnant dams were kept as non-vaccinated controls. No abortions, stillbirths or fetal abnormalities were seen after vaccination. Seroconversion was observed in both groups of previously seronegative vaccinated animals. In the second part of the study, the potential of the gE- vaccine virus to spread among beef cattle under field conditions was examined. Four heifers were inoculated intranasally with a larger amount (10(7,6 TCID50 of the gE- vaccine (to increase chances of transmission and mixed with other sixteen animals at the same age and body condition, in the same grazing area, at a population density equal to the average cattle farming density within the region (one cattle head per 10,000 m², for 180 days. All animals were monitored daily for clinical signs. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 180 post-vaccination. Seroconversion was observed only in vaccinated heifers. These results

  19. The Perioperative Managements of Sequential Treatments, VSD, Pelnac and Autologous Skin Grafting, for the Skin and Soft Tissue Defects%VSD、皮耐克、自体皮移植序贯法修复皮肤软组织缺损的围手术期处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云; 王惠平; 何爱咏; 王向前

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the perioperative experiences of the sequential treatments------ vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) , artificial dermis (Pelnac) and autologous skin grafting for the skin and soft tissue defects caused by trauma, so as to further improve the treatment of these injuries. Methods The results and perioperative managements were retrospectively reviewed from 16 cases with skin and soft tissue defects treated by the sequential treatments: first stage with VSD coverage, then with Pelnac coverage, and at last with autologous skin grafting to repair the wounds. Results The wounds of 15 patients with skin and soft tissue defects were completely healed without leaving scars, except 1 patient's wound was healed after a second Pelnac graft because of the partial solution of the first Pelnac. Conclusions It is reliable of the sequential treatments to repair the skin and soft tissue defects. And it is conducive to promote the recovery of the patients with the key points of carefully monitoring the alterations of vital signs, attention to the wound closure, the drainage, and the dressing wetness, better nutrition and the opportunity choices for the operation time of the sequential treatments.%目的 分析总结采用序贯法修复皮肤软组织缺损创面的相关经验,以进一步提高该类损伤的处理水平.方法 回顾性总结16例皮肤软组织缺损患者序贯应用一期负压封闭引流技术(vacuum sealing drainage,VSD),二期使用皮耐克覆盖,三期使用自体皮移植修复创面的效果及围手术期处理要点.结果 16例皮肤缺损患者中15例创面完全愈合且不留疤痕,1例皮耐克部分溶解经再次植皮后创面愈合.结论 采用序贯法修复皮肤缺损创面疗效可靠;严密观察生命体征、注意伤口封闭情况、引流量及敷料渗湿情况、做好相关护理、加强营养及正确选择序贯法手术时机有利于促进患者早日康复.

  20. Ion channels in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  1. PE/PVC materials in HV cable jackets. Breakdown voltage of PE/PVC materials; PE/PVC-Materialien in Aussenmaenteln von Hochspannungskabeln. Durchschlagspannung von PE/PVC-Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Xu, Liang; Schufft, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Chemnitz-Zwickau, Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik

    2010-12-13

    Cables are spaced across increasingly longer distances in HV engineering. Integration of offshore wind farms and the construction of new transmission and distribution grids would be impossible without cables. Voltages and overvoltages in operation are managed according to international standards using overvoltage protection systems. However, there may be instances in which voltage occur that exceed the strength of the cable jacket. (orig.)

  2. Case note: HvJ EU (rolnr. C-131/12: Google Spain and Google Inc. tegen Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) and Costeja González)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.V.J.

    2014-01-01

    De uitspraak betreft de verplichtingen van aanbieders van zoekmachines op het internet met betrekking tot de verwerking van persoonsgegevens in zoekresultaten. Het HvJ EU beoordeelt deze vraag in het licht van het recht aangaande bescherming van persoonsgegevens, waarbij de door het EU Handvest besc

  3. Protocol channels as a new design alternative of covert channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wendzel, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Covert channel techniques are used by attackers to transfer hidden data. There are two main categories of covert channels: timing channels and storage channels. This paper introduces a third category called protocol channels. A protocol channel switches one of at least two protocols to send a bit combination to a destination while sent packets include no hidden information themselves.

  4. Surface vacancy channels through ion channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Damage patterns of single ion impacts on Pt(111) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Low temperature experiments, where surface diffusion is absent, have been performed for argon and xenon ions with energies between 1 keV and 15 keV at an angle of incidence of 86 {sup circle} measured with respect to the surface normal. Ions hitting preexisting illuminated step edges penetrate into the crystal and are guided in open crystallographic directions, one or more layers underneath the surface (subsurface channeling). In the case of argon channeling the resulting surface damage consists of adatom and vacancy pairs aligned in ion beam direction. After xenon channeling thin surface vacancy trenches along the ion trajectories - surface vacancy channels - are observed. They result from very efficient sputtering and adatom production along the ion trajectory. This phenomena is well reproduced in molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts at 0 K. The damage patterns of Argon and Xenon impacts can be traced back to the different energy losses of the particles in the channel. Channeling distances exceeding 1000 A for 15 keV xenon impacts are observed.

  5. Actions and Mechanisms of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) act on most ion channels, thereby having significant physiological and pharmacological effects. In this review we summarize data from numerous PUFAs on voltage-gated ion channels containing one or several voltage-sensor domains, such as voltage-gated sodium (NaV), potassium (KV), calcium (CaV), and proton (HV) channels, as well as calcium-activated potassium (KCa), and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Some effects of fatty acids appear to be channel specific, whereas others seem to be more general. Common features for the fatty acids to act on the ion channels are at least two double bonds in cis geometry and a charged carboxyl group. In total we identify and label five different sites for the PUFAs. PUFA site 1: The intracellular cavity. Binding of PUFA reduces the current, sometimes as a time-dependent block, inducing an apparent inactivation. PUFA site 2: The extracellular entrance to the pore. Binding leads to a block of the channel. PUFA site 3: The intracellular gate. Binding to this site can bend the gate open and increase the current. PUFA site 4: The interface between the extracellular leaflet of the lipid bilayer and the voltage-sensor domain. Binding to this site leads to an opening of the channel via an electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged PUFA and the positively charged voltage sensor. PUFA site 5: The interface between the extracellular leaflet of the lipid bilayer and the pore domain. Binding to this site affects slow inactivation. This mapping of functional PUFA sites can form the basis for physiological and pharmacological modifications of voltage-gated ion channels.

  6. Actions and Mechanisms of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, Fredrik; Liin, Sara I.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) act on most ion channels, thereby having significant physiological and pharmacological effects. In this review we summarize data from numerous PUFAs on voltage-gated ion channels containing one or several voltage-sensor domains, such as voltage-gated sodium (NaV), potassium (KV), calcium (CaV), and proton (HV) channels, as well as calcium-activated potassium (KCa), and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Some effects of fatty acids appear to be channel specific, whereas others seem to be more general. Common features for the fatty acids to act on the ion channels are at least two double bonds in cis geometry and a charged carboxyl group. In total we identify and label five different sites for the PUFAs. PUFA site 1: The intracellular cavity. Binding of PUFA reduces the current, sometimes as a time-dependent block, inducing an apparent inactivation. PUFA site 2: The extracellular entrance to the pore. Binding leads to a block of the channel. PUFA site 3: The intracellular gate. Binding to this site can bend the gate open and increase the current. PUFA site 4: The interface between the extracellular leaflet of the lipid bilayer and the voltage-sensor domain. Binding to this site leads to an opening of the channel via an electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged PUFA and the positively charged voltage sensor. PUFA site 5: The interface between the extracellular leaflet of the lipid bilayer and the pore domain. Binding to this site affects slow inactivation. This mapping of functional PUFA sites can form the basis for physiological and pharmacological modifications of voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:28220076

  7. Spectral ratios of ambient noise based on the diffuse field theory: Improved inversion of H/V in layered media using analytical properties of Green functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Piña, J.; Luzón, F.; Garcia-Jerez, A.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is well know the popularity of H/V spectral ratio to extract the dominant frequency of soil sites for microzonation studies (Nakamura, 1989). It is relatively easy to make measurements as only one station is needed. Despite its success, this approach had not solid theoretical basis until a proposal to link ambient noise vibrations with diffuse field theory was made (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011a). Based on this theory the average spectral density of a given motion of a point, also called directional energy density (Perton et al, 2009), is proportional to the imaginary part of Green function precisely at the observation point. The proportionality implies that vector components are all multiplied by the current spectral level of the diffuse illumination. Appropriate normalization is crucial to make the experimental spectral ratios closer to the theoretical counterpart. According to this theory the square of H/V is twice the ratio of ImG11 and ImG33, where ImG11 and ImG33 are the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal and vertical components, respectively. From ImG11 it could be possible through Fourier analysis to extract pseudo reflections and thus constrain the inversion of soil profile. We propose to assess ImG11 removing the influence of illumination spectrum using the H/V spectral ratio and an estimate of ImG33 (obtained from a priori model) by means of ImG11=0.5(H/V)2*ImG33. It has been found that ImG33 is less sensitive to details of stratigraphy. In fact, the most relevant property is the Poisson ratio of the uppermost layer which controls the slope in high frequency (Sánchez-Sesma et al, 2011b). Pseudo-reflection seismograms are thus obtained from Fourier transform, back to time domain, of i{ImG11-ImG11HSS}, where ImG11HSS is the imaginary part of Green functions at the load point for horizontal load at the surface of a half-space with the properties of the uppermost layer. With the obtained model ImG33 can be updated and the

  8. Nursing of patients with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD)for infectious wounds with skin and soft tissue defects%负压封闭引流治疗皮肤软组织缺损感染创面的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志花

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing of vacuum sealing drainage( VSD) for infected wounds with skin and soft tissue defects. Methods The study included 16 patients with infected wounds of skin and soft tissue defects. Preoperative psychological care was given, postoperative observation was conducted and appropriate nursing measures were made. Results Five cases of wound healed after skin grafting, 3 cases of wound healed after direct suture and 8 cases of flap survived completely. Conclusion Accurate, effective and timely nursing is key to good effect. This method is simple and it has advantages such as fewer pains in changing dressings, less wound infection and faster recovery.%目的 探讨负压封闭引流(VSD)治疗皮肤软组织缺损感染创面的护理体会.方法 本组收治患皮肤软组织缺损感染创面者16例,术前心理护理,术后病情观察,制定好相应的护理措施.结果 5例创面植皮后愈合,3例创面直接缝合愈合,8例转移皮瓣全部成活.结论 准确、有效、及时的护理是取得良好疗效的关键.此方法操作简单,可避免患者每日换药的痛苦,减少伤口感染,愈合快.

  9. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor

    2006-01-01

    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  10. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  11. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  12. Quantum feedback channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G

    2002-01-01

    In classical information theory the capacity of a noisy communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement-assisted capacities of a noisy quantum channel, in direct analogy to the classical case. It is also shown that in various cases of non-assisted capacities, feedback can increase the capacity of many quantum channels.

  13. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  14. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    identified as being crucial mediators of this process in a variety of smooth muscle. Recently, KV7 channels have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as well as being implicated in other smooth muscle disorders, providing a new and inviting target for smooth muscle disorders.......Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  15. 3D model of Campo de Dalías basement from H/V spectral ratio of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Seivane, Helena; Luzón, Francisco; Navarro, Manuel; Molina, Luis; Aranda, Carolina; Piña-Flores, José; Navarro, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Vidal, Francisco; Posadas, Antonio M.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Campo de Dalías is a large coastal plain in the southeastern mountain front of the Betic Cordillera (SE of the Iberian Peninsula), being one of the most seismically active regions of Spain. This area has a population of about 213.000 inhabitants, with a high growth rate during the last decades due to the development of intensive agricultural activities. Seismic risk assessment and hydrogeological issues are major topics of interest for this area, relaying on the knowledge of the geophysical properties of the basin. A passive seismic survey has been conducted throughout the basin. We have recorded ambient noise at 340 sites located approximately on the vertexes of a 1000 x 1000 m square grid, as well as around a set of deep boreholes reaching the Triassic basement. These broad-band records, of at least 45 minutes long each, have been analyzed by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method (H/V). The spectral analysis shows clear H/V peaks with periods ranging from 0.3 s to 4 s, approximately, associated to relevant contrasts in S-wave velocity (Vs) at depth. Simulations based on the diffuse field approach (Sánchez-Sesma et al. 2011) show that long periods are explained by the effect of several hundred meters of soft sedimentary rocks (mainly Miocene marls). Well-developed high-frequency secondary peaks have been found in some specific zones (e.g. N of Roquetas de Mar town). Then, fundamental frequencies and basement depths at borehole sites have been fitted by means of a power law, which can be applied down to 900 - 970m. Larger depths are estimated by extrapolation. This relationship has been used to map the basement (main Vs contrast) throughout the plain. The prospected basement model describes well the main structural features of this smoothly folded region, namely, the El Ejido Synform and the Guardias Viejas Antiform, with ENE-WSW-trend. These features are shifted toward the south in comparison with Pedrera et al. (2015). The homogeneous

  16. Using H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis to Map Sediment Thickness and to Explain Macroseismic Intensity Variation of a Low-Magnitude Seismic Swarm in Central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2013-12-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Royal Observatory of Belgium received numerous ';Did You Feel It'-reports related to a 2-year lasting earthquake swarm at Court-Saint-Etienne, a small town in a hilly area 20 km SE of Brussels, Belgium. These small-magnitude events (-0.7 ≤ ML ≤ 3.2, n = c. 300 events) were recorded both by the permanent seismometer network in Belgium and by a locally installed temporary seismic network deployed in the epicentral area. Relocation of the hypocenters revealed that the seismic swarm can be related to the reactivation of a NW-SE strike-slip fault at 3 to 6 km depth in the basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic London-Brabant Massif. This sequence caused a lot of emotion in the region because more than 60 events were felt by the local population. Given the small magnitudes of the seismic swarm, most events were more often heard than felt by the respondents, which is indicative of a local high-frequency earthquake source. At places where the bedrock is at the surface or where it is covered by thin alluvial sediments ( 30 m). In those river valleys that have a considerable alluvial sedimentary cover, macroseismic intensities are again lower. To explain this variation in macroseismic intensity we present a macroseismic analysis of all DYFI-reports related to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm and a pervasive H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of ambient noise measurements to model the thickness of sediments covering the London-Brabant Massif. The HVSR method is a very powerful tool to map the basement morphology, particularly in regions of unknown subsurface structure. By calculating the soil's fundamental frequency above boreholes, we calibrated the power-law relationship between the fundamental frequency, shear wave velocity and the thickness of sediments. This relationship is useful for places where the sediment thickness is unknown and where the fundamental frequency can be calculated by H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise. In a

  17. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  18. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  19. Large proper motion of the Thorne-\\.Zytkow object candidate HV 2112 reveals its likely nature as foreground Galactic S-star

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Using the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) catalog, we show that the candidate Thorne-\\.Zytkow object HV~2112 has a proper motion implying a space velocity of about 3000\\kms if the object is located at the distance of the Small Magellanic Cloud. The proper motion is statistically different from that of the SMC at approximately $4\\sigma$ in SPM, although the result can drop to about $3\\sigma$ significance by including the UCAC4 data and considering systematic uncertainties in addition to the statistical ones. Assuming the measurement is robust, this proper motion is sufficient to exclude its proposed membership of the Small Magellanic Cloud and to argue instead that it is likely to be a foreground star in the Milky Way halo. The smaller distance and therefore lower brightness argue against its proposed nature as a Thorne-\\.Zytkow object (the hypothesized star-like object formed when a normal star and a neutron star merge) or a super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Instead we propose a binary scenario where thi...

  20. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values.

  1. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  2. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...

  3. Detección de anticuerpos para BVDV y BoHV-1 en llamas de la región de Tandil - Provincia de Buenos Aires Detection of antibodies to BVDV and BoHV-1 in llamas from Tandil - Province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Morán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La llama (Lama glama es la especie predominante de camélidos sudamericanos de la República Argentina, con una población aproximada de 200.000 animales. El aumento de la actividad productiva ha incrementado el transporte y la distribución de animales hacia diferentes regiones del país. Como consecuencia, estas especies interactúan con el ganado doméstico posibilitando la diseminación de agentes infecciosos propios y comunes entre especies. Considerando que los camélidos sudamericanos son susceptibles a la infección con pestivirus y herpesvirus, se planteó realizar un relevamiento serológico de anticuerpos neutralizantes para el virus de la diarrea viral bovina (BVDV y el herpesvirus bovino 1 (BoHV-1. Se analizaron 49 animales de dos rebaños de llamas de la región de Tandil mediante la técnica de seroneutralización sobre cultivos celulares de la línea Madin Darby Bovine Kidney. El 22% (11/49 de los animales expresaron seropositividad a BoHV-1, mientras que el 2% (1/49 fue positivo a BVDV. Estos resultados sugieren circulación viral en la población analizada. Es necesario el monitoreo continuo en las poblaciones de estos rumiantes para identificar factores de riesgo involucrados en la epidemiología de estos agentes virales, considerando los potenciales efectos sobre los programas de control y erradicación.Llama (Lama glama is the predominant species of South American camelids in Argentine Republic, with an estimated population of 200.000 animals. The increasing of productive activity raised the animals transport and distribution to different regions of the country. As a result, the direct contact of these species with cattle increase opportunities for spreading own and common infectious agents among species. Considering that American camelids are susceptible to pestivirus and herpesvirus infections, it was proposed to carry out a serological searching of neutralizing antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV and bovine

  4. A high-performance polycarbonate electrophoresis microchip with integrated three-electrode system for end-channel amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Chen, Hengwu; He, Qiaohong; Soper, Steven A

    2008-05-01

    A fully integrated polycarbonate (PC) microchip for CE with end-channel electrochemical detection operated in an amperometric mode (CE-ED) has been developed. The on-chip integrated three-electrode system consisted of a gold working electrode, an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a platinum counter electrode, which was fabricated by photo-directed electroless plating combined with electroplating. The working electrode was positioned against the separation channel exit to reduce post-channel band broadening. The electrophoresis high-voltage (HV) interference with the amperometric detection was assessed with respect to detection noise and potential shifts at various working-to-reference electrode spacing. It was observed that the electrophoresis HV interference caused by positioning the working electrode against the channel exit could be diminished by using an on-chip integrated reference electrode that was positioned in close proximity (100 microm) to the working electrode. The CE-ED microchip was demonstrated for the separation of model analytes, including dopamine (DA) and catechol (CA). Detection limits of 132 and 164 nM were achieved for DA and CA, respectively, and a theoretical plate number of 2.5x10(4)/m was obtained for DA. Relative standard deviations in peak heights observed for five runs of a standard solution containing the two analytes (0.1 mM for each) were 1.2 and 3.1% for DA and CA, respectively. The chip could be continuously used for more than 8 h without significant deterioration in analytical performance.

  5. The omega-atracotoxins: selective blockers of insect M-LVA and HVA calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Youmie; Hayes, Jessica L; Sollod, Brianna; Wen, Suping; Wilson, David T; Hains, Peter G; Hodgson, Wayne C; Broady, Kevin W; King, Glenn F; Nicholson, Graham M

    2007-08-15

    The omega-atracotoxins (omega-ACTX) are a family of arthropod-selective peptide neurotoxins from Australian funnel-web spider venoms (Hexathelidae: Atracinae) that are candidates for development as biopesticides. We isolated a 37-residue insect-selective neurotoxin, omega-ACTX-Ar1a, from the venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus, with high homology to several previously characterized members of the omega-ACTX-1 family. The peptide induced potent excitatory symptoms, followed by flaccid paralysis leading to death, in acute toxicity tests in house crickets. Using isolated smooth and skeletal nerve-muscle preparations, the toxin was shown to lack overt vertebrate toxicity at concentrations up to 1 microM. To further characterize the target of the omega-ACTXs, voltage-clamp analysis using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was undertaken using cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. It is shown here for the first time that omega-ACTX-Ar1a, and its homolog omega-ACTX-Hv1a from Hadronyche versuta, reversibly block both mid-low- (M-LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) insect calcium channel (Ca(v)) currents. This block occurred in the absence of alterations in the voltage-dependence of Ca(v) channel activation, and was voltage-independent, suggesting that omega-ACTX-1 family toxins are pore blockers rather than gating modifiers. At a concentration of 1 microM omega-ACTX-Ar1a failed to significantly affect global K(v) channel currents. However, 1 microM omega-ACTX-Ar1a caused a modest 18% block of insect Na(v) channel currents, similar to the minor block of Na(v) channels reported for other insect Ca(v) channel blockers such as omega-agatoxin IVA. These findings validate both M-LVA and HVA Ca(v) channels as potential targets for insecticides.

  6. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a/GNA in Pichia pastoris: sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyati, Prashant; Fitches, Elaine; Gatehouse, John A

    2014-08-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast Pichia pastoris. To prevent proteolysis, the Hv1a/GNA fusion expression construct was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to remove a potential Kex2 cleavage site at the C-terminus of the Hv1a peptide. To obtain a high expressing clone of P. pastoris to produce recombinant Hv1a/GNA, a straightforward method was used to produce multi-copy expression plasmids, which does not require multiple integrations to give clones of P. pastoris containing high copy numbers of the introduced gene. Removal of the Kex2 site resulted in increased levels of intact fusion protein expressed in wild-type P. pastoris strains, improving levels of intact recombinant protein recoverable. Incorporation of a C-terminal (His)6 tag enabled single step purification of the fusion protein. These modifications did not affect the insecticidal activity of the recombinant toxin towards lepidopteran larvae. Introduction of multiple expression cassettes increased the amount of secreted recombinant fusion protein in a laboratory scale fermentation by almost tenfold on a per litre of culture basis. Simple modifications in the expression construct can be advantageous for the generation of high expressing P. pastoris strains for production of a recombinant protein, without altering its functional properties.

  7. Optimising expression of the recombinant fusion protein biopesticide ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a /GNA in Pichia pastoris : sequence modifications and a simple method for the generation of multi-copy strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Pyati, P.; Fitches, E.; Gatehouse, J A

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant protein bio-insecticides on a commercial scale can only be cost effective if host strains with very high expression levels are available. A recombinant fusion protein containing an arthropod toxin, ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a, (from funnel web spider Hadronyche versuta) linked to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) is an effective oral insecticide and candidate biopesticide. However, the fusion protein was vulnerable to proteolysis during production in the yeast...

  8. Computation over Mismatched Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Karamchandani, Nikhil; Diggavi, Suhas

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed computation of a target function over a multiple-access channel. If the target and channel functions are matched (i.e., compute the same function), significant performance gains can be obtained by jointly designing the computation and communication tasks. However, in most situations there is mismatch between these two functions. In this work, we analyze the impact of this mismatch on the performance gains achievable with joint computation and communication designs over separation-based designs. We show that for most pairs of target and channel functions there is no such gain, and separation of computation and communication is optimal.

  9. Channel Access in Erlang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  10. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  11. An Insight to Covert Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Salwan, Nitish; Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Suket; Singh, Amarpreet

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of different concepts regarding covert channels. It discusses the various classifications and the detailing of various fields used to manipulate for the covert channel execution.Different evaluation criterias are presented for measuring the strength of covert channels. The defenses and prevention schemes for this covert channel will also be discussed. This paper also discuss about an advanced timing channel i.e.Temperature Based Covert Channel.

  12. HV/EHV circuit breakers status monitoring using the CBW (circuit breaker watcher) system; Monitoramento do estado de disjuntores AT/EAT utilizando o sistema CBW (circuit breaker watcher)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ricardo; Schwarz, Marcos Bernert [Schneider Electric Alta Tensao Ltda., Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: ricardo.duran@vasat.com.br

    2001-07-01

    Taking in consideration the new requirements related with the imposed penalties to the electric sector due to energy supply interruption it is necessary to employ new maintenance techniques. In this direction, a solution is the introduction of digital systems in the substations supervision, facilitating by this way their operation. The introduction of these systems doesn't care if the substation is of the attended type or not. A system that supplies the monitoring of the HV/EHV circuit breaker status can be considered as an important support tool for new techniques of the maintenance in HV/EHV equipment. This document describes the CBW (Circuit Breaker Watcher) system destined to the monitoring of HV/EHV circuit breakers status, with the main objective to monitor the electric characteristics of power supply signals, commands and measurable magnitudes.The text also approaches integrated system through which it is possible to monitor, in a same system, circuit breakers, switchgears, transformers or others required equipment for monitoring.

  13. The S4-S5 linker acts as a signal integrator for HERG K+ channel activation and deactivation gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chai Ann; Perry, Matthew D; Tan, Peter S; Hill, Adam P; Kuchel, Philip W; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2012-01-01

    Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the S4-S5 linker, which couples movement of the voltage sensor domain to opening of the activation gate at the distal end of the inner helix of the pore domain. It has also been suggested that cytosolic domains may interact with the S4-S5 linker to regulate activation and deactivation kinetics. Here, we show that the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the S4-S5 linker of hERG contains an amphipathic helix. The effects of mutations at the majority of residues in the S4-S5 linker of hERG were consistent with the previously identified role in coupling voltage sensor movement to the activation gate. However, mutations to Ser543, Tyr545, Gly546 and Ala548 had more complex phenotypes indicating that these residues are involved in additional interactions. We propose a model in which the S4-S5 linker, in addition to coupling VSD movement to the activation gate, also contributes to interactions that stabilise the closed state and a separate set of interactions that stabilise the open state. The S4-S5 linker therefore acts as a signal integrator and plays a crucial role in the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel.

  14. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  16. Covert Channels within IRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Communications ....................................... 2 1.3 Steganography and Covert Channels .......................................................... 3...Internet Relay Chat ..................................................................................... 7 2.2 Steganography ...13 2.2.2 Encrypted Steganographic Systems .............................................. 15 2.2.3 Text-Based Steganography

  17. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  18. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  19. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  20. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios, lower and upper bounds are shown to match, and hence the fundamental limit of message authentication over noisy channels is fully characterized. The opponent's success probability is further shown to be smaller than that derived in the classic authentication model in which the channel is assumed to be noiseless. These results rely on a proposed novel authentication scheme in which key information is used to provide simultaneous protection again both types of attacks.

  1. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  2. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    , and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...... by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling....

  3. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  4. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  5. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  6. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  7. Fracture channel waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  8. 基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法%Capacity Optimization of HV Distribution Lines Based on Load Supply Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 郭寅昌; 刘洪

    2014-01-01

    To reasonably choose current-carrying capacities of HV distribution lines to implement refined planning and intensive construction to select benefiting conductors to reduce invest and increase utilization of supplying equipment, a method to optimize capacity of HV distribution line based on load supply capability analysis is proposed. Firstly, the concepts of power supplying route matrix and operation/wheeling mode vector of main transformer are defined to describe the information of the wireframe of HV distribution network; then based on the analysis of load supply capability of distribution network the minimized demand on capacity of HV distribution line, which makes the load supplying capability of distribution network reaching its limit, is taken as the objective and the constraints are determined through the analysis on normal operation of HV distribution wireframe and N-1 contingency as well as the analysis on operation/wheeling mode and the loop closing of wheeling mode, and then a mathematical model is formed;finally, a modified genetic algorithm is presented and used to solve the proposed optimization model. The effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method are verified by the calculation of a certain urban distribution network.%为合理选择高压配电线路载流量以实现高压配电网精细化规划和集约型建设,提出一种基于供电能力分析的高压配电线路容量优化方法。首先定义供电路径矩阵和运行/转供方式向量来描述高压配电网网架信息;然后基于配电网供电能力分析,以使配电网供电能力达到极限的最小高压配电线路容量需求为目标,通过配电网高压网架正常运行分析、高压配电线路N-1校验分析以及高压网架运行/转供方式和转供方式的合环情况分析建立约束,最终形成数学模型;最后提出一种改进的遗传算法对模型进行求解。通过某城区电网实例计算证明了算法的有效性和实用性。

  9. Pool spacing in forest channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington; Richard D. Smith; Kevin M. Schmidt; George Pess

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys of stream channels in forested mountain drainage basins in southeast Alaska and Washington reveal that pool spacing depends on large woody debris (LWD) loading and channel type, slope, and width. Mean pool spacing in pool-riffle, plane-bed, and forced pool-riffle channels systematically decreases from greater than 13 channel widths per pool to less than 1...

  10. Calcium channels and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  12. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  13. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large- m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  14. Chaos in quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hosur, Pavan; Roberts, Daniel A; Yoshida, Beni

    2015-01-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  15. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  16. TRP channels and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, David

    2013-01-01

    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  17. Targets detecting in the ocean using the cross-polarized channels of fully polarimetric SAR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunhua; LIU Xiaoyan; LI Huimin; ZHANG Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Azimuth ambiguities (ghost targets) discrimination is of great interest with the development of a synthet-ic aperture radar (SAR). And the azimuth ambiguities are often mistaken as actual targets and cause false alarms. For actual targets, HV channel signals acquired by a fully polarimetric SAR are approximately equal to a VH channel in magnitude and phase, i.e., the reciprocity theorem applies, but shifted in phase about ±ʌ for the first-order azimuth ambiguities. Exploiting this physical behavior, the real part of the product of the two cross-polarized channels, i.e.()SHVSV H, hereafter calledA12r, is employed as a new parameter for a target detection at sea. Compared with other parameters, the contrast ofA12r image between a target and the surrounding sea surface will be obviously increased whenA12r image is processed by mean filtering algo-rithm. Here, in order to detect target with constant false-alarm rates (CFARs), an analytical expression for the probability density function (pdf) ofA12r is derived based on the complex Wishart-distribution. Because a value ofA12r is greater/less than 0 for real target/its azimuth ambiguities, the first-order azimuth ambiguities can be completely removed by thisA12r-based CFAR technology. Experiments accomplished over C-band RADARSAT-2 fully polarimetric imageries confirm the validity.

  18. A Review of Wireless and PLC Propagation Channel Characteristics for Smart Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Güzelgöz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless, power line communication (PLC, fiber optic, Ethernet, and so forth are among the communication technologies on which smart grid communication infrastructure is envisioned to be built. Among these, wireless and PLC-based solutions are attractive considering the cost of initial deployment. Wireless communication deployment in smart grid covers a variety of environments such as indoor, outdoor, and electric-power-system facilities. Similar diversity is expected in PLC deployment as well covering low voltage (LV, medium voltage (MV, and high voltage (HV segments of the grid. In spite of being attractive, wireless and PLC channels are very harsh posing great challenges to performance of communication systems. In proposing solutions to smart grid communication needs, two approaches are likely to be followed. One is based on the use of existing wireless and PLC technologies with some modifications, and the other relies upon developing novel communication protocols particularly addressing the smart grid needs. Both of these approaches require an in-depth knowledge of communication channel characteristics. The aim of this study is to reveal the wireless and PLC channel characteristics of smart grid environments in terms of several parameters such as path loss and attenuation, time dispersion, time selectivity, amplitude statistics, and noise characteristics.

  19. Tensile properties of 2024 Al alloy processed by enhanced solid-solution and equal-channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-jing; GAO Jin-qi; CHENG Xiao-nong; MO Ji-ping

    2006-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing(ECAP) of an enhanced solid-solution treated 2024 Al alloy was successfully performed at room temperature, with an imposed equivalent normal strain of about 0.5. A very high hardness about HV191 and yield strength about 610 MPa (30% higher than those of the unECAPed 2024 Al alloy) in terms of commercial aluminum alloys were observed for the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy. In addition to the strengthening, this process allows the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy have a moderate level of tensile ductility (about 12.7%) and a significant strain hardening capability up to tensile failure. After aged at 373 K for 48 h, the ECAPed alloy increases its hardness (about HV201) and tensile ductility (about 14 %) further. The TEM results show that the ECAPed 2024 Al alloy presents a plate structure (about 50-100 nm) with high density of dislocation and additional thin plate (approximately <10 nm= inside. The XRD results show that the ECAP processing decreases the texture and increases the dislocation density of the alloy considerably. The theoretical calculations show that the increase of dislocation density resulting from ECAP processing makes a considerable contribution about 55.2% for the improvement of yield strength.

  20. In-channel indirect amperometric detection of nonelectroactive anions for electrophoresis on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Juan; Peng, Ying; Bao, Ning; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2005-10-01

    In the present paper, we describe a microfluidics-based sensing system for nonelectroactive anions under negative separation electric field by mounting a single carbon fiber disk working electrode (WE) in the end part of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel. In contrast to work in a positive separation electric field described in our previous paper (Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 6902-6907), here the electrochemical reduction reaction at the WE is not coupled with the separation high-voltage (HV) system, whereas the electrochemical oxidation reaction at the WE is coupled with the separation HV system. The electroactive indicator is the carbon fiber WE itself but not dissolved oxygen. This provides a convenient and sensitive means for the determination of nonelectroactive anions by amperometry. The influences of separation voltage, detection potential, and the distance between the WE and the separation channel outlet on the response of the detector have been investigated. The present detection mode is successfully used to electrochemically detect F-, Cl-, SO4(2-), CH3COO-, H2PO4-. Based on the preliminary results, a detection limit of 2 microM and a dynamic range up to three orders of magnitude for Cl- could be achieved.

  1. BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN DELAY DIVERSITY FOR FREQUENCY SELECTIVE CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zheng; Jia Ying; Yin Qinye

    2003-01-01

    Delay diversity is an effective transmit diversity technique to combat adverse ef-fects of fading. Thus far, previous work in delay diversity assumed that perfect estimates ofcurrent channel fading conditions are available at the receiver and training symbols are requiredto estimate the channel from the transmitter to the receiver. However, increasing the number ofthe antennas increases the required training interval and reduces the available time within whichdata may be transmitted. Learning the channel coefficients becomes increasingly difficult for thefrequency selective channels. In this paper, with the subspace method and the delay character ofdelay diversity, a channel estimation method is proposed, which does not use training symbols. Itaddresses the transmit diversity for a frequency selective channel from a single carrier perspectivein the form of a simple equivalent fiat fading model. Monte Carlo simulations give the perfor-mance of channel estimation and the performance comparison of our channel-estimation-baseddetector with decision feedback equalization, which uses the perfect channel information.

  2. K(v)7 channels: function, pharmacology and channel modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby-Brown, William; Hansen, Henrik H; Korsgaard, Mads P G; Mirza, Naheed; Olesen, Søren-P

    2006-01-01

    K(v)7 channels are unique among K(+) channels, since four out of the five channel subtypes have well-documented roles in the development of human diseases. They have distinct physiological functions in the heart and in the nervous system, which can be ascribed to their voltage-gating properties. The K(v)7 channels also lend themselves to pharmacological modulation, and synthetic openers as well as blockers of the channels, regulating neuronal excitability, have existed even before the K(v)7 channels were identified by cloning. In the present review we give an account on the focused efforts to develop selective modulators, openers as well as blockers, of the K(v)7 channel subtypes, which have been undertaken during recent years, along with a discussion of the K(v)7 ion channel physiology and therapeutic indications for modulators of the neuronal K(v)7 channels.

  3. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  4. Communicating Under Channel Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, Naqueeb; Shah, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    For a single transmit and receive antenna system, a new constellation design is proposed to combat errors in the phase estimate of the channel coefficient. The proposed constellation is a combination of PSK and PAM constellations, where PSK is used to provide protection against phase errors, while PAM is used to increase the transmission rate using the knowledge of the magnitude of the channel coefficient. The performance of the proposed constellation is shown to be significantly better than the widely used QAM in terms of probability of error. The proposed strategy can also be extended to systems using multiple transmit and receive antennas.

  5. Omega currents in voltage-gated ion channels: what can we learn from uncovering the voltage-sensing mechanism using MD simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Mounir; Delemotte, Lucie

    2013-12-17

    Ion channels conduct charged species through otherwise impermeable biological membranes. Their activity supports a number of physiological processes, and genetic mutations can disrupt their function dramatically. Among these channels, voltage gated cation channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous transmembrane proteins involved in electrical signaling. In addition to their selectivity for ions, their function requires membrane-polarization-dependent gating. Triggered by changes in the transmembrane voltage, the activation and deactivation of VGCCs proceed through a sensing mechanism that prompts motion of conserved positively charged (basic) residues within the S4 helix of a four-helix bundle, the voltage sensor domain (VSD). Decades of experimental investigations, using electrophysiology, molecular biology, pharmacology, and spectroscopy, have revealed details about the function of VGCCs. However, in 2005, the resolution of the crystal structure of the activated state of one member of the mammalian voltage gated potassium (Kv) channels family (the Kv1.2) enabled researchers to make significant progress in understanding the structure-function relationship in these proteins on a molecular level. In this Account, we review the use of a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, that has offered new insights on this timely issue. Starting from the "open-activated state" crystal structure, we have carried out large-scale all atom MD simulations of the Kv1.2 channel embedded in its lipidic environment and submitted to a hyperpolarizing (negative) transmembrane potential. We then used steered MD simulations to complete the full transition to the resting-closed state. Using these procedures, we have followed the operation of the VSDs and uncovered three intermediate states between their activated and deactivated conformations. Each conformational state is characterized by its network of salt bridges and by the occupation of the gating charge transfer center by a

  6. Research of characteristics of medium response and H/V spectrum of surface wave on microtremor%微动面波的介质响应和H/V谱特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奎; 梁北援; 刘澜波; 孙春岩

    2012-01-01

    At present, the main research method of surface wave on microtremor is the correlation analysis for the Rayleigh wave of surface wave. To be fully effective use of surface wave information and improve recognition accuracy,the principle of H/V spectrum of surface wave on microtremor is used in this paper. The medium response and H/V spectrum are obtained by computation given models, and the characteristics of medium response factor (MRF) and H/V spectrum of Rayleigh wave and Love wave are analyzed. The analysis results show the correspondence between MRF of surface wave on microtremor and formation interfaces of models. By comparing the H/V spectrum, the coherence of the main frequency of the Rayleigh wave and Love wave is found,and the use of love wave enhances the H/V spectrum. It is also pointed out that the problem to be solved of the H/V spectrum method in high frequency application field. Because this method uses surface wave information in microtremor without any special source,it is much more economic, faster and more widely applicable, and it will probably be a new kind of geological respecting methods with good application prospect.%目前,微动面波信息研究的主要方法是对面波中的Rayleigh波成分进行相关性分析.为了充分有效的利用面波信息和提高识别的准确度,本文基于微动面波H/V谱的基本原理,通过对给定模型的数值计算,得到了微动面波的介质响应曲线和H/V谱,分析了面波中Rayleigh波和Love波多模式波的介质响应和H/V谱特征.结果表明微动面波的介质响应特征与地层界面具有一定的对应关系,且在H/V谱中Rayleigh波和Love波的主频具有一致性,Love波的利用对H/V谱具有增强作用,文中也指出了H/V谱法在高频应用领域中有待进一步解决的问题.由于该方法使用的是地微动噪声中的面波信息,不需要专门的震源,因此具有经济快捷、应用范围广泛等优点,将可能成为一种新的有很

  7. Developments in relativistic channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  9. Ion channels in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  11. Intermittency and exotic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A

    1994-01-01

    It is pointed out that accurate measurements of short-range two-particle correlations in like-charge K\\pi and in \\pi^ 0\\pi^ 0 channels should be very helpful in determining the origin of the \\lq\\lq intermittency\\rq\\rq\\ phenomenon observed recently for the like-charge pion pairs.

  12. All channels open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Alle kanalen staan open. The rapid changes taking place in the media landscape in the Netherlands - characterised by digitisation and convergence of media technologies - raise the question of how the Dutch are dealing with the many new opportunities that have opened up. All channels

  13. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  14. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  15. Application of Partial Discharge Detection Technique in AC Voltage Withstand Test of HV Cable%局放测试技术在高压电缆交流耐压试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗容波; 詹清华; 王岩

    2013-01-01

      针对交流耐压试验方法在发现电缆缺陷上的不足,提出在高压电缆交流耐压试验中外接局放监视仪来避免耐压试验对电缆造成损伤。通过建立仿真电路和搭建实验室模型,研究了现场干扰信号与电缆自身局放信号的时域、频域、波形和极性的特征,总结出一套适用于高压电缆现场局放测试的方法。应用该方法对新敷设的110 kV高压电缆进行检测,发现了高压电缆终端的缺陷,证实了此测试方法的有效性。%  In view of the shortcomings of AC withstand voltage test method in discovering the faults of HV cable, a partial discharge monitoring instrument is external connected with AC withstand voltage test to avoid the damage of cable. The time domain, frequency domain, waveform and polarity characteristics of the interference signal and the signal of cable were studied by simulation and experimental research, and a method suitable for the partial discharge test of HV cable was summarized. The termination fault of a new HV cable was found by applying the method, which confirms the validity of the method.

  16. 高压交流电机定子绕组端部固定结构研究%Study on the End Winding Support for Stator of HV AC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁苏辉; 梁锐; 祁世发

    2001-01-01

    高压交流电机定子绕组端部固定存在薄弱环节,会引起绕组端部电击穿。通过研究,提出了新型高压电机定子绕组端部固定结构。%The stator end-winding support of HV AC motor exists weakness leading to electric break-down. Accordingly, this paper put forwards a new type of support system.

  17. Recherche du virus BoHV-4 en cas d’avortement bovin en France : enquête auprès des laboratoires départementaux d’analyses vétérinaires

    OpenAIRE

    Chevanne, E.; Grimard, Bénédicte; Remy, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Le BoHV-4 (Bovine HerpesVirus type 4) est un gammaherpèsvirus découvert en 1963. Cosmopolite, il infecte naturellement un large spectre d’hôtes dont les bovins domestiques. La séroprévalence individuelle du virus chez les bovins varie selon les études (5,9 % à 18 % ; Markine- Goriaynoff et al., 2003), mais il reste méconnu en France. Isolé à partir d’individus malades présentant une multitude de signes cliniques mais aussi d’individus sains, il semble préférentiellement engendrer des troubles...

  18. Numerical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure ionization waves propagating through a U-shape channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Song, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Sosnin, Eduard A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Liu, Dongping

    2017-08-01

    A 2D computational study of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels at atmospheric pressure was performed, with emphasis on the effect of voltage polarity and the curvature of the bend. The discharge was ignited by a HV needle electrode inside the channel, and power was applied in the form of a trapezoidal pulse lasting 2 µs. We have shown that behavior of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels was quite different with that in straight tubes. For positive polarity of applied voltage, the ionization waves tended to propagate along one side of walls rather than filling the channel. The propagation velocity of ionization waves predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment results; the velocity was first increasing rapidly in the vicinity of the needle tip and then decreasing with the increment of propagation distance. Then we have studied the influence of voltage polarity on discharge characteristics. For negative polarity, the ionization waves tended to propagate along the opposite side of the wall, while the discharge was more diffusive and volume-filling compared with the positive case. It was found that the propagation velocity for the negative ionization wave was higher than that for the positive one. Meanwhile, the propagation of the negative ionization wave depended less on the pre-ionization level than the positive ionization wave. Finally, the effect of the radius of curvature was studied. Simulations have shown that the propagation speeds were sensitive to the radii of the curvature of the channels for both polarities. Higher radii of curvature tended to have higher speed and longer length of plasma. The simulation results were supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  19. A New Covert Channel over Cellular Voice Channel in Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Aloraini, Bushra; Johnson, Daryl; Stackpole, Bill; Mishra, Sumita

    2015-01-01

    Investigating network covert channels in smartphones has become increasingly important as smartphones have recently replaced the role of traditional computers. Smartphones are subject to traditional computer network covert channel techniques. Smartphones also introduce new sets of covert channel techniques as they add more capabilities and multiple network connections. This work presents a new network covert channel in smartphones. The research studies the ability to leak information from the...

  20. Detection of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV in dairy cattle with different prevalences of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in São Paulo State, Brazil/ Detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV em rebanhos leiteiros com diferentes prevalências de herpesvirus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Buzinaro

    Full Text Available Serum samples from three dairy farms classified as high (1, 78.6%, medium (2, 40.0% and low (3, 1.6% prevalence for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 from São Paulo State, were collected to analyze the prevalence to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV by virus neutralization test. The BRSV observed prevalences for farms 1, 2, and 3 were 45.61%, 84.42%, and 54.09%, respectively. Farm 2 showed higher prevalence to BRSV (P

  1. Digital communications over fading channels

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Nathan E.; Robertson, R. Clark

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the probabilities of bit error for the most commonly used digital modulation techniques are analyzed. Analytic solutions are developed for the probability of bit error when the signal is affected by the most commonly encountered impairment to system performance for a wireless channel, the transmission of the signal over a fading channel. In this report, the effect of a slow, flat Ricean fading channel on communications systems performance is examined. Since channel fading ...

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  4. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  5. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  6. DMT of weighted Parallel Channels: Application to Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Mroueh, Lina; Othman, Ghaya Rekaya-Ben; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    In a broadcast channel with random packet arrival and transmission queues, the stability of the system is achieved by maximizing a weighted sum rate capacity with suitable weights that depend on the queue size. The weighted sum rate capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) and Zero Forcing (ZF) is asymptotically equivalent to the weighted sum capacity over parallel single-channels. In this paper, we study the Diversity Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the fading broadcast channel under a fixed weighted sum rate capacity constraint. The DMT of both identical and different parallel weighted MISO channels is first derived. Finally, we deduce the DMT of a broadcast channel using DPC and ZF precoders.

  7. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  8. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  9. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  10. Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravir; Kumar, Dhiraj; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Ambasta, Rashmi K

    2016-01-01

    The convergent endeavors of the neuroscientist to establish a link between clinical neurology, genetics, loss of function of an important protein, and channelopathies behind neurological disorders are quite intriguing. Growing evidence reveals the impact of ion channels dysfunctioning in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many neurological/neuromuscular disorders, viz, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders are caused due to altered function or mutation in ion channels. To maintain cell homeostasis, ion channels are playing a crucial role which is a large transmembrane protein. Further, these channels are important as it determines the membrane potential and playing critically in the secretion of neurotransmitter. Behind NDDs, losses of pathological proteins and defective ion channels have been reported and are found to aggravate the disease symptoms. Moreover, ion channel dysfunctions are eliciting a range of symptoms, including memory loss, movement disabilities, neuromuscular sprains, and strokes. Since the possible mechanistic role played by aberrant ion channels, their receptor and associated factors in neurodegeneration remained elusive; therefore, it is a challenging task for the neuroscientist to implement the therapeutics for targeting NDDs. This chapter reviews the potential role of the ion channels in membrane physiology and brain homeostasis, where ion channels and their associated factors have been characterized with their functional consequences in neurological diseases. Moreover, mechanistic role of perturbed ion channels has been identified in various NDDs, and finally, ion channel modulators have been investigated for their therapeutic intervention in treating common NDDs.

  11. HCN Channels and Heart Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Dentamaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization and Cyclic Nucleotide (HCN -gated channels represent the molecular correlates of the “funny” pacemaker current (If, a current activated by hyperpolarization and considered able to influence the sinus node function in generating cardiac impulses. HCN channels are a family of six transmembrane domain, single pore-loop, hyperpolarization activated, non-selective cation channels. This channel family comprises four members: HCN1-4, but there is a general agreement to consider HCN4 as the main isoform able to control heart rate. This review aims to summarize advanced insights into the structure, function and cellular regulation of HCN channels in order to better understand the role of such channels in regulating heart rate and heart function in normal and pathological conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the possible therapeutic application of the selective HCN channels blockers in heart rate control.

  12. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about the...b3 Zn or cytes from cystic fibrosis patients lack a Cl current that Ni (1 mM)-added to the cytoplasmic side of the mem- can be acti% ated b3 the...that at37’C hu- to be defectiv.- in cystic fibrosis (55, 277), and Chen et al. man T-cell CiL channels are active at rest, implies that (25) have shown

  13. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  14. Mimicking multi-channel scattering with single-channel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multi-channel (MC) problem as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6Li and 87Rb atoms in the ground state and in the ...

  15. Multiuser MIMO Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Indumathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three beamforming design are considered for multi user MIMO system. First, transmit beamformers are fixed and the receive (RX beamformers are calculated. Transmit beamformer (TX-BFis projectedas a null space of appropriate channels. It reduces the interference for each user. Then the receiver beamformer is determined which maximize the SNR. This beamforming design provides less computation time. The second case is joint TX and RX beamformer for SNR maximization. In this transmitter and receiver beamformer are calculated using extended alternating optimization (EAO algorithm. The third one is joint transmitter and receiver beamforming for SNR and SINR maximization using EAO algorithm. This algorithm provides better error performance and sum rate performance. All the design cases are simulated by using standard multipath channel model. Our simulation results illustrate that compared to the least square design and zero forcing design, the joint TX and RX beamforming design using EAO algorithm provides faster beamforming and improved error performance and sum rate.

  16. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  18. Ion channels-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, B; Dołowy, K

    2000-01-01

    There are many diseases related to ion channels. Mutations in muscle voltage-gated sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride channels, and acetylcholine-gated channel may lead to such physiological disorders as hyper- and hypokalemic periodic paralysis, myotonias, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, malignant hyperthermia and myasthenia. Neuronal disorders, e.g., epilepsy, episodic ataxia, familial hemiplegic migraine, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hyperekplexia may result from dysfunction of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels, or acetylcholine- and glycine-gated channels. Some kidney disorders, e.g., Bartter's syndrome, policystic kidney disease and Dent's disease, secretion disorders, e.g., hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy and cystic fibrosis, vision disorders, e.g., congenital stationary night blindness and total colour-blindness may also be linked to mutations in ion channels.

  19. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.

    1965-01-01

    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility of radiat......A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...... of radiation damage by channeled particles. As an application, one gets a necessary criterion for the occurence of super tails in channeling experiments. The theory involves some assumptions on the behaviour of Born-Mayer potentials which are verified by comparison to experimental displacement energies....

  20. Unifying Theories of Mobile Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Ekembe Ngondi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the denotational semantics for channel mobility in the Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP semantics framework. The basis for the model is the UTP theory of reactive processes (precisely, the UTP semantics for Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP, which is slightly extended to allow the mobility of channels: the set of actions in which a process is authorised to participate, originally static or constant (set during the process's definition, is now made dynamic or variable: it can change during the process's execution. A channel is thus moved around by communicating it via other channels and then allowing the receiving process to extend its alphabet with the received channel. New healthiness conditions are stated to ensure an appropriate use of mobile channels.

  1. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  2. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  3. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  4. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  5. Geometric pumping in autophoretic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien; De Canio, Gabriele; Lobato-Dauzier, Nicolas; Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many microfluidic devices use macroscopic pressure differentials to overcome viscous friction and generate flows in microchannels. In this work, we investigate how the chemical and geometric properties of the channel walls can drive a net flow by exploiting the autophoretic slip flows induced along active walls by local concentration gradients of a solute species. We show that chemical patterning of the wall is not required to generate and control a net flux within the channel, rather channel geometry alone is sufficient. Using numerical simulations, we determine how geometric characteristics of the wall influence channel flow rate, and confirm our results analytically in the asymptotic limit of lubrication theory.

  6. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  7. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  8. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond......This collection of papers stems from the Sixth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2014 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Reykjavik. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  9. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    and inhibition mechanisms, drug design studies were recently able to achieve successes in finding new potent inhibitors, some of which are even able to inhibit resistant M2 variants. Effective and robust methods for measuring M2 activity on the other hand are still scarce and tactics to assess the genetic...... barrier of new inhibitors as well as resistance development non-existent. Therefore we developed a fluorescence sensor based assay that directly measures proton conduction (pHlux assay) and combined it with an already established directed evolution selection and screening system of M2 to identify possible...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  10. Channel Floor Yardangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from

  11. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  12. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  13. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; van Dijk, W. M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  14. Biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp terpolymer by Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 transformant harboring the highly active PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi, D-N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluates potentials of Cupriavidus necator PHB4 transformant harboring the highly activepolyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene (phaC of a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2 for its ability toincorporate 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp monomer.Methodology and results: A mixture of fructose and sodium heptanoate fed to the culture gave rise to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyheptanoate, [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp] terpolymer synthesis, withtraces of 3HHp monomers confirmed through gas chromatography (GC, proton (1H and carbon (13C NMR spectra.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This study has revealed that the PHA synthase of Chromobacteriumsp. USM2 has a broad range of substrate specificity. The synthase is able to polymerize 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomershaving 4–7 carbon atoms.

  15. O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) pode utilizar as rotas olfatória ou trigeminal para invadir o sistema nervoso central de coelhos, dependendo da via de inoculação

    OpenAIRE

    Diel,Diego Gustavo; Fonseca,Erika Toledo da; Souza,Soraia Figueiredo de; Mazzanti,Alexandre; Bauermann,Fernando; Weiblen,Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2005-01-01

    O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 (BoHV-5) é um agente importante de meningoencefalite em bovinos. Após replicação na mucosa nasal, acredita-se que o vírus invada o cérebro principalmente pela via olfatória. Para investigar a importância dessa via na patogenia da infecção neurológica em um modelo animal, coelhos recém-desmamados (30 dias) foram submetidos à ablação cirúrgica dos bulbos olfatórios (BOs) e posteriormente inoculados pela via intranasal (IN) ou no saco conjuntival (IC) com uma cepa alt...

  16. CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR ITERATIVE DECODING OVER FADING CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H. Sayhood; Wu Lenan

    2002-01-01

    A method of coherent detection and channel estimation for punctured convolutional coded binary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) signals transmitted over a frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels used for a digital radio broadcasting transmission is presented. Some known symbols are inserted in the encoded data stream to enhance the channel estimation process.The pilot symbols are used to replace the existing parity symbols so no bandwidth expansion is required. An iterative algorithm that uses decoding information as well as the information contained in the known symbols is used to improve the channel parameter estimate. The scheme complexity grows exponentially with the channel estimation filter length. The performance of the system is compared for a normalized fading rate with both perfect coherent detection (corresponding to a perfect knowledge of the fading process and noise variance) and differential detection of Differential Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (DAPSK). The tradeoff between simplicity of implementation and bit-error-rate performance of different techniques is also compared.

  17. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  18. Polarization for arbitrary discrete memoryless channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sasoglu, Eren; Telatar, Emre; Arikan, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Channel polarization, originally proposed for binary-input channels, is generalized to arbitrary discrete memoryless channels. Specifically, it is shown that when the input alphabet size is a prime number, a similar construction to that for the binary case leads to polarization. This method can be extended to channels of composite input alphabet sizes by decomposing such channels into a set of channels with prime input alphabet sizes. It is also shown that all discrete memoryless channels can...

  19. High-Volume Transanal Surgery with CPH34 HV for the Treatment of III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids: Final Short-Term Results of an Italian Multicenter Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Reboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical chart of 621 patients with III-IV haemorrhoids undergoing Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy (SH with CPH34 HV in 2012–2014 was consecutively reviewed to assess its safety and efficacy after at least 12 months of follow-up. Mean volume of prolapsectomy was significantly higher (13.0 mL; SD, 1.4 in larger prolapse (9.3 mL; SD, 1.2 (p<0.001. Residual or recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 11 of 621 patients (1.8% and in 12 of 581 patients (1.9%, respectively. Relapse was correlated with higher preoperative Constipation Scoring System (CSS (p=0.000, Pescatori’s degree (p=0.000, Goligher’s grade (p=0.003, prolapse exceeding half of the length of the Circular Anal Dilator (CAD (p=0.000, and higher volume of prolapsectomy (p=0.000. At regression analysis, only the preoperative CSS, Pescatori’s degree, Goligher’s grade, and volume of resection were significantly predictive of relapse. A high level of satisfaction (VAS = 8.6; SD, 1.0 coupled with a reduction of 12-month CSS (Δ preoperative CSS/12 mo CSS = 3.4, SD, 2.0; p<0.001 was observed. The wider prolapsectomy achievable with CPH34 HV determined an overall 3.7% relapse rate in patients with high prevalence of large internal rectal prolapse, coupled with high satisfaction index, significant reduction of CSS, and very low complication rates.

  20. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B.; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J.; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M. Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2–7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics.

  1. Littoral steering of deltaic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  2. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.

    2006-01-01

    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  3. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  4. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  5. Channel Communication and Reconfigurable Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Karelse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many applications can be structured as a set of processes or threads that communicate via channels. These threads can be executed on various platforms (e.g. general purpose CPU, DSP, FPGA, etc). In our research we apply channels as a basic communication mechanism between threads in a reconfigurable

  6. Bluetooth command and control channel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available &C channel is executed in a controlled environment using the Android operating system as a development platform. The results show that a physical Bluetooth C&C channel is indeed possible and the paper concludes by identifying potential strengths...

  7. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  8. Channelling, a new immunization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacharna Romero, M G; Silva Pizano, E; Avendano Lamo, J

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, with PAHO/WHO technical assistance, the Ministry of Health, Colombia, designed what is known as the channelling strategy, aimed at improving immunization coverage. This name was given because the strategy is designed to establish communication channels through direct action aimed at promoting health. Health workers and community leaders or guides conduct household visits to identify unvaccinated children or those with incomplete vaccination schedules and "channel" them to health centers or health posts. The channelling strategy developed in Colombia was briefly mentioned in the case study on the Colombian Vaccination Crusade of 1984. It is now being employed for ORT and other PHC components in the Colombian Child Survival and Development Plan, 1985-1987. In the meantime, other countries have adopted the channelling strategy, which is described in this article.

  9. Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication

    CERN Document Server

    Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...

  10. The Wiretap Channel with Feedback: Encryption over the Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the critical role of noisy feedback in enhancing the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is established. Unlike previous works, where a noiseless public discussion channel is used for feedback, the feed-forward and feedback signals share the same noisy channel in the present model. Quite interestingly, this noisy feedback model is shown to be more advantageous in the current setting. More specifically, the discrete memoryless modulo-additive channel with a full-duplex destination node is considered first, and it is shown that the judicious use of feedback increases the perfect secrecy capacity to the capacity of the source-destination channel in the absence of the wiretapper. In the achievability scheme, the feedback signal corresponds to a private key, known only to the destination. In the half-duplex scheme, a novel feedback technique that always achieves a positive perfect secrecy rate (even when the source-wiretapper channel is less noisy than the source-destination channel) is proposed....

  11. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  12. Opening Channels of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Moura Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychosis, as described through a psychodynamic perspective, is conceptualized as an attempt to deny the enveloping reality to avoid contact with the other. Music therapy is a way to break this barrier of non-communication raised by the patients. The music therapy process is configured as a trinomial – action (making music/ relationship (action with the other/communication (musical or verbal voluntary expression of feelings and conflicts, which, although intrinsically connected, is perceived in a sequential process. Aulagnier asserts that psychic activity represents the conjunction of three modes of functioning: the original process, the primary process and the secondary process. The perception of sound passes through three phases, corresponding to each manner of functioning of the psychic system – the pleasure of hearing, the desire to listen (to the other and the imperative of meaning. The music therapy process offers a significant similarity with the theory proposed by Aulagnier. We propose the hypothesis that in music therapy, there is an opportunity to (reexperience very archaic phases in the constitution of the ego, but in a new manner, so helping to open communication channels. This theoretical hypothesis is illustrated by real examples of patients.

  13. Ergodic channel capacity of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-ping; WU Ping; LIU Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The theoretical capacity of the spatial correlated Rayleigh multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is an important issue in MIMO technology. In this article, an ergodic channel capacity formula of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel is provided, which is deduced when two antennas exist at either the transmitter or the receiver. The multi-dimensional least-squares fit algorithm is employed to narrow the difference between the theoretical formula capacity and the practical capacity. Simulation results show that the theoretical capacity approaches the practical one closely.

  14. Experimental infection of rabbits with a recombinant bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 gI, gE and US9-negative Infecção experimental de coelhos com um recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 defectivo na gI, gE e US9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Avila Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 is a major cause of viral meningoencephalitis in cattle. The expression of different viral proteins has been associated with BoHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Among these, gI, gE and US9 have been considered essential for the production of neurological disease in infected animals. To evaluate the role of gI, gE and US9 in neurovirulence, a recombinant from which the respective genes were deleted (BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9- was constructed and inoculated in rabbits of two age groups (four and eight weeks-old. When the recombinant virus was inoculated through the paranasal sinuses of four weeks-old rabbits, neurological disease was observed and death was the outcome in 4 out of 13 (30.7 % animals, whereas clinical signs and death were observed in 11/13 (84.6% of rabbits infected with the parental virus. In eight weeks-old rabbits, the BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9- did not induce clinically apparent disease and could not be reactivated after dexamethasone administration, whereas wild type BoHV-5 caused disease in 55.5% of the animals and was reactivated. These findings reveal that the simultaneous deletion of gI, gE and US9 genes did reduce but did not completely abolish the neurovirulence of BoHV-5 in rabbits, indicating that other viral genes may also play a role in the induction of neurological disease.O herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 é uma das principais causas de meningoencefalite viral em bovinos. A expressão de diferentes proteínas virais tem sido associada à neuropatogenia do BoHV-5. Entre estas, a gI, gE e US9 têm sido consideradas essenciais para a indução de sinais neurológicos nos animais infectados. Para avaliar o papel das proteínas gI, gE e US9 na neurovirulência, construiu-se um recombinante no qual os genes que codificam estas proteínas foram deletados, denominado BoHV-5 gI-/gE-/US9-. Este vírus foi inoculado em coelhos de idades diferentes (quatro e oito semanas de idade. Quando o vírus recombinante foi inoculado

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSD809 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o Acid sequence q**rrtmctsiilskslfk*krcwnlsksfpkcswqclcfr*kl*h*srfil**eyl*ki c*tnskwklyk**rcvrsistmwm***mq*m...ed Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: q**rrtmctsiilskslfk*krcwnlsksfpkcswqclcfr*kl*h*srfil**eyl*ki c*tnskwklyk**rcvrs...FILIIINFNNF FVIL--- ---prvxq**rrtmctsiilskslfk*krcwnlsksfpkcswqclcfr*kl*h*srfil* *eyl*kic*tnskwklyk**rcvrs

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD151 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rfpiknlpsnrkfny*r*lntnhcwshpcfkvenw *nq*tkiirtl*sft*nhl*in*k*tnc*syclh*hh*insyy*iksnpfdlgk*ifsrc kegfn*frikis...in*k*tnc*syclh*hh*insyy*iksnpfdlgk*ifsrcke gfn*frikisflkftrftkilfkin*ilysfnfkkk--

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSD849 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGEVKGNILGP VAKECSDLGQRLPPMPVP Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames)...lvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnpkgevkgnilgpvak ecsdlwpkvatnagtiv*inthkvkti*kk--- ---IMSKAQAVGSNYRVSLGLPVGAVMNSA...DNSGAKNLYVIAVKGIKGRLNRLPSAGVGD MVMATVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPK

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSD192 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SNYRVSLGLPVGAVMNSADNSGAKNLYVIAVKGIKGRLNRLPSAGVGDMVM ATVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNP...ATVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGEVKGNILGPVAK ECSDLGQRLPPMPVP Fram...e C: rpkaqavgsnyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgdmvma tvkkgkpelrkkvctglvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnp

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD447 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GLPVGAVMNSADNSGAKNLYVIAVKGIKGRLNRLPSAGVGDMVM ATVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNP...snyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgdmvmatv kkgkpelrkkvctglvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnpkgevkgnilg...ELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGEVKGNILGPVAK ECSDLGQRLPPMPVP Homology vs

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD362 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGEVKGNILGPVAKE CSDLGQRLPPMPVPLFK*ihiklkq Translated Amino Acid s...QAVGSNYRVSLGLPVGAVMNSADNSGAKNLYVIAVKGIKGRLNRLPSAGVGDMVMA TVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGEVKG...psagvgdmvmat vkkgkpelrkkvctglvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnpkgevkgnilgpvakec sdlwpkvatnagtiv*inthkvkti*kk--- --

  1. Dicty_cDB: VSD269 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KVCTGLVVRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGE VKGNILGPVAKECSDLGQRLPPMPVP Frame C: lrkkvct...glvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnpkgevkgnilgpvakecsdlwpkv atnagtiv*inthkvkti*kk--- ---qvlviwswlpskrvnqn*erkfalv*...*lsdkentgrermvftsiskitlvlcviqkvkskvtfsdqsprnapiygqr lppmpvplfk*IHIKLKQYKKK--- ---AGVGDMVMATVKKGKPELRKKVCTGLV...VRQRKHWKRKDGVYIYFEDNAGVMCNPKGE VKGNILGPVAKECSDLGQRLPPMPVP Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSD768 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfiisysstffnffkvnrlyinfimeyifyn*sccrwtkntifr*tre*r*i y*primeetlsssklfl*nndaldnlfhlf*rigfllv*vyffdfsfiykffnvk...vnrlyinfimeyifyn*sccrwtkntifr*tre*r*i y*primeetlsssklfl*nndaldnlfhlf*rigfllv*vyffdfsfiykffnvknfnsn dgknismkn

  3. Dicty_cDB: VSD315 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 BG098716 |BG098716.1 EST463235 sprouting eyes/shoots Solanum tuberosum cDNA clo...clone STMCE12 5' end, mRNA sequence. 44 2e-15 5 BG098390 |BG098390.1 EST462909 sprouting eyes/shoots Solanum

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSD576 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available delta 5 fatty acid desaturase, complete cds. 1021 0.0 3 BD092935 |BD092935.1 Methods and compositions for sy...nthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants. 90 4e-47 5 BD082645 |BD082645.1 Methods and composition...82630 |BD082630.1 Methods and compositions for synthesis of long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids. 90 4e-4

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSD719 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AM049129 |pid:none) Timarcha balearica mRNA for riboso... 107 3e-22 EF639014_1( EF639014 |pid:none) Triatom... RecName: Full=60S ribosomal protein L37-B; AltName: Ful... 107 3e-22 AM049129_1(

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSD858 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nce (All Frames) Frame A: isqchhlkpspentpsistrdstelpsriepqklsnksssllkrswvpkmsvlit...n*tns ygakvsrtfhtesvspsqeretkmktqlknytlllh*sssraskvskpkkllttkwfn*n kffnif*kk--- ---isqchhlkpspentpsistrdstel

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSD657 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: qchhlkpspentpsistrdstelpsriepqklsnks...qerstqspchplkkekrr*krn*kiihccfishrqelqrspnqksc*QLNGLIKINF LIYFKKK--- ---sqchhlkpspentpsistrdstelpsriepqklsnk

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSD305 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mology vs DNA ***** No hits found ****** Lambda K H -1.00 -1.00 -1.00 [blastall] WARNING: [000.000] SetUpBlastSearch failed...dictycdb.pro: SetUpBlastSearch failed. [blastall] ERROR: [000.000] 1142337643.dictycdb.pro: BLASTSetUpSearch

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSD514 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QLREIIF KRTNKNKNNNSNNKFFQTSLSCAVSFL*klksqftncsktifrynqrkkwckeqk*keqq qqqqqqqxqqqq...f*ylsktwiyifffli f*DKSLFIKSNKLYYFIIYKKKVKYLQTRLYWSLSFFKNLNHCLXIAVNNISLQLREIIF KRTNKNKNNNSNNKFFQTSLSCAVSFL*klksqftncskt

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSD327 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A: t*yqksyilyflllcrifwsw*yrkyk*f*nfinl*iynhf*tifngciiigkdfhsiii gsnfilfve*qfecsktw*flncnclnryneyqflflg*ryw*l...l*iynhf*tifngciiigkdfhs iiigsnfilfve*qfecsktw*flncnclnryneyqflflg*ryw*lvrnwc*y*plcnf krfyytsiiiirrfrfistnnik

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSD136 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 |CB290208.1 UCRCS01_01aa10_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDNA library Citrus....1 UCRCS01_04cd07_g1 Washington Navel orange cold acclimated flavedo & albedo cDNA library Citrus sinensis c

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSD320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N D37981 |D37981.1 Dictyostelium discoidium... DDCOF2 gene for cofilin, complete cds. 846 0.0 1 D37980 |D37980.1 Dictyostelium discoidium

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSD383 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing significant alignments: (bits) Value N D37981 |D37981.1 Dictyostelium discoidium DDCOF2 gene for cofilin..., complete cds. 833 0.0 1 D37980 |D37980.1 Dictyostelium discoidium DDCOF1 gene for cofilin, complete cds (e

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSD344 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available *lfgss*ksc*kf ldvvnry**rs*kreckri*ttylk*ll*efg*kil**l*iffnddi*keikkn*t**** ***yktthsfsnslf*dlnfkvfkcvkikkk*n...dlnfkvfkcvkikkk*nv*k*KKINKKK--- ---rvsyiiliyllfxhfxrr*c*xlxir*lfxss*ksc*xifxcc**ilikvlxkgm*k dlnyip*vtvmrvrixxffxs...rnf wmllidinkglekgnvkgsklhtlsdcyessdkkffssykfflttifkrklkrtkrssss sssikppthlvilyfri*isrylna*k*rknkmyrnrkk*ikkk--- ---GYLILFXS

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSD442 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available atural-host Pachypsylla celtidis ATP synthase alpha subunit (atpA) gene, partial cds; ATP synthase gamma sub... from strain CLIB 210 of Kluyveromyces lactis. 46 0.86 1 AF267217 |AF267217.1 Candidatus Carsonella ruddii n

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD618 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qqlvnllsiyhv*slvxklmrk*hnxdl mlniqmx**pmdiiqtlankleeiqyli**kpknwxqf--- ---eniikkknknkskq*nqwhh*kqsqpqlg*lgqq...veinqdh*ivniliicvihfgni lii*khntr*n*ti*h**vgvrhgvimlqliif*ktqqlvnllsiyhv*slviklmrk*h nidlmlniqmv**pmdiiqtlankle

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSD527 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c DNA clone 173e12, forward sequence. 60 2e-05 1 AQ653406 |AQ653406.1 Sheared DNA-21G10.TF Shear...ed DNA Trypanosoma brucei genomic clone Sheared DNA-21G10, genomic survey sequence. 60 2e-05 ...1 AQ947462 |AQ947462.1 Sheared DNA-39L5.TR Sheared DNA Trypanosoma brucei genomic clone Sheared DNA-39L5, ge

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSD522 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available length of query: 33 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 15 effective length of query: 18 effective... length of database: 79,016,401 effective search space: 1422295218 effective...quences better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 33 length of database: P,805,629,642 effective HSP length: 20 effective... length of query: 13 effective length of database: P,298,025,702 effective... search space: 419874334126 effective search space used: 419874334126 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6 (11.9 bits) X2: 10 (1

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD166 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m): 0 length of query: 32 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 15 effective length of query: 17 effective... length of database: 79,016,401 effective search space: 1343278817 effective...: 335807 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 32 length of database: P,794,892,705 effective HSP length: 20 effec...tive length of query: 12 effective length of database: P,287,315,205 effective... search space: 387447782460 effective search space used: 387447782460 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD450 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 111 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 94 eff...ective length of database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 7409190826 effective ...tensions: 0 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 111 length of database: P,805,629,642 effective... HSP length: 21 effective length of query: 90 effective length of database: P,272,645,505 effective ...search space: 2904538095450 effective search space used: 2904538095450 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6 (11.9 bits) X2: 10 (1

  1. Dicty_cDB: VSD444 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 43 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 16 effective length of query: 27 effe...ctive length of database: 78,918,790 effective search space: 2130807330 effective...ensions: 0 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 43 length of database: P,805,629,642 effective HSP length: 20 eff...ective length of query: 23 effective length of database: P,298,025,702 effective... search space: 742854591146 effective search space used: 742854591146 T: 0 A: 0 X1:

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSD603 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f query: 143 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 126 effective... length of database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 9931468554 effective sea...sequences better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 143 length of database: P,805,629,642 effective HSP length: 21 effective... length of query: 122 effective length of database: P,272,645,505 effective search space: 3937262751610 effective

  3. Dicty_cDB: VSD590 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available est: 0 Number of HSP's gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 49 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 16 effective... length of query: 33 effective length of database: 78,918,790 effective... search space: 2604320070 effective search space used: 2604320070 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6 (11.9 bits) X...ngth of database: P,805,629,642 effective HSP length: 20 effective length of query: 29 effective... length of database: P,298,025,702 effective search space: 936642745358 effective search spac

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSD216 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HSP's gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 90 length of database: 80,480,566 effective... HSP length: 16 effective length of query: 74 effective length of database: 78,918,790 effective se...uery: 90 length of database: P,794,892,705 effective HSP length: 21 effective length of query: 69 effective ...length of database: P,261,936,330 effective search space: 2226073606770 effective search space used: 2226073...arch space: 5839990460 effective search space used: 5839990460 T: 0 A: 0 X1: 6 (11.9 bits) X2: 15 (29.7 bits

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSD148 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tempted gapping in prelim test: 0 Number of HSP's gapped (non-prelim): 0 length of query: 64 length of database: 80,480,566 effective... HSP length: 16 effective length of query: 48 effective ...length of database: 78,918,790 effective search space: 3788101920 effective search space used: 3788101920 T:...of query: 64 length of database: P,794,892,705 effective HSP length: 21 effective length of query: 43 effe...ctive length of database: P,261,936,330 effective search space: 1387263262190 effective

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSD170 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f query: 144 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 127 effective... length of database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 10010289733 effective se...ces better than 10.0: 0 length of query: 144 length of database: P,794,892,705 effective HSP length: 21 effective... length of query: 123 effective length of database: P,261,936,330 effective search space: 3968218168590 effective

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSD513 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available liqvinliii*wtigsn*yd*ttiskc*ndl**intnst*iinikesikfitfkskytsi itkcncsr*rsywsl**md*knlsngcf*sflnstsflny*fyemv*...*ftyclgsnfrfk ttiiiiinnnifliksflfi*qii*kk--- ---liqvinliii*wtigsn*yd*ttiskc*ndl**intnst*iinikesikfitfksky ts

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSD559 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b cDNA #17, Tommaso Pace, Marta Ponzi, and Clara Frontali Plasmodium berghei cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.21... 2 BF294944 |BF294944.1 010PbE08 Pb cDNA #17, Tommaso Pace, Marta Ponzi, and Clar

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSD113 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ASE ;, mRNA sequence. 50 7e-07 3 BI743363 |BI743363.1 kx43b03.y1 Parastrongyloides trichosuri FL pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastro...NASE. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 62 1e-05 1 BI743660 |BI743660.1 kx50c01.y1 Parastrongyloides... trichosuri PA pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides trichosuri cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XZI2 ...Q9XZI2 CATHEPSIN Z1 PREPROPROTEIN. ;, mRNA sequence. 62 1e-05 1 BI501371 |BI501371.1 kx31d07.y1 Parastrongyloides... trichosuri PA pAMP1 v1 Chiapelli McCarter Parastrongyloides trichosuri cDNA

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSD604 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lvktinsnercf*sis*tsyk sskq*tfilks*sresssnfw*i*c*ictnlyifksr*issisrwc*sirisitnk*flk nl*yitigratttthsknqfciik*...kmantintneei*kyfkr**ifscyvlgrlvktinsnercf*sis*tsyksskq*tf ilks*sresssnfw*i*c*ictnlyifksr*issisrwc*sirisitnk*...grlvktinsnercf*sis*tsyk sskq*tfilks*sresssnfw*i*c*ictnlyifksr*issisrwc*sirisitnk*flk nl*yitigratttthsknqfcii

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSD761 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of extensions: 0 Number of successful extensions: 0 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 0 Number of HSP's better... 357 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 0 Length of query: 146 Length of database: 104,622,809,269 Length

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSD728 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence update 2001. 3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence aqavgsnyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgdmvmat...qavgsnyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgdmvmatvk kgkpelrkkvctglvvrqrkhwkrkdgvyiyfednagvmcnpkgevkg

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSD614 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lated Amino Acid sequence yt*imskaqavgsnyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgd mvmat...w Frame B: yt*imskaqavgsnyrvslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsagvgd mvmatvkkg...vslglpvgavmnsadnsgaknlyviavkgikgrlnrlpsag vgdmvmatvkkgkpelrkkvctgfsxrqrkxxkrkd Frame C: ihk*cqkhkpsvvtteyhsv

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSD330 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available legans cosmid ZK131. 48 0.001 2 AL418813 |AL418813.1 T7 end of clone AX0AA034F12 of library AX0AA from strain CBS 7064 of Pichia fari...nosa. 54 0.002 1 AJ494852 |AJ494852.1 Oikopleura dioica partial H2A.4 gene for hist

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSD562 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SKMLCSGSNRXVHHIDTHVGVAMAGFL--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kylyxti*nv*crirl*ficin...iftrw*iissrlck*sr*k*wytrrn*skrwccfrc*e ixpiknvmfrfksxsssy*hscwccngrif--- Frame B: N

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD213 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NCE, 1 ordered piece. 46 0.95 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.95 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.95 1 AP004

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSD850 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -FP_00819 5', mRNA sequence. 56 2e-06 2 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curcu...lio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 50 8e-06 2 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio...4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 50 8e-

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSD185 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and Malpighian tubule cDNA library Ctenocephalides felis cDNA clone 3254-25, mRNA sequence. 48 2e-06 2 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio...3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.46 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curc...ulio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.46 1 AX345182 |AX345182.1 Sequence 253 from Pa

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD663 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AVAQKAAGHVKKTL*ikcllii*nfkni*k llvlf* Frame B: khik*spnslslsksdvllsstmvntstklpsslmswiktel*llvhtvasnvtsltsng ...telltrkllpkkllvtsrklyk*nvy**ykilkiykny*y yfrpqkk--- ---khik*spnslslsksdvllsstmvntstklpsslmswiktel*llvhtvasnv

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD445 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed Amino Acid sequence hkyniinfdnanq*m*s*rsnprrlclwm*kkleclpsmfrsccqira*rksklfrsifr tcsmy**mcwtkiicsikvkyman...m*KIVIKNSNIKKK--- ---HKYNIINFDNANQ*m*s*rsnprrlclwm*kkleclpsmfrsccqira*rksklfrs ifrtcsmy**mcwtkix*xik Transla...ted Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: hkyniinfdnanq*m*s*rsnprrlclwm*kkleclpsmfrs...ccqira*rksklfrsifr tcsmy**mcwtkiicsikvkymanm*KIVIKNSNIKKK--- ---HKYNIINFDNANQ*m*s*rsnprrlclwm*kkleclpsmfrs

  1. Dicty_cDB: VSD652 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3( AC114263 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 279 e-108 EF408834_1( EF408834 |pid:none) Poec...ilia reticulata ribosomal prot... 160 4e-59 BT074739_1( BT074739 |pid:none) Osmerus

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSD732 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c*qssfrfwlfry**ryyaih i*n*c*ysn*tcfnkhekhc*scwfingksc*nyhliking*fpsc*hclfyl*vftin...kscs*nh*ctrcywpiqssnyc*qssfrfwlfry**ryyaih i*n*c*ysn*tcfnkhekhc*scwfingksc*nyhliking*fpsc*hclfyl*vftind lln*...drkscs*nh*ctrcywpiqssnyc*qssfrfwlfry**ryy aihi*n*c*ysn*tcfnkhekhc*scwfingksc*nyhliking

  3. Dicty_cDB: VSD168 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tmlw*hvlfnftk*pilfn*flwkhkclwsssi m*wcslfhs**stfwlw*ifkslqkw*mc*spnl*cwsshvg*trcwyddy*citnylsr shwwiimwle*sf...ftcfsryyriclwlqlsktmlw*hvlfnftk*pilfn*flwkhkclwsssim *wcslfhs**stfwlw*ifkslqkw*mc*spnl*cwsshvg*trcwyddy*citnylsrs hwwii

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSD608 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T09822 |T09822.1 0405m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falciparum genomic ...clone 0405m, DNA sequence. 50 4e-07 2 T09823 |T09823.1 0405m7 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falcipar

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSD744 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kilklk v*keslishmnlkqklvsn*lmqvvkhltrshi*meleipilqfhsiiqvvmvgkcmvhh qshgmklwqyqlk*qfkilkm*LNHSNLQLLDALKPGLDF...lhmvvlvfgkilklk v*keslishmnlkqklvsn*lmqvvkhltrshi*meleipilqfhsiiqvvmvgkcmvhh qshg

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSD670 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lanum tuberosum cDNA clone cSTE26I24 5' end, mRNA sequence. 38 0.025 2 AI775835 |AI775835.1 EST256935 tomato resistant, Cornell...nce. 36 0.078 2 AW623389 |AW623389.1 EST321334 tomato flower buds 3-8 mm, Cornell University Lycopersicon es...e. 36 0.082 2 AI482917 |AI482917.1 EST242240 tomato shoot, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEB1N

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSD536 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3F18 5' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.047 1 BE353359 |BE353359.1 EST353640 tomato flower buds 0-3 mm, Cornell Uni... |BF187223.1 EST443510 potato stolon, Cornell University Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone cSTA39F1 5' sequence,

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSD844 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ffkkkn*kkkkiklx*kixkxlxx*kxkifqkk--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...8. 5 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116956 |AC116956.2...6 on chromosome 4. 42 0.083 2 dna update 2003. 8.22 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing signific...ant alignments: (bits) Value AC116956_89( AC116956 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 35 1.1 pr

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSD656 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available --- Frame C: qltlklihi*kllnfklfqnnikiknkk*kk--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...12. 5 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC044805 |AC044805....gy vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q54C22) RecName: Full=Origin

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSD413 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nit 5, partial cds, isolate:Locality No.6, Andrate, Torino, Piemonte, Italy. 46 0.13 1 AB047198 |AB047198.1 ..., Val Sesia, Varallo, Piemonte, Italy. 46 0.13 1 L17343 |L17343.1 Budworm mitocho

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSD329 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ileqygeitkekyi*ki* *nkrmlniskifeevkvmknftlnfgpqhpaahgvlrlivelesenvvrvephigllhrg t...mikk*finq*n*crnieiiileqygeitkekyi*ki* *nkrmlniskifeevkvmknftlnfgpqhpaahgvlrlivelesenvvrvephigllhrg tekliegkt

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSD248 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acid sequence rvrnplysceifrhhqneilsclplsflirqcqrclshqdfticwc*s*ccscriclqri rr*rrpslncrr*i*swfscrcrrpscchlccp...GL FD*kdn*yeqtiirmligsfl*yl*kek*k Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: rvrnplysceifrhhqneils...qksc*rekrrirrrygygf irlkrqli*anyy*NAYRQFPIVFIKRKIKKNKNIKKK--- ---qsfifveifrhhqneilsclplsflirqcqrclshqdfticwc

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSD342 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ptitpftyteeiefsnngkpfifyqqktwnvngqpl hsesgymrfppngkvelviseptgineiydgeitgenneiltfkltniqrtptakpphtt nvirkftfdq...sgkgeyptitpftyteeiefsnngkpfifyqqktwnvngqpl hsesgymrfppngkvelviseptgineiydgeitgenneiltfkltniqrtptakpphtt nvir

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSD833 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QKSMLMMINHHLVKEVLVNKKRNN--- ---prvriyptthtyxintt*spfqksqi*lkkkmttigpieneikelltkelnpinlei inesymhnvpkgseshfkvkivsekfetlsmieqhrlvneil...qi*lkkkmttigpieneikelltkelnpinleiinesymh nvpkgseshfkvkivsekfetlsmieqhrlvneilknfigngkihalsitsrtptqwkkk *sxknq

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSD206 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mino Acid sequence kqdqldllaqvlgegedsgkneileedfdditrgakkskssaptvsrttggstralsggn dmnymeyqapaiyksiptqhalfkqrak...ikllqfikvfqlnmhylnnvlkinnkk*ikk*tkk Frame C: kqdqldllaqvlgegedsgkneileedfdditrgak

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD277 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tglekgehgfhvhafgdtt ngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiislfgehtivg ...dspvtvnyditglekgehgfhvhafgdtt ngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiislfgehtivg rtmvvhadqddlgkggk

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSD215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available msktavcvikgekvngvvkftqenkdspvtvnyditglekgehgfh vhafgdttngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiisl fgeht...itglekgehgfh vhafgdttngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiisl fgehtivgrtmvvhadqddlgkggkpdslttgaa

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSD473 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vcvikgekvngvvkftqenkdspvtvnyditglekgehgfhvhafgd ttngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiislfgeh...rame C: eqqqinnkmsktavcvikgekvngvvkftqenkdspvtvnyditglekgehgfhvhafgd ttngcvsagphfnpfgknhgapsdedrhvgdlgnivadgesntkgtisdkiislfgeht

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD805 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TNCILI*nqikemdvqtkygagqnkvlgganqkkiveseedialpe lnpsvpqaiqrarnalkmtqkelafkinerpgvineyesgsaipsqavlsklekalnvkl ...yyylvsnsyktncili*nqikemdvqtkygagqnkvlgganqkkiveseedialpelnp svpqaiqrarnalkmtqkelafkinerpgvineyesgsaipsqavlsk...gqnkvlgganqkkiveseedialpe lnpsvpqaiqrarnalkmtqkelafkinerpgvineyesgsaipsqavlsklekalnvkl rgkeigkplk*ianvqlrahf

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSD138 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l*w*k*w*sffqrr*yhynfrsk*srwlvariftnr* trflpi*frttivrklrypnnmlmvftniqilii*id*kk*NK...w*k*w*sffqrr*yhynfrsk*srwlvariftnr* trflpi*frttivrklrypnnmlmvftniqilii*id*kk*NKIK...CHNKLFPFVFLKKK- -- ---ti*tas*rairskwlsss*stlrl*w*k*w*sffqrr*yhynfrsk*srwlvarift nr*trflpi*frttivrklrypnnmlmv