WorldWideScience

Sample records for huygens reading writing

  1. Reading/Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie

    In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…

  2. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  3. Reading, Writing & Rings: Science Literacy for K-4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, S.; Spilker, L.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific discovery is the impetus for the K-4 Education program, "Reading, Writing & Rings." This program is unique because its focus is to engage elementary students in reading and writing to strengthen these basic academic skills through scientific content. As science has been increasingly overtaken by the language arts in elementary classrooms, the Cassini Education Program has taken advantage of a new cross-disciplinary approach to use language arts as a vehicle for increasing scientific content in the classroom. By utilizing the planet Saturn and the Cassini-Huygens mission as a model in both primary reading and writing students in these grade levels, young students can explore science material while at the same time learning these basic academic skills. Content includes reading, thinking, and hands-on activities. Developed in partnership with the Cassini-Huygens Education and Public Outreach Program, the Bay Area Writing Project/California Writing Project, Foundations in Reading Through Science & Technology (FIRST), and the Caltech Pre-College Science Initiative (CAPSI), and classroom educators, "Reading, Writing & Rings" blends the excitement of space exploration with reading and writing. All materials are teacher developed, aligned with national science and language education standards, and are available from the Cassini-Huygens website: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/education/edu-k4.cfm Materials are divided into two grade level units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

  4. Reading(s) in the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David

    1997-01-01

    Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…

  5. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  6. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  7. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  8. Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Writing in Response to Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Roger; And Others

    1990-01-01

    When creating the instructional program Writing in Response to Reading, teachers in River Forest, Illinois, focused on three types of writing (retelling, extending, and critiquing). To evaluate students, they devised "prompts" (unfinished stories) requiring students to construct an ending to demonstrate their understanding and use of…

  10. Writing to Be Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael

    Of the various unrelated approaches used in advanced college composition courses, one has proved especially successful in encouraging professionalism in student writers: an approach in which students are required to write for and submit their work to professional publications. When students write articles, they deal with many rhetorical modes and…

  11. The Reading/Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways to motivate children to become readers and writers, characteristics of good children's literature, using patterned books as models, and prewriting activities; provides an annotated bibliography of 26 patterned books to encourage the reading/writing connection. A subset of updated folk and fairy tales is included. (LRW)

  12. Exploring Poetry: The Reading and Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Connecting reading and writing has become an important trend in teaching the language arts. Poetry, as a salient facet of the reading curriculum, integrates well with different purposes in writing. Poetry read aloud to students can assist learners to enjoy reading activities and develop the feeling and aesthetic dimension of learning, among other…

  13. Reading, writing and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    Aim This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Background Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. Discussion An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. Conclusion An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals. PMID:18721156

  14. Integrated Reading and Writing Tasks and ESL Students' Reading and Writing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Hameed

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether content knowledge from reading would affect the processes and the products of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students' writing and reading performance on a simulated English language test that made use of reading and writing modules. Revealed that the thematic connection between reading and writing enhanced both the…

  15. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  16. Mining Texts in Reading to Write.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stuart

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a set of strategies for connecting reading and writing, placing the discussion in the context of other pedagogical approaches designed to exploit the relationship between reading and writing. Explores ways in which students employ the strategies involved in "mining" a text--reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and…

  17. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  18. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  19. Reading and Writing Connections in the Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading and writing are interrelated. What has been read provides material for writing. This paper focuses on reading endeavors that provide subject matter for writing. The paper first recommends reading poetry to the class and states that the teacher should have ready for use an anthology of children's literature. Children can write poems for…

  20. Writing and reading in a multicultural classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates how interpretive reading skills and literary understanding may be enhanced through initial narrative writing tasks. In the class in question the majority of students are children of migrant workers in Denmark. The class in question belongs to what is called an ethnic...... of Danish literature in order to give teachers broader insight into the underlying factors in a multicultural classroom with regard to writing and reading on the one hand and conceptions of learning on the other....

  1. Writing and reading in a multicultural classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates how interpretive reading skills and literary understanding may be enhanced through initial narrative writing tasks. In the class in question the majority of students are children of migrant workers in Denmark. The class in question belongs to what is called an ethnic lingui...... of Danish literature in order to give teachers broader insight into the underlying factors in a multicultural classroom with regard to writing and reading on the one hand and conceptions of learning on the other....

  2. Reading and Writing and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeWeghe, Rick, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a closer look at teaching in classrooms by reviewing a recent article by Carol Booth Olson and Robert Land, literacy researchers and National Writing Project site directors. In "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" (EJ776476), Olson and Land report…

  3. Reading & Writing Workshop. The Fantastic Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…

  4. Reading & Writing Workshop. The Fantastic Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, explaining how to use it to enhance reading and writing instruction. The article presents a brief interview with J.K. Rowling, a Harry Potter time line, and ideas for working on writing and editing paragraphs, creating dynamic dialogue, and fixing grammar and punctuation. Other fantasy books are…

  5. Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…

  6. Making the Reading, Writing, Social Studies Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen-Esmaili, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Suggests incorporating reading, writing, and social studies within the context of literature. Includes reading lists and activities for teaching about the Victorian period in a two-month social studies unit that incorporates science fiction, mysteries, and fairy tales. Children discuss old photographs, examine artifacts, visit a Victorian mansion,…

  7. Reading, Writing, and Publishing Digital Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall; Higgins, Kyle

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current state-of-the-art technologies available for reading, writing, and publishing, including electronic books (ebooks), electronic libraries, and electronic journals. Instructional design, best practices for improving reading skills using ebooks, and copyright issues are discussed. Vignettes offer a positive scenario for…

  8. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. My goal in this paper is to make Iwo points: Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Readino, A substantial amount of research strongly suggests that we learn to write by reading. To be more precise, we acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instniction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition lakes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982.

  9. Reading depends on writing, in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Eden, Guinevere F; Perfetti, Charles A; Siok, Wai Ting

    2005-06-14

    Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that behavioral remediation using strategies addressing phonological awareness alleviates reading difficulties in dyslexics. The prevailing view of the central role of phonological awareness in reading development is largely based on studies using Western (alphabetic) languages, which are based on phonology. The Chinese language provides a unique medium for testing this notion, because logographic characters in Chinese are based on meaning rather than phonology. Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters. These findings yield a unique insight into how cognitive systems responsible for reading development and reading disability interact, and they challenge the prominent phonological awareness view.

  10. Post-stroke writing and reading disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sinanović Osman; Mrkonjić Zamir

    2013-01-01

    The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias) are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness or visual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished fr...

  11. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  12. Reading, Writing, and Reading-Writing in the Second Language Classroom: A Balanced Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2004-01-01

    The notion of integrating reading and writing in L1 and L2 literacy education is not new; however, only until recently has the reading-writing connection received enough attention and been implemented in the teaching of L1 and L2. This paper aims to search for the most current, up-to-dated, approach that best incorporates the idea of…

  13. Neural Signatures of the Reading-Writing Connection: Greater Involvement of Writing in Chinese Reading than English Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Perfetti, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language. The English L1 sample had learned some Chinese characters through character-writing and others through phonological learning, allowing a test of writing-on-reading effect. We found that the left MFG was more activated in Chinese than English regardless of task, and more activated in writing than in reading regardless of language. Furthermore, we found that this region was more activated for reading Chinese characters learned by character-writing than those learned by phonological learning. A major conclusion is that writing regions are also activated in reading, and that this reading-writing connection is modulated by the learning experience. We replicated the main findings in a group of native Chinese speakers, which excluded the possibility that the language differences observed in the English L1 participants were due to different language proficiency level.

  14. We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper. My goal in this paper is to make two points: 1. Writing style does not come from writing or from direct instruction, but from reading. 2. Actual writing can help us solve problems and can make us smarter. Writing Style Comes from Reading A substantial amount of research slrongly suggests that wc learn to write by reading. To be more precise, wc acquire writing style, the special language of writing, by reading. Hypothesizing that writing style comes from reading, not from writing or instruction, is consistent with what is known about language acquisition: Most of language acquisition takes place subconsciously, not through deliberate study, and it is a result of input (comprehension, not output (production (Krashen, 1982. Thus, if you wrile a page a day, your writing style or your command of mechanics will not improve. On Ihe other hand, other good things may result from your writing, as we shall see in the second section of this paper.

  15. On Reading-Based Writing Instruction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大艳; 王建安

    2012-01-01

    English writing is a complex integrative process of comprehensive skills. A host of students are still unable to write a coherent English paragraph after having learned English for many years at school. To help college students improve their writing competence is a great challenge facing the English teaching in China. Researches on writing teaching method abroad have experienced prosperity. In China, however, researches in this field are far behind. There is great need to search for more efficient writing instruction model so that it can serve well in Chinese context. Enlightened by Krashen's input hypothesis and Swain's output hypothesis, the writer put forward Reading-Based Writing Instruction Model. This paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of this model from the different perspectives.

  16. Reading and writing single-atom magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Paul, William; Willke, Philip; Choi, Taeyoung; Greber, Thomas; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Lutz, Christopher P.

    2017-03-01

    The single-atom bit represents the ultimate limit of the classical approach to high-density magnetic storage media. So far, the smallest individually addressable bistable magnetic bits have consisted of 3–12 atoms. Long magnetic relaxation times have been demonstrated for single lanthanide atoms in molecular magnets, for lanthanides diluted in bulk crystals, and recently for ensembles of holmium (Ho) atoms supported on magnesium oxide (MgO). These experiments suggest a path towards data storage at the atomic limit, but the way in which individual magnetic centres are accessed remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the reading and writing of the magnetism of individual Ho atoms on MgO, and show that they independently retain their magnetic information over many hours. We read the Ho states using tunnel magnetoresistance and write the states with current pulses using a scanning tunnelling microscope. The magnetic origin of the long-lived states is confirmed by single-atom electron spin resonance on a nearby iron sensor atom, which also shows that Ho has a large out-of-plane moment of 10.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons on this surface. To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible.

  17. Reading and writing single-atom magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian D; Yang, Kai; Paul, William; Willke, Philip; Choi, Taeyoung; Greber, Thomas; Heinrich, Andreas J; Lutz, Christopher P

    2017-03-08

    The single-atom bit represents the ultimate limit of the classical approach to high-density magnetic storage media. So far, the smallest individually addressable bistable magnetic bits have consisted of 3-12 atoms. Long magnetic relaxation times have been demonstrated for single lanthanide atoms in molecular magnets, for lanthanides diluted in bulk crystals, and recently for ensembles of holmium (Ho) atoms supported on magnesium oxide (MgO). These experiments suggest a path towards data storage at the atomic limit, but the way in which individual magnetic centres are accessed remains unclear. Here we demonstrate the reading and writing of the magnetism of individual Ho atoms on MgO, and show that they independently retain their magnetic information over many hours. We read the Ho states using tunnel magnetoresistance and write the states with current pulses using a scanning tunnelling microscope. The magnetic origin of the long-lived states is confirmed by single-atom electron spin resonance on a nearby iron sensor atom, which also shows that Ho has a large out-of-plane moment of 10.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons on this surface. To demonstrate independent reading and writing, we built an atomic-scale structure with two Ho bits, to which we write the four possible states and which we read out both magnetoresistively and remotely by electron spin resonance. The high magnetic stability combined with electrical reading and writing shows that single-atom magnetic memory is indeed possible.

  18. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  19. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  20. Developing ESL Learners’ Reading and Writing Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳

    2015-01-01

    There is now more and more international exchange and cooperation between China and other countries.A great deal of attention is paid to teaching and learning English.Increasing numbers of Chinese people are interested in learning English.As a result, English as a Second Language(ESL) teaching is very important and popular in China.This paper is intended to illustrate the relationship between English reading writing and the techniques and strategies that can significantly improve reading and writing teaching

  1. Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine qua non for engaging in graduate work. As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed that they had observed the same weaknesses in their students and that they shared my concerns about this problem. Students who are preparing to be teachers of a foreign language should have a reasonable command of the four language skills—speaking, understanding, reading, writing—by the time they graduate. For those who wish to continue their training in English by doing graduate work, competence seems even more important as good reading and writing skills are the sine

  2. Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing Improving college students' reading and writing by combining reading and writing

    OpenAIRE

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher of EFL at UFSC since 1975, I have observed semester after semester the difficulties that students in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature have in reading and especially inwriting not only at the beginning but at more advanced stages when they are close to graduating. I have also observed that these students have little interest in reading and writing in a foreign language either inside or outside the classroom. Conversations with my fellow teachers confirmed th...

  3. Post-stroke writing and reading disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinanović Osman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness or visual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the sole disability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia ("aphasic alexia". Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements - language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from "peripheral" involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or

  4. POST-STROKE WRITING AND READING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinanović Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing and reading disorders in stroke patients (alexias, agraphias and acalculias are more frequent than verified in routine exam, not only in the less developed but also in large neurological departments. Alexia is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness orvisual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read caused by brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational back-ground. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the soledisability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, the alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia (“aphasic alexia”. Agraphia is defined as the disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements—language processing, spelling, visual perception, visual-spatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or as association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from “peripheral” involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. This language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number

  5. The Reading-Writing Connection for Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Kathleen; Au, Kathryn; Carroll, Jacquelin; Nakanishi, Patricia; Scheu, Judith; Wong-Kam, Jo Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes and discusses six recent books for teachers that illuminate, from different perspectives, aspects of the reading-writing connection for struggling readers, and how to teach reading and writing effectively. (SR)

  6. Reciprocity between Reading and Writing: Strategic Processing as Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy L.; Briggs, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing has important implications for all readers, but particularly for those who struggle in learning to read and write. Based on their work with children who struggle, the authors focus on reciprocal cognitive operations or strategies that draw on sources of knowledge used in both reading and writing. Their aim in this…

  7. Bush telegraph readings in writing

    CERN Document Server

    Strongman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    A ""bush telegraph"" is an antipodean slang noun phrase for a ""grapevine"" or an informal network of communication. The title of this book on English language use comes from the fact that the book is written from the southern hemisphere (where the idea of a ""bush telegraph"" is more widely-known) and because the concept of a ""bush telegraph"" describes what the book provides - a discussion of salient points in English language use and tertiary teaching across branches of interrelated interests. Each chapter of Bush Telegraph describes aspects of English writing culture. Separately and toget

  8. Reading to Write an Argumentation: The Role of Epistemological, Reading and Writing Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Cuevas, Isabel; Martin, Elena; Martin, Ana; Echeita, Gerardo; Luna, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to examine the relations among epistemological, reading and writing beliefs held by psychology undergraduates and the role played by these three types of belief in influencing the degree of perspectivism manifested in a written argumentation task based on reading two texts presenting conflicting perspectives on…

  9. Identifying Writing Difficulties in First Grade: An Investigation of Writing and Reading Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of students who are at risk for writing difficulties is an important first step in improving writing performance. First grade students (N = 150) were administered a set of early writing measures and reading measures in January. Sentence Writing Quality and Oral Reading Fluency demonstrated strong classification accuracy when a…

  10. LINGUISTIC VARIATION AND WRITING AND READING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Suzana Ribeiro Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A student, when starting their studies at an education institution, is already a skilled user of their native language. The role of the school is to start the language teaching process based on the knowledge already acquired by the student. This procedure will make the learner’s communication resources be progressively widened, resulting in their ability to use the language in a proper manner, during the various daily situations, in both verbal and written modalities. In order to reach this purpose, it is advisable that the teacher search for strategies to show the student that linguistic variation is an important factor for the richness of a language. Thus, we believe that reading texts belonging to genders that use a more colloquial language is an efficient way to start the work of raising the individual’s awareness about the heterogeneous nature of the language and the importance of each of its registers. The understanding provided by Soares (2011 about literacy shows that learning a language is a continuous process, and that the richness offered by reading and writing experiences will greatly help shaping and improving the student’s communication and expression ability. Based on readings on literacy, language teaching, and reading practices, our text is intended to show ways to work with reading and writing, with aims to get to know and value the various forms of expression, considering the linguistic variation.

  11. Reading and writing the neural code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Garrett B

    2013-03-01

    It has been more than 20 years since Bialek and colleagues published a landmark paper asking a seemingly innocuous question: what can we extract about the outside world from the spiking activity of sensory neurons? Can we read the neural code? Although this seemingly simple question has helped us shed light on the neural code, we still do not understand the anatomical and neurophysiological constraints that enable these codes to propagate across synapses and form the basis for computations that we need to interact with our environment. The sensitivity of neuronal activity to the timing of synaptic inputs naturally suggests that synchrony determines the form of the neural code, and, in turn, regulation of synchrony is a critical element in 'writing' the neural code through the artificial control of microcircuits to activate downstream structures. In this way, reading and writing the neural code are inextricably linked.

  12. Toward the New Literacy: Changes in College Students' Reading Comprehension Strategies Following Reading/Writing Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk-Ross, Francine C.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes students enrolled in a college developmental reading class and their use of critical literacy techniques to improve reading and writing skills. Considers three areas of students' progress: reading and writing connections, language and vocabulary, and purposes for reading. Stresses the importance of introduction and mastery of these areas…

  13. Cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Midorikawa, A; Kezuka, M

    2000-09-28

    The mechanisms that underlie the ability to read and write music remain largely unclear compared to those involved in reading and writing language. We had the extremely rare opportunity to study the cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music in the case of a professional trombonist. During rehearsal immediately before a concert, he suffered a hemorrhage that was localized to the left angular gyrus, the area that has long been known as the center for the ability to read and write. Detailed tests revealed that he showed symptoms of alexia with agraphia for both musical scores and language.

  14. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities As Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina Indrajie Wickramaarachchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as “prw tasks” in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were initially selected with one group (experimental group engaging in “prw tasks” while the other group (control group performing the tasks without a pre-reading component. The intervention was for 6 sessions (one hour in each session. At the end of each session, the performance of the two groups was measured and the test scores were analyzed using the data analysis package SPSS to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The results indicated that the experimental group had significantly performed better than the control group which indicated the effectiveness of the prw tasks in improving reading comprehension.

  15. Reading, Writing, and Research: A Writing Center in the IMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Vonna J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of making the writing center part of the instructional media center in schools and provides some questions to consider in setting up a writing center. Offers three examples of popular writing assignments. (MG)

  16. Reading, Writing, and Parsing Text Files Using C++ (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Reading , Writing, and Parsing Text Files Using C++ (Updated) by Robert J Yager ARL-TN-0642 October 2014...return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TN-0642 October 2014 Reading , Writing, and...

  17. Online Class Size, Note Reading, Note Writing and Collaborative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingzhu; Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long recognized class size as affecting students' performance in face-to-face contexts. However, few studies have examined the effects of class size on exact reading and writing loads in online graduate-level courses. This mixed-methods study examined relationships among class size, note reading, note writing, and collaborative…

  18. Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowkett, Steve

    2011-01-01

    "Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…

  19. Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowkett, Steve

    2011-01-01

    "Using Comic Art to Improve Speaking, Reading and Writing" uses children's interest in pictures, comics and graphic novels as a way of developing their creative writing abilities, reading skills and oracy. The book's underpinning strategy is the use of comic art images as a visual analogue to help children generate, organise and refine their ideas…

  20. Motivation for Reading and Writing in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes the reading and writing motivations of kindergarten children. Four hundred fifty-one children participated in the study, answering questions measuring value, self-concept, and enjoyment of reading and writing. A factor analysis validated the conceptual motivational constructs. Findings indicate that kindergarten children…

  1. Mining Texts in Reading to Write. Occasional Paper No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stuart

    Reading and writing are commonly seen as parallel processes of composing meaning, employing similar cognitive and linguistic strategies. Research has begun to examine ways in which knowledge of content and strategies contribute to the construction of meaning in reading and writing. The metaphor of mining can provide a useful and descriptive means…

  2. Online Class Size, Note Reading, Note Writing and Collaborative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingzhu; Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long recognized class size as affecting students' performance in face-to-face contexts. However, few studies have examined the effects of class size on exact reading and writing loads in online graduate-level courses. This mixed-methods study examined relationships among class size, note reading, note writing, and collaborative…

  3. Thru but not wisht: language, writing, and universal reading theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Languages may get the writing system they deserve or merely a writing system they can live with-adaption without optimization. A universal theory of reading reflects the general dependence of writing on language and the adaptations required by the demands of specific languages and their written forms. The theory also can be informed by research that addresses a specific language and orthography, gaining universality through demonstrating adaptations to language and writing input.

  4. Knowledge, Writing, and Language Outcomes for a Reading Comprehension and Writing Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Davison, Megan Dunn; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Miller, Carol A.; Glutting, J. James

    2013-01-01

    Many students struggle with gaining knowledge and writing about content text material and therefore require effective intervention. In a randomized controlled trial study, 77 low-achieving fourth-grade students received reading comprehension instruction or reading comprehension plus writing instruction or were assigned to a no-treatment control.…

  5. Undergraduate ESL Students' Engagement in Academic Reading and Writing in Learning to Write a Synthesis Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruilan; Hirvela, Alan

    2015-01-01

    As an important and a challenging source-based writing task, synthesizing offers rich opportunities to explore the connections between reading and writing. In this article, we report findings from a qualitative study of two Chinese students' learning experiences with academic synthesis writing in a university ESL composition course. Specifically,…

  6. Bringing Reading-to-Write and Writing-Only Assessment Tasks Together: A Generalizability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Atta

    2010-01-01

    Integrated tasks are currently employed in a number of L2 exams since they are perceived as an addition to the writing-only task type. Given this trend, the current study investigates composite score generalizability of both reading-to-write and writing-only tasks. For this purpose, a multivariate generalizability analysis is used to investigate…

  7. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  8. Aid Children in Making the Reading-Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Nicholas P.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes briefly home activities that parents can use to foster the reading-writing connection. These include storytelling, working with opposites, riddles, birthday cards, limericks, and other activities. (MT)

  9. What Is Being Achieved in Reading and Writing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    To explain the test score decline in reading and writing, the author suggests that neither tests nor instruction is accomplishing what each purport to do and that both have ignored an underlying cultural shift. (Editor)

  10. Developing ESL Learners’Reading and Writing Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳

    2015-01-01

    There is now more and more international exchange and cooperation between China and other countries.A great deal of attention is paid to teaching and learning English.Increasing numbers of Chinese people are interested in learning English. As a result, English as a Second Language (ESL) teaching is very important and popular in China.This paper is intended to illustrate the relationship between English reading writing and the techniques and strategies that can significantly improve reading and writing teaching.

  11. Buddy Journals Make the Reading-Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Karen D'Angelo

    1989-01-01

    Describes the buddy journal (a diary that two students keep together, in which they "converse" in writing) and suggests ways to use such journals to build children's literacy. Proposes that buddy journals can highlight the reading-writing connection for children by involving purposeful, personal communication to enhance students' literacy…

  12. Cursive Writing: An Aid to Reading and Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Helen S.; Biren, Phillis L.

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the teaching of cursive writing to learning disabled and other handicapped children at an early age in conjunction with, and as an aid to, reading and spelling. A structured, logical, and sequential method of teaching cursive writing is presented, along with reinforcement and review procedures. (DLS)

  13. Gender Differences in Severity of Writing and Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…

  14. Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…

  15. Do First Language Writing and Second Language Reading Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An Assessment Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    FNIGNUMBE SDo First Language Writing and Second Language ReadingLn Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An _ Assessment Dilemma ~ -6. AUTHOR...young writer knows about writing in the first language forms the basis of new hypotheses rather than interferes with writing in another language" (1982, p...Jones and Tetroe (1987) interpret this finding as "strong, direct data for the transfer of first - language skill to the second language" (p. 55). Like

  16. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of…

  17. Revising English 01 :the creation of a developmental reading and writing course

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, John S

    1994-01-01

    Bartholomae contends that "a reading course is necessarily a writing course and a writing course must be a course in reading." At most community colleges, however, reading and writing are still taught as if they were independent of each other. The course on which this curriculum study is based, English 07, Writing and Reading Improvement, represents a revision of that traditional approach, for it combines instruction in reading and writing to create a comprehensive class in developmental Engl...

  18. Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

  19. Matthew Effects and the Reading-Writing Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David James

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between fifth-grade students' out-ofschool reading habits and measures of their reading comprehension and writing abilities. The sample was composed of forty-two students attending an urban school in Northeastern Massachusetts. Each morning, for fifteen consecutive weeks, students recorded an approximation…

  20. Is There a Relationship between Literature Reading and Creative Writing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekkamp, Hein; Janssen, Tanja; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poor readers of literature. Each participant read 4…

  1. Is There a Relationship between Literature Reading and Creative Writing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekkamp, Hein; Janssen, Tanja; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poor readers of literature. Each participant read 4…

  2. Writing Poetry in the School Library (And Reading It Too!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelin, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Although April is National Poetry Month, poems are for any time... and all the time... and sharing poetry should be part of the library experience. Before we ask students to write poetry, however, we need to read poetry to and with them. We also need to provide opportunities for them to browse the poetry section and select poems to read to each…

  3. Does Good Writing Mean Good Reading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    in writing guides. This suggests that, in themselves, the supposed problem constructions are not inherently problematic to understand. Therefore, factors previously put forward as important, such as the information structure of texts and the image the sender wishes to project, should be what influences...... the choice of constructions rather than simplified rules such as “Avoid passives!”. The implications of this finding for writing guides and for company and institutional language policies are discussed....

  4. [Dual neural circuit model of reading and writing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Makoto

    2011-08-01

    In the hypothetical neural circuit model of reading and writing that was initially proposed by Dejerine and subsequently confirmed by Geschwind, the left angular gyrus was considered as a unique center for processing letters. Japanese investigators, however, have repeatedly pointed out that this angular gyrus model cannot fully explain the disturbances observed in reading and writing Kanji letters in Japanese patients with various types of alexia with or without agraphia. In 1982, I proposed a dual neural circuit model of reading and writing Japanese on the basis of neuropsychological studies on the various types of alexia with or without agraphia without aphasia. This dual neural circuit model proposes that apart from the left angular gyrus which was thought to be a node for phonological processing of letters, the left posterior inferior temporal area, also acts as a node for semantic processing of letters. Further investigations using O15-PET activation on normal subjects revealed that the left middle occipital gyrus (area 19 of Brodmann) and the posterior portion of the left inferior temporal gyrus (area 37 of Brodmann) are the cortical areas responsible for reading Japanese letters; the former serving for phonological reading and the latter for semantic reading. This duality of the neural circuit in processing letters was later applied to explain disturbances in reading English, and was finally accepted as a valid model for other alphabetic letter systems too.

  5. Reading in Two Writing Systems: Accommodation and Assimilation of the Brain's Reading Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying; Fiez, Julie; Nelson, Jessica; Bolger, Donald J.; Tan, Li-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Bilingual reading can require more than knowing two languages. Learners must acquire also the writing conventions of their second language, which can differ in its deep mapping principles (writing system) and its visual configurations (script). We review ERP (event-related potential) and fMRI studies of both Chinese-English bilingualism and…

  6. Reading-to-write: A Practice of Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of language teaching: Reading and writing can be integrated to elicit more authentic language use, and skill training and critical thinking are not two separate stages.

  7. Technological mediation as a learning tool for writing and reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Molano Caro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article disclosed the progress a technological mediation has built to the adquisition, use and development of reading and writing from Cognitive Affective Method for Learning -MACPA-. A development like the one being proposed, is an option for children and young people to, activate, promote, develop and / or enhance the learning of reading and writing. Likewise, it is an option to consider the results achieved in the PISA test and case reports, done by teachers by teachers, showing that that elementary students do not perform production of texts so spontaneous or directed; and they fail to make progress in reading comprehension levels. Given this context, the partial results achieved in the second phase of the research aims to implement a technology platform based mediation MACPA as an educational resource to enhance the processes of reading and writing among students from first to fourth grades of primary education. Accordingly, through Article basis be found in a software for reading and writing that takes into account the particularities of learning of students with intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities in students who have not evidenced difficulties in academic learning processes, though they require a new method to accelerate learning.

  8. Simple Things You Can Do To Help All Children Read Well and Independently by the Third Grade. America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatis, Corey; Thompson-Hoffman, Susan; de Kanter, Adriana; Moles, Ollie; Steele, Shirley; Howes, Sarah; Doyle, Michelle; Colmenares, Margarita; Vosburgh, Leah; Herman, Menahem; Ballen, Jennifer; Arnold, Chandler

    This booklet presents suggestions for things people can do to help meet the America Reads Challenge of having all children read well and independently by the end of third grade. One of the ways to meet this challenge is through the research-based community reading initiative, called READ*WRITE*NOW!, which encourages students to read and write at…

  9. Integrating Reading and Writing: One Professor's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBrowa, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    In these austere and uncertain financial times, colleges are caught in a quandary: they need to admit a certain number of students each term in order to make budget, yet many of the students they admit are developmental in nature by virtue of their critical thinking, writing and/or math scores on their entrance exams. Creative colleges are…

  10. Integrating Reading and Writing: One Professor's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBrowa, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    In these austere and uncertain financial times, colleges are caught in a quandary: they need to admit a certain number of students each term in order to make budget, yet many of the students they admit are developmental in nature by virtue of their critical thinking, writing and/or math scores on their entrance exams. Creative colleges are…

  11. Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

    2010-01-01

    The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…

  12. A Lesson Cycle for Teaching Expository Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Jose; Herter, Roberta J.; Ansaldo, Robert; Hatter, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson cycle of activities for teaching reading and writing skills for expository text. The lesson cycle consists of four parts: (1) vocabulary words, (2) text structures, (3) modified sentence completion activity, and (4) rewriting text. Sixth- and seventh-grade summer school students were taught to recognize and…

  13. Teaching Tips: Connecting Reading and Writing through Author's Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, Debbie; Hawes, Shirl

    2006-01-01

    Teachers can link the isolated components of a balanced literacy program by helping students make focused connections in reading and writing throughout the day. The authors share how two teachers made such connections through components of author's craft. They conclude with an extensive list of minilesson topics designed to improve students'…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Reading and Writing Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, Christine A., Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the reports from the international research correspondents (IRCs) on the topic of reading and writing connections through an informal polling using a questionnaire in seven countries. The participating IRCs include: (1) Ruth Wong of the National Institute of Education in Singapore; (2) Anita Poon of Hong Kong Baptist…

  15. Effective Reading and Writing Instruction: A Focus on Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri

    2012-01-01

    When providing effective reading and writing instruction, teachers need to provide explicit modeling. Modeling is particularly important when teaching students to use cognitive learning strategies. Examples of how teachers can provide specific, explicit, and flexible instructional modeling is presented in the context of two evidence-based…

  16. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  17. Is there a relationship between literature reading and creative writing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Broekkamp; T. Janssen; H. van den Bergh

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poo

  18. The Montessori Preschool: Preparation for Writing and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sylvia O.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses guidelines for the use of the Montessori prepared environment in addressing special needs students, focusing on writing and reading difficulties. Examines the value of Montessori's motor and sensory education as a bridge for both typically and atypically developing children. (JPB)

  19. Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening: Perspectives in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I examine the citations in recent review articles in applied linguistics to point out that there appears to be a distinct lack of overlap between references to work in four inter-related areas--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. I then point to areas of research where I think it particularly important to consider these…

  20. Is there a relationship between literature reading and creative writing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekkamp, H.; Janssen, T.; van den Bergh, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be

  1. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  2. Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, David; Hamilton, Mary

    This book describes a study of the uses of reading and writing in Lancaster, England, in the 1990s. It offers a detailed, specific description of literacy practices in one local community at one point in time. The book is designed to contribute to the theoretical understanding of literacy by linking literacy to a more general understanding of…

  3. Identity Styles: Predictors of Reading and Writing Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Mohamadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available How the individual differences prime different learning process is well addressed in literature. But, what is missing from these analyses is how learners with different identity styles approach reading and writing skills and if different identity styles can predict differentiated language performance. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between identity styles, and reading/writing skills of Iranian intermediate female EFL learners. One the basis of the results of Nelson language proficiency test, 120 participants were selected to participate in this research. Participants' answers to Berzonsky's Identity Style Inventory (ISI3 and reading and writing parts of Preliminary English Test were analyzed. The results indicated that informational and normative identity styles were found to be positively correlated and diffuse-avoidant style was negatively correlated with reading and writing abilities whereas commitment identity didn't bear any significant relationships. The findings also indicated that informational style acted as the best predictor of these skills. Implications for language teachers are suggested.

  4. Reading and Writing Skills of Deaf Pupils with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Connie; Watson, Linda; Archbold, Sue; Ng, Zheng Yen; Mulla, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-three young people with cochlear implants, aged between 9 and 16 years, were assessed for use of their implant system, cognitive abilities, vocabulary, reading, and writing skills. The group came from throughout England and included 26 born deaf, six deafened by meningitis, one with auditory neuropathy, and five with additional needs.…

  5. Neural mechanism of reading and writing in the Japanese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, M

    1986-01-01

    Three Japanese patients presenting with pure alexia showed agraphia for Kanji in addition. A left angular gyrus lesion caused agraphia for both Kanji and Kana, but Kanji reading was preserved. A left posterior inferior temporal (PIT) lesion resulted in alexia and agraphia for Kanji, while the Kana function was preserved. These results imply that the semantic processing of reading Kanji words depends upon the left PIT area, while the phonological reading of Kana is mediated by the left angular gyrus. The PIT area also plays an important role in writing Kanji words.

  6. Reading, writing, rebelling. Propositions for a renewed critical stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    there instead of ending there. In other words, the instability of the reading is the only way to mirror the instability of the works, and to acknowledge their ever-changing form. Far from being innocent, critical reading therefore appears as a radical, but necessary action, a rebellion against the obvious......What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...

  7. Games as a measure of reading and writing generalization after computerized teaching of reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavior Analysis is usually accused of not being able to account for the generalization of verbal behavior that is present in linguistically competent individuals. However, several behavior analytic studies investigate this theme, and gamification has been seen as a useful way to study generalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reading and writing generalization in games, after these behaviors were taught through the program Learning to Read in Small Steps. Participants were four children between 7 and 12 years old who had reading and writing deficits. The experimental design was a pre-posttest design that encompassed five phases. Performance in probes suggests generalization of reading and writing skills to new activities (games and responses. This study represents a small step in a systematic understanding of how games can be used to assess behavior change.

  8. Bringing Together Reading and Writing: An Experimental Study of Writing Intensive Reading Comprehension in Low-Performing Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James L.; Lee, Jaekyung; Fox, Jeffery D.; Madigan, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that assisted writing during reading improves reading comprehension. The hypothesis was derived from sociocognitive and constructivist theory and research and implemented in the form of a curricular intervention called Writing Intensive Reading Comprehension after its main feature of bringing together reading…

  9. Creating Comics Fosters Reading, Writing, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Comic strips provide the perfect vehicle for learning and practicing language. Each strip's three or four panels provide a finite, accessible world in which funny, interesting-looking characters live and go about their lives. Children with limited reading skills are not as overwhelmed when dealing with the size of a comic strip as they may be with…

  10. Creating Comics Fosters Reading, Writing, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Comic strips provide the perfect vehicle for learning and practicing language. Each strip's three or four panels provide a finite, accessible world in which funny, interesting-looking characters live and go about their lives. Children with limited reading skills are not as overwhelmed when dealing with the size of a comic strip as they may be with…

  11. Deaf Students' Reading and Writing in College: Fluency, Coherence, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John A.; Marschark, Marc; Kincheloe, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Research in discourse reveals numerous cognitive connections between reading and writing. Rather than one being the inverse of the other, there are parallels and interactions between them. To understand the variables and possible connections in the reading and writing of adult deaf students, we manipulated writing conditions and reading texts.…

  12. Integrated Reading and Writing: A Case of Korean English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk; Brutt-Griffler, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study reports Korean English language learners' perceived needs concerning their learning of reading and writing and how the integrated reading and writing instruction impacts their reading comprehension and summary-writing abilities. The study also delineates teacher's challenges faced during the instruction. A total of 93 students in a…

  13. Developing Reading-Writing Connections: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

    Using literature in the classroom yields rewards. Literature for children is being recognized as increasingly important in children's literacy development. The ideas, resources, and activities offered in this collection of 43 articles published in "The Reading Teacher" from 1993 to 1999 provide strategies that are engaging and effective for all…

  14. Integration of Reading and Writing Strategies To Improve Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Susan

    A program was developed for improving the reading of second-grade students in a progressive suburban community in northern Illinois. The problem was originally noted by an increase in the need for support services and low standardized test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of the relationship between…

  15. Developing Reading-Writing Connections: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

    Using literature in the classroom yields rewards. Literature for children is being recognized as increasingly important in children's literacy development. The ideas, resources, and activities offered in this collection of 43 articles published in "The Reading Teacher" from 1993 to 1999 provide strategies that are engaging and effective…

  16. Using Technology to Support Expository Reading and Writing in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Herter, Roberta J.

    2010-01-01

    Students struggle with the transition from learning to read narrative text in the early grades to reading expository text in the science classroom in the upper grades as they begin reading and writing to gain information. Science teachers can adapt their teaching materials to develop students' reading comprehension and recall by writing summaries…

  17. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  18. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  19. Literacy and teacher training: some reflections on reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenise Sangoi Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on reading and writing, from the research project “Literacy Lab: rethinking teacher training” which aims to establish exchanges between socially vulnerable schools and the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM and contribute to the training of undergraduates in Pedagogy and Special Education, as well as the teachers of the schools involved. Adopting a qualitative methodology based on studies of Bogdan and Bicklen (1994, the project seeks to support the literacy process by proposing reflection on the current pedagogical practices in the early years of elementary school. The results show the existence of practices in elementary school which mostly ignore the creative ability of the students. It was concluded that this project has enhanced the relationship between initial and continuous training of teachers and practices of reading and writing.

  20. Reading-to-write: A Practice of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanfang Li; Chunhong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of ...

  1. The Hot Chocolate House: Reading and Writing on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Hot Chocolate House Web site that was created for elementary school students to engage in a variety of activities centered on reading and creative writing. Students can submit their own writing or book reviews, read other writing or book reviews, share authors' letters, and find recipes for snacks. (LRW)

  2. "Why Am I Paraphrasing?": Undergraduate ESL Writers' Engagement with Source-Based Academic Writing and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvela, Alan; Du, Qian

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and vital areas of coverage in second language (L2) writing instruction is writing from sources, that is, the process of reading source text material and transferring content from that reading to writing. Research as well as everyday practice in the classroom has long shown that working with source texts is one of the most…

  3. The Effects of Reading Short Stories in Improving Foreign Language Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Özgür Sen

    2017-01-01

    This study is an inquiry into the effects of reading short stories in improving foreign language writing skills through Read for Writing model, which is the adaptation of the approach called Talk for Writing (Corbett, 2013). It is a quasi-experimental 13-week field study which was implemented in a primary school. The purpose of this study is to…

  4. It's a Wrap: Writing, Reading, and Art Projects for Developmental College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kathleen A.; Stewart, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the visual arts as a means of helping remedial reading and writing students to "see" the process of writing. Discusses the use of clay sculpting to demonstrate free-writing techniques, Venn-mobiles to demonstrate compare/contrast techniques, and wraps (felt "tortillas" and fillings) to demonstrate summary writing. (Contains 10…

  5. Motivation and Connection: Teaching Reading (and Writing) in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reading in terms of its connections to writing can motivate students to read and increase the likelihood that they find success in both activities. It can lead students to value reading as an integral aspect of learning to write. It can help students develop their understanding of writerly strategies and techniques. Drawing on qualitative…

  6. The Application of Genre-based Pedagogy in College English Reading and Writing Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-ju; ZOU Ai-min

    2015-01-01

    The genre-base pedagogy is based on genre and genre analysis theories. It provides a new direction to improve the teaching effect of College English reading and writing. This paper analyzes the notion of genre, highlights genre analysis and genre-based pedagogy for its advantages in language teaching, clearifies the relationship between reading and writing, and then presents a sample class which adopts genre-based pedagogy to textbook-based College English reading and writing instruction.

  7. Reflections on Observing ESL Reading and Writing Course at University of Ottawa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Qi

    2015-01-01

    This article is about some reflections after observing an ESL Reading and Writing Course at the University of Ottawa. Compared to the English teaching situation at my university which is facing colossal challenges of reformation, four aspects are highlighted as the enlightenments:Use the online platform as a scaffold to help students climb up English rather than an arbitrary monitor of the students’after-class English study; Reading and writing interweave, with writing taking priority to reading in Reading and Writing Course; The teacher respect students very much in class rather than behave in a ruling attitude; Grammar matters than expected.

  8. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students’ writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

  9. Practices of reading and writing in five diferent programs of the Sergio Arboleda university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into the practices of reading and writing present in five courses of different programs assigned at the Sergio Arboleda University (Bogotá. The research derives from the following questions: What is the role of reading and writing process in the course of some programs at the University? How is assign, directed and accompanied the task of reading and writing? and how are assessed the progress and results in the process of reading and writing? The information was obtained from written tests, surveys, classroom observations and interviews with teachers of these programs. After the analysis process, were set up five units of information, which in the case of reading were reading assignment, intervention guidance, intervention to clarify, evaluation and assessments of teachers, and for the case of writing: defining text types, intervention process, intervention in the correction process, evaluation and assessments of teachers.

  10. A Case Study of Two College Students’ Reading Strategies and Their Writing Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of integrating reading and writing has aroused many people’s interest, and how to bridge the gap between input (reading and output (writing is regarded as an urgent necessity. However, input does not equal to intake, and to achieve the stage of intake, the reader’s conscious attention to the input is necessary, which is commonly realized in the reading process, either by intensive reading (focus-on-form or extensive reading (focus-on-meaning. Previous studies put more emphasis on extensive reading, while this study is based on the assumed different effects of reading strategies upon writing styles, that is, intensive reading may guarantee accurate writing and extensive reading may promote fluent writing. Therefore the relationship between two college students’ reading strategies and writing styles is the focus of this study. The research lasts for 16 months (August, 2014 - December, 2015, during which all their journal writing pieces, their term papers, together with their compositions in the final exams, are used as the written data, while materials concerned with their reading strategies are collected by a questionnaire, two interviews, as well as their written self-reflections. Results show that extensive reading with a subconscious focus-on-meaning tends to enhance the fluency of writing while intensive reading with a conscious focus-on-form is more likely to promote the writing accuracy. Findings suggest that production is based on intake, which is the result of either the subconscious or conscious attention to both the language meaning and language form.

  11. Beyond the Single Text: Nurturing Young Children's Interest in Reading and Writing for Multiple Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carol A.; Milewicz, Elizabeth J.; Smolkin, Laura B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes children's early use of oral and written language for different purposes. Advocates fostering early appreciation of a variety of texts to cultivate children's disposition to read and write for enjoyment, information, and communication. Presents ideas for using the talking, reading, and writing done every day by young children to develop…

  12. Neuropsychological Functioning in Specific Learning Disorders--Reading, Writing and Mixed Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Kaur, Manreet; Mohanty, Manju; Malhotra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The study compared the pattern of deficits, intelligence and neuropsychological functioning in subcategories of learning disorders. Methods: Forty-six children (16 with reading disorders, 11 with writing disorders and 19 with both reading and writing disorders--mixed group) in the age range of 7-14 years were assessed using the NIMHANS Index…

  13. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  14. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  15. The Grammar Workshop: Systematic Language Study in Reading and Writing Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2012-01-01

    In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar…

  16. Reading, Writing, and Animation in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…

  17. The Grammar Workshop: Systematic Language Study in Reading and Writing Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2012-01-01

    In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar…

  18. Portfolio Assessment in Reading and Writing: Linking Assessment and Instruction to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belk, Jo Ann; Calais, Gerald J.

    Traditional assessment in reading and writing does not accurately reflect what we currently know about the reading and writing process. It disempowers teachers, students, and parents; separates assessment, instruction, and learning; and employs externally defined criteria for cross assessment purposes. Efforts to develop useful alternative…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Writing and Their Relations to Language and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Christopher, Micaela; Keenan, Janice M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Identical and fraternal twins (N = 540, age 8 to 18 years) were tested on three different measures of writing (Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement--Writing Samples and Writing Fluency; Handwriting Copy from the Group Diagnostic Reading and Aptitude Achievement Tests), three different language skills (phonological awareness, rapid naming, and…

  20. 只有读,你才会写%Only By Reading,You Would Write

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金凤

    2014-01-01

    Reading is the foundation for writing. In the teaching of reading,The teacher should reasonably guide students to learn a variety of writing methods and combined curricular with extracurricular accumulation to achieve the unity of content and form,and let the students write in reading,read in writing,and to achieve combined read and write each other ,common development.%读是写的基础。在阅读教学中,合理地引导学生学习多种写作方法,并将课内与课外积累相结合,实现内容与形式的统一,并使学生在读中写,在写中读,实现读与写的相互结合,共同发展。

  1. Titan en Christiaan. Huygens in werk en leven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2000-01-01

    In three respects Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) poses a biographical problem. Unlike contemporaries he hardly ever reflected upon what he thought he was doing; his versatility makes it hard to gain a balanced view of what he was doing; his personality seems almost absent from his writings. In the

  2. Genre-Centered Approach to Reading and Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Weiqing

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two aspects. One is the introduction of the semiotic systemic functional approach to the notion of genre, and the other is its practical use in the text analysis. For the latter, the experiments are mainly carried out from the examination of the relation between the social purpose of the text type and the generic structure potential. One of the most important implications of this study is closely related to English teaching. As genre analysis can help the students understand the macrostructure of a text so as to help them improve both their reading comprehension and writing competence, genre teaching will become necessary. Cultivating genre competence is very important in cultivating linguistic competence.

  3. TEXTLINGUISTICS AND THE TEACHING OF READING AND WRITING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cohesion, coherence and controlling are the three main features of a text. Cohesion is the system of formal visible markers, which manifest the semantic relations between sentences. Coherence lies in the deep structure of a text. It refers to the complex non-linear notional-functional relations behind the linear sequences of words or sentences. Controlling is an intuitive semantic key-link, which lies on the topmost level in the hierarchical representation of a text. This thesis attempts to bring these textlinguistic theories in contact with practical issues in language teaching, especially in the teaching of reading and writing. The authors believe that their explorations of the implications of textlinguistie theories on ELT will arouse the interest of other language teachers and meanwhile give them new ideas for their language teaching.

  4. Using a Faculty Survey of College-Level Reading and Writing Requirements To Revise Developmental Reading and Writing Objectives. Kellogg Institute Final Report, Practicum 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Kathleen

    The report discusses the findings of a study on the reading and writing demands of college-level courses at Maryland's Charles County Community College (College of Southern Maryland as of July 1, 2000). The Language and Literature Department wanted to determine whether its developmental courses were actually preparing students for the reading and…

  5. Innovation of Integrated Teaching of Reading and Writing from the Per-spective of Stylistic Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Juan

    2016-01-01

    The traditional teaching of writing in China mainly adopts the bottom-up approach. The perspective is microscopic with the emphasis put on the linguistic correctness and the richness of content. Writing is regarded as isolated linguistic produc-tion. Prior textual reading is not well integrated with the writing process and the assessment is mainly summative. This study adopts genre-based teaching approach guided by top-down thinking mode with the development of students’stylistic awareness and generic competence as the focus. Linguistic input and output are regarded as closely related processes. Reading and writing are integrated in a more efficient way. The tutoring of textual reading before writing is genre-oriented. The effort is to help stu-dents construct a stylistic schema of text by incorporating both macroscopic and microscopic contexts, which is to be applied in English writing and to promote learning.

  6. Reading efficiency and the development of left-to-right writing by the ancient Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudin, R

    1989-12-01

    Ancient Greeks added vowels to a consonantal language and changed their horizontal writing direction from right-to-left to left-to-right. The idea that the dextral majority in ancient Greece developed left-to-right writing solely because writing efficiency was greater is questioned. Cerebral hemispheric functions that might be involved during fixation pauses in reading suggest that horizontal ancient Greek was read more efficiently from left to right than from right to left, the other direction in which it usually was written. The same considerations suggest that horizontal consonantal scripts are read more efficiently from right to left than from left to right. The importance of boustrophedon, a continuous writing style, in the development of left-to-right writing and aspects of the reciprocity between cerebral hemispheric functioning and writing direction of vocalic scripts are discussed.

  7. Close Reading and Creative Writing in Clinical Education: Teaching Attention, Representation, and Affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Because faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the prerequisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care.

  8. Close Reading and Creative Writing in Clinical Education: Teaching Attention, Representation, and Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Rita; Hermann, Nellie; Devlin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical educators increasingly have embraced literary and narrative means of pedagogy, such as the use of learning portfolios, reading works of literature, reflective writing, and creative writing, to teach interpersonal and reflective aspects of medicine. Outcomes studies of such pedagogies support the hypotheses that narrative training can deepen the clinician's attention to a patient and can help to establish the clinician's affiliation with patients, colleagues, teachers, and the self. In this article, the authors propose that creative writing in particular is useful in the making of the physician. Of the conceptual frameworks that explain why narrative training is helpful for clinicians, the authors focus on aesthetic theories to articulate the mechanisms through which creative and reflective writing may have dividends in medical training. These theories propose that accurate perception requires representation and that representation requires reception, providing a rationale for teaching clinicians and trainees how to represent what they perceive in their clinical work and how to read one another's writings. The authors then describe the narrative pedagogy used at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Since faculty must read what their students write, they receive robust training in close reading. From this training emerged the Reading Guide for Reflective Writing, which has been useful to clinicians as they develop their skills as close readers. This institution-wide effort to teach close reading and creative writing aims to equip students and faculty with the pre-requisites to provide attentive, empathic clinical care. PMID:26200577

  9. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  10. I Can Read and Write! How To Encourage Your School-Age Child's Literacy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This booklet suggests that parents read with their elementary-age child, allowing the child to participate in the reading. The booklet also shows how to make the home a reader-friendly environment, initiate writing activities with a child, and make family trips to the library. Sections of the booklet are: "Read to Your Child"; "The Family That…

  11. Levels of Phonology Related to Reading and Writing in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Roxana; Buchanan, William R; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2015-02-01

    The relationships of different levels of phonological processing (sounds in heard and spoken words for whole words, syllables, phonemes, and rimes) to multi-leveled functional reading or writing systems were studied. Participants in this cross-sectional study were students in fourth- grade (n=119, mean age 116.5 months) and sixth- grade (n=105, mean age 139.7 months). Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling was used to analyze whether different levels of sound processing in heard and spoken words were correlated with each other and with multi-leveled reading or writing systems, and if so, which phonological skills explained unique variance in the reading or writing system. The models fit well at both grade levels for both reading and writing. All four phonological skills studied correlated significantly with each other and the latent factor for reading or writing. For reading, phonology for whole words and phonemes explained unique variance in fourth and sixth graders. For writing, at the fourth grade, only phonemes explained unique variance, but at the sixth grade level, syllables, phonemes, and rimes explained unique variance. Thus, the relationships between levels of phonology and reading were stable across grades 4 and 6, but developmental differences were observed in the relationships between levels of phonology and the leveled writing construct.

  12. CULTIVATING LEARNERS’WRITING COMPETENCE IN TEACHING READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This essay discusses the ways of cultivating learners’writing competence in teaching reading—helpinglearners get a general idea and better understand thestructure as well as the writing techniques and at thesame time arousing their interest in writing and devel-oping their writing skills.By detailed explanationthrough analysis of the relationship between readingand writing and then taking the texts in College Eng-lish as examples,an effective learning style is vividlyintroduced to learners.

  13. Sustaining Composition: Studying Content-Based, Ecological, and Economical Sustainability of Open-Source Textbooks through "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Writing programs in institutions of higher education work to prepare students for real-world writing within any field of study. The composition of "Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing" offers an open-source text for students, teachers, and policy-makers at all levels. Exposure to an open space for learning encourages access to information,…

  14. Interacting with Text: The Role of Dialogue in Learning to Read and Write

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. R. Martin; David Rose

    2007-01-01

    English language teachers in China are expressing growing interest in the model of language provided by systemic functional linguistics and genre theory. This paper offers further insights into the methods developed in this framework, for teaching reading and writing in school and academic contexts. These methods involve carefully planned interactions between teachers and students, that enable all students in a class to successfully practise skills in academic reading and writing. The paper outlines the models of language and language learning that underpin the methods, and illustrates the kinds of classroom interactions used for writing and reading. It concludes with a discussion of the implications of these methods for language teaching in China.

  15. Read-To-Write-Tasks” in English for Specific Purposes Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At university level students face demanding tasks of reading an enormous amount of professional materials in English. Writing various assignments is another challenging part of higher education. Online activities are the priority for conducting assignments at tertiary level. Students usually start doing the English for Specific Purposes (ESP course before learning subject-matters of the future profession, i.e. in their first year. The cornerstone of the ESP is unfamiliar lexis and numerous concepts of subject-matter. In order to succeed, students need to develop proficiency in reading professional texts and writing skillfully on relevant subject issues. The aim of this paper is to study, first, learners‘ attitudes to online reading of professional materials as well as to writing various assignments online and, second, to examine learners‘ self-assessment of proficiency in these skills. Our research employed brief written surveys designed in accordance with the standards in Social Sciences, which were administered to the students doing the ESP course, and the verbal data obtained during individual interviews intended to assess learners‘ success and achievements throughout the academic year. The respondents were the students specializing in psychology at Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania. All the participants were unanimous in the importance of writing and reading skills for the ESP tasks. 100% of respondents support reading professional materials, and 80% of respondents support exercising online writing. Self-assessment of reading proficiency demonstrates that 90% of students believe they possess very good or good skills of reading, and 70% of learners are sure of their good skills in writing. Respondents’ performance in these skills is less impressive. Some recommendations towards perfecting students’ proficiency in “read-to-write-tasks” are suggested. It is important to help learners develop better rates of reading

  16. Native protein nanolithography that can write, read and erase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazli, Ali; Piehler, Jacob; Beuttler, Mirjam; Guckenberger, Reinhard; Tampé, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The development of systematic approaches to explore protein-protein interactions and dynamic protein networks is at the forefront of biological sciences. Nanopatterned protein arrays offer significant advantages for sensing applications, including short diffusion times, parallel detection of multiple targets and the requirement for only tiny amounts of sample. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques have successfully demonstrated patterning of molecules, including stable proteins, with submicrometre resolution. Here, we introduce native protein nanolithography for the nanostructured assembly of even fragile proteins or multiprotein complexes under native conditions. Immobilized proteins are detached by a novel vibrational AFM mode (contact oscillation mode) and replaced by other proteins, which are selectively self-assembled from the bulk. This nanolithography permits rapid writing, reading and erasing of protein arrays in a versatile manner. Functional protein complexes may be assembled with uniform orientation at dimensions down to 50 nm. Such fabrication of two-dimensionally arranged nano-objects with biological activity will prove powerful for proteome-wide interaction screens and single molecule/virus/cell analyses.

  17. Post graduate ESP curriculum: reading and writing needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnad, Afsaneh; Bagherzadeh, Rafat; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Hatami, Kamran; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learners' needs is an integral part of any curriculum and course design , namely English for specific purposes (ESP), syllabus design, materials development, teaching methods and testing issues. Critical approach to needs analysis, which is a relatively recent approach, acknowledges the rights of different stakeholders including teachers, students and administrators in the process of needs analysis. However, there has been no formal need analysis for syllabus design at postgraduate level in Medical Universities affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study, conducted in 2011, was an attempt to assess the reading and writing needs of postgraduate students in ESP courses on the basis of critical approach to needs analysis. The study population consisted of 67 people: 56 postgraduate students, 5 heads of departments, 5 ESP instructors and 1 executive manager at the Ministry of Health in Iran. Ethical and demographic forms, needs analysis questionnaires, and a form of semi-structured interview were the instruments of the study. According to the findings, there was a discrepancy between students' and instructors' perception of learners' needs and the assumed needs appearing in the syllabi prescribed by the Ministry of Health in Iran. This study showed that a call for critical needs analysis in which the rights of different stakeholders are acknowledged is necessary for meeting the requirements of any ESP classes especially at postgraduate level where the instructors and learners are fully aware of learners' needs.

  18. Multilingual dyslexia in university students: Reading and writing patterns in three languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgrén, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-09-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional errors. Dyslexic impairments were most conspicuous in word and sentence segmentation, accuracy in oral text reading, single word writing to dictation and free writing across the three languages, most prominently in English. The writing tasks exhibited significantly higher proportions of phoneme-to-grapheme errors in the dyslexia group, especially in English, and marginal differences in inflectional errors, again discernible in English. The results indicate that language proficiency and orthographic depth modulate the appearance of high-performing multilinguals' dyslexic problems in reading and writing. These problems surfaced most clearly in a less proficient foreign, orthographically opaque language.

  19. Titan from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert H; Waite, J. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn's largest moon Titan featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses Titan’s origin and evolution, internal structure, surface geology, the atmosphere and ionosphere as well as magnetospheric interactions. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  20. On Reading, Writing, and Computers: A Conversation with John Martin Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ron, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    With a simplified alphabet and interactive computer programing, John Henry Martin has developed a system by which children can learn to read and write far better than usual. In this interview, he explains his approach. (Author/MLF)

  1. Conceptual and attitude change of community college students through reading-writing-science learning connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ivy Aleta

    The purpose of this qualitative research investigates the influence of reading and writing to facilitate learning in science. Another purpose is to study the effect of constructivist teaching practices and cooperative learning to attain conceptual change among community college students in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course. The affective dimension of learning anatomy and physiology through reading and writing was studied by examining the students' attitudes and personal beliefs expressed in their essays. This research combined several methods to engage the learner: reading an article of their choice from the "Vital Signs" series, writing an essay on the article read, collaborative group discussions, and critique of essay. The reading component of the study utilized the "Vital Signs" series from Discover magazine. The students then wrote essays using guide questions provided by the researcher. The essays were shared during the collaboration and critique session when students are in their "base groups." Reading and writing facilitates adult learners conceptual change in a human anatomy and physiology course through the linking of concepts to previous experiences, whether personal or previously studied materials. The positive effects of cooperative learning on minds-on construction of knowledge on adult learners' attitudes toward reading and writing about human anatomy and physiology were expressed at the focus group interviews. The choice of reading materials, working with peers, and freedom to express personal beliefs regarding the medically related articles positively influenced the adult learners' interest in learning human anatomy and physiology.

  2. Source Text Borrowing in an Integrated Reading/Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha

    2012-01-01

    Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…

  3. Teaching of reading and writing skills: Process syllabus and global issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sezgi Sarac

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present a suggested syllabus that can set an example for process and task based syllabus applications for the teaching of reading and writing skills in a foreign language. It proposes a teaching model and the related evaluative data analysis. In the spring term of 2006-2007 academic year, 50 first year pre-service teachers at Hacettepe University, Division of English Language Teaching attended the course ‘Reading and Writing Skills II’. The course was designed i...

  4. Developing reading and writing competences of year 4 primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Turičnik, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental aim of Slovene lessons is to develop communication competences as competences of receiving and producing diverse texts. The curriculum for Slovene gives a special attention to teaching of reading and writing, with the aim of teaching to not merely master the fluent reading and writing, but also to use written language to communicate, think, create, learn, and for entertainment. Therefore, the aim is to enable all children to achieve a higher level of so-called critical literac...

  5. The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

  6. Narrating, Writing, Reading: Life Story Work as an Aid to (Self) Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Herman P.

    2006-01-01

    This article is about life story work with people with learning disabilities. It talks about reading and writing stories, and listening to them. Telling your life story, writing it down and talking about it with others can be an important part of self-advocacy for people with learning disabilities. Life stories are helpful when they are told or…

  7. The Role of Reading Strategies in Integrated L2 Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakans, Lia

    2009-01-01

    Integrated second-language writing tasks elicit writing performances that involve other abilities such as reading or listening. Thus, understanding the role of these other abilities is necessary for interpreting performance on such tasks. This study used an inductive analysis of think-aloud protocol data and interviews to uncover the reading…

  8. Finding a Meaning: Reading, Writing, Thinking Applications: Double-Entry Notebooks, Literature Logs, Process Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobleski, Diane

    Three different ways of integrating writing and thinking into the classroom are using double-entry notebooks, literature logs, and process journals. In a double-entry notebook, the writer takes notes on the reading, collects direct quotations, makes observational notes, and writes fragments, lists, and images on the left side of the notebook. On…

  9. The Significance of Journal Writing in Improving Listening and Reading Comprehension in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Inaam; Ahmed, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of daily journal writing on enhancing the listening and reading comprehension skills in a fifty-week Modern Standard Arabic course taught at the Defense Language Institute (DLI) in Monterey, California. In the field of foreign language (FL) teaching, writing has long been considered a supporting skill for…

  10. Research and Teaching: Undergraduate Science Students' Attitudes toward and Approaches to Scientific Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Heather; Lim, Saw Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cohort of final-year undergraduate science students were surveyed to examine whether they fully read journal articles, including whether they seek to understand how the results support the conclusions. Their writing was also examined to see if they use deep or surface approaches to scientific writing.

  11. Voice and Dialogue in Teaching Reading/Writing to Qatari Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkowska, Krystyna U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to improve the reading comprehension and writing skills of students coming from an oral culture. The proposed approach involves using voice and dialogue--understood literally and metaphorically--as a tool in teaching students how to engage texts and write with a reader in mind. The author discusses a pilot study…

  12. Writing affects the brain network of reading in Chinese: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Vu, Marianne; Chan, Derek Ho Lung; Lawrence, Jason M; Harris, Lindsay N; Guan, Qun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus.

  13. Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Per

    2011-01-01

    Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…

  14. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  15. Relations between Early Reading and Writing Skills among Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…

  16. Segregated Groups or Inclusive Education? An Interview Study with Students Experiencing Failure in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this study a group of students with reading and writing difficulties relate their experiences of school to their expressed opinions concerning the possibilities of participation and influence in this setting. Twelve students at upper-level compulsory school or upper secondary school were interviewed. Mostly their reading and writing…

  17. Exploring the Reading-Writing Connection in Chinese Children with Dyslexia in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing the analyses based on the data of 1,235 Chinese children referred for government services and subsequently diagnosed as children with dyslexia in Hong Kong and those of 690 Chinese children in the sample for the normative study of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing, we explored the reading-writing…

  18. RcppCNPy: Read-Write Support for NumPy Files in R

    OpenAIRE

    Eddelbuettel, Dirk; Wu, Wush

    2016-01-01

    The RcppCNPy package, based on the 'cnpy' library written by Carl Rogers, provides R with read and write facilities for files created with (or for) the 'NumPy' extension for 'Python'. Vectors and matrices of numeric types can be read or written to and from  files as well as compressed files.

  19. Cross-Lag Analysis of Longitudinal Associations between Primary School Students' Writing and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti; Canneti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between reading (i.e., rapidity and accuracy) and writing competences (i.e., fluency, accuracy, and composition skills) of Italian children in the first and second grade. The performance of seventy-five children was longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that reading and…

  20. Using ICT to foster (pre)reading and writing skills in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; McKenney-Jensh, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how technology can support the development of emergent reading and writing skills in four- to five-year-old children. The research was conducted with PictoPal, an intervention which features a software package that uses images and text in three main activity areas: reading, writi

  1. Going Out on a Limb: A Reading and Writing Course about the Fourth Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a reading and writing course about the fourth dimension that involves readings selected from both mathematical and non-mathematical literature, frequent class discussion, several invited speakers from disciplines other than mathematics, and some hands-on and group activities. (Author/ASK)

  2. Using ICT to foster (pre)reading and writing skills in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how technology can support the development of emergent reading and writing skills in four- to five-year-old children. The research was conducted with PictoPal, an intervention which features a software package that uses images and text in three main activity areas: reading,

  3. Temporal Resolution Ability in Students with Dyslexia and Reading and Writing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaubet, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Gaps-in-Noise (GIN test assesses the hearing ability of temporal resolution. The development of this ability can be considered essential for learning how to read. Objective Identify temporal resolution in individuals diagnosed with reading and writing disorders compared with subjects with dyslexia. Methods A sample of 26 subjects of both genders, age 10 to 15 years, included 11 diagnosed with dyslexia and 15 diagnosed with reading and writing disorders. Subjects did not display otologic, neurologic, and/or cognitive diseases. A control group of 30 normal-hearing subjects was formed to compare thresholds and percentages obtained from the GIN test. The responses were obtained considering two measures of analysis: the threshold gap and the percentage of correct gap. Results The threshold was lower in the GIN for the typical group than for the other groups. There was no difference between groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. The GIN results of the typical group revealed a higher percentage of correct answer than in the other groups. No difference was obtained between the groups with dyslexia and with reading and writing disorders. Conclusion The GIN test identified a difficulty in auditory ability of temporal resolution in individuals with reading and writing disorders and in individuals with dyslexia in a similar way.

  4. Nursing students' reading and English aptitudes and their relationship to discipline-specific formal writing ability: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah; Moore, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Formal writing assignments are commonly used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills, as well as to enhance their communication abilities. However, writing apprehension is a common phenomenon among nursing students. It has been suggested that reading and English aptitudes are related to formal writing ability, yet neither the reading nor the English aptitudes of undergraduate nursing students have been described in the literature, and the relationships that reading and English aptitude have with formal writing ability have not been explored. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe writing apprehension and to assess the relationships among reading and English aptitude and discipline-specific formal writing ability among undergraduate nursing students. The study sample consisted of 146 sophomores from one baccalaureate nursing program. The results indicated that both reading and English aptitude were related to students' formal writing ability.

  5. Grammar Writing for a Grammar-reading Audience

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper will be concerned primarily with the problem of establishment of higher standards for grammar writing. The text includes a list of 28 points for grammar writers suggested by the Michael Noonan. About another issue, the evaluation of grammar writing within the profession and the professional support provided to grammar writers, the author makes some few comments at the end of this essay.

  6. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2007-01-01

    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  7. Reading and Writing for Preservice Teachers: Making Meaningful Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alba, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    In many states, preservice physical education teachers are required to take reading courses to obtain their teaching certificate. However, many future physical educators are not enthusiastic about this requirement. In fact, many candidly state, "I don't like reading" and "I am not becoming a PE teacher so I can teach reading."…

  8. Reading and Writing for Preservice Teachers: Making Meaningful Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alba, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    In many states, preservice physical education teachers are required to take reading courses to obtain their teaching certificate. However, many future physical educators are not enthusiastic about this requirement. In fact, many candidly state, "I don't like reading" and "I am not becoming a PE teacher so I can teach reading."…

  9. Writing and reading in the electronic health record: an entirely new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Lopp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic health records (EHRs are structured, distributed documentation systems that differ from paper charts. These systems require skills not traditionally used to navigate a paper chart and to produce a written clinic note. Despite these differences, little attention has been given to physicians’ electronic health record (EHR-writing and -reading competence. Purposes: This study aims to investigate physicians’ self-assessed competence to document and to read EHR notes; writing and reading preferences in an EHR; and demographic characteristics associated with their perceived EHR ability and preference. Methods: Fourteen 5-point Likert scale items, based on EHR system characteristics and a literature review, were developed to measure EHR-writing and -reading competence and preference. Physicians in the midwest region of the United States were invited via e-mail to complete the survey online from February to April 2011. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted to provide validity and reliability of the instrument. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to pursue answers to the research questions. Results: Ninety-one physicians (12.5%, from general and specialty fields, working in inpatient and outpatient settings, participated in the survey. Despite over 3 years of EHR experience, respondents perceived themselves to be incompetent in EHR writing and reading (Mean = 2.74, SD = 0.76. They preferred to read succinct, narrative notes in EHR systems. However, physicians with higher perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence had less preference toward reading succinct (r= − 0.33, p<0.001 and narrative (r= − 0.36, p<0.001 EHR notes than physicians with lower perceived EHR competence. Physicians’ perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence was strongly related to their EHR navigation skills (r=0.55, p<0.0001. Conclusions: Writing and reading EHR documentation is different for physicians. Maximizing

  10. Saturn from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Michele K; Krimigis, Stamatios M

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses the planet’s origin and evolution, internal structure, composition and chemistry, the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetosphere, as well as its ring system. Furthermore, Saturn's icy satellites are discussed. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  11. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

  12. Writing and reading: connections between language by hand and language by eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Abbott, Sylvia P; Graham, Steve; Richards, Todd

    2002-01-01

    Four approaches to the investigation of connections between language by hand and language by eye are described and illustrated with studies from a decade-long research program. In the first approach, multigroup structural equation modeling is applied to reading and writing measures given to typically developing writers to examine unidirectional and bidirectional relationships between specific components of the reading and writing systems. In the second approach, structural equation modeling is applied to a multivariate set of language measures given to children and adults with reading and writing disabilities to examine how the same set of language processes is orchestrated differently to accomplish specific reading or writing goals, and correlations between factors are evaluated to examine the level at which the language-by-hand system and the language-by-eye system communicate most easily. In the third approach, mode of instruction and mode of response are systematically varied in evaluating effectiveness of treating reading disability with and without a writing component. In the fourth approach, functional brain imaging is used to investigate residual spelling problems in students whose problems with word decoding have been remediated. The four approaches support a model in which language by hand and language by eye are separate systems that interact in predictable ways.

  13. Neuroplasticity-based cognitive and linguistic skills training improves reading and writing skills in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowsky, Beth A; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students' reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students' foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3-5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.

  14. Neuroplasticity-based Cognitive and Linguistic Skills Training Improves Reading and Writing Skills in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth eRogowsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language who demonstrated poor writing skills participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3, 4 and 5. The comparison group (n=28 selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1 and end (Time 2 of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.

  15. Writing and reading training effects on font type and size preferences by students with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Düger, Tülin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of writing and reading training on preferred font type and size in low-vision students was evaluated in 35 children. An ophthalmologist confirmed low vision according to ICD-10-CM. Children identified the font type and size they could best read. The writing subtest of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, read in 1 min., and legibility as measured by the number of readable written letters were used in evaluating the children. A writing and reading treatment program was conducted, beginning with the child's preferred font type and size, for 3 months, 2 days per week, for 45 min. per day at the child's school. Before treatment, the most preferred font type was Verdana; after treatment, the preferred font type and size changed. Students had gained reading and writing speed after training, but their writing legibility was not significantly better. Training might affect the preferred font type and size of students with low vision. Surprisingly, serif and sans-serif fonts were preferred about equally after treatment.

  16. How directional change in reading/writing habits relates to directional change in displayed pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures.

  17. Emergence of Reading and Writing in Illiterate Adults After Matching-to-Sample Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Motta Bandini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading and writing are behaviors that provide an individual with the opportunity for inclusion in many social environments. Despite the importance of these behaviors, statistical indices show that, in Brazil, 8.6% of the people aged 15-24 are illiterate. The purpose of this manuscript, which is divided into two studies, was to assess the effects of a Portuguese language reading curriculum for simple (Study 1 and complex words (Study 2 in illiterate adults. Four participants took part in each study. In both studies, reading was taught mainly by training dictated words to printed words relations. Overall, there was an increase in the percentage of correct responses in reading and writing tasks when pre-tests and post-tests were compared; results were more consistent in reading tasks. Future studies should continue to investigate procedures with these goals for this population.

  18. teachers say reading and writing in a university degree in the colombian caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Cárdenas Cárdenas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literacy practices in higher education: what students andThis article is the result of a survey conducted in 10 degrees in a University Colombian Caribbean whose general purpose was to describe, interpret and understand the literacy practices that take place in these degrees. To achieve this article was taken into account one aspect that research in general was conceived as the first specific objective. This aspect refers to the conceptions which teachers and students of the degrees on the teaching and learning of reading and writing academic texts in college. The study usually takes as a theoretical concept of academic literacy. Data collected through classroom observations, also came from surveys and interviews with students and teachers of the degrees. The results of the investigation determined that the teaching and learning of reading and writing in the undergraduate classroom is very limited. The development of pedagogical and didactic classes lacks reading and writing practices. 

  19. Temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in reading and writing disorders: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Alves, Débora Cristina; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2013-01-01

    To verify if there is an association between temporal auditory tests and phonological awareness in individuals with reading and writing disorders. Sixteen children were subjects of this study, aged between 7 and 12 years old, who had reading and writing disorders confirmed after specific assessment. All participants underwent phonological awareness assessment using CONFIAS test. In order to assess the auditory temporal processing, duration and frequency pattern tests were used. The descriptive analysis indicated low performance in syllabic and phonemic activities of phonological awareness as well as in temporal auditory tests. Fisher's test indicated association between disorders in auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness (p>0.001). It suggests that disorders in temporal processing contribute to low performance in phonological awareness tasks. There was association between performance in temporal auditory tests and in the phonological awareness. Data found provide reflections about including temporal auditory assessment among procedures used in the analysis of individuals with reading and writing disorders.

  20. The Internet:Making it Work in English Reading and Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Fu-qiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper will attempt to address three important areas related to Internet English feading and writing. First of all, how can the Internet be used to motivate students in their efforts to acquire English reading and writing skills. Secondly, what are the learning outcomes that use of the Internet can support. Lastly, I would like to look at some of the components of a successful program of instruction which u tilizes the Internet.

  1. Handwriting or Typewriting? The Influence of Pen- or Keyboard-Based Writing Training on Reading and Writing Performance in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Schuler, Stefanie; Mayer, Carmen; Trumpp, Natalie M; Hille, Katrin; Sachse, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Digital writing devices associated with the use of computers, tablet PCs, or mobile phones are increasingly replacing writing by hand. It is, however, controversially discussed how writing modes influence reading and writing performance in children at the start of literacy. On the one hand, the easiness of typing on digital devices may accelerate reading and writing in young children, who have less developed sensory-motor skills. On the other hand, the meaningful coupling between action and perception during handwriting, which establishes sensory-motor memory traces, could facilitate written language acquisition. In order to decide between these theoretical alternatives, for the present study, we developed an intense training program for preschool children attending the German kindergarten with 16 training sessions. Using closely matched letter learning games, eight letters of the German alphabet were trained either by handwriting with a pen on a sheet of paper or by typing on a computer keyboard. Letter recognition, naming, and writing performance as well as word reading and writing performance were assessed. Results did not indicate a superiority of typing training over handwriting training in any of these tasks. In contrast, handwriting training was superior to typing training in word writing, and, as a tendency, in word reading. The results of our study, therefore, support theories of action-perception coupling assuming a facilitatory influence of sensory-motor representations established during handwriting on reading and writing.

  2. Making It Personal: Reading Literature, Writing the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jamie M.

    2016-01-01

    Getting students to read actively for a required introductory course in literature poses several challenges, to say nothing of trying to make required reading personally meaningful. This essay outlines assignments that encourage students to make literature meaningful by establishing personal connections to texts in ways that can also impact…

  3. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge at age 8, reading comprehension at age 12 and syntactic awareness and writing composition skills at ages 11 and 12 were included in this study. Syntactic awareness was longitudinally and uniquely predictive of Chinese children's writing composition, and children's performance in early writing composition was uniquely associated with their later syntactic skills, even when controlling for the contributions from age, nonverbal and verbal abilities, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness. The relationship between syntactic awareness and writing composition was mediated by children's performance in reading comprehension. These findings may suggest a reciprocal relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition, and this association may vary with ability in reading comprehension in Chinese children.

  4. Deaf Students' Reading and Writing in College: Fluency, Coherence, and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John A; Marschark, Marc; Kincheloe, Pamela J

    2016-07-01

    Research in discourse reveals numerous cognitive connections between reading and writing. Rather than one being the inverse of the other, there are parallels and interactions between them. To understand the variables and possible connections in the reading and writing of adult deaf students, we manipulated writing conditions and reading texts. First, to test the hypothesis that a fluent writing process leads to richer content and a higher degree of coherence in a written summary, we interrupted the writing process with verbal and nonverbal intervening tasks. The negligible effect of the interference indicated that the stimuli texts were not equivalent in terms of coherence and revealed a relationship between coherence of the stimuli texts, amount of content recalled, and coherence of the written summaries. To test for a possible effect of coherence on reading comprehension, we manipulated the coherence of the texts. We found that students understood the more coherent versions of the passages better than the less coherent versions and were able to accurately distinguish between them. However, they were not able to judge comprehensibility. Implications for further research and classroom application are discussed.

  5. Reading the Writing in Radiology: 1923-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James A; Palmer, Edwin L; Connolly, Leonard P

    2015-07-01

    The style and tone of the writing in Radiology has changed over the years since its first publication in 1923. Many of the tonal changes have occurred transiently and likely in relation to political and professional issues in play at a particular time. Others represent more consistent trends in the evolution of the professional writing style. In this report, we analyze the tone of the editorial content from 1923 to 2013 in a historical context as well as progressive changes in readability parameters involving both editorial and technical content.

  6. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  7. Neuroplasticity-Based Cognitive and Linguistic Skills Training Improves Reading and Writing Skills in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Beth eRogowsky; Pericles ePapamichalis; Laura eVilla; Sabine eHeim; Paula eTallal

    2013-01-01

    This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 En...

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions on Game Based Learning Scenarios in Primary Reading and Writing Instruction Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pre-service teachers' perceptions on the use of game-based learning in a Primary Reading and Writing Instruction Course. A mixed method research was used in the study. Participants were composed of a total of 189 pre-service teachers taking the Primary Reading and Writing Instruction course during the fall term…

  9. Relationship of Word- and Sentence-Level Working Memory to Reading and Writing in Second, Fourth, and Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Swanson, H. Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Method: Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation…

  10. Assessing Reading and Writing: Building a More Complete Picture for Middle School Assessment. Technical Report No. 500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sheila; And Others

    The intention of this report is to build a strong case for a portfolio approach to assessment of reading and writing during the middle school years. A portfolio is both a collection of the artifacts of students' reading and writing and a disposition toward assessment. This disposition is characterized by the belief that assessment must be…

  11. Toward a Transparent Construct of Reading-to-Write Tasks: The Interface between Discourse Features and Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Atta; Plakans, Lia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing number of testing programs use integrated writing tasks, more validation research is needed to inform stakeholders about score use and interpretation. The current study investigates the relationship between writing proficiency and discourse features in an integrated reading-writing task. At a Middle Eastern university, 136…

  12. Roles of Metalinguistic Awareness and Academic Extensive Reading in the Development of EFL/ESL Academic Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace H. Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the development of academic writing proficiency may require both explicit metalinguistic awareness (MA and extensive reading (ER of academic texts. Specifically, it argues that: (a there may be a connection between explicit MA and the development of writing skills; (b there is a connection between ER and the development of writing skills, but academic ER may be required for development of academic writing skills; (c there may be a connection between explicit MA and the development of reading skills, which may be exploited for the development of academic ER skills, which in turn supports the development of academic writing skills.

  13. The influence of morphological awareness on reading and writing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ainoã Athaide Macedo; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira

    2017-02-16

    this study aimed to perform a systematic review of national and international studies about the relationship between morphological awareness, reading/writing, reading comprehension, and spelling. a search for national and international literature was carried out using databases Medline (via PubMed) and Portal de Periódicos da Capes (Eric, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO) from August to September 2015. the inclusion criteria were: studies that answered the guiding question and addressed the subject matter established by the descriptors and keywords. Studies with animals, laboratories, opinion/expert pieces, case series, case reports and review studies were excluded. the following markers were considered: type and objective of the study, the skills related to morphological awareness (reading, writing, reading comprehension and spelling), tests performed, and their main results. the search carried out in the pre-established databases with descriptors and free terms resulted in 203 articles. The search in PubMed resulted in 81 studies, and in Portal de Periódicos Capes, 122. Of the total, 154 were excluded according to the title and abstract, whereas 39 were excluded upon reading the full text. This allowed for the analysis of 10 articles. children with better scores in the morphological awareness test show better results in reading and writing across all school grades.

  14. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading, Writing and Proficiency Scores of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Dilek; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu

    2017-01-01

    This study is an attempt to clarify the incremental and multidimensional nature of foreign language vocabulary development and its relation to the participants' reading and writing performances and general language ability of English as a foreign language (EFL). With this principle aim, the current study investigated the relationship between…

  15. Addendum to the Evaluation of the Expository Reading and Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony B.; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Fong, Finkelstein, Jaeger, Diaz, and Broek reported the findings from an independent evaluation of the Expository Reading and Writing Course (ERWC). The evaluation found positive and statistically significant effects of the ERWC on student achievement. Due to some concerns that the previously reported results in Fong et al. (2015) did not…

  16. Implications of writing, reading, and tagging on the web for reflection support in informal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2008). Implications of Writing, Reading, and Tagging on the Web for Reflection Support in Informal Learning. In P. Dillenbourg & M. Specht (Eds.), Times of Convergence: Technologies Across Learning Contexts – Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Technol

  17. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  18. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Urbana (Reading and Writing Instruction: Urban Population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults in Mexico who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at urban inhabitants of Mexico.…

  19. Reading and Writing Skills in Multilingual/Multiliterate Aphasics: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengappa, Shyamala; Bhat, Sapna; Padakannaya, Prakash

    2004-01-01

    Reading and writing deficits in two multilingual speakers of Kannada, Hindi and English are described. Disorders of the two patients (Mr G and Ms S) had different etiologies. Mr G had severe alexia with agraphia in English as well as in Kannada and Hindi. Ms S exhibited dissociation across the languages, showing symptoms of surface dyslexia in…

  20. Enhancing Vocational Preparedness for At Risk Students through Technology Enhanced Learning Using Reading/Writing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Kevin; Parkins, Sherri

    The authors describe their experience over the last 4 years at Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, enhancing the vocational opportunities for at risk students through the use of Reading and Writing Technology, primarily, Microsofts word processor, Word and WordQ, a word prediction and text to speech software designed to assist learning…

  1. Data-Collecting on Reading-Writing Strategies: A Comparison of Instruments: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adina; Reves, Thea

    1997-01-01

    Reports on an attempt to compare two data-collecting instruments, Think-aloud Protocols and strategies questionnaires, applied to capture reading/writing strategies. Subjects were immigrant speakers of linguistically different heritage languages, Russian and Amharic first languages, and thus represented two ethnic groups, who went through the…

  2. Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques through Web Technologies for Vocational Students' Reading and Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantoem, Rewadee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This research compares the English language achievements of vocational students, their reading and writing abilities, and their attitudes towards learning English taught with just-in-time teaching techniques through web technologies and conventional methods. The experimental and control groups were formed, a randomized true control group…

  3. A Corpus of Writing, Pronunciation, Reading, and Listening by Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Katsunori; Yoshimi, Takehiko; Nanjo, Hiroaki; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop effective teaching methods and computer-assisted language teaching systems for learners of English as a foreign language who need to study the basic linguistic competences for writing, pronunciation, reading, and listening, it is necessary to first investigate which vocabulary and grammar they have or have not yet learned.…

  4. Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

  5. Effects of Reading Strategies and the Writing Process with Written Recasts on Second Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Helen; Jones, Don

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching methods used with a second language reading and writing unit. This investigation addressed discrepancies between assessment scores in the four communicative language skill areas of students in beginning-level Spanish classes at a suburban middle school. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to…

  6. Alternative Perspectives of Reading/Writing Connections. Occasional Paper No. 130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthey, Sarah J.; Raphael, Taffy E.

    This paper describes three alternative perspectives--information processing, social constructivism, and Piagetian/naturalist--of reading/writing connections and suggests instructional implications influenced by the three perspectives. The paper explores each theory in terms of basic assumptions, related research, and strengths and limitations and…

  7. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

  8. A Reading-Writing Connection in the Content Areas (Secondary Perspectives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses instructional activities designed to foster the reading-writing connection in the content area classroom. Describes the use of "possible sentences," learning logs, freewriting, dialogue journals, the RAFT technique (role, audience, format, and topic), and the "opinion-proof" organization strategy. (RS)

  9. Strengthening the Reading-Writing Connection: A Plan for Implementing Young Author's Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Sarah; Furnas, Judy

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how workshops for young authors help to cement the reading-writing connection for students and build their motivation and enthusiasm. Provides a step-by-step outline for educators who are interested in planning and implementing a young author's conference. (MG)

  10. Reading and Writing as Academic Literacy in EAP Program of Indonesian Leaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Imroatus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates academic literacy imposed in reading and writing for academic purposes in the EAP program. This study uses descriptive design elaborating data from curriculum documents and interviews. Involving 45 participants from IAIN Surakarta and Veteran University, data were analyzed using constant-comparison and inductive analysis…

  11. The Role of Computer Technology in Teaching Reading and Writing: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated preschool teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing in Jordan. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of two scales--Teachers' Beliefs Scale (TB Scale) and Teachers' Practices Scale (TP Scale)--to examine the role of computer technology in teaching…

  12. "I See What You Mean": Using Visuals to Teach Metaphoric Thinking in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Rebecca; Eastman, Gloria Schultz

    2010-01-01

    English teachers have a unique opportunity to expand and develop the way their students think. Too often, students are comfortable in thinking about reading and writing processes in a concrete or linear way. They are used to "right" or "wrong" answers in their other studies and look for the same in their English assignments. While teachers often…

  13. The Literacy Learning Progressions and the Reading and Writing Standards: Some Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Keith; Tunmer, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The new "Reading and Writing Standards" for years 1-8 (2009) and the "Literacy Learning Progressions" (2010) are the two documents that have been published to inform the New Zealand national standards in literacy. An earlier draft "Literacy Learning Progressions" document was circulated nationwide in 2007 to allow for submissions from interested…

  14. Notes from North America: "Reading and Writing" and "Impact/Retract"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper is comprised of two essays by the same author. The first essay, "Reading and Writing," refers to two books written by Dan Koeppel as an introduction to the topic of plagiarism in education and the temptation that both educators and students face to cheat. A "Big Lister" is described by Dan Koeppel in his book,…

  15. THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF READING AND WRITING INSTRUCTIONIN SCHOOLS FOR INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica REICHENBERG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, schooling for children who are regarded as intellectually disabled is organised in a special school, Särskolan. The overall aim of this article was to investigate the teachers’ attitudes towards the social practice of reading and writing instruction in Särskolan.Therefore, 40 teachers from Northern Swedenwere sampled for the em­pi­rical study. The teachers were asked to fill out a questionnaire. One of the findings was that the teachers reported different attitudes towards the social practice of reading and writing instruction. Another finding was that the teachers reported they did not practice the documentation of reading and writing difficulties. Furthermore, the practice of documentation was associated with professio­nal competence in reading and writing literacy. The study suggests that literacy educa­tion did have an effect on teachers’ attitu­des towards their practice of docu­men­ting.However, the openness towards organizational learning was polarized, and consequently, it produced a threshold for change. Accordingly, more studies are necessary for further descrip­tion and explanation of the complexities of the present findings.

  16. Influencing Children's Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation of Reading and Writing through Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Dale H.; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    2007-01-01

    According to Bandura's social cognitive theory, self-efficacy and self-regulation are key processes that affect students' learning and achievement. This article discusses students' reading and writing performances using Zimmerman's four-phase social cognitive model of the development of self-regulatory competence. Modeling is an effective means of…

  17. Record-Keeping and Checklists for Reading and Writing. Methods for Keeping Track of Individual Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Michael

    Models of record keeping strategies for reading and writing are presented in this booklet. "Why Records Should Be Kept" discusses the importance and advantages of keeping accurate records of pupil progress; "Commercially Available Materials" lists many of the record systems available from commercial textbook publishers; "Record-Keeping for…

  18. Reflections. Teaching the Secondary Language Functions of Writing, Spelling, and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Yolanda V.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the teaching of writing, spelling, and reading using code-based literacy methods, such as Orton-Gillingham examines the cognitive challenge of the transition from spoken to graphic word and then reviews new research findings, such as the letter as model for sound variation, ease of spelling the low vowel, and the creation of word…

  19. Developing methodological awareness of reading, thinking and writing as knowledge producing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katan, Lina Hauge; Baarts, Charlotte

    the reasons for availing students to build understanding of those aspects of research comprised by reading, thinking and writing. We reflect on the students’ learning experiences during the course as these were made accessible to us in the form of weekly written logs. Relating to this we discuss what...

  20. Exploring the Inconsistent Labels and Definitions of Texts Used in Informational Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Naomi M.; Liang, Lauren Aimonette

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the various labels and definitions given for texts used for informational reading and writing and the confusion caused by the inconsistency of terms. An EBSCO search on articles published from 2006 to 2011 in the three largest literacy-related professional organizations' journals produced a total of 59 articles.…

  1. Chinese University EFL Undergraduate Students' Perceptions towards EGAP Reading and Writing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ning; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Meihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how undergraduate students from a prestigious Chinese university perceived the teaching and learning of English for general academic purposes (EGAP) reading and writing courses. Analyses of 951 questionnaires revealed that most participants generally (strongly) believed that learning general academic English was closely…

  2. Multilingual Dyslexia in University Students: Reading and Writing Patterns in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…

  3. The Application of Readers Theater to FLES (Foreign Language in the Elementary Schools) Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to investigate the effectiveness of Readers Theater (RT) in promoting English as a foreign language children's reading and writing proficiency after a participation period of one semester. In addition, the researcher recorded and analyzed children's learning motivation and feedback toward RT. The…

  4. Young Children's Motivation to Read and Write: Development in Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal, mixed-method study, 67 children in two schools were observed during literacy activities in Grades 1-3. Children and their teachers were interviewed each year about the children's motivation to read and write. Taking a grounded theory approach, content analysis of the child interview protocols identified the motivations…

  5. Using Peer Collaboration to Support Online Reading, Writing, and Communication: An Empowerment Model for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurie A.; Castek, Jill; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Zawilinski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the implementation of an empowerment model for struggling readers that utilized the Internet as a context for reading, writing, and communicating in 3 different classroom contexts. Through student-centered techniques, such as flexible grouping and peer teaching, we designed Internet Reciprocal Teaching to…

  6. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  7. Reading and Writing Tasks on Different University Degree Courses: What Do the Students Say They Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Villalon, Ruth; de Dios, Maria Jose; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reading and writing tasks as learning tools in higher education in Spain. The participants were 171 undergraduates from three different university degree courses. The data were gathered through a questionnaire that explored the kind of tasks carried out by the students, their perception of different aspects of…

  8. Helping Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia Make Connections: Differentiated Instruction Lesson Plans in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Wolf, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Students in Ginger Berninger's research studies "showed significant improvement in their reading and writing" after using these lessons--now available to teachers for the first time ever in one convenient book! A state-of-the-art set of lesson plans that can be used for differentiated instruction of students with dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD,…

  9. Summer Program Helps Adolescents Merge Technology, Popular Culture, Reading, and Writing for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Salika A.; McNeal, Kelly; Yildiz, Melda N.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how faculty provided opportunities for urban high school students to develop literacy proficiencies in reading, writing, and technology. The 12 students participating in an on-campus summer program completed four projects using technology. The faculty collected and reviewed a variety of sources to gain insights into the…

  10. Mountains and Pit Bulls: Students' Metaphors for College Transitional Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Eric J.; Armstrong, Sonya L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an approach to uncovering learners' literacy-oriented conceptualizations while they are enrolled in transitional, or developmental, reading and writing classes in a college context. This approach entailed eliciting and then analyzing the metaphors for academic literacies produced by students in 15 sections of a…

  11. Connecting Reading and Writing Using Children's Literature in the University L2 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the potential benefits of using children's literature in adult second language (L2) classrooms. A short-term, intensive university course for English reading and writing was designed incorporating children's literature into the curriculum. The author describes the course and discusses how children's literature can be used…

  12. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  13. Integrated Reading and Writing Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young; McKenna, John William; Arden, Sarah; Ciullo, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In this systematic review of literature that spans 1975-2015, integrated reading and writing interventions for students with learning disabilities (LD) or students with academic difficulties were evaluated to understand the extant research, identify encouraging practices, and guide future research. Ten studies met inclusion criteria and each study…

  14. Increasing Academic Motivation and Cognition in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics: Meaning-Making Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstead, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The overlap of cognitive principles and inherently motivational strategies used to increase memory retention can be seen in reading, writing, and math. These are just of the few principles and corresponding strategies described in this report that can be used to increase academic motivation as well as increased cognition -- strategies that are…

  15. Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching the pre-primary child reading and writing: a challenge for pre-primary school teachers in rivers state, Nigeria. ... in all of the child's interactive learning and emphasizes specific teaching methods like the integrative approach for use by ...

  16. Substituting ICT as a lever for inclusion of children with reading and writing difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents research findings from a 3 year development and research project named Project IT-folder (PIF) that aimed at inclusion of young children with potential reading and writing difficulties into normal classes in a suburb to the Danish capital. The project ran from 2007 to June 201...

  17. Exploring the Inconsistent Labels and Definitions of Texts Used in Informational Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Naomi M.; Liang, Lauren Aimonette

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the various labels and definitions given for texts used for informational reading and writing and the confusion caused by the inconsistency of terms. An EBSCO search on articles published from 2006 to 2011 in the three largest literacy-related professional organizations' journals produced a total of 59 articles.…

  18. Communicative Approach as a Tool for Relating Reading and Writing Skills in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Briggs, Teinye; Kpolovie, Peter James; Ezindu, Salome Uwaoma

    2010-01-01

    This study dwells upon communicative approach as a tool for relating reading and writing skills in early childhood education in a developing economy. The quantitative data was gathered through the use of structured questionnaires and was analysed using SPSS version 17. This study confirms that teachers in the selected early childhood education…

  19. The Personal, Social, and Political Functions of Young Children's Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, William; Kamberelis, George

    A study examined the personal, social, and political functions that underlie the reading and writing that young children do about themselves, their families and communities, and their culture. Subjects, five third-grade children attending an inner-city elementary school, participated in an alternative language arts program involving independent…

  20. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  1. "I See What You Mean": Using Visuals to Teach Metaphoric Thinking in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Rebecca; Eastman, Gloria Schultz

    2010-01-01

    English teachers have a unique opportunity to expand and develop the way their students think. Too often, students are comfortable in thinking about reading and writing processes in a concrete or linear way. They are used to "right" or "wrong" answers in their other studies and look for the same in their English assignments. While teachers often…

  2. Child and Symbol Factors in Learning to Read a Visually Complex Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sonali; Snowling, Margaret; Quinlan, Philip; Hulme, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In Kannada, visual features are arranged in blocks called "akshara," making this a visually more complex writing system than typical alphabetic orthographies. Akshara knowledge was assessed concurrently and 8 months later in 113 children in the first years of reading instruction (aged 4-7 years). Mixed effects logistic regression models…

  3. Connecting Reading and Writing Using Children's Literature in the University L2 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the potential benefits of using children's literature in adult second language (L2) classrooms. A short-term, intensive university course for English reading and writing was designed incorporating children's literature into the curriculum. The author describes the course and discusses how children's literature can be used…

  4. Neuroimaging correlations of handwriting quality as children learn to read and write

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGimenez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading and writing are related but separable processes that are crucial skills to possess in modern society. The neurobiological basis of reading acquisition and development, which critically depends on phonological processing, and to a lesser degree, beginning writing as it relates to letter perception, are increasingly being understood. Yet direct relationships between writing and reading development, in particular, with phonological processing is not well understood. The main goal of the current preliminary study was to examine individual differences in neurofunctional and neuroanatomical patterns associated with handwriting in beginning writers/readers. In 46 5-6 year-old beginning readers/writers, ratings of handwriting quality, were rank-ordered from best to worst and correlated with brain activation patterns during a phonological task using functional MRI, and with regional grey matter volume from structural T1 MRI. Results showed that better handwriting was associated negatively with activation and positively with gray matter volume in an overlapping region of the pars triangularis of right inferior frontal gyrus. This region, in particular in the left hemisphere in adults and more bilaterally in young children, is known to be important for decoding, phonological processing, and subvocal rehearsal. We interpret the dissociation in the directionality of the association in functional activation and morphometric properties in the right inferior frontal gyrus in terms of neural efficiency, and suggest future studies that interrogate the relationship between the neural mechanisms underlying reading and writing development.

  5. Head position control on quasi-static read/write tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Takayuki; Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2005-02-01

    To develop high-density magnetic recording systems, a simple feedback system without servo writing was applied to a quasi-static read/write tester in which a medium reciprocates against a stand-still head. The head position signal in cross-track direction during the scanning is fed back to the high-precision piezoelectric actuator of the media stage. The stage is controlled so as to make the head/medium alignment error zero. A contact head slider assembled on a parallel-link suspension was used to evaluate the feedback system. The tester shows an accuracy of 1.5 nm in cross-track direction which is preferable for the read/write tests at future high recording densities.

  6. Investigating the Reading-to-Write Processes and Source Use of L2 Postgraduate Students in Real-Life Academic Tasks: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies of source use in academic student writing tend to i), focus more on the writing than the reading end of the reading-to-write continuum and ii), involve the use of insufficiently "naturalistic" writing tasks. Thus, in order to explore the potential of an alternative approach, this paper describes an exploratory case study…

  7. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  8. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  9. Lexical and Buffer Effects in Reading and in Writing Noun-Noun Compound Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Arcara, Giorgio; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Reading and writing Noun-Noun compound nouns was investigated in two Italian aphasic patients: one with phonological dyslexia and the other with phonological dysgraphia. The patients were required to read, write and repeat a list of Noun-Noun compounds and length-matched non-compound nouns. The dyslexic patient RF read compounds better than non-compounds, and his repetition was flawless for both categories. The dysgraphic patient DA wrote non-compounds better than compounds because of a deficit in keeping separate entries at the lemma level. Differential performance when processing compounds and non-compounds is the result of a deficit in different components within the mental lexicon architecture. PMID:22713388

  10. Writing Shapes Thinking: Investigative Study of Preservice Teachers Reading, Writing to Learn, and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…

  11. Rethinking the Reading-Writing Workshop: Tensions and Negotiations between a Stephen King Reader and Her Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Explores the participation in reading-writing workshops of students who consider reading to be an important part of their lives. Finds students who are engaged readers of fiction bring a set of expectations that differ from their teachers' and from students who do not read regularly for pleasure. (NH)

  12. Rethinking the Reading-Writing Workshop: Tensions and Negotiations between a Stephen King Reader and Her Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Explores the participation in reading-writing workshops of students who consider reading to be an important part of their lives. Finds students who are engaged readers of fiction bring a set of expectations that differ from their teachers' and from students who do not read regularly for pleasure. (NH)

  13. Functions of the digital image in Education: A methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image on instructional screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Milagros Azzato

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research goes through the instructional possibilities that reading and writing the digital image have in Education. Along these lines, we are presenting this research that looks for, on one hand, to develop a methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image, and on the other, to implement these methodologies in a course used as a study case and whose objective was to evaluate students' performance when writing screens for a learning object using the methodologies for reading and writing the digital image. The process for compiling date was based on the questionnaire technique, individual interviews and the analysis of course proposed activities. The application of the first questionnaire allowed us to determine students' knowledge level about the digital image before starting the course. The individual interview allowed us to determine the students' reading criteria gained after using the reading methodology for the digital image to analyse educational materials (Galavis, 2008; Azzato, 2009. The proposed activities for the course permitted us to value students' performance when reading and writing the digital image of a learning object. Finally, after course completion, the second questionnaire was applied in order to determine the students' acquired knowledge level about reading and writing an image on digital screens. The results obtained in each of the analysis allowed us to establish that the proposed methodologies were highly useful to write the educational image for the screens of each one of the learning objects created in the course.

  14. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery "BALE".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Piza, Carolina M J; de Macedo, Elizeu C; Miranda, Monica C; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys) with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44) drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: (1) an age control group (AC) of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44) matched by age, sex, years of schooling, and type of school; (2) reading control group (RC) of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06) matched by sex, type of school, and reading level. All groups were tested on four tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery ("BALE"): Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT); Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT); Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing); and the Reading Competence Test (RCT). These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling, and reading isolated words and pseudowords (non-words). The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times, and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. These findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning

  15. Contrasting group analysis of Brazilian students with dyslexia and good readers using the computerized reading and writing assessment battery BALE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eToledo-Piza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of cognitive processes underpinning reading and writing skills may help to distinguish different reading ability profiles. The present study used a Brazilian reading and writing battery to compare performance of students with dyslexia with two individually matched control groups: one contrasting on reading competence but not age and the other group contrasting on age but not reading competence. Participants were 28 individuals with dyslexia (19 boys with a mean age of 9.82 (SD ± 1.44 drawn from public and private schools. These were matched to: 1 an Age Control Group (AC of 26 good readers with a mean age of 9.77 (SD ± 1.44 matched by age, sex, years of schooling and type of school. 2 Reading Control Group (RC of 28 younger controls with a mean age of 7.82 (SD ± 1.06 matched by sex, type of school and reading level. All groups were tested on 4 tasks from the Brazilian Reading and Writing Assessment battery (BALE: Written Sentence Comprehension Test (WSCT; Spoken Sentence Comprehension Test (OSCT; Picture-Print Writing Test (PPWT 1.1-Writing; and the Reading Competence Test (RCT. These tasks evaluate reading and listening comprehension for sentences, spelling and reading isolated words and pseudowords (nonwords. The dyslexia group scored lower and took longer to complete tasks than the AC group. Compared with the RC group, there were no differences in total scores on reading or oral comprehension tasks. However, dyslexics presented slower reading speeds, longer completion times and lower scores on spelling tasks, even compared with younger controls. Analysis of types of errors on word and pseudoword reading items showed students with dyslexia scoring lower for pseudoword reading than the other two groups. This findings suggest that the dyslexics overall scores were similar to those of younger readers. However, specific phonological and visual decoding deficits showed that the two groups differ in terms of underpinning reading

  16. No Effect of Writing Advice on Reading Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    instead of nominalizations. These recommended and problem constructions and two other contrasts were investigated in an eye-tracking experiment where 27 students read four authentic texts where the target constructions had been manipulated. A mixed-effects regression analysis showed no difference between...... recommended and problem constructions, while several control variables were significant. This result indicates that the linguistic manipulations are not in themselves crucial to text comprehension, and it is hypothesized that the central aspect for text comprehension is how the linguistic manipulations...

  17. Writing to and reading from a nano-scale crossbar memory based on memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontobel, Pascal O.; Robinett, Warren; Kuekes, Philip J.; Stewart, Duncan R.; Straznicky, Joseph; Williams, R. Stanley

    2009-10-01

    We present a design study for a nano-scale crossbar memory system that uses memristors with symmetrical but highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics as memory elements. The memory is non-volatile since the memristors retain their state when un-powered. In order to address the nano-wires that make up this nano-scale crossbar, we use two coded demultiplexers implemented using mixed-scale crossbars (in which CMOS-wires cross nano-wires and in which the crosspoint junctions have one-time configurable memristors). This memory system does not utilize the kind of devices (diodes or transistors) that are normally used to isolate the memory cell being written to and read from in conventional memories. Instead, special techniques are introduced to perform the writing and the reading operation reliably by taking advantage of the nonlinearity of the type of memristors used. After discussing both writing and reading strategies for our memory system in general, we focus on a 64 × 64 memory array and present simulation results that show the feasibility of these writing and reading procedures. Besides simulating the case where all device parameters assume exactly their nominal value, we also simulate the much more realistic case where the device parameters stray around their nominal value: we observe a degradation in margins, but writing and reading is still feasible. These simulation results are based on a device model for memristors derived from measurements of fabricated devices in nano-scale crossbars using Pt and Ti nano-wires and using oxygen-depleted TiO2 as the switching material.

  18. Reading materials for post-literacy: The development and testing of a model of social writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Harbans S.

    1989-12-01

    A model of social writing, for use in writing socially relevant, easy-to-read, follow-up books for neo-literate adults, is presented. The model was fully developed and tested in the context of a series of writers' workshops during 1981-87; and incorporates all of the three aspects of writing: the expressive, the cognitive, and the social. Specifically, the following elements are included: selection of subject and topic within a dialectic of national development needs and community learning needs; negotiable definitions of general and specific objectives; acquiring knowledge of subject matter, and establishing necessary collaboration with subject-matter specialists; content planning to choose content and language of discourse, participatively with the future community of readers; choice of treatment of content as didactic or dramatic; outlining of manuscript as argument, dialogue or story; writing easy-to-read yet interesting materials; trying out the manuscript and making revisions; working with the illustrator and the editor; and preparing the manuscript for printing. Both the development and the testing of the model involved reflection-in-action and not stand-alone research exercises. The successful use of the model in workshops to train writers of post-literacy materials provided one source of support for the model. A comparison of this model of social writing with other models of writing available in literature has provided further support for the conceptual and procedural structure of the model. Transfers of the model to other cultural settings as well as to the writing of other types of educational materials, such as distance education texts and units, have also proved effective.

  19. Computerization in industry causes problems for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, A

    1986-01-01

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  20. How to read, understand, and write 'Discussion' sections in medical articles. An exercise in critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, Milos

    2006-06-01

    Writing and reading 'Discussion' sections in medical articles require a procedure as exact and structured as that involved in raising questions, choosing materials and methods and producing results for a health research study. The medical article as a whole can be considered an exercise in modern argumentation and its 'Discussion' section, a systematic critical appraisal of a path from theses to conclusions. The methodology of modern critical thinking applies perfectly to article writing, reading, and understanding. Structuring the 'Discussion' section as a review of argumentation benefits more than the study and its authors. It allows the reader to grasp the real relevance and validity of the study and its usability for his or her decision-making in clinical and community care, research and health policies and program proposal, implementation, and evaluation.

  1. Reading and writing academic practices in the phonoaudiology program at the University of Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mirely Chois-Lenis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results of an investigation aimed to characterize the academic literacy practices that are developed in the Phonoaudiology program at the University of Cauca. In this descriptive study, a sample of 24 students was taken from those in the last semester of the first academic period of 2009, who answered a survey of 26 multiple choice questions. The results indicate that the academic moment for which the students write and read the most is for the courses, who develop these practices primarily to be assessed and predominantly read and write their own lecture notes and the materials prepared by their faculty, to the detriment of scientific articles or papers for publication. It is expected, from these results, to generate reflexion processes and actions that qualify the practices of academic literacy within the program for the benefit of academic and professional performance of their students and graduates.

  2. Reading and Writing as Academic Literacy in EAP Program of Indonesian Leaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imroatus Solikhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates academic literacy imposed in reading and writing for academic purposes in the EAP program. This study uses descriptive design elaborating data from curriculum documents and interviews.  Involving 45 participants from IAIN Surakarta and Veteran University, data were analyzed using constant-comparison and inductive analysis tecniques. The study diseovers that academic literacy is prominent to serve and recently it has been the growing learning outcomes universities should provide besides discipline and experise. Academic literacy in EAP program is embedded into academic vocabulary, grammar, reading and writing for academic purposes.  Consequently, academic literacy should be incurred in the curriculum, syllabus, aims and objectives, and teaching materials.

  3. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  4. On the Value of Multiple Read/Write Streams for Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gagie, Travis

    2012-01-01

    We study whether, when restricted to using polylogarithmic memory and polylogarithmic passes, we can achieve qualitatively better data compression with multiple read/write streams than we can with only one. We first show how we can achieve universal compression using only one pass over one stream. We then show that one stream is not sufficient for us to achieve good grammar-based compression. Finally, we show that two streams are necessary and sufficient for us to achieve entropy-only bounds.

  5. Read/write robustness estimation metrics for spin transfer torque (STT) MRAM cell

    OpenAIRE

    Vatajelu, Elena Ioana; Rodríguez Montañés, Rosa; Indaco, Marco; Renovell, Michel; Prinetto, Paolo; Figueras Pàmies, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of low power, high density, high performance SoCs has pushed the embedded memories to their limits and opened the field to the development of emerging memory technologies. The Spin- Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STTMRAM) has emerged as a promising choice for embedded memories due to its reduced read/write latency and high CMOS integration capability. Under today aggressive technology scaling requirements, the STT-MRAM is affected by process variability m...

  6. Mirror-reading and writing in association with right-left spatial disorientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, K M; Howell, G.; Valenstein, E; Rothi, L.

    1980-01-01

    A left-handed patient suddenly developed a right hemiparesis, mirror-reading, and mirror-writing. Although he could discriminate between right and left on himself, he demonstrated right/left spatial disorientation. We propose that his right/left spatial disorientation was induced by a scanning defect. It has been demonstrated that mirror-image engrams are normally available. We believe that a reversal of the learned left-to-right scanning process with the availability of mirror engrams induce...

  7. Schema Theory and English Reading and Writing Teaching%图式理论与英语读写教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双

    2015-01-01

    Taking the teaching of English reading and writing as a research subject, this paper analyzes the relationship among schema theory, reading and writing, and based on schema theory, it discusses reading and writing teaching strategies in order to improve students’ reading and writing abilities.%本文以英语读写教学为研究对象,分析图式理论、阅读、写作三者的关系,并以图式理论为基础,对读写教学策略做以探讨,以期达到提高学生读写能力的目的。

  8. The reading, writing, and arithmetic of the medical literature, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Lyndon

    2005-08-01

    To offer suggestions that will help clinicians improve their scrutiny of the medical literature and apply these suggestions to their own medical writings. Literature searches began at the National Library of Medicine's online database and were traced to primary sources. All referenced information in this article was cited from primary sources. Objective criteria should be used when assessing the quality of clinical research reports and writing accurate, substantive reports. When reading or writing a journal article, authors should ask themselves if it meets the following standards of high quality: Is the topic or problem important and relevant to current practice? Is the stated reason for the study design valid? Is the description of the study methods clear enough to allow for replication by other researchers? What interventions are being compared, and is the comparison reasonable? Is the number of patients in the study sufficient to show a statistically significant difference? Do the study results have clinical relevance? Are new findings described in relation to the literature? Are both positive and negative aspects of the study addressed? Is the existing literature cited sufficiently? Do the results support the conclusions? Reading and interpreting the medical literature require a set of skills that can be learned. Similarly, good medical writing skills can be developed. Achieving these skills should enhance the clinician's practice of medicine.

  9. Teacher’s Interaction Styles during Sociodramatic Play that Promote Reading and Writing among Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Excelsa C. Tongson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to help understand a teacher’s facilitation of reading and writing during sociodramatic play among Filipino preschoolers. It describes how Filipino preschool teachers demonstrate redirecting and extending style interactions as they participate during sociodramatic play. It also identifies the ways by which the teacher provided print-rich environments in the dramatic play area to promote early reading and writing among Filipino children with ages ranging from four years old to f ive years old and 11 months. Five female teachers from four schools in Quezon City that adopt the play curriculum based on a set of criteria were studied. Each teacher was interviewed regarding play, her role, and how she prepares the dramatic play area. She was observed for 10 consecutive school days. The teachers’ interaction styles were classified as either extending or redirecting. Four of the f ive teachers demonstrated at varying degrees both extending and redirecting styles as they participated in the children’s sociodramatic play. The interaction style of the teacher revealed her ability to perform within the context of the play and the ways she assisted children in performing reading and writing activities. The considerable increase in the frequency of children’s literacy activities during sociodramatic play could be attributed to the combination of extending style interaction and the integration of literacy materials in the dramatic play area.

  10. Speed in cognitive tasks as an indicator of second/foreign language reading and writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Olkkonen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13

  11. Comparative analysis of performance in reading and writing of children exposed and not exposed to high sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Feitosa dos; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de; Seligman, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationships between high sound pressure levels in the classroom and performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes in reading and writing. This consisted on a quantitative and exploratory study. The following measures were carried out: acoustic measurement, using the dosimeter, visual inspection of the external auditory canal, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition tests and acoustic immittance; instrument for evaluation of reading and writing of isolated words. The non-parametric χ² test and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. The results of acoustic measurements in 4 schools in Santa Maria divided the sample of 87 children of third and fourth years of primary school, aged 8 to 10 years, in 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to sound levels higher than 80 dB(A) (Study group) and the 2nd group at levels lower than 80 dB(A) (Control group). Higher prevalence of correct answers in reading and writing of nonwords, reading irregular words and frequency effect were observed. Predominance of correct answers in the writing of irregular words was observed in the Control group. For the Study group, a higher number of type errors neologism in reading and writing were observed, especially regarding the writing of nonwords and the extension effect; fewer errors of lexicalization type and verbal paragraphy in writing were observed. In assessing the reading and writing skills, children in the Study group exposed to high noise levels had poorer performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes, both in reading and in writing.

  12. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.

  13. Teaching of reading and writing skills: Process syllabus and global issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgi Sarac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a suggested syllabus that can set an example for process and task based syllabus applications for the teaching of reading and writing skills in a foreign language. It proposes a teaching model and the related evaluative data analysis. In the spring term of 2006-2007 academic year, 50 first year pre-service teachers at Hacettepe University, Division of English Language Teaching attended the course ‘Reading and Writing Skills II’. The course was designed in line with process and task based syllabus. While desinging the course syllabus, the aim was to develop an alternative teaching model. Therefore, the main goals were identified as improving critical reading skills, achieving student autonomy and focusing on global issues. To achieve these goals, the participants identified 5 global issues to do research and reading/writing activities on. Hence, these issues composed the syllabus and its sequence. The course work and materials were collected in personal portfolios which took the place of the coursebook and encouraged library and the Internet search and written personal reflections. Those subjects identified by the participants were terorism, great middle east project, freedom of expression, multi-lingualism/culturalism and sexism. The qualitative data gathered during and after the application and also the quantitative data and feedback collected at the end of the application provided sound findings on both the syllabus and its evaluation. In these findings, it is observable that the syllabus/teaching model encouraging the students to choose the reading texts on their own, to compose portfolios and to manage the teaching/learning process appreciated by the participants and achieved student participation and motivation.  

  14. Teaching of reading and writing skills: Process syllabus and global issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgi Sarac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a suggested syllabus that can set an example for process and task based syllabus applications for the teaching of reading and writing skills in a foreign language. It proposes a teaching model and the related evaluative data analysis. In the spring term of 2006-2007 academic year, 50 first year pre-service teachers at Hacettepe University, Division of English Language Teaching attended the course ‘Reading and Writing Skills II’. The course was designed in line with process and task based syllabus. While desinging the course syllabus, the aim was to develop an alternative teaching model. Therefore, the main goals were identified as improving critical reading skills, achieving student autonomy and focusing on global issues. To achieve these goals, the participants identified 5 global issues to do research and reading/writing activities on. Hence, these issues composed the syllabus and its sequence. The course work and materials were collected in personal portfolios which took the place of the coursebook and encouraged library and the Internet search and written personal reflections. Those subjects identified by the participants were terorism, great middle east project, freedom of expression, multi-lingualism/culturalism and sexism. The qualitative data gathered during and after the application and also the quantitative data and feedback collected at the end of the application provided sound findings on both the syllabus and its evaluation. In these findings, it is observable that the syllabus/teaching model encouraging the students to choose the reading texts on their own, to compose portfolios and to manage the teaching/learning process appreciated by the participants and achieved student participation and motivation.

  15. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  16. How do faculty conceptions on reading, writing and their role in the teaching of academic literacies influence their inclusive attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colombo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored faculty conceptions about reading and writing, the student body, reasons for student low-performance as well as their declared teaching practices aimed at helping students to better understand readings and write academic texts. The objective was to understand what type of professors´ conceptions contributed with a more inclusive attitude towards first-year students. Content analysis from data gathered from in-depth interviews indicates that professors who acknowledged the complexity of the reading and writing processes tend to be more inclusive and to use reading and writing to teach and not just to evaluate. Those who taught writing courses tended to consider writing as a general skill, transferable to other contexts and spheres of knowledge. Less-inclusive teachers, explaining why they did not offer guidance or proposed remedial solutions, claimed that students should already have mastered academic reading and writing when entering the university and that teaching these skills implied being overprotective and not allowing them to mature.

  17. How do faculty conceptions on reading, writing and their role in the teaching of academic literacies influence their inclusive attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colombo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p115 This study explored faculty conceptions about reading and writing, the student body, reasons for student low-performance as well as their declared teaching practices aimed at helping students to better understand readings and write academic texts. The objective was to understand what type of professors´ conceptions contributed with a more inclusive attitude towards first-year students. Content analysis from data gathered from in-depth interviews indicates that professors who acknowledged the complexity of the reading and writing processes tend to be more inclusive and to use reading and writing to teach and not just to evaluate. Those who taught writing courses tended to consider writing as a general skill, transferable to other contexts and spheres of knowledge. Less-inclusive teachers, explaining why they did not offer guidance or proposed remedial solutions, claimed that students should already have mastered academic reading and writing when entering the university and that teaching these skills implied being overprotective and not allowing them to mature.

  18. A Study of the Writing Tasks and Reading Assigned to Undergraduate Science Students at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leonora; Meyer, Wilhelm; Parkinson, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Based on a questionnaire to academic staff, this article examines the reading and writing tasks assigned to undergraduate science students at a South African university. The article finds that although academic staff in science value clearly written and well-organised writing, few see it as their task to induct students into this literacy. Instead…

  19. Does the Use of Connective Words in Written Assessments Predict High School Students' Reading and Writing Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Sandra J.; Tang, Wei; Kuo-Newhouse, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ninth-grade students' use of connectives (temporal, causal, adversative, and additive) in functional writing and performance on standards-based/criterion-referenced measures of reading and writing. Specifically, structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to examine the relationship between…

  20. Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Ponz, Aurélie; Planton, Samuel; Bonnard, Mireille

    2016-04-01

    Functional brain imaging studies reported activation of the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), that is, a main area in the writing network, in reading tasks. However, it remains unclear whether this area is causally relevant for written stimulus recognition or its activation simply results from a passive coactivation of reading and writing networks. Here, we used chronometric paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to address this issue by disrupting the activity of the PMd, the so-called Exner's area, while participants performed a lexical decision task. Both words and pseudowords were presented in printed and handwritten characters. The latter was assumed to be closely associated with motor representations of handwriting gestures. We found that TMS over the PMd in relatively early time-windows, i.e., between 60 and 160 ms after the stimulus onset, increased reaction times to pseudoword without affecting word recognition. Interestingly, this result pattern was found for both printed and handwritten characters, that is, regardless of whether the characters evoked motor representations of writing actions. Our result showed that under some circumstances the activation of the PMd does not simply result from passive association between reading and writing networks but has a functional role in the reading process. At least, at an early stage of written stimuli recognition, this role seems to depend on a common sublexical and serial process underlying writing and pseudoword reading rather than on an implicit evocation of writing actions during reading as typically assumed.

  1. English reading and writing performance of Xitsonga-speaking Grade 7 learners in township schools: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Lemmer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.

  2. Reading and Writing in Primary School Chinese Teaching%谈谈小学语文教学中的阅读与作文

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Writing teaching must combine with reading teaching, and reading and writing is promoted each other, and reading is the basis of writing and writing is the reflection of reading ability. Only emphasizing reading teabcing can writing teaching be improved, hence, writing must be connected with life and deal with the relationship reading and writing.%作文教学必须与阅读教学相结合,阅读与写作是相互促进的,阅读是写作的基础,而写作是阅读能力的体现。只有抓好阅读教学才能促进作文教学,所以要把作文教学和生活实际联系起来,正确处理阅读与写作的关系。

  3. On Reading-Writing Combination in Reading Teaching%在阅读教学中进行读写结合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志鸿

    2016-01-01

    小学语文新课标明确规定:“指导学生正确地理解和运用祖国的语言文字,使他们具有听说读写的能力。”这个规定向教师提出要求,要在阅读教学中注重读写结合。读写结合主要包括从读到写、从写到读、读写反复等等,这样的结合在提高学生表达能力的同时也能培养他们的创新能力。读与写是阅读教学的两个主要方面,它们在一定条件下是互相联系、互相促进的。读是写的基础,是内化的吸收,写是读的运用和提高,也是一种外化的表达。在阅读教学中,教师要充分利用教材,及时训练学生进行读写结合,引导他们悉心阅读,体会当中的一些写作方法和写作技巧,将训练真正落到实处,不断提高学生的读写能力。%It is clearly stipulated in the new curriculum standard for primary Chinese that "we should guide students to correctly understand and use the language and characters of our mother-land and develop their ability of listening, speaking, reading and writing". The stipulation has proposed a requirement for teachers, namely, paying attention to reading-writing combination in read-ing teaching. Reading-writing combination mainly includes from reading to writing, from writing to reading, repetition of reading and writing and so on. The combination can not only improve students' ability of expression, but cultivate their ability of inno-vation. Reading and writing are two major aspects in reading teaching, and they are related to each other and promote each other. Reading and writing are the foundation and the internal absorption, while writing and reading are application and im-provement and a kind of external expression. In reading teaching, teachers should make full use of textbooks, timely train students' reading-writing combination, and guide them to read carefully and experience the writing methods and skills in the process, so as to truly implement

  4. A nonvocal system for teaching retarded children to read and write.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, J B; Carrier, J K; Hollis, J H

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the development of nonvocal teaching of reading and writing in severely retarded children. Fourteen subjects were selected who demonstrated limited communication skills, and were randomly placed into two groups. Group A received training procedures utilizing abstract plastic symbols which were arbitrarily assigned to represent specific words. The training program was divided into three phases. Phase I consisted of training left to right sequencing of four color--coded forms; Phase II consisted of training of matching symbols to stimulus pictures; and Phase III consisted of training of fading from symbols to printed words. The subjects completing this training program demonstrated the ability to learn selected reading and writing skills, i.e., they learned to sequence an article, subject noun, auxiliary verb, and verb. They also demonstrated functional semantic comprehension of five nouns and five verbs. Thirteen subjects finished the communication training program in less than four months with a mean training of 7 hours and 55 minutes. This is approximately 2 hours of training a month per subject to learn these skills. The data showed that Group B (rebuses) required fewer trials than Group A (abstract symbols) to meet criterion for Phase II, matching symbols to stimulus pictures. This suggests that Group B subjects may have had a meaningful association for the rebus signs which generalized to stimulus pictures. Group A (abstract symbols) required fewer trials than Group B (rebuse) to meet criterion for Phase 111, matching printed words to stimulus pictures. This indicates that perhaps Group A's training with abstract symbols positively affected learning to read printed words. The success of the visual nonvocal treatment program with the severely retarded is encouraging. Indeed, this is a different and viable approach in teaching communication skills (reading and writing) to the retarded.

  5. How Children Can Support Their Learning to Write and Read by Computer in the Early Years of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmilaakso, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades the nature and form of what children can choose to read has changed radically, partly as a consequence of rapid technological advances and the increasing dominance of the image. The research questions were: (1) "How do children learn to read and write by computer?"; (2) "How can one support children's learning…

  6. Tracking the Mind's Eye: A New Technology for Researching Twenty-First-Century Writing and Reading Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Chris M.; Schwegler, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the nature of eye-tracking technology and its use in the study of discourse processes, particularly reading. It then suggests several areas of research in composition studies, especially at the intersection of writing, reading, and digital media, that can benefit from the use of this technology. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Reading and writing development of low-achieving adolescents: The roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency, and metacognitive knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas school and society pose high demands on youngsters’ reading and writing skills, many adolescents experience difficulties in understanding what they read and in expressing their thoughts in comprehensible texts. Especially low-achieving students in the lowest educational tracks in the Netherl

  8. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed.

  9. 关于写作教学的思考%The Development of Writing Ability through Intensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖武

    2001-01-01

    Despite the great influence of theory upon practice in writing,the natural characteristics of writing show that writing skills are to be developed with intensive reading for conscientiousness in writing.%写作理论对写作实践具有指导意义,但从写作的内在特征和规律看,仅有理论指导是不够的,必须做到理论教学与以读促写相结合,并注重精读,在读中形成为文的自觉。

  10. Big data en handschriften van Christiaan Huygens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In de achtste aflevering van een serie combinatiebesprekingen (digitaalandspeciaal) schenkt Jos Damen aandacht aan een onderzoek naar big data van bibliotheekcatalogi en een catalogus van het werk van het Nederlandse genie Christiaan Huygens.

  11. Optical and nonoptical aids for reading and writing in individuals with acquired low vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Myrina Bianchim Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the use of optical and nonoptical aids during reading and writing activities in individuals with acquired low vision. Methods: This study was performed using descriptive and cross-sectional surveys. The data collection instrument was created with structured questions that were developed from an exploratory study and a previous test based on interviews, and it evaluated the following variables: personal characteristics, use of optical and nonoptical aids, and activities that required the use of optical and nonoptical aids. Results: The study population included 30 subjects with acquired low vision and visual acuities of 20/200-20/400. Most subjects reported the use of some optical aids (60.0%. Of these 60.0%, the majority (83.3% cited spectacles as the most widely used optical aid. The majority (63.3% of subjects also reported the use of nonoptical aids, the most frequent ones being letter magnification (68.4%, followed by bringing the objects closer to the eyes (57.8%. Subjects often used more than one nonoptical aid. Conclusions: The majority of participants reported the use of optical and nonoptical aids during reading activities, highlighting the use of spectacles, magnifying glasses, and letter magnification; however, even after the use of these aids, we found that the subjects often needed to read the text more than once to understand it. During writing activities, all subjects reported the use of optical aids, while most stated that they did not use nonoptical aids for such activities.

  12. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Students' abilities to critique scientific evidence when reading and writing scientific arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Amanda M.

    Scientific arguments are used to persuade others for explanations that make sense of the natural world. Over time, through the accumulation of evidence, one explanation for a scientific phenomenon tends to take precedence. In science education, arguments make students' thinking and reasoning visible while also supporting the development of their conceptual, procedural, and epistemic knowledge. As such, argumentation has become a goal within recent policy documents, including the Next Generation Science Standards, which, in turn, presents a need for comprehensive, effective, and scalable assessments. This dissertation used assessments that measure students' abilities to critique scientific evidence, which is measured in terms of the form of justification and the support of empirical evidence, when reading and writing scientific arguments. Cognitive interviews were then conducted with a subset of the students to explore the criteria they used to critique scientific evidence. Specifically, the research investigated what characteristics of scientific evidence the students preferred, how they critiqued both forms of justification and empirical evidence, and whether the four constructs represented four separate abilities. Findings suggest that students' prioritized the type of empirical evidence to the form of justification, and most often selected relevant-supporting justifications. When writing scientific arguments, most students constructed a justified claim, but struggled to justify their claims with empirical evidence. In comparison, when reading scientific arguments, students had trouble locating a justification when it was not empirical data. Additionally, it was more difficult for students to critique than identify or locate empirical evidence, and it was more difficult for students to identify than locate empirical evidence. Findings from the cognitive interviews suggest that students with more specific criteria tended to have more knowledge of the construct

  14. Review: TEACHERS VOICES 8: EXPLICITLY SUPPORTING READING AND WRITING IN THE CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    EDITED BY ANNE BURNS AND HELEN DE SILVA JOYCE National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2005, 77pp, ISBN 1 74138 103 7   This is the most recent book in a series that deals with teaching and learning in the classroom.  The specific focus of this book is the explicit support of reading and writing in adult ESL teaching, investigated through classroom projects within the framework of an action research approach. It consists of three s...

  15. Optically readout write once read many memory with single active organic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See, E-mail: pslee@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-18

    An optically readable write once read many memory (WORM) in Ag/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH PPV)/ITO is demonstrated in this work. Utilising characteristics of the organic light emitting diode structure of Ag/MEH PPV/ITO and electrochemical metallization of Ag, a WORM with light emitting capability can be realised. The simple fabrication process and multifunction capability of the device can be useful for future wearable optoelectronics and photomemory applications, where fast and parallel readout can be achieved by photons.

  16. Hacia una didáctica para la lectoescritura en el contexto universitario / Towards a didactics for reading and writing in the foreign language in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Alberteris Galbán

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reading and writing in the university context need a coherent didactic direction that contributes to the students’ comprehensive education. The article offers some components for a didactics for reading and writing, based on the integration of the afore mentioned components of verbal activity, that share the base knowledge, taking into account the relations between comprehension and production stated as a constellation of interrelated processes. The methods used allowed the systematization of basic elements to structure the didactics. An operational model for reading and writing was also introduced. Its practical implementation evidenced higher levels in reading and writing performance of the students. Keywords: a, , , interrelated processes, foreign languages.

  17. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  18. Reading and writing in order not to drop out of university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giohanny Olave Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios45.59 This text investigates the relationships between dropping out of university and difficulties in reading and writing, in accordance with the recent overview of both phenomena. After a general review of the studies on dropping out of university, in which their importance for the continued development of Colombia’s professionalization is gauged, the practices of reading comprehension and producing texts are problematized specifically in the field of higher education and are then causally related to the phenomenon of dropping out of university. Finally, the current processes of literacy at university, based on recognition of its relevance in the educational mission of higher education, are discussed.

  19. The impact of using electronic patient records on practices of reading and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Paivi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of electronic patient records in daily practice. In four wards of a large hospital district in Finland, N = 43 patients' care and activities were observed and analysed in terms of the Grounded Theory method. The findings revealed that using electronic patient records created a particular process of writing and reading. Wireless technology enabled simultaneous patient involvement and point-of-care documentation, additionally supporting real-time reading. Remote and retrospective documentation was distant in terms of both space and time. The remoteness caused double documentation, reduced accuracy and less-efficient use of time. 'Non-reading' practices were witnessed in retrospective reading, causing delays in patient care and increase in workload. Similarly, if documentation was insufficient or non-existent, the consequences were found to be detrimental to the patients. The use of an electronic patient record system has a significant impact on patient care. Therefore, it is crucial to develop wireless technology and interdisciplinary collaboration in order to improve and support high-quality patient care. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. The importance of literacy in the employment careers of participants in reading and writing courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Thielen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate basic education is considered a significant risk factor for a self-determined life and for participating in employment. Regarding the growing demands to be observed in the world of work and the labour market, it seems almost impossible for people who are functionally illiterate to find employment on a permanent basis. Under what conditions this may be possible is to be discussed here from a qualitative-empirical perspective by examining the employment histories of participants in reading and writing courses. While some of the people interviewed here were able to participate in employment on a long-term and continuous basis and to obtain further professional qualifications, others flexibly took on jobs and casual work. The biographies that have proven precarious in this context are those of a smaller group of people who had not been able to get permanent access to the employment market for many years. This shows that inadequate reading and/or writing skills have highly different impacts on employment and career paths.

  1. Negotiation between peers: strategic device for a reading and writing program at the university level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Ines Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper focuses on the description and exemplification of a device which is the core of the Academic Reading and Writing Program (PROLEA, for its acronym in Spanish conducting at University of Flores (UFLO: the “negotiation between peers” or “negotiation between teaching partners”. The Program design is based on the Sydney School's developments in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The negotiation between peers comprises the work between a professor on academic and professional literacies, who is a member of the Program, and the professors of each of the specific subjects involved. In order to successfully implement this modality, the realization of the negotiation between peers is necessary. This device entails a series of agreements between the professors involved about the teaching of the curricula contents through reading and writing tasks. First in this paper, the negotiation between peers is characterized, and its function and value in the Program are highlighted; second, two scenarios of application are presented in order to show the device contribution as well as its difficulties and the way of resolution of the problems found.

  2. "Living Large and Taking Charge!" Students Read and Write Their Way to a High School Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jane; Trofimoff, Djana

    2013-01-01

    Writing centers on college campuses are spaces where students work with tutors individually or in small groups to build the skills to produce better essays, term papers, and other writing assignments. This article describes how high school students can themselves play a role in answering the "yeahbuts" and help create writing centers in…

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC WRITING OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION OF SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY THROUGH READING PROJECT BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Probosari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how students’ scientific writing skills changed over as they participated in the Reading Project Based Learning (RPjBL model. This action research was conducted by Biology Teacher of Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education in SebelasMaret University. The results show that the scientificwriting level increased on the last writing activities. It was suggested that RPjBL could have a positive impact on students’ scientific writing. Students who experienced the RPjBL emphasized the sentences reflecting the application and used high cognitive level sentences.   

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC WRITING OF BIOLOGY EDUCATION OF SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY THROUGH READING PROJECT BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Probosari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how students’ scientific writing skills changed over as they participated in the Reading Project Based Learning (RPjBL model. This action research was conducted by Biology Teacher of Education Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education in SebelasMaret University. The results show that the scientificwriting level increased on the last writing activities. It was suggested that RPjBL could have a positive impact on students’ scientific writing. Students who experienced the RPjBL emphasized the sentences reflecting the application and used high cognitive level sentences.   

  5. Reading and writing combination in the language teaching material%深挖语文教材中的读写结合点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹

    2015-01-01

    阅读和写作是学生语文能力衡量标准之一.如何培养好学生的阅读和写作能力自然是语文教学中绕不开的话题.足教材的读写结合法,从阅读与写作的内在联系着手,为提高学生的阅读和写作能力提供可操作的教学方法,从教材中深挖读写资源结合点,科学把握读写二者之间的规律,把握教学时机,从而达到从读学写、以写促读,读写结合,实现学生读写能力的提升.%Reading and writing is one of the students' Chinese ability to measure. How to cultivate students' ability of reading and writing is naturally in the Chinese teaching is not open around the topic. In combination with teaching material to read and write, start from the internal connection of reading and writing, in order to improve the students' ability of reading and writing provide operable teaching method, combining site, dig, speaking, reading and writing resources from teaching material science master the rule of reading and writing between them, to grasp the teaching time, so as to achieve from the read write, in writing, reading and writing, realize the ability of the students to read and write.

  6. Copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Chinese children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K H; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-11-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given tasks of copying unfamiliar print in Vietnamese, Korean, and Hebrew as well as tests of word reading and writing, morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. All three copying tasks distinguished dyslexic children from nondyslexic children with moderate effect sizes (.67-.80). Zero-order correlations of the three copying tasks with dictation and reading ranged from .37 to .58. With age, Raven's, group status, RAN, morphological awareness, and orthographic measures statistically controlled, the copying tasks uniquely explained 6% and 3% variance in word reading and dictation, respectively. Results suggest that copying skill itself may be useful in understanding the development and impairment of literacy skills in Chinese.

  7. Exploring the Reading-Writing Connection: A Yearlong Classroom-Based Experimental Study of Middle School Students Developing Literacy in a New Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhee; Schallert, Diane L.

    2016-01-01

    A yearlong classroom-based intervention was designed to explore the reading-writing connection in second-language literacy by examining whether the development of reading improves writing and vice versa. Middle school learners of English as a foreign language (N = 300) in South Korea were assigned to three treatments that involved extensive…

  8. Physicians reading and writing practices: a cross-sectional study from Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Muhammad Farhan; Noorani, Muhammad Muslim; Siddiqui, Uzair Ahmed; Anwar, Maheen

    2012-07-27

    To determine the behavior of physicians regarding medical literature reading and participation in research activities at one of the largest teaching hospitals in Pakistan. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing the house officers, residents and fellows of six major specialties (Medicine, Surgery, Pediatrics, Psychology, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Anesthesia) in Civil Hospital, Karachi between August and December, 2011. The questionnaire elicited responses regarding the reading habits of physicians, preferred sources of information, their participation in research activities (publication & supervision) and views regarding journal club. SPSS 17.0 was used for data entry and analysis. A total of 259 completely filled questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 85.19%. Mean age of the participants was 29.67 ± 7.65 years. Books were selected by 71.4% doctors as their preferred source of information, regardless of their clinical specialties. (p read 5 or less articles per week. 30 (11.6%) doctors have subscription of journals (printed or electronic). At least one research paper has been published by 151 (58.3%) of the physicians interviewed. Most common reason for not participating in research activities was busy schedule (56.4%). Almost half (49.4%) doctors reported lack of journal club in their units. Of these, majority (88.35%) wanted a journal club in their respective units. Urgent intervention is required to promote healthcare literature reading and writing practice in our physicians. Easy access to workplace computers with internet and subscription of paid journals will facilitate physicians. Lack of supervisors and busy schedule were reported to be important contributors for not participating in research. Addressing these issues will encourage doctors to participate more in research activities.

  9. Static Analysis of Processes for No Read-Up and No Write-Down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, C.; Degano, P.; Nielson, Flemming;

    1999-01-01

    is based on a Control Flow Analysis for the π-calculus that establishes a super-set of the set of names to which a given name may be bound and of the set of names that may be sent and received along a given channel, taking into account its directionality. The static check is shown to imply the natural......We study a variant of the no read-up/no write-down security property of Bell and LaPadula for processes in the π-calculus. Once processes are given levels of security clearance, we statically check that a process at a high level never sends names to processes at a lower level. The static check...

  10. Clock domain crossing modules for OCP-style read/write interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Sparsø, Jens

    . The modules has been developed for the T-CREST multi-core platform [8, 9, 13] but they can easily be adopted and used in other designs implementing variants of the OCP interface standard. The OCPio module is used to connect a Patmos processor to a message passing network-on-chip and the OCPburst is used...... to connect the Processor and its cache controllers to a shared o_-chip memory. While the problem of synchronizing a simple streaming interface is well described in the literature and often solved using bi-synchronous FIFOs we found surprisingly little published material addressing synchronization of bus...... to the duration of a transaction. Our interface designs avoid this and synchronize only a single signal transition in each direction during a read or a write transaction. The designs are available as open source, and the modules have been tested in a complete multi-core platform implemented on an FPGA board....

  11. Review: TEACHERS VOICES 8: EXPLICITLY SUPPORTING READING AND WRITING IN THE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ahern

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available EDITED BY ANNE BURNS AND HELEN DE SILVA JOYCE National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2005, 77pp, ISBN 1 74138 103 7   This is the most recent book in a series that deals with teaching and learning in the classroom.  The specific focus of this book is the explicit support of reading and writing in adult ESL teaching, investigated through classroom projects within the framework of an action research approach. It consists of three sections: the first outlines the theoretical ideas underpinning the book, the second deals with the nature of action research, and the third and longest section presents the participating teachers’ own accounts of their research projects. It is accompanied by a DVD containing excerpts of their classroom teaching.

  12. Neurocognitive stability in Asperger syndrome, ADHD, and reading and writing disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydén, A; Billstedt, E; Hjelmquist, E; Gillberg, C

    2001-03-01

    Boys with Asperger syndrome (n=20), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (n=20), and reading and writing disorder (n=20) were followed up and retested on several neuropsychological measures 1 to 2 years after initial assessments. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance IQ scores remained stable for all diagnostic groups. Kaufman factors and 'fluid' and 'crystallized' abilities were also stable measures. Subtest stability over time, was slightly more variable. There was a tendency for the group with Asperger syndrome to deteriorate over time with respect to logical reasoning abilities. Measures of executive function/attention ('go-no-go' and 'conflict' tests) showed good test-retest stability in all diagnostic groups. This is the first study of its kind.

  13. Coherent optical writing and reading of the exciton spin state in single quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Benny, Y; Kodriano, Y; Poem, E; Presman, R; Galushko, D; Petroff, P M; Gershoni, D

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a one to one correspondence between the polarization state of a light pulse tuned to excitonic resonances of single semiconductor quantum dots and the spin state of the exciton that it photogenerates. This is accomplished using two variably polarized and independently tuned picosecond laser pulses. The first "writes" the spin state of the resonantly excited exciton. The second is tuned to biexcitonic resonances, and its absorption is used to "read" the exciton spin state. The absorption of the second pulse depends on its polarization relative to the exciton spin direction. Changes in the exciton spin result in corresponding changes in the intensity of the photoluminescence from the biexciton lines which we monitor, obtaining thus a one to one mapping between any point on the Poincare sphere of the light polarization to a point on the Bloch sphere of the exciton spin.

  14. Scientific literacy as social practice: Implications for reading and writing in science classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gard Ove Sørvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an introduction to what it means to adopt a view of literacy as social practice for science education. This view of literacy builds on the idea that reading and writing are best regarded as situated social practices involving text, not as a set of decontextualised and universally applicable skills. First, we draw on sociocultural perspectives on literacy to show how these perspectives inform our understanding of literacy when the context is science. Second, we use related research literature, mainly concerning the role of text in science education, to present a framework for approaching literacy in science classrooms from a sociocultural perspective. Finally, we discuss how a social view of literacy enables us to consider how literacy occurs in contexts relevant to a transcending science subject for scientific literacy.

  15. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times memory device with functionalized-nanoshells/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Nino, J.A.; Segura-Cardenas, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Sustaita, A.O. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Cruz-Cruz, I. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Reyes-Reyes, M., E-mail: reyesm@iico.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Alvaro Obregon 64 Zona Centro, 78000 SLP (Mexico)

    2011-03-25

    We have investigated the memory effect of the nanocomposites of functionalized carbon nanoshells (f-CNSs) mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) polymer. The f-CNSs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis method and functionalized in situ with functional groups (OH, COOH, C-H, C-OH) with the aim of improving their compatibility in the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The current-voltage (I-V) sweep curves at room temperature for the Al/f-CNSs, for certain concentrations range, embedded in a PEDOT:PSS layer/Al devices showed electrical bistability for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices. The memory effect observed in the devices can be explained due to the existence of trapped charges in the f-CNSs/PEDOT:PSS layer. The carrier transport mechanisms for the memory devices is studied and discussed.

  16. A survey of reading, writing, and oral communication skills in North American veterinary medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J

    2001-01-01

    In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.

  17. What I have learned in reading and writing history of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2010-02-01

    After a fifteen year end-of-career excursion into reading and writing in the history of physics, I will give a personal talk about what I have learned, both the good and the bad. Historians do have a problem, to give an account of history (to quote Leopold von Ranke) ``how it actually has been.'' Sometimes we don't and can't know what actually happened in which case it is admissible and tempting to speculate. It is not all right to assert that such and such must have happened. The worst offense, in my opinion, is for authors to tailor their work so as to ``prove'' a pre-conceived thesis. Names will be named. )

  18. Assessing learning preferences of dental students using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Bennadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators of the health care profession (teachers are committed in preparing future health care providers, but are facing many challenges in transmitting their ever expanding knowledge to the students. This study was done to focus on different learning styles among dental students. Aim: To assess different learning preferences among dental students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire study using visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic questionnaire among dental students. Results: Majority 75.8% of the students preferred multimodal learning style. Multimodal learning was common among clinical students. No statistical significant difference of learning styles in relation to gender (P > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study, majority of students preferred multimodal learning preference. Knowledge about the learning style preference of different profession can help to enhance the teaching method for the students.

  19. Write, read and answer emails with a dry 'n' wireless brain-computer interface system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegger, Andreas; Deckert, Lisa; Halder, Sebastian; Barry, Norbert; Faller, Josef; Käthner, Ivo; Hintermüller, Christoph; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Kübler, Andrea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) users can control very complex applications such as multimedia players or even web browsers. Therefore, different biosignal acquisition systems are available to noninvasively measure the electrical activity of the brain, the electroencephalogram (EEG). To make BCIs more practical, hardware and software are nowadays designed more user centered and user friendly. In this paper we evaluated one of the latest innovations in the area of BCI: A wireless EEG amplifier with dry electrode technology combined with a web browser which enables BCI users to use standard webmail. With this system ten volunteers performed a daily life task: Write, read and answer an email. Experimental results of this study demonstrate the power of the introduced BCI system.

  20. The Most Important Thing: Students with Reading and Writing Difficulties Talk about Their Experiences of Teachers' Treatment and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is a well-known phenomenon and help and assistance are offered to pupils and students who experience literacy difficulties on a regular basis. But what help do they need and want? In this article the responses people with reading and writing difficulties/dyslexia give to this question are discussed. What, if we take the student's own…

  1. Learning history by composing synthesis texts: Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes, and text quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Martínez; M. Mateos; E. Martín; G. Rijlaarsdam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve learning from texts via strategies that train students how to process synthesis texts. Processing such texts requires goal-oriented interaction between reading and writing activities. The participants were 62 sixth-grade students, 33 in the experimental an

  2. What Are Preadolescent Readers Doing Online? An Examination of Upper Elementary Students' Reading, Writing, and Communication in Digital Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy C.; Woodward, Lindsay; Colwell, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The online reading, writing, and communication practices of students have been of significant interest to literacy researchers and teachers throughout the last several years, as insights into what students are currently doing in and outside of school can inform what they can be expected to know and be able to do in digital environments. Yet,…

  3. Taking a Reading/Writing Intervention for Secondary English Language Learners on the Road: Lessons Learned from the Pathway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Land, Robert

    2008-01-01

    These two recipients of this year's Alan C. Purves Award reflect on their work (reported in "RTE" Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 269-303) on "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" and the lessons they learned from their original research study as they tried to replicate the…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Teaching Reading and Writing for First Grade Students in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhafir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…

  5. Effects of All-Day, and Half-Day Kindergarten Programming on Reading, Writing, Math, and Classroom Social Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Charlene

    This study compared the relative effects of three kindergarten schedules on children's achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics, and on children's prosocial classroom behaviors. Participating were 47 children attending all-day kindergarten, 56 attending alternate-day kindergarten, and 44 attending half-day kindergarten. Individual…

  6. EFFECT OF TIME OF TRANSITION FROM MANUSCRIPT TO CURSIVE WRITING UPON SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE IN HANDWRITING, SPELLING, AND READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTTO, WAYNE; RARICK, G. LAWRENCE

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE HANDWRITING, READING, AND SPELLING PERFORMANCE OF FOURTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE CHILDREN TO THE TRANSITION TIME FROM MANUSCRIPT TO CURSIVE WRITING WAS STUDIED. THE FOUR TRANSITION TIMES WERE EITHER THE FIRST OR SECOND SEMESTER IN GRADE 2 OR THE FIRST OR SECOND SEMESTER IN GRADE 3. HANDWRITING LEGIBILITY WAS MEASURED BY THE…

  7. Guia didactica para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Guide to the Teaching of Reading and Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a guide prepared by the National Pedagogic Institute for the teaching of reading and writing. The general principles in the guide will tend to unify first grade teaching methods. A brief presentation gives a description of the parts in which the guide is divided. (1)…

  8. Lettura, Scrittura e Analisi dei Grafemi in Prima Elementare (Reading, Writing and Grapheme Analysis in First Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deva, Ferruccio

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses an aspect of the process of learning to read and write which has received little attention, that is, the ability of children to recognize and to distinguish clearly the sounds which correspond to the individual letters within each word. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  9. 10,000 optical write, read, and erase cycles in an azobenzene sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    We show far what is believed to he the first time that it is possible tu generate 10,000 rapid write, read, and erase cycles optically in an azobenzene sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester. We do this by exposing the film alternately to visible light from an argon laser at 488 nm and ultraviolet...

  10. Taking a Reading/Writing Intervention for Secondary English Language Learners on the Road: Lessons Learned from the Pathway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Land, Robert

    2008-01-01

    These two recipients of this year's Alan C. Purves Award reflect on their work (reported in "RTE" Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 269-303) on "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" and the lessons they learned from their original research study as they tried to replicate the…

  11. The Effects of the Book-flooded approach on Reading and Writing in the Primary School EFL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬一

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes a qualitative methodology to describe a new language teaching approach--the book-flooded approach. Through the analysis of the class observation and teacher interviews and that of the parents, the thesis investigates into the effects of the book-flooded approach on reading and writing in the primary school EFL classroom.

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Teaching Reading and Writing for First Grade Students in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhafir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…

  13. Guia didactica para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Guide to the Teaching of Reading and Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a guide prepared by the National Pedagogic Institute for the teaching of reading and writing. The general principles in the guide will tend to unify first grade teaching methods. A brief presentation gives a description of the parts in which the guide is divided. (1)…

  14. Reading and Writing Performances of Children 7-8 Years of Age with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Shen, Miau-Lin; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) refers to a delay in motor development that does not have any known medical cause. Studies conducted in English speaking societies have found that children with DCD display a higher co-occurrence rate of learning difficulties (e.g., problems in reading and writing) than typically developing (TD) children.…

  15. Integrating Metacognition into a Developmental Reading and Writing Course to Promote Skill Transfer: An Examination of Student Perceptions and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacello, James

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research study was aimed at examining the experiences and perceptions of students at a four-year college in New York City who were enrolled in an integrated reading and writing course designed to help students connect the literacy skills learned in the course to other contexts. Focusing on three students enrolled in the course,…

  16. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukelimu, Abulikemu; Mondeel, Thierry D G A; Barberis, Matteo; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2017-06-15

    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity. We identify functional pseudosignalers in the cyclin-dependent kinase complexes regulating cell-cycle progression. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we illustrate how a 'dead' pseudosignaler could produce potentially selectable functionalities. Four billion years ago, bioenergetics may have shuffled 'electron-writers', producing various networks that all served the same function of anaerobic ATP synthesis and carbon assimilation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide, but at different ATP/acetate ratios. This would have enabled organisms to deal with variable challenges of energy need and substrate supply. The same principle might enable 'gear-shifting' in real time, by dynamically generating different pseudo-redox enzymes, reshuffling their coenzymes, and rerouting network fluxes. Non-stationary pH gradients in thermal vents together with similar such shuffling mechanisms may have produced a first selectable proton-motivated pyrophosphate synthase and subsequent ATP synthase. A combination of functionalities into enzymes, signalers, and the pseudo-versions thereof may offer fitness in terms of plasticity, both in real time and in evolution. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

    2012-12-01

    Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

  18. Huygens file service and storage architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape; Stabell-Kulo, Tage

    1993-01-01

    The Huygens file server is a high-performance file server which is able to deliver multi-media data in a timely manner while also providing clients with ordinary “Unix” like file I/O. The file server integrates client machines, file servers and tertiary storage servers in the same storage architectu

  19. Huygens file server and storage architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape; Stabell-Kulo, Tage

    1993-01-01

    The Huygens file server is a high-performance file server which is able to deliver multi-media data in a timely manner while also providing clients with ordinary “Unix” like file I/O. The file server integrates client machines, file servers and tertiary storage servers in the same storage architectu

  20. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). A total of 1,945 children (6-14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the 'High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders' project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items ('a'>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE.

  1. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Aim To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). Sample A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Methods Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. Results A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. Conclusion The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE. PMID:23983466

  2. Developing Reading-Writing Connections: The Impact of Explicit Instruction of Literary Devices on the Quality of Children's Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this collaborative schools-university study was to investigate how the explicit instruction of literary devices during designated literacy sessions could improve the quality of children's narrative writing. A guiding question for the study was: Can children's writing can be enhanced by teachers drawing attention to the literary…

  3. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2(nd) and 5(th) Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2014-05-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed.

  4. Personal Readings and Public Texts Book Blogs and Online Writing about Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Steiner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The blogging culture has become an important and integrated part of the book trade and has influenced the publishing, marketing and distribution of literature in North America and in many European countries. However, it is unclear how this potential agency among bloggers operates, and thus far most research has concerned politics, media systems and larger social structures. The present article is a study of the Swedish book blogs during the autumn of 2009 and an attempt to address a small, but significant, part of the Internet influence. The relationship between books and digital technology is complicated and manifold, but it is clear that the Internet has changed how people access books, how they read and how they communicate with others about their reading. Here, the position of the amateur is one that will be discussed in detail in terms of professionalism, strategies and hierarchies. Another issue that will be addressed is the connections between the book bloggers and the book trade, especially the publishers and their marketing departments. The book bloggers operate in a social realm, despite the fact that their writing is personal, and have to be understood in their social, economic and literary context. The Swedish book blogs will be analysed with the help of readerresponse theory, sociology of literature and a book historical perspective on the dissemination of literature.

  5. Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Fulya; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sahin, Semra

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who was suspected of auditory processing difficulty (APD). This research was conducted with 67 children in 1st or 2nd grade of primary school. The first group (Group I-control) was comprised of 41 children without APD. The second group (Group II-study group) was comprised of 26 children with APD. Listening, speaking, reading and writing skills were evaluated by Observational Rating Scale (ORS) and analyzed in both groups. Listening value of ORS in APD group was significantly lower; and, speaking, reading and writing values of ORS in APD group were significantly higher than control group (p=0.000). It was also found that, the main effect of listening skills was on speaking in normal childs, and on writing ability in children with APD. It was concluded that, for school-aged children, APD can lead to or is associated with difficulties in written language.

  6. Comparison of executive functions in students with and without specific learning disability with the characteristic reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Hasanvandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of present study was to investigate executive functions included of working memory, organization-planning and reasoning in the children with and without specific learning disability with the characteristic reading and writing. Materials and methods: The design of this research was Ex-Post Facto design. Statistical population was all male students of third grade primary schools in Tehran which were referred to education institution with diagnosis special learning disorders in educational centers. The sample included of 90 students chosen and assigned into 3 groups of 30 students, included of: children who had specific learning disability with characteristic reading, children who had specific learning disability with characteristic writing, normal children were selected by systematic randomized sampling and 3 groups were compared. The data instruments were: Wechsler’ subtests of similarities and digit differences, Andre Ray test, in formal (unofficial reading and dictation test. The obtained data were analyzed with ANOVA. Results: The results showed that there was difference between the group of normal children and other group in executive functions including working memory, organization-planning and reasoning (P<0.05. Also there was difference between two children groups with specific learning disability with  characteristic reading and writing in working memory and reasoning, whereas for organization-planning parameter there were not seen any differences between these two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Regarding to obtained results, it is recommended to adoption some ways for improvements of working memory, organization-planning and reasoning

  7. The Application of Cohesion in English Reading and Writing Instruc-tion-Based on Diagnosis and Instruction Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-ying

    2014-01-01

    Based on Halliday and Hasan’s taxonomy of cohesive devices, the author investigates the deficiency of cohesive aware-ness of subjects through the analysis of questionnaires, interviews and problems existed in writing samples, and then the efficiency of applying cohesion theory to English teaching is examined through the data analysis of the results of the pre-test and post-test by SPSS Statistics 17.0. At last, the author draws the conclusion that applying cohesion theory to English teaching can, to a great extent, foster students’awareness of textual cohesion, develop their writing strategies, and improve their abilities of reading com-prehension.

  8. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF CREATIVE WRITING TEACHING THROUGH STORY BOOK READING FOR THE FIRST GRADE STUDENTS OF TUNAS MUDA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Ryani Agus

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One method to support the success of teaching of writing skills is using story books. It has manykinds of benefits that provides the students more creative and challenging texts that require personalexploration, easier understanding of information which are commonly hard to comprehend and remember,and easier illustration in making connection among various elements and concepts being taught. Thisresearch deals with teaching creative writing through story book reading, and it is aimed at findingwhether this method is beneficial or not in increasing creativity in writing. The study is carried out using apre-test and post-test design to 14 students from the first grade. Between the two tests, the students wereprovided with basic knowledge of creative writing. The data of the research were the scores of the pre-testand post-test compared and analyzed based on the rubric of ideas, organization, word choice, sentencefluency, and conventions. The pre-test result shows that 29% of the students achieve the standard ofachievement. After the creative writing process, the post-test result indicates that 93% of the studentsachieve the standard of student achievement in creative writing.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF CREATIVE WRITING TEACHING THROUGH STORY BOOK READING FOR THE FIRST GRADE STUDENTS OF TUNAS MUDA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Ryani Agus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One method to support the success of teaching of writing skills is using story books. It has many kinds of benefits that provides the students more creative and challenging texts that require personal exploration, easier understanding of information which are commonly hard to comprehend and remember, and easier illustration in making connection among various elements and concepts being taught. This research deals with teaching creative writing through story book reading, and it is aimed at finding whether this method is beneficial or not in increasing creativity in writing. The study is carried out using a pre-test and post-test design to 14 students from the first grade. Between the two tests, the students were provided with basic knowledge of creative writing. The data of the research were the scores of the pre-test and post-test compared and analyzed based on the rubric of ideas, organization, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions. The pre-test result shows that 29% of the students achieve the standard of achievement. After the creative writing process, the post-test result indicates that 93% of the students achieve the standard of student achievement in creative writing.

  11. Cassini-Huygens results on Titan's surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athena Coustenis; Mathieu Hirtzig

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, has recently been consid-erably enhanced, thanks to the Cassini-Huygens mission. Since the Saturn Orbit Injection in July 2004, the probe has been harvesting new insights of the Kronian system. In par-ticular, this mission orchestrated a climax on January 14, 2005 with the descent of the Huygens probe into Titan's thick atmosphere. The orbiter and the lander have provided us with picturesque views of extraterrestrial landscapes, new in composition but reassuringly Earth-like in shape. Thus, Saturn's largest satellite displays chains of mountains, fields of dark and damp dunes, lakes and possibly geologic activity. As on Earth, landscapes on Titan are eroded and modeled by some alien hydrology: dendritic systems, hydrocarbon lakes, and methane clouds imply periods of heavy rainfalls, even though rain was never observed directly. Titan's surface also proved to be geologically active - today or in the recent past - given the small number of impact craters listed to date, as well as a few possible cryovolcanic features. We attempt hereafter a synthesis of the most significant results of the Cassini-Huygens endeavor, with emphasis on the surface.

  12. Writing/Reading the Victorian Past through Spiritualist Séances in A. S. Byatt's "The Conjugal Angel"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Mulalić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the dominant concerns of postmodern writing is to discuss the importance and modes of knowing the past. The aim of this paper is to explore how the British novelist A.S. Byatt rereads the Victorian past in her novella “The Conjugal Angel” by using Victorian spiritualism as a multilayered metaphor for dynamic communication between the past and present. Spiritualist rituals will also be read as a cultural practice characterised by the playful undermining of gender roles and norms. Finally, the paper will discuss spiritualist séances as a metaphor for the writing and reading of historiographic metafiction seen as a process of restless summoning of and intense communicating with the ghosts/texts from the past.

  13. Teaching and learning of reading and writing in education of young people and adults: dialogues with the childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Ferreira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a discussion of the methodological aspects of teaching and learning to read and write in adult education, in an attempt to seek a dialogue with the Early Childhood Education by pointing convergent elements between these two instances. And, therefore, it proposes a reflection on the construction of human nature and ownership of reading and writing as a humanizing process from the perspective of historical-cultural theory advocated by Vygotsky and his collaborators. In this context it is presented a pedagogical situation in a public school for kindergarten in the state of Sao Paulo, followed by analysis from the perspective of Bakhtin in order to make some approximations in the teaching and learning of the mother tongue with adults and children.

  14. Effect of aging, education, reading and writing, semantic processing and depression symptoms on verbal fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tasks are widely used in (clinical neuropsychology to evaluate components of executive functioning and lexical-semantic processing (linguistic and semantic memory. Performance in those tasks may be affected by several variables, such as age, education and diseases. This study investigated whether aging, education, reading and writing frequency, performance in semantic judgment tasks and depression symptoms predict the performance in unconstrained, phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. This study sample comprised 260 healthy adults aged 19 to 75 years old. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression models were used for data analysis. The variables under analysis were associated in different ways and had different levels of contribution according to the type of verbal fluency task. Education had the greatest effect on verbal fluency tasks. There was a greater effect of age on semantic fluency than on phonemic tasks. The semantic judgment tasks predicted the verbal fluency performance alone or in combination with other variables. These findings corroborate the importance of education in cognition supporting the hypothesis of a cognitive reserve and confirming the contribution of lexical-semantic processing to verbal fluency.

  15. A Progressive Reading, Writing, and Artistic Module to Support Scientific Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie B. Stockwell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science—course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I present an argument based on evidence, II analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science–themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, “Nonscientists should do scientific research.” Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement–like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science–themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values.

  16. Assessing early literacy skills to prevent problems in reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Meindl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems in reading and writing acquisition are not rooted in elementary school instruction but often in lacking literacy experiences in the family of origin. Although knowledge of print and narrative skills are well-documented predictors of later literacy acquisition in school, reliable und valid diagnostic instruments are missing in Germany. The EuLe 3-5 (Meindl & Jungmann, in prep. is supposed to fill this gap. Its conception is grounded in theory and based on established Anglo-American tests. We tested its applicability and quality on a construction sample of N = 658 preschool children in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and Berlin. To determine construct validity, we administered the SSV or the SETK 3-5 and the nonverbal scales of the K-ABC additionally in subsamples. Item analysis (rit= .40 - .61 and results on objectivity (ICCone-way, random = .96, reliability (Cronbachs atotal test = .91 and validity prove the adequacy of the EuLe 3-5 for intervention decisions at preschool age. Further studies concerning the incremental and predictive validity are necessary and run currently.

  17. A Progressive Reading, Writing, and Artistic Module to Support Scientific Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Stephanie B

    2016-03-01

    Scientific literacy, marked by the ability and willingness to engage with scientific information, is supported through a new genre of citizen science-course-based research in association with undergraduate laboratories. A three-phased progressive learning module was developed to enhance student engagement in such contexts while supporting three learning outcomes: I) present an argument based on evidence, II) analyze science and scientists within a social context, and III) experience, reflect upon, and communicate the nature of scientific discovery. Phase I entails guided reading and reflection of citizen science-themed texts. In Phase II, students write, peer-review, and edit position and counterpoint papers inspired by the following prompt, "Nonscientists should do scientific research." Phase III involves two creative assignments intended to communicate the true nature of science. Students work collaboratively to develop public service announcement-like poster campaigns to debunk a common misconception about the nature of science or scientists. Individually, they create a work of art to communicate a specific message about the raw experience of performing scientific research. Suggestions for implementation and modifications are provided. Strengths of the module include the development of transferable skills, temporal distribution of grading demands, minimal in-class time needed for implementation, and the inclusion of artistic projects to support affective learning domains. This citizen science-themed learning module is an excellent complement to laboratory coursework, as it serves to surprise, challenge, and inspire students while promoting disciplinary values.

  18. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  19. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  20. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  1. Reading, writing, and phonological processing skills of adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Hayes, Heather

    2011-02-01

    This study had three goals: (1) to document the literacy skills of deaf adolescents who received cochlear implants (CIs) as preschoolers; (2) to examine reading growth from elementary grades to high school; (3) to assess the contribution of early literacy levels and phonological processing skills, among other factors, to literacy levels in high school. A battery of reading, spelling, expository writing, and phonological processing assessments were administered to 112 high school (CI-HS) students, ages 15.5 to 18.5 yrs, who had participated in a reading assessment battery in early elementary grades (CI-E), ages 8.0 to 9.9 yrs. The CI-HS students' performance was compared with either a control group of hearing peers (N = 46) or hearing norms provided by the assessment developer. Many of the CI-HS students (47 to 66%) performed within or above the average range for hearing peers on reading tests. When compared with their CI-E performance, good early readers were also good readers in high school. Importantly, the majority of CI-HS students maintained their reading levels over time compared with hearing peers, indicating that the gap in performance was, at the very least, not widening for most students. Written expression and phonological processing tasks posed a great deal of difficulty for the CI-HS students. They were poorer spellers, poorer expository writers, and displayed poorer phonological knowledge than hearing age-mates. Phonological processing skills were a critical predictor of high school literacy skills (reading, spelling, and expository writing), accounting for 39% of variance remaining after controlling for child, family, and implant characteristics. Many children who receive CIs as preschoolers achieve age-appropriate literacy levels as adolescents. However, significant delays in spelling and written expression are evident compared with hearing peers. For children with CIs, the development of phonological processing skills is not just important for

  2. Writing in and reading ICU diaries: qualitative study of families' experience in the ICU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité Garrouste-Orgeas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Keeping an ICU patient diary has been reported to benefit the patient's recovery. Here, we investigated the families' experience with reading and writing in patient ICU diaries kept by both the family and the staff. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study involving 32 semi-structured in-depth interviews of relatives of 26 patients (34% of all family members who visited patients who met our ICU-diary criterion, i.e., ventilation for longer than 48 hours. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the interview data via a three-step coding process (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. RESULTS: Communicative, emotional, and humanising experiences emerged from our data. First, family members used the diaries to access, understand, and assimilate the medical information written in the diaries by staff members, and then to share this information with other family members. Second, the diaries enabled family members to maintain a connection with the patient by documenting their presence and expressing their love and affection. Additionally, families confided in the diaries to maintain hope. Finally, family members felt the diaries humanized the medical staff and patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate positive effects of diaries on family members. The diaries served as a powerful tool to deliver holistic patient- and family-centered care despite the potentially dehumanising ICU environment. The diaries made the family members aware of their valuable role in caring for the patient and enhanced their access to and comprehension of medical information. Diaries may play a major role in improving the well-being of ICU-patient families.

  3. You Can Help Your Child with Reading and Writing! Ten Fun and Easy Tips = Puede ayudar a sus hijos a leer y escribir! Diez sugerencias faciles y divertidas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Adapted from "101 Ideas to Help Your Child Learn to Read and Write," this booklet presents 10 tips for parents to help their children learn and have a good time in the process. The booklet begins with a letter to parents which discusses five basic principles to remember as they help their children. Tips in the booklet include: read aloud to…

  4. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  5. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  6. Striatal dopamine release in reading and writing measured with [123I]iodobenzamide and single photon emission computed tomography in right handed human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommartz, B; Larisch, R; Vosberg, H; Müller-Gärtner, H M

    2000-09-29

    Competition between endogenous dopamine and a radioligand for postsynaptic dopamine D(2) receptor binding was examined in two groups of eight subjects each who had to read or write off a text, respectively, and in a control group. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the ligand [(123)I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) were used for in vivo imaging. Subjects commenced reading or writing immediately before IBZM injection and continued for 30min thereafter. SPECT images were acquired 60min later. Striatum-to-parietal-cortex IBZM uptake ratios were lower in subjects who wrote off the text than in controls indicating competition of IBZM and dopamine. There was no difference between subjects who read the text and controls. Thus, dopamine release occurs as a consequence of the motoric activity involved in writing rather than of cognitive functions necessary for reading the text.

  7. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in…

  8. Integration of Reading and Writing Strategies in Primary Level Special Education Resource Students To Improve Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kathy S.

    A program was developed for improving the reading level of primary special education resource students in a progressive suburban community in the midwest. The problem was originally noted by an increase in the need for support services and low standardized test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of the…

  9. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogo-Moreira H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Cogo-Moreira,1 Carolina Alves Ferreira Carvalho,2 Adriana de Souza Batista Kida,2 Clara Regina Brandão de Avila,2 Giovanni Abrahão Salum,3,5 Tais Silveira Moriyama,1,4 Ary Gadelha,1,5 Luis Augusto Rohde,3,5 Luciana Monteiro de Moura,1 Andrea Parolin Jackowski,1 Jair de Jesus Mari11Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Department of Hearing and Speech Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 5National Institute for Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescent, (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development, BrazilAim: To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE.Sample: A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age, who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA, and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools and Porto Alegre (22 schools that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856, from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44.Methods: Via Item Response Theory (IRT, the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7 were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses and discriminant (major depression diagnoses measures.Results: A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not

  10. The TASK of Reading (and Writing) Arguments: A Guide to Building Critical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Thesis Analysis and Synthesis Key (TASK), a strategy which helps high school and college students to think through the elements of an argumentative essay, and to write more convincing arguments themselves. (SR)

  11. Life, Writing, and Peace: Reading Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hsing Shan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike her former award-winning and critically acclaimed works, Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace has received little attention. This is an unthinkable phenomenon for a writer who has been hailed as one of the most widely taught authors living in the United States. One of the main reasons is that critics and reviewers do not know how to cope with this complicated, heterogeneous, and "weird" text that defies easy categorization. Nor do they know how to respond to the ways the author urges her readers to squarely face collective American traumas and symptoms through writing (especially the Vietnam War. This paper attempts to approach this intriguing text from the perspective of life writing. Part I points out the undue neglect of this book, refutes some serious misunderstandings, and offers "life writing" as a critical approach. Part II places this book in the context of Kingston's career and life trajectory in order to show that "peace" has always been her major concern. Part III argues that, whereas the 1991 Berkeley-Oakland fire destroyed the manuscript of her "Fourth Book of Peace" along with her house, this "baptism of fire" and its accompanying sense of devastation generated a special empathy, enabling her to better understand those who suffer, especially Vietnam War veterans. Part IV deals with both the subjects of writing trauma and trauma narrative and indicates how Kingston combines her writing expertise with the Buddhist mindfulness expounded by the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh to lead the Veterans Writing Workshop. Finally, Part V stresses how Kingston and her writing community, by combining life, writing, and peace, tell their own stories and create new lives both personally and collectively.

  12. WRITING AND READING OF TEACHERS IN TRAINING OF SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Master, may I write with my own words? What seems more a chorus of Elementary and High School students also can be heard in Higher Education classrooms, in professors training courses of Science and Biology, on disciplines for internships teachers. What provides this silencing of the textual productions of our future teachers? Which of other issues are involved in this feeling of worthlessness of writing? Starting from the initial interrogation of this summary, conducted by the students of th...

  13. Huygens-Fresnel Principle in Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    de Gomes, H A

    2006-01-01

    We first roughly present a summary of the optico-mechanical analogy, which has always been so profitable in physics. Then we put forward a geometrodynamical formulation of gravity suitable to our intentions, both formally and conceptually. We present difficulties in some approaches to canonically quantize gravity which can be ammended by the idea put forward in this paper, which we introduce in the last section. It consists basically in trying to find an intermediary between the quantization step going from the classical superhamiltonian constraint to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This is accomplished by inputing interference beyond the WKB approximation, through a sort of Huygens-Fresnel Principle (HFP) in superspace. It turns out that we can derive wave-like character for both domains from this principle by allowing backward angles of diffraction, and what is more, approximate to a high degree of accuracy Feynman's path integral method in any domain.

  14. Reading for Integration, Identifying Complementary Threshold Concepts: The ACRL Framework in Conversation with Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, threshold concepts formed the foundation of two disciplinary documents: the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy (2015 and Naming What We Know: Threshold Concepts of Writing Studies (2015. While there is no consensus in the fields about the value of threshold concepts in teaching, reading the six Frames in the ACRL document alongside the threshold concepts of writing studies illuminates overlapping elements that may empower faculty in both fields to advocate collectively against skills-focused writing and research instruction through cross-disciplinary integrations. To facilitate cross-disciplinary conversations around the documents, the authors propose an order for reading the Frames, identify the associated writing concepts, and explain how the shared concepts reveal an internal complexity which may have implications for teaching the ACRL Framework.

  15. Effectiveness of Family Life Education (FLE on stress of mothers of children with learning disorder to read and write

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Gholamrezayi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Family Life Education (FLE on the stress of mothers of children learning to read and write. This study is quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest of control group. The population of this study is all mothers of elementary students with learning disabilities (reading and writing in Birjand in the academic year of 2014-2015. Among total population of study, 30 people were selected using convenience sampling and they were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Experimental group received family life education for 8 sessions (each session lasted 90 minutes. To collect data, parental stress index of Abidin (1990 was used. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (demographic data and descriptive indicators as well as inferential statistics methods including computation of (analysis of covariance and multivariate covariance analysis. The results showed that family life education has an effect on stress reduction.The results also showed that family life education reduces negative score of parental sense of competent and health.

  16. Writing a Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Explains a reading and writing assignment called "Writing a Movie" in which students view a short film segment and write a script in which they describe the scene. Notes that this assignment uses films to develop fluency and helps students understand the reading and writing connections. Concludes that students learn to summarize a scene from film,…

  17. The Core Principles of Extensive Reading in an EAP Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon; Ro, Eunseok

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) in "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL") (April 2015 issue), many scholars in the field shared views regarding the core features to be considered when implementing ER, frequently referring to Day and Bamford's (1998, 2002) top 10 principles for teaching ER.…

  18. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  19. Magnetoelectric write and read operations in a stress-mediated multiferroic memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Alexey; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Dusch, Yannick; Giordano, Stefano; Mathurin, Théo; Pernod, Philippe; Preobrazhensky, Vladimir; Churbanov, Anton; Nikitov, Sergei

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic memory cells associated with the stress-mediated magnetoelectric effect promise extremely low bit-writing energies. Most investigations have focused on the process of writing information in memory cells, and very few on readout schemes. The usual assumption is that the readout will be achieved using magnetoresistive structures such as Giant Magneto-Resistive stacks or Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. Since the writing energy is very low in the magnetoelectric systems, the readout energy using magnetoresistive approaches becomes non negligible. Incidentally, the magneto-electric interaction itself contains the potentiality of the readout of the information encoded in the magnetic subsystem. In this letter, the principle of magnetoelectric readout of the information by an electric field in a composite multiferroic heterostructure is considered theoretically and demonstrated experimentally using [ N × ( TbCo 2 / FeCo ) ] / [ Pb ( Mg1/ 3 Nb 2 / 3 ) O 3 ] ( 1 - x ) - [ PbTiO3 ] x stress-mediated ME heterostructures.

  20. Verbal and visuospatial executive functions in healthy elderly: The impact of education and frequency of reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Damiani Branco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the predictive role of education and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH on the cognitive flexibility, inhibition and planning abilities of healthy elderly individuals. Methods: Fifty-seven healthy adults aged between 60 and 75 years with 2 to 23 years of formal education were assessed as to the frequency with which they read and wrote different types of text, as well as their number of years of formal education. Executive functions were evaluated using the Hayling Test and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST. Results: Weak to moderate positive correlations were found between education, FRWH and the number of categories completed in the MWCST, while negative correlations were identified between these variables and the number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors on the task. Only the FRWH was significantly correlated with the number of failures to maintain set. Speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test were only correlated with participant education. Both education and FRWH significantly predicted performance on the MWCST, and the combination of these two variables had a greater predictive impact on performance on this task than either of the two variables alone. Variability in scores on the Hayling Test was best accounted for by participant education. Conclusion: In this sample of elderly subjects, cognitive flexibility was sufficiently preserved to allow for adequate performance on verbal tasks, but may have benefitted from the additional stimulation provided by regular reading and writing habits and by formal education in the performance of more complex non-verbal tasks.

  1. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokemeijer, N. J.; Clinton, T. W.; Crawford, T. M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-04-01

    At 1 Tbit/in2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology.

  2. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokemeijer, N.J. [Seagate Research, 1251 Waterfront Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States)]. E-mail: nils.gokemeijer@seagate.com; Clinton, T.W. [Seagate Research, 1251 Waterfront Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Crawford, T.M. [Seagate Research, 1251 Waterfront Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Johnson, Mark [Naval Research Labs, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2005-04-15

    At 1 Tbit/in{sup 2} areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology.

  3. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Julie F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825 and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328 were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy. Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05. Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development.

  4. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To describe and compare visual function measures of two groups of school age children (6-14 years of age) attending a specialist eyecare practice in Austria; one group referred to the practice from educational assessment centres diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties and the other, a clinical age-matched control group. Methods Retrospective clinical data from one group of subjects with reading difficulties (n = 825) and a clinical control group of subjects (n = 328) were examined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether any differences existed between visual function measures from each group (refractive error, visual acuity, binocular status, accommodative function and reading speed and accuracy). Results Statistical analysis using one way ANOVA demonstrated no differences between the two groups in terms of refractive error and the size or direction of heterophoria at distance (p > 0.05). Using predominately one way ANOVA and chi-square analyses, those subjects in the referred group were statistically more likely to have poorer distance visual acuity, an exophoric deviation at near, a lower amplitude of accommodation, reduced accommodative facility, reduced vergence facility, a reduced near point of convergence, a lower AC/A ratio and a slower reading speed than those in the clinical control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study highlights the high proportions of visual function anomalies in a group of children with reading difficulties in an Austrian population. It confirms the importance of a full assessment of binocular visual status in order to detect and remedy these deficits in order to prevent the visual problems continuing to impact upon educational development. PMID:20500851

  5. Reading Much and Writing Much Theory of Language Education%多读多写的语言教育理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀华; 张贵平

    2009-01-01

    针对语文教育和英语教育的质量和效率问题,把多读多写的经验之谈发展成多读多写的语言教育理论.提出语言教育的四条原则:教师要以身作则广泛阅读,教师要把学生带到图书馆让学生自由阅读自己选择的图书,教师要根据教材中的课文指导学生开展课外延伸阅读,教师自己要多写并要指导学生多写.%In view of the quality and efficiency problems in Chinese education and English education, this study developed the reading much and writing much theory of language education from the reading much and writing much remark of experienced people. Raise the four principles in language education: the teacher should read extensively and serve as a model, the teacher should bring students to libraries and let them read freely, the teacher should guide students in extensive reading starting from texts in the textbooks, and the teacher should write much and also guide students to write much.

  6. The Effects of Multimedia Annotation and Summary Writing on Taiwanese EFL Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of multimedia annotation through the discourse scheme and summary writing through the grounding theory (Chang, 1997) on text comprehension. Specifically, the study focuses on examining the influences of multimedia annotation from a special perspective, namely, the use of modified discourse scheme to…

  7. Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Learning to Read: Interactions Among Languages and Writing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Kwan, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    Four groups of children in first grade were compared on early literacy tasks. Children in three of the groups were bilingual, each group representing a different combination of language and writing system, and children in the fourth group were monolingual speakers of English. All the bilingual children used both languages daily and were learning…

  8. A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Land, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted by members of a site of the California Writing Project in partnership with a large, urban, low-SES school district where 93% of the students speak English as a second language and 69% are designated Limited English Proficient. Over an eight-year period, a relatively stable group of 55 secondary teachers engaged in ongoing…

  9. Novel Readings: The History of a Writing Community by a Partial, Prejudiced, & Ignorant Historian

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore the history of a higher education writing community from its establishment in 2005 to the present day. In order to provide a model of community development which may be generalizable, this inherently "partial" and "prejudiced" Autoethnographic account is framed by themes taken from three of the novels of Jane Austen…

  10. Novel Readings: The History of a Writing Community by a Partial, Prejudiced, & Ignorant Historian

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore the history of a higher education writing community from its establishment in 2005 to the present day. In order to provide a model of community development which may be generalizable, this inherently "partial" and "prejudiced" Autoethnographic account is framed by themes taken from three of the novels of Jane Austen…

  11. Vessels and Voyagers: Some Thoughts on Reading and Writing, Books and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werking, Richard Hume

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on information and written communications throughout American history. Discusses writing in several media, beginning in the mid 1400s; development of the scholarly journal in the 1600s; growth of academic libraries and the transformation of American scholarship; early views of higher education and libraries; the mission and developing…

  12. Activation of writing-specific brain regions when reading Chinese as a second language. Effects of training modality and transfer to novel characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Prévot, Laurent; Velay, Jean-Luc; Cao, Fan; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult second language learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task. The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer. We examined the brain activations elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs. pronunciation, and by novel untrained words, within regions of interest (ROIs) defined according to the position of the activation peaks in the localizer, and at the whole brain level. We revealed activations in the reading task that overlapped with several parts of the finger writing network. In addition, our results provide evidence that the neural substrates of writing are differentially involved in reading depending on the stored knowledge for words, as revealed by the fine-grained response of several regions including the left superior parietal lobule and left precentral gyrus / superior frontal sulcus to the experimental manipulations. Training modality and the linguistic properties of the characters also impacted the response of the left mid-fusiform gyrus, confirming its involvement as the brain region where linguistic, visual and sensorimotor information converge during orthographic processing. At the behavioral level, global handwriting quality during the training sessions was positively correlated to the final translation performance. Our results demonstrate substantial overlap in the neural substrates of reading and writing, and indicate that some regions sustaining handwriting are differentially involved in reading depending on the type of knowledge associated with words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 创作,从模仿开始--谈小学语文阅读教学中的读写结合%A literary Creation Began as Either Copies-On the teaching of Chinese reading in primary school and the combination of reading and writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍

    2014-01-01

    “阅读是吸收,写作是倾吐。”读和写若能相辅相成,学生何愁不会写作。批注是孩子写作的萌芽。小练笔架设起读写的桥梁。只有架设起读与写的桥梁,课堂才会是真正能促进学生写作能力提高的课堂。%“Reading is absorbed, writing is to pour out.”Read and write can complement each other, why not writing students. The notation is the child writing budding. Xiao Lian bridge rack set up reading and writing. Only built a bridge to read and write, classroom is really to improve students’writing ability in the classroom.

  14. Reading, Writing, and Presenting Original Scientific Research: A Nine-Week Course in Scientific Communication for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sarah Danka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High school students are not often given opportunities to communicate scientific findings to their peers, the general public, and/or people in the scientific community, and therefore they do not develop scientific communication skills. We present a nine-week course that can be used to teach high school students, who may have no previous experience, how to read and write primary scientific articles and how to discuss scientific findings with a broad audience. Various forms of this course have been taught for the past 10 years as part of an intensive summer research program for rising high school seniors that is coordinated by the Young Scientist Program at Washington University in St. Louis. The format presented here includes assessments for efficacy through both rubric-based methods and student self-assessment surveys.

  15. Ultra-thin a-SiNx protective overcoats for hard disks and read/write heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Wan-Yu; Xu Jun; Lu Wen-Qi; Deng Xin-Lu; Dong Chuang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that amorphous silicon nitride(a-SiNx)overcoats were deposited at room temperature by microwave ECR plasma enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering.The 2 nm a-SiNx overcoat has better anti-corrosion properties than that of reference a-CNx overcoats(2-4.5 nm).The superior anti-corrosion performance is attributed to its stoichiomctric bond structure,where 94.8% Si atoms form Si-N asymmetric stretching vibration bonds.The N/Si ratio is 1.33 as in the stoichiometry of Si3N4 and corresponds to the highest hardness of 25.0 GPa.The surface is atomically smooth with RMS<0.2 nm.The ultra-thin a-SiNx overcoats are promising for hard disks and read/write heads protective coatings.

  16. Supporting the Development of Autonomous Learning Skills in Reading and Writing in an Independent Language Learning Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel L. W. Chiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on observations, examples and findings from previous action research and teaching experiences gathered in an independent language learning centre in a university in Hong Kong to explore strategies for supporting independent learning. The learning centre offers one-to-one and small-group learning sessions to support the development of independent learning skills in various areas. This discussion will explore particularly the focuses of reading and writing skills development. These learner-centred support sessions aim to develop awareness of different types of learning strategies to suit individual learning needs, and cultivate interest and ability for continuous self-learning. The benefits of a semi-structured scaffolding format with attention to individual learning differences and supported by technology will be highlighted.

  17. Saturn's Exploration Beyond Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Tristan; Charnoz, Sébastien; Dougherty, Michele K; Read, Peter

    2009-01-01

    For its beautiful rings, active atmosphere and mysterious magnetic field, Saturn is a fascinating planet. It also holds some of the keys to understanding the formation of our Solar System and the evolution of giant planets in general. While the exploration by the Cassini-Huygens mission has led to great advances in our understanding of the planet and its moons, it has left us with puzzling questions: What is the bulk composition of the planet? Does it have a helium core? Is it enriched in noble gases like Jupiter? What powers and controls its gigantic storms? We have learned that we can measure an outer magnetic field that is filtered from its non-axisymmetric components, but what is Saturn's inner magnetic field? What are the rings made of and when were they formed? These questions are crucial in several ways: a detailed comparison of the compositions of Jupiter and Saturn is necessary to understand processes at work during the formation of these two planets and of the Solar System. This calls for the contin...

  18. Long-Term Psychosocial and Health Economy Consequences of ADHD, Autism, and Reading-Writing Disorder: A Prospective Service Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyden, Agneta; Myren, Karl-Johan; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to evaluate psychosocial, societal, and family cost consequences of a psychoeducational intervention program. Methods: Sixty boys with ADHD, Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA), and reading and writing disorder (RD/WD) were allocated to participate in a service evaluation project. Every other boy in each…

  19. Learning to Read and Write on the Fringes of Schooling: Some Examples of Didactic Devices in Mexican Society in the Modern Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of certain didactic resources that proliferated on the fringes of schooling during the second half of the nineteenth century in Mexico. The first of these is a method that, according to its author, made it possible to teach a pupil how to read in only six lessons, dated 1830; the second is a writing method from…

  20. College English Teaching under the Combination of Reading and Writing%读写结合模式下的大学英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷琳

    2015-01-01

    Language is regarded as a tool for communication. Reading not only can help to accumulate source and materials, lan⁃guage expressions for writing, but it also contribute to open mind and good writing skills. In turn, writing is an effective way to testi⁃fy what one has learned from reading, further promoting reading interest. College English teaching in the 21st century should be build on the foundation of reading and writing ability. In this way, students can get improved comprehensively, especially the abili⁃ty of speaking English.%语言是交流的工具。阅读为写作提供素材积累,语言表达方式的积累,还可以开阔思路,了解掌握英语写作的特点和规律;相应的,写作能够检验阅读成果,进一步促动阅读。新世纪的大学英语教学仍然要以培养阅读和写作能力为根本,提高学生的英语综合运用能力,尤其是口头交际能力。

  1. Learning Partners: Escribamos! Leamos! Juguemos a las Ciencias! Juguemos a las Matematicas! (Learning Partners: Let's Write! Let's Read! Let's Play Mathematics! Let's Play Science!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language document consists of four single-sheet sets of guidelines developed by the Family Involvement Partnership for Learning to assist parents in facilitating their children's elementary school success. The front part of the sheets describes general ways parents can support their children, including modeling writing, reading aloud,…

  2. Promises of Coherence, Weak Content, and Strong Organization: An Analysis of the Student Texts (Reading-to-Write Report No. 3). Technical Report No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Margaret J.

    This study is the third in a series of reports of the Reading-to-Write Project, a collaborative study of students' cognitive processes at one critical point of entry into academic performance. This part of the study examines the problem that teachers have in judging whether textual signals that students use to indicate a persuasive analysis of…

  3. El Aprendizaje de la Lectura y la Escritura: Practicas Apropiadas para el Desarrollo Infantil (Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Copple, Carol; Bredekamp, Sue

    This Spanish language edition of "Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children," presents effective research-based strategies for promoting children's literacy learning in preschool, kindergarten, and elementary classrooms and infant/toddler settings. Including classroom photos and children's work,…

  4. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…

  5. Enhancing the Interpretive Reading and Analytical Writing of Mainstreamed English Learners in Secondary School: Results from a Randomized Field Trial Using a Cognitive Strategies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Kim, James S.; Scarcella, Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David A.; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 72 secondary English teachers from the Santa Ana Unified School District were randomly assigned to participate in the Pathway Project, a cognitive strategies approach to teaching interpretive reading and analytical writing, or to a control condition involving typical district training focusing on teaching content from the textbook.…

  6. Make the Reading-Writing Connection: Tips for Parents of Young Learners = Haga el enlace entre lectura y escrita: Consejos para padres de jovenes que estan aprendiendo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This brochure offers parents tips on helping their children connect writing with reading. It begins by noting that preschool children often want to scribble on paper, scribbles which sometimes represent a story. It suggests making space in the home for literacy, and encouraging early efforts. The brochure then offers four brief activities for…

  7. The Development and Evaluation of an Achievement Test for Measuring the Efficacy of Task-Based Writing Activities to Enhance Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Ferdows Mohsen; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability of an achievement test to measure the efficacy of task-based writing activities to improve Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension at the intermediate level in a private language institute in Ilam, Iran, namely Alefba language institute. To achieve the goal, the techniques for evaluating reliability…

  8. Rapid Naming in Relation to Reading and Writing in Korean (Hangul), Chinese (Hanja) and English among Korean Children: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    The relation of rapid automatised naming (RAN) to word recognition may depend on the phonological regularity of the orthography. This study examined differential contributions of RAN to reading and writing in Korean alphabetic Hangul, logographic Hanja (Chinese) and English as a second language among 73 fifth graders in Korea across 1?year. RAN…

  9. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Levels 7 and 8 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains the 9 publications constituting the fourth stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  10. Aplicacion de nuevas tecnicas y procedimientos para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Application of the New Techniques and Procedures for Teaching Reading-Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of experiments performed in Mexico, D. F. by way of introducing new techniques for teaching reading and writing, particularly in the remedial classes. The first part of the document deals with a series of experiments carried out with first grade remedial groups as follows:…

  11. El Aprendizaje de la Lectura y la Escritura: Practicas Apropiadas para el Desarrollo Infantil (Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Copple, Carol; Bredekamp, Sue

    This Spanish language edition of "Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children," presents effective research-based strategies for promoting children's literacy learning in preschool, kindergarten, and elementary classrooms and infant/toddler settings. Including classroom photos and children's work, the book…

  12. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction Based on Top-Level Structure Method in English Reading and Writing Abilities of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinajai, Nattapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the development of ninth grade students' reading and writing abilities and interests in learning English taught through computer-assisted instruction (CAI) based on the top-level structure (TLS) method. An experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance…

  13. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  14. The Concept of Practice, Enlightenment Rationality and Education: A Speculative Reading of Michel de Certeau's "The Writing of History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a reading of Michel de Certeau's "The Writing of History" which derives an understanding of the concept of practice as authoritative to the establishment and development of Enlightenment rationality. It is seen as a new form of legitimation established in the redeployment of religious "formalities" in…

  15. From the "Escuela Moderna" to the "Tyovaen Opisto": Reading, (W)Riting, and Revolution, the 3 "Rs" of Expanded Proletarian Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunonen, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In working class education, one of the primary goals in addition to basic literacy was the formulation of class-based interpretations of society. In the late 19th and early 20th century, as literacy programs began to filter into the lives of proletariat, an attempt to expand the definition of literacy past basic reading and writing skills…

  16. El Aprendizaje de la Lectura y la Escritura: Practicas Apropiadas para el Desarrollo Infantil (Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Copple, Carol; Bredekamp, Sue

    This Spanish language edition of "Learning To Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children," presents effective research-based strategies for promoting children's literacy learning in preschool, kindergarten, and elementary classrooms and infant/toddler settings. Including classroom photos and children's work,…

  17. Aplicacion de nuevas tecnicas y procedimientos para la ensenanza de la lectura-escritura (Application of the New Techniques and Procedures for Teaching Reading-Writing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional de Pedagogia (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of experiments performed in Mexico, D. F. by way of introducing new techniques for teaching reading and writing, particularly in the remedial classes. The first part of the document deals with a series of experiments carried out with first grade remedial groups as follows:…

  18. An Investigation of the Perceptions of Students' Proficiency in Reading and Writing as Indicated by Twelfth Grade English Teachers and College English Composition Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnet, Lara King

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in perceptions regarding students' proficiency in reading and writing skills between 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors. A purposive, nonrandom sample of 12th grade English teachers and college English Composition instructors from West Tennessee were…

  19. LA LECTURA Y LA ESCRITURA EN LAS TESIS DE MAESTRÍA Reading and Writing in a Magister Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ochoa Sierra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo centra su atención en la lectura y la escritura como factores que pueden favorecer u obstaculizar la terminación de una tesis de maestría. Los datos de esta investigación provienen de entrevistas semiestructuradas a estudiantes que terminaron su tesis y se graduaron, a estudiantes que nunca la terminaron, y a directores o asesores de tesis de maestría de la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Los resultados muestran que escribir una tesis supone capacidades cognitivas previas como las relacionadas con la capacidad de soportar críticas y la habilidad de revisar un documento pero también requiere de procesos que solo se desarrollan a propósito de la elaboración de la tesis, como reseñas críticas, escritura académica, manejo de diversas fuentes.This article focuses on reading and writing as factors that may hinder the completion of a Master's thesis. The corpus includes semi-structured interviews to graduates who completed their theses, non-completers, and Master's thesis advisors or directors of the Faculty of Ciencias Humanas of Universidad Nacional de Colombia. The results show that writing a thesis involves having prior cognitive skills such the ability to accept criticism and the ability to edit a document, as well as processes that are the result of the thesis itself: critical reviews, academic writing and the ability to handle sources.

  20. Neuroanatomy of Handwriting and Related Reading and Writing Skills in Adults and Children with and without Learning Disabilities: French-American Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcamp, Marieke; Richards, Todd L; Velay, Jean-Luc; Berninger, Virginia W

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading. These skills are also the basis for the development of more complex language activities involving orthographic knowledge and composition of texts. The studies presented cover two perspectives: that of neuroscience and that of cognitive psychology, as both are necessary to understand a complex process of writing and both depend on natural interactions and the influence of educational exposure.

  1. Neuroanatomy of Handwriting and Related Reading and Writing Skills in Adults and Children with and without Learning Disabilities: French-American Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcamp, Marieke; Richards, Todd L.; Velay, Jean-Luc; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading. These skills are also the basis for the development of more complex language activities involving orthographic knowledge and composition of texts. The studies presented cover two perspectives: that of neuroscience and that of cognitive psychology, as both are necessary to understand a complex process of writing and both depend on natural interactions and the influence of educational exposure. PMID:28190914

  2. 阅读与写作能力的互动原理及教学策略%Interactive Principles of Reading and Writing Competence and the Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泉良

    2011-01-01

    Reading lays the foundation for writing while writing improves reading and teaching of reading, which shows that writing and reading are interactive. To affect the students' reading and writing ability, teachers should put the complementary mechanism between reading and writing in use. However, the implementation of the interaction of reading and writing requires that teachers have not only the abilities of reading and writing but also an overall idea about Chinese curriculum.%阅读奠定写作的基础,写作提高阅读能力和阅读教学水平,这是阅读与写作的互动原理。要促成阅读与写作能力的共同提高增加教学效率,就一定要运用它们之间的互补机制促成的互动。而阅读与写作互动原理的实施,要求教师除了具备阅读和写作能力之外,还必须具备语文课程内容的整体观念。

  3. Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…

  4. Helping Finnish Second Graders Make Sense of Their Reading and Writing in Their Science Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeamaki, Riitta-Liisa; Tiainen, Outi; Dreher, Mariam Jean

    1998-01-01

    Finds that a strategy-instruction approach helped second-grade students to find needed information in the nonfiction texts they read and eliminate the copying of text. Discusses how students learned to search for information, take notes, organize notes, and use those notes to compose a report in their own words. (SR)

  5. Reading in Preparation for Writing a PhD Thesis: Case Studies of Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents stories of how a group of doctoral students chose the key disciplinary literature that they read in preparation for their thesis-undertaking (RT). The stories were analyzed in light of current understanding of literature reviewing as a situated practice and theory of doctoral education as socio-cognitive apprenticeship. As the…

  6. Motivating Children to Read and Write: Using Informal Learning Environments as Contexts for Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Michael; Walker, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The current focus on measurable reading achievement in clearly defined areas, such as fluency and comprehension, has resulted in reduced attention toward motivation and affect in relation to literacy learning. However, motivation is a significant component within literacy instruction due to the link between motivation and action. It is important…

  7. Motivating Children to Read and Write: Using Informal Learning Environments as Contexts for Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Michael; Walker, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The current focus on measurable reading achievement in clearly defined areas, such as fluency and comprehension, has resulted in reduced attention toward motivation and affect in relation to literacy learning. However, motivation is a significant component within literacy instruction due to the link between motivation and action. It is important…

  8. Reading in Preparation for Writing a PhD Thesis: Case Studies of Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents stories of how a group of doctoral students chose the key disciplinary literature that they read in preparation for their thesis-undertaking (RT). The stories were analyzed in light of current understanding of literature reviewing as a situated practice and theory of doctoral education as socio-cognitive apprenticeship. As the…

  9. An Ecosystem of Personal and Professional Reading, Writing, Researching and Professing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, F. Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Culture Currents" presents the books, essays, poetry, performances, music, websites, and other cultural media influencing educational leaders. "Culture Currents" is a snapshot, a peek behind the scenes. It reveals what people are reading or seeing that may not be normally mentioned or cited in their academic work. Two leaders…

  10. Classroom Strategies to Use with Students Following Traumatic Brain Injuries: Reading, Math, Writing, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Andi

    2005-01-01

    A Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) changes cognition and behavior in students. Their learning needs are different from students with other exceptionalities. General and special education teachers can use specific strategies based on learning style, along with certain resources, with students who have experienced a TBI to promote learning in reading,…

  11. Developing Reading and Writing Skills of Learners' from Arabic-Speaking Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The number of native Arabic-speaking students coming to America to study English in university programs has grown over the past few years, and continues to be substantial. It has also been noticed by the English Language Institute (ELI) at Sam Houston State University (SHSU) that these students often struggle more with reading activities in class,…

  12. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4 to 9 With Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), students completed 18 sessions of computerized instruction over about 3 months. The 11 students taught letter formation with sequential, numbered, colored arrow cues with full contours who wrote letters on lines added to iPAD screen showed more and stronger treatment effects than the 21 students taught using only visual motion cues for letter formation who wrote on an unlined computer monitor. Teaching to all levels of language in multiple functional language systems (by ear, eye, mouth, and hand) close in time resulted in significant gains in reading and writing skills for the group and in diagnosed SLD hallmark impairments for individuals; also, performance on computerized learning activities correlated with treatment gains. Results are discussed in reference to need for both accommodations and explicit instruction for persisting SLDs and the potential for computers to teach handwriting, morphophonemic orthographies, comprehension, and composition.

  13. Arithmetic, reading and writing performance has a strong genetic component: A study in primary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.M.; Glasner, Tina J.; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    Even children attending the same primary school and taught by the same teacher differ greatly in their performance. In the Netherlands, performance at the end of primary school determines the enrollment in a particular level of secondary education. Identifying the impact of genes and the environment on individual differences in educational achievement between children is important. The Netherlands Twin Register has collected data on scores of tests used in primary school (ages 6 to 12) to monitor a child’s educational progress in four domains, i.e. arithmetic, word reading, reading comprehension and spelling (1058 MZ and 1734 DZ twin pairs), and of a final test (2451 MZ and 4569 DZ twin pairs) in a large Dutch cohort. In general, individual differences in educational achievement were to a large extent due to genes and the influence of the family environment was negligible. Moreover, there is no evidence for gender differences in the underlying etiology. PMID:27182184

  14. A tale of two writing systems: double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between Chinese and English word reading among Hong Kong children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system.

  15. Europe reaches new frontier - Huygens lands on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The first scientific data arrived at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, this afternoon at 17:19 CET. Huygens is mankind’s first successful attempt to land a probe on another world in the outer Solar System. “This is a great achievement for Europe and its US partners in this ambitious international endeavour to explore Saturn system,” said Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director General. Following its release from the Cassini mothership on 25 December, Huygens reached Titan’s outer atmosphere after 20 days and a 4 million km cruise. The probe started its descent through Titan’s hazy cloud layers from an altitude of about 1270 km at 11:13 CET. During the following three minutes Huygens had to decelerate from 18 000 to 1400 km per hour. A sequence of parachutes then slowed it down to less than 300 km per hour. At a height of about 160 km the probe’s scientific instruments were exposed to Titan’s atmosphere. At about 120 km, the main parachute was replaced by a smaller one to complete the descent, with an expected touchdown at 13:34 CET. Preliminary data indicate that the probe landed safely, likely on a solid surface. The probe began transmitting data to Cassini four minutes into its descent and continued to transmit data after landing at least as long as Cassini was above Titan’s horizon. The certainty that Huygens was alive came already at 11:25 CET today, when the Green Bank radio telescope in West Virginia, USA, picked up a fain but unmistakable radio signal from the probe. Radio telescopes on Earth continued to receive this signal well past the expected lifetime of Huygens. Huygens data, relayed by Cassini, were picked up by NASA’s Deep Space Network and delivered immediately to ESA’s European Space Operation Centre in Darmstadt, Germany, where the scientific analysis is currently taking place. “Titan was always the target in the Saturn system where the need for ‘ground truth’ from a probe was critical. It

  16. Comparative assessmenr in differenr condirions of a program for rhe learning of reading and writing

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Dara collected under differenr didacric condirions and evaluarion steps of a program for the learning of reading and wriring are reponed. The firsr didacric condirion corresponds ro an inirial phase of projecrion ro rhe communiry wirh rhe reachers help (Mares, Plancarre y Rueda, 1994). The second evaluarion is about a tesr applied in four experimemal programs designed by Mares et. al. based en rhe behavioral taxonomy developed by Ribes and Lopez (1985). Finally, rhe rhird condition correspond...

  17. A Probe into Integration of Reading and Writing Teaching Pattern in the Light of New Curriculum Idea%新课标理念下读写一休化教学模式的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽权

    2012-01-01

    本文探讨了高中英语写作教学的现状,转变教学方式的必要性及利用英语阅读教材提高写作能力的可行性,主张在阅读课的基础上开展读写一体化教学。%This paper discusses the status quo of senior high school English writing teaching, the necessity of changing teaching methods and the feasibility of improving writing ability with English reading materials, proposing implementing integration of reading and writing teaching based on reading teaching.

  18. How to handle a Huygens' box inside an enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Franek, Ondrej;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is possible to replace printed circuit boards with a Huygens' box (HB) representation obtained from a near-field scan in simulation of far-fields from an apparatus. However, the surface equivalence theorem requires that the environment outside HB is the same in the n......It has been suggested that it is possible to replace printed circuit boards with a Huygens' box (HB) representation obtained from a near-field scan in simulation of far-fields from an apparatus. However, the surface equivalence theorem requires that the environment outside HB is the same...

  19. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  20. The Application of Web-Oriented English Fanfiction in Teaching Read⁃ing&Writing Skills to EFL Learners%The Application of Web-Oriented English Fanfiction in Teaching Read?ing&Writing Skills to EFL Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晴

    2016-01-01

    Fanfiction is a new form of oral storytelling tradition in the computer age. Considered the English language and the popular culture, it is possible to apply English fanfiction in teaching reading and writing skills to EFL learners in China. This kind of digital literacies pedagogy is beneficial to language learners in the aspects of self-studying, communicating, and learning interest. However, the combination of new literacies and regular schooling might cause troubles for teachers and students.

  1. People and Nature in Asian Stories: Reading and Writing Materials for Eco Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to make parents/teachers/writers of children literature aware of eco education through stories about people and nature. Written through the eyes of a child, many conservation stories not only empower the young minds, but they also help adults change their attitude to respect environment. The first part of this article examines such environmental stories as fables, folklores, short stories from Asia, while the second part is a project report on writing eco education materials, i.e. a serial of 3 environmental stories for young adults. Using Ecocriticism and Postcolonial perspectives to analyze the stories, the study shows that the narrative strands found in the stories include (1 depletion of the earth and natural resources, (2 people’s greediness, and (3 preservation of the traditional wisdom. Some stories are still anthro­pocentric so as to provide no space to explore fully the human-nature relationship in a balanced way. Although animal stories dominate the narratives, it is the specific and philosophic depiction of place and nature that give the stories Asian characteristics in their shared campaign to save our planet. This study concludes that the call for environmental protection can be done through young adult literature in a non-condescending manner instead of the usual patronizing-colonizing method

  2. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  3. Teaching Reading and Writing in Mother Tongue for Children with Visual Impairments / Görme Engelli Çocuklara Ana Dillerinde Okuma ve Yazma Öğretimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOTIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Language plays an important role in the lives of human beings by means of communicating, expressing thoughts and describing experiences.Language pedagogy is the science that aims at education, teaching and implementation of the spoken and written speech.If we are dealing with children who have special educational needs, e.g. visually impaired then the teaching is called special education.The loss of vision significantly affects people in various activities. Finding alternative methods of communication is important.The method braille based touch allows to visually impaired people to write and read. The key element of writing is the exastigmo (six dots.The braille method is linguistically a faithful reproduction of written language.The reading is based on the same sounds, the meanings of the words, the grammar and the semantics which are necessary for the understanding of written texts in any language.

  4. 读写循环教学法在大学英语写作教学中的应用%The Application of Reading-Writing Circulation Teaching Method in College English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2012-01-01

    Writing ability is an important skill of language output in English learning. It directly reflects learners' thinking ability and language expressive ability. Based on Communicative Theory, this paper pays attention to the discussion on the application of reading-writing circulation teaching method in college English writing course, in attempt to conduct efficient writing course, cultivate and improve learners' English writing ability and pragmatic ability.%写作是英语学习过程中的一项重要输出技能,它直接反映学习者的思维组织能力和语言表达能力。文章以交际理论为基础,着重探讨读写循环教学法在大学英语写作教学中的应用,目的是为了能开展有效的写作课堂教学,培养和提高学生的英语写作能力和语用能力。

  5. How my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw: A narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Carlo Ricci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I want to share how my now six-year-old daughter learned how to write her name, recognize numbers, read some words and draw. By doing so I hope to offer an alternative to a schooling-centered curriculum that would have us believe that the only way to learn these things is to have an expert train young people to do these things. Methodologically, this paper is a narrative. I also consider this paper to be a political piece of writing. For me writing politically in this paper means, in part, engaging the reader in a dialogue about, on the one hand, trusting and respecting young people’s right to learn what they want, when they want, how they want and, on the other hand, imposing an externally directed curriculum on them. I am arguing in favour of the former.

  6. TO READ, WRITE AND TELL: WAYS TO BE TEACHER IN SCHOOL EVERYDAY IN LOMBA GRANDE/RS (1940-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edimar Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to characterize the possible and invented ways and (re invented to provide teacher / to multigrade classes in rural Lomba Grande neighborhood of Novo Hamburgo/RS from 1940 to 1950. This is a study of history of education, and that relies on documentary analysis and narrative records of teachers whose teaching career has been developed in public schools. From the 1940s there was an increase in the number of schools in the city of Novo Hamburgo, effect of rural depopulation and political context of the period, especially in areas of German colonization. Throughout the analysis from the perspective of cultural history is evident in the appearance of the acquired knowledge in practice in everyday routines and cultural experiences accumulated by the subjects. Teachers who have drawn remember example of his teachers to plan and conduct their classes in the early days of teaching. In this sense, the possible way to be a teacher was to master the minimum knowledge of primary school. Due to the difficulties of getting the teacher to rural areas, the practice of appointing "to teach reading, writing and arithmetic" was a common feature in this place. In addition to the in-service training courses and building a professional culture was consolidated from mediations among the most experienced teachers with those just beginning their careers.

  7. The effect on sitting posture of a desk with a 10 degree inclination for reading and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wall, M; van Riel, M P; Snijders, C J; van Wingerden, J P

    1991-05-01

    A pilot study was carried out on 10 subjects to examine the effect that a desk with a 10 degree inclination had on their sitting posture while reading and writing. A continuous recording of the subjects head and trunk positions was made. Each subject was studied during two periods of 1.5 h on different days. The subject worked at a flat desk on the first day and at a desk with a 10 degree inclination on the second. On average, the position of the head in the sagittal plane was found to be 6 degrees more erect and the position of the trunk 7 degrees more erect when working at a desk with a 10 degree inclination than when working at a flat desk. The maximal decrease in load observed on the cervical spine was 35% and on the thoracic spine 95%. The angle between the head and the trunk did not change significantly when using an inclined desk. Differences in posture in the frontal plane were not observed in this study.

  8. Assessment of learning preferences among dental students using Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic questionnaire: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runki Saran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Every individual has different learning style. As dental educators, it is necessary to recognize the fact that each dental student may have a preference of acquiring information and skill in one style over another. The objective of this study was to determine the learning style preferences of dental students using the Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to 20 1 st year and 40 2 nd year dental students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University to determine their preferred mode of learning. Completed questionnaires were scored and tabulated to determine the distribution of VARK preferences. Results: Nearly 50% of 1 st year students were quadmodal whereas 55% of 2 nd year students were unimodal in which kinesthetic preference was dominant. Mean V and A scores were significantly higher for 1 st year than 2 nd year students. No significant gender difference was seen. Conclusion: The dental students in this study had varied learning preferences. As dental educators, we need to adopt different methods of teaching in order to reach most of the students and make the educational experience more productive.

  9. 浅议高职高专英语教学中的阅读与写作%On the Reading and Writing in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to enable educators to deliberate and innovate their teaching method by integrating and laying equal stress on the cultivation of both skills; and thereby to build a bridge between English reading comprehension and English writing i%本文倡导在高职高专英语教学过程中应将英语阅读与写作技能的培养结合起来,读写并重。

  10. Writing Lessons with Gavin Curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a literature-inspired model of teaching writing and two scenarios of reading and writing connections in the classroom. Presents several reading and writing lessons drawn from the children's book "The Bat Boy and His Violin" by Gavin Curtis. Discusses Curtis' craft and demonstrates how to use this book to teach writing. Includes brief…

  11. The Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment: Results from Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkner, W. M.; Bird, M. K.; Dutta-Roy, R.; Allison, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Atkinson, D. H.; Edenhofer, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Tyler, L. H.; Preston, R. A.; Gurvits, L.

    2005-05-01

    The ESA Huygens Probe entered and descended for nearly 2.5 hours through the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005. Huygens survived impact on the surface and continued its telemetry broadcast to the NASA Cassini spacecraft on two separate radio links, denoted Channels A and B, respectively, for an additional 1.2 hours. The instrumentation for the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) consisting of two Ultra-Stable Oscillators in the transmitter (TUSO) and receiver (RUSO), were implemented only in Channel A. Whereas Channel B functioned flawlessly during the entire mission, the receiver for Channel A was never able to lock onto the Huygens signal because the DWE-RUSO had not been properly programmed into the critical probe radio relay sequence. All data on Channel A, including the DWE measurements and probe telemetry, were thus lost. In spite of this setback, the Channel A signal was successfully received at many radio telescopes on Earth. The precision of these Doppler measurements, considered as an aggregate, is roughly equivalent to that which had been foreseen from the measurements on board Cassini. We present an overview of the DWE ground-based observations and the Titan wind profile derived from them.

  12. Huygens probe entry dynamic model and accelerometer data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; Ferri, Francesca; Angrilli, Francesco

    2008-04-01

    During the first phase of Huygens arrival into Titan's atmosphere the probe is subjected to gravitational and aerodynamic forces in aerodynamic hypersonic regime. Atmospheric drag exerts a strong deceleration on the capsule measured by Huygens atmospheric structure instrument (HASI) servo accelerometer. A 6 DOF (Degree of Freedom) model of the Huygens probe entry dynamics has been developed and used for data analysis. The accelerometer data are analysed and the model allows the retrieval of dynamics information of Huygens probe from 1545 km altitude down to end of the entry phase. Probe's initial conditions (velocity and position) were refined to match the measured deceleration profile resulting in a different altitude at interface epoch with respect to those of the Cassini Navigation Team. Velocity and position of probe at interface epoch are compatible with those used by Descent Trajectory Working Group (DTWG). Measurements acquired before atmosphere detection are used to estimate probe's angular rate, bound attitude and characterise the angle of attack profile which results to be lower than 4∘ during the whole entry. Probe's spin calculated (6.98 RPM) is slightly different with respect to DTWG of 7.28 RPM but considering a 2% error in the Inertia matrix these results are inside the 1-σ error band.

  13. Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T Love number and the obliquity. To derive the possible density profile, the obliquity is computed from a Cassini state model for a satellite with an internal liquid layer, each layer having an ellipsoidal shape consistent with the measured surface shape and gravity field [7]. We show that, once the observed surface flattening is taken into account, the measured obliquity can be reproduced only for internal models

  14. Watch Cassini-Huygens setting off for Saturn and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft, to which the Italian Space Agency ASI has made an important contribution, is crammed with instruments prepared by American and European scientists. It will spend four busy years in orbit around Saturn, and explore its famous rings and eighteen known moons. On its arrival at Saturn in 2004, the Cassini orbiter will release the European Space Agency's probe Huygens towards the largest moon, Titan.Also equipped by multinational scientific teams, Huygens will parachute through Titan's atmosphere to accomplish the most distant landing ever made, on the surface of another world. Television coverage of the launch for viewers in Europe On Monday 13 October the launch window for Cassini-Huygens opens at 4.55 a.m. Florida time (EDT). Starting at 4.00 a.m. Florida time (10.00 a.m. in most of western Europe and 9.00 a.m. in Great Britain and Ireland) ESA will provide a live TV transmission via satellite for European news organizations and other organizations wishing to receive it. Views of the launch will be accompanied by interviews with scientists and engineers of the Cassini-Huygens joint mission. A short news package will be transmitted near the end of transmission, and details will be announced on air. If the launch occurs promptly, ESA's TV operation will last until about 60 minutes after launch (i.e. about noon, European time). Technical details for TV reception Two satellites links are available, both carrying English on audio channel 1 and French on audio channel 2. Broadcasters and others with digital receivers will favour Intelsat K, while those with analogue receivers can use Eutelsat 2. Full information on transponders etc. is contained in an appendix to this press release. Paris press centre At ESA Headquarters in Paris, journalists will be able to view the TV transmission and to obtain news and background information about the Cassini-Huygens mission. The press centre will open at 10.00 a.m. on 13 October. If you wish to attend, please

  15. Effects of reading-writing-application and learning together techniques on 6 th grade students’ academic achievements on the subject of “Matter and Temperature”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih GÜRBÜZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ReadingWriting-Application technique, Learning Together technique and according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education on students’ academic achievements on the subject of “matter and temperature” and attainment level of students regarding the experiments. Sample of the study comprised a total of 92 6th grade students from three different classes of a primary school. As data collection tools; Academic Achievement Test (AAT and Experimental Achievement Test (EAT were used. The study was conducted in three different groups, each representing a different learning method. These groups were; the Reading-Writing-Application Group (RWAG, Learning Together Group (LTG and the Control Teaching Group (CTG. For data analyzes; descriptive statistics, one-way analyzes of variance (ANOVA, paired group t-test and effect sizes were used. Conclusively, it was determined that effects of Reading-Writing-Application technique and Learning Together technique on students’ academic achievements and attainment level of students regarding the experiments were much higher compared to according to teaching techniques suggested by course books developed based on Science and Technology teaching program and approved by Ministry of Education. It was further determined that the amount of increase in the achievement level created by cooperative groups (RWAG and LTG were much higher in comparison to increase in attainment level of students regarding the experiments.

  16. Self-reported reading and writing skills in elderly who never attended school influence cognitive performances: results from the Coyoacán cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, H; Avila-Funes, J A; Le Goff, L; Ruiz-Arregui, L; Gutierrez Robledo, L M; Amieva, H

    2012-07-01

    Beyond the well-known effect of educational level on cognitive performances, the present study investigates the specific effect of literacy acquisition independently of education. A sample of 175 unschooled elderly participants was selected from a larger Mexican population-based cohort study. The sample of 175 subjects who never went to school was divided in two groups: 109 who never acquired literacy skills and 66 who declared having acquired reading and writing abilities. Cognitive performances on commonly used tests (mini mental state examination, Isaacs set test, free and cued selective reminding test and clock-drawing test) were compared between the two groups taking into account several potentially confounding factors. The participants with reading and writing skills performed better than their counterparts in most tests, even though no difference was observed for the Isaacs Set Test and the delayed recall of the free and cued selective reminding test. Writing and reading skills in elderly people with no formal education influence performances in very commonly used test. Not only educational level but also literacy acquisition should be taken into account when conducting cognitive assessment in very low educated elderly people.

  17. Writing Quality Predicts Chinese Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin

    2015-01-01

    To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…

  18. 讲读课中渗入作文教学的思考与实践%The Reflection and Practice of Penetrating Writing Teaching in Explanation and Reading Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽静

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of writing teaching in Chinese explanation and reading course is an effective way to improve students' writing competence. The penetration of writing teaching in Chinese explanation and reading course can be accomplished from following aspects: taking text as the orientation to accumulate writing materials; taking text as the guidance to grasp writing skills and taking text as the model to realize the gain and loss of writing.%语文讲读课中渗入作文教学,是提高学生写作水平的一种有效途径。语文讲读课中渗入作文教学可从以下三方面入手:以本为本,积累写作素材;以本为导,掌握写作技巧;以本为范,领悟作文得失。

  19. Teaching Huygens in the Rue Huygens: Introducing the History of 17th-Century Mathematics in a Junior Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Maryvonne

    1992-01-01

    Recounts teaching mathematics to junior high school students in France in the context of seventeenth-century mathematics history. Examines extracts of original works by Leibniz on the origin of calculus and of Huygens on continued fractions. Investigates historical puzzles and a variety of mathematical problems arising out of the texts. (MDH)

  20. 通过读写结合提高语文综合能力策略研究%On Improvement of Comprehensive Ability of Chinese Reading and Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖慧

    2012-01-01

      提高学生读写能力是语文教学的根本目标,读和写是相辅相成的。要实现语文教学目标,应该采取正确的方法,让学生科学地进行读写训练,一方面要以阅读引领写作;另一方面要以写作促提阅读;读和写只有交替反复练习才能使同学们的语文能力获得真正提高。%  Improving students' reading and writing ability is the basic goal of language teaching. Reading and writing complement each other. In order to attain the language teaching goal, the teacher should adopt the right method, guiding students to do some reading and writing training scientifically. That is, on one hand, reading directs writing;on the other hand, writing promotes reading. Only by practicing reading and writing alternatively can students make Chinese ability improved.

  1. Mutual Promotion of Reading and Writing Makes Composition Vivid%读写互促,让习作妙笔生花

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗溶珊

    2014-01-01

    加强读写训练是小学阅读教学的重要任务。教师要细读文本,捕捉读写训练点,利用文本中的“例子”,引领学生模仿课文中的句式、段落、篇章进行写话训练。在习作中掌握比喻、拟人等修辞手法,学会动作、语言等细节描写。更深层次理解文章中心,将课内理解延伸至课外,展开想象的翅膀,学会续写、扩写、改写。有效地将读与写有机结合,相互促进。%Reading and writing combination education is an important task in primary school. The teacher should carefully read up the literature, seize the key points for student training, and guide the children to write by imitating the sentence patterns, paragraph and chapter in the text. During the process, the pupils should be taught to use rhetorical devices like metaphor, personification, and learn to describe acts and words in detail, firstly. Then the students are ought to be led to understand the central idea of the article at a deeper level, extend the study in class to extracurricular application with association, and master continuous, expanded, and revisionary writing to naturally combine writing and reading and mutually promote the both.

  2. Visual event-related potential studies supporting the validity of VARK learning styles' visual and read/write learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd

    2016-06-01

    The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P < 0.05) in V learners and at the occipital 1 and 2 sites (P < 0.05) in R learners. The between-groups comparison showed that P200 amplitudes elicited by pictures in V learners were larger than those of R learners at the parietal 4 site (P < 0.05). The ITM test result showed that a picture set showed distinctively more correct responses than that of a word set for both V learners (P < 0.001) and R learners (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the result indicated that the P200 amplitude at the parietal 4 site could be used to objectively distinguish V learners from R learners. A lateralization existed to the right brain (occipital 2 site) in V learners. The ITM test demonstrated the existence of picture superiority effects in both learners. The results revealed the first objective electrophysiological evidence partially supporting the validity of the subjective psychological VARK questionnaire study. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Professional Collaborative Writing--Teaching, Writing, and Learning--Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan; Zuidema, Leah

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the importance of teaching students about collaborative writing. When teachers are effective in helping students to learn processes for collaborative writing, everyone involved needs to speak, listen, write, and read about how to write well and what makes writing good. Students are forced to "go meta"…

  4. WHAT IS READING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Reading is enjoying,entertaining and ent ightening Reading is listening,speaking and writingReading is talking and discussing,with yourself with the author and with the others Reading is exploring,investigating and guessing. Reading is traveling backward and forward,historically and geographically. Reading is thinking in your own language,and/or in the other language. Reading is encoding and decoding. Reading is civilizing,rationalizing and intellectualizing. Reading is assimilating,associating,accumula...

  5. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R; Nagy, William

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 ( N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing the alphabet from memory in manuscript or by keyboard and fast copying of a sentence with all the letters of the alphabet. Multiple regressions based on a principal component for composites of multiple levels of language (subword, word, and syntax/text) showed that measures of attention and executive function involving language processing rather than ratings of attention and executive function not specifically related to language accounted for more variance and identified more unique predictors in the composite outcomes for oral language, reading, and writing systems. Inhibition related to focused attention uniquely predicted outcomes for the oral language system. Findings are discussed in reference to implications for assessing and teaching students who are still learning to pay attention to heard and written language and self-regulate their language learning during middle childhood and adolescence.

  6. Huygens Crater: Insights into Noachian Volcanism, Stratigraphy, and Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiss, S. E.; Wray, J. J.; Seelos, K. D.; Niles, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Huygens crater is a well preserved peak ring structure on Mars centered at 13.5 deg S, 55.5 deg E in the Noachian highlands between Terras Tyrrhena and Sabaea near the NW rim of Hellas basin. With a diameter of approximately 470 km, it uplifted and exhumed pre-Noachian crustal materials from depths greater than 25 km, penetrating below the thick, ubiquitous layer of Hellas ejecta. In addition, Huygens served as a basin for subsequent aqueous activity, including erosion/deposition by fluvial valley networks and subsurface alteration that is now exposed by smaller impacts. Younger mafic-bearing plains that partially cover the basin floor and surrounding intercrater areas were likely emplaced by later volcanism.

  7. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  8. "I Write It in a Way that People Can Read It": How Teachers and Adolescent L2 Writers Describe Content Area Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent writers in second language settings often spend the majority of their school days in content area courses, such as math, science, and social studies, where they must negotiate challenging literacy tasks in their second languages with little explicit writing instruction. While genre scholars have built an extensive body of knowledge…

  9. Reading comprehension and writing production among undergraduates / Relação entre a compreensão da leitura e a produção escrita em universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide de Brito Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some researches have demonstrated that a lot of undergraduates do not have the desirable competence in reading and writing skills. The aim of this study is to verify, among undergraduates, the relations between reading comprehension and writing production. The participants were 134 freshmen studying in the humanities, exact and natural sciences. A traditional Cloze text was used and some texts written by the students were analyzed in order to evaluate the correction in the use of orthography, verb and subject agreement, according to the Portuguese Language standard. The results showed that the poorer the reading comprehension the bigger the number of mistakes in grammatical rules, therefore confirming the relation between reading comprehension and writing. The Cloze technique was useful to detect at what level the readers are, bringing elements for either eventual intervention programs or pedagogical practices of faculty members that want to help their students to develop linguistic skills.

  10. Generalized Huygens principle with pulsed-beam wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thorkild [Seknion Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Kaiser, Gerald [Signals and Waves, Austin, TX (United States)], E-mail: thorkild.hansen@att.net, E-mail: kaiser@wavelets.com

    2009-11-27

    Huygens' geometric construction explaining wave motion has a well-known problem with unphysical back-propagation due to the spherical nature of the secondary wavelets. We solve this by analytically continuing the surface of integration. If the surface is a sphere S{sub R} of radius R, this is done by complexifying R to {alpha} = R + ia. The resulting complex sphere S{sub {alpha}} is shown to be equivalent to the real tangent disk bundle with base S{sub R} consisting of all disks with radius a tangent to S{sub R}. Huygens' secondary source points are thus replaced by disks, and his secondary wavelets by well-focused pulsed beams propagating outward. This solves the back-propagation problem. The generalized Huygens principle is a completeness relation for these pulsed-beam wavelets enabling a pulsed-beam representation of all radiation fields. Furthermore, this yields a natural and extremely efficient way to compute radiation fields numerically because all pulsed beams missing a given observer can be ignored with minimal error. Increasing the disk radius a sharpens the focus of the pulsed beams, which in turn raises the compression ratio of the representation.

  11. Let Them Have Their Cell Phone (And Let Them Read to It Too): Technology, Writing Instruction and Textual Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Jed

    2012-01-01

    Cell phone ubiquity enables students to record and share audio file versions of their essays for proofreading purposes. Adopting this practice in community college developmental writing classes leads to an investigation of both writing as a technology and the influence of modern technology on composition and composition pedagogy.

  12. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies.

  13. READING, WRITING, REALITY, UNREALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEMOTT, BENJAMIN

    THOUGH MANY ENGLISH TEACHERS SPEAK OF THE RELEVANCE OF LITERATURE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTER, IMAGINATION, AND RESPONSIVENESS TO LIFE, THEY TEACH AS IF THE GOAL OF ENGLISH STUDY IS TO KNOW LISTS OF AUTHORS, DATES, HOW TO SPELL, ETC., AND AS IF STUDENTS BENEFIT FROM LECTURES ON ARCANE LITERARY HIERARCHIES OR ANALYSES OF STRUCTURAL DESIGNS…

  14. A Study of Teacher Talk in Reading and Writing Class of College English%大学英语读写课堂教师话语研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩成友

    2015-01-01

    College English reading and writing class is the important place where teachers use a variety of activities to give learners language input. Guided by the relevant theories of second language acquisition, a tentative empirical study of the characteristics and interaction of teacher talk in college English reading and writing class is studied in this paper to better know the teaching process of college English reading and writing class. The relationship between teacher talk and the effects of learners’ language acquisition is discussed, and some comments on how to improve the quality of teacher talk is given. This study shows that teachers in college English reading and writing class should offer learners more opportunities to express themselves and communicate with others by using target language so as to consciously lead them to the participation in various language output activities, and ultimately to the goal of second language acquisition.%大学英语读写课堂是教师利用课堂各种活动对学习者进行语言输入的重要场所。为更好地研究这一课堂过程,在二语习得相关理论的指导下对大学英语读写课堂教师话语特征及课堂互动进行实证研究,探讨了教师课堂话语与学习者语言学习效果之间的关系,以及如何提高教师课堂话语质量。研究表明,教师在课堂中应给予学习者更多的使用目标语进行表达和互动交流的机会,有意识地引导他们参加各种语言输出活动,达到二语习得的最终目的。

  15. 嵌入式系统的Flash ROM读写方法研究%Research on the Read-write of Flash ROM in Embedded System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文蛟

    2012-01-01

    This article proposed and confirmed a kind of method that read and write Flashrom of Lpc2136 in embedded system. It can be used to save important parameters. The transition procedure of the global variables between Ram and Flash is discussed in detail.%为提高微控制器的应用性能,以菲利普LPC2100系列微控制器为例,提出一种在嵌入式系统中读写LPC2136的Flash ROM方法,详细讨论全局变量在RAM和Flash之间的传送过程。

  16. Nonvolatile write-once-read-many times memory devices based on the composites of poly(4-vinylphenol)/Vulcan XC-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunghoon; Kim, Tae-Wook; Cho, Byungjin; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Takhee

    2011-05-01

    We fabricated write-once-read-many times (WORM) type organic memory devices in 8 x 8 cross-bar structure. The active material for organic based WORM memory devices is mixture of both poly(4-vinyphenol) (PVP) and Vulcan XC-72s. From the electrical characteristics of the WORM memory devices, we observed two different resistance states, low resistance state and high resistance state, with six orders of ON/OFF ratio (I(ON)/I(OFF) - 10(6)). In addition, the WORM memory devices were maintained for longer than 50000 seconds without any serious degradation.

  17. Write/erase stress relaxation effect on data-retention and read-disturb errors in triple-level cell NAND flash memory with round-robin wear-leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Ken

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the influence of the interval of time (t S-P) between write/erase endurance stress and programming the final data for the data-retention and read-disturb error evaluations in 1X nm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash memories. During the interval of time after the write/erase endurance stresses, electrons are de-trapped from the tunnel dielectric. Eventually, the data-retention error decreases in read-“cold” data which is infrequently read. By introducing long t S-P, e.g., 3 h, with round-robin wear-leveling, the bit error rate (BER) of the read-cold data can be decreased by 47%. Moreover, in read-“hot” data which is frequently read, the BER decreases because V TH-down errors are decreased by introducing long t S-P in over 600 read cycles, while the BER does not decrease in case of the smaller read cycles (read operations. This work introduces the mechanism of the V TH-down error in read-“hot” data. The measured BER of the read-hot data decreases by 74% by introducing optimal t S-P with round-robin wear-leveling.

  18. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t

  19. 基于阅读和写作过程的高中英语写作教学——2012年浙江省高考英语书面表达的启示%High School English Writing Based on Reading and Writing Process ---Enlightenment from 2012 Zhejiang NMET Writing Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙惠清

    2012-01-01

    The creativeness and breakthrough of 2012 Zhejiang NMET writing highlights the importance of developing students' abilities in analyzing problems and logic thinking. Hence, it is important that high school English teachers realize the change in 2012 Zhejiang NMET writing and put it into teaching practice in the following ways. Firstly, importance should be attached to students' writing ability while reading is progressed. Secondly, students' writing process and writing habits need more attention from the teachers. Thirdly, appropriate feedback should be adopted to stimulate the students to greater enthusiasm in English writing. Finally, no less attention should be paid to students' culture and humanity cultivation, which is of great help to writing. In a word, the approaches above can and will promote students' English writing ability.%2012年浙江省高考英语书面表达命题的突破和创新凸显了培养学生审题能力和思维能力的重要性。书面表达的命题意向和精神是高中英语写作教学实践的重要指导依据。笔者提出应重视在阅读教学中对学生写作能力的培养,重视对学生写作过程的指导和写作习惯的培养,科学地采用学生写作的反馈手段以激发学生的写作热情,关注学生的人文素养培养,不断提高学生的审题能力和思维能力,最终提升高中生的英语写作能力。

  20. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-...