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Sample records for huygens interdisciplinary scientist

  1. Amazing Muses of Science: An Interdisciplinary Project Creates Awareness of Female Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary project that created awareness of female scientists in a public Montessori classroom. Every spring, the author's sixth-grade students write an educational play in which the entire class participates. Following an underwhelming response to asking students who are their favorite female scientists, the…

  2. Literature search strategies for interdisciplinary research a sourcebook for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerson, Linda G

    2006-01-01

    The amount of published literature can be overwhelming for scientists and researchers moving from a broad disciplinary research area to a more specialized one, particularly in fields that use information from more than one discipline. Without a focused inquiry, the researcher may find too little information or may be overcome by too much. Striking the correct balance of information is the focus of Literature Search Strategies for Interdisciplinary Research. This useful reference tool studies diverse interdisciplinary areas revealing the general and individual qualities that dictate the strateg

  3. Becoming an Interdisciplinary Scientist: An Analysis of Students' Experiences in Three Computer Science Doctoral Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatrava Moreno, María del Carmen; Danowitz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify how and why doctoral students do interdisciplinary research. A mixed-methods approach utilising bibliometric analysis of the publications of 195 students identified those who had published interdisciplinary research. This objective measurement of the interdisciplinarity, applying the Rao-Stirling index to Web…

  4. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstein, David [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  5. Titan from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert H; Waite, J. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn's largest moon Titan featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses Titan’s origin and evolution, internal structure, surface geology, the atmosphere and ionosphere as well as magnetospheric interactions. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  6. Europe reaches new frontier - Huygens lands on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    is a fascinating world and we are now eagerly awaiting the scientific results,” says Professor David Southwood, Director of ESA’s scientific programmme. “The Huygens scientists are all delighted. This was worth the long wait,” says Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Mission Manager. Huygens is expected to provide the first direct and detailed sampling of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry and the first photographs of its hidden surface, and will supply a detailed ‘weather report’. One of the main reasons for sending Huygens to Titan is that its nitrogen atmosphere, rich in methane, and its surface may contain many chemicals of the kind that existed on the young Earth. Combined with the Cassini observations, Huygens will afford an unprecedented view of Saturn’s mysterious moon. “Descending through Titan was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and today’s achievement proves that our partnership with ESA was an excellent one,” says Alphonso Diaz, NASA Associate Administrator of Science. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperation between NASA, the European Space Agency and ASI, the Italian space agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, is managing the mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. “The teamwork in Europe and the USA, between scientists, industry and agencies has been extraordinary and has set the foundations for today’s enormous success,” concludes Jean-Jacques Dordain.

  7. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2007-01-01

    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  8. Saturn from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Michele K; Krimigis, Stamatios M

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews our current knowledge of Saturn featuring the latest results obtained by the Cassini-Huygens mission. A global author team addresses the planet’s origin and evolution, internal structure, composition and chemistry, the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetosphere, as well as its ring system. Furthermore, Saturn's icy satellites are discussed. The book closes with an outlook beyond the Cassini-Huygens mission. Colorfully illustrated, this book will serve as a reference to researchers as well as an introduction for students.

  9. Watch Cassini-Huygens setting off for Saturn and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft, to which the Italian Space Agency ASI has made an important contribution, is crammed with instruments prepared by American and European scientists. It will spend four busy years in orbit around Saturn, and explore its famous rings and eighteen known moons. On its arrival at Saturn in 2004, the Cassini orbiter will release the European Space Agency's probe Huygens towards the largest moon, Titan.Also equipped by multinational scientific teams, Huygens will parachute through Titan's atmosphere to accomplish the most distant landing ever made, on the surface of another world. Television coverage of the launch for viewers in Europe On Monday 13 October the launch window for Cassini-Huygens opens at 4.55 a.m. Florida time (EDT). Starting at 4.00 a.m. Florida time (10.00 a.m. in most of western Europe and 9.00 a.m. in Great Britain and Ireland) ESA will provide a live TV transmission via satellite for European news organizations and other organizations wishing to receive it. Views of the launch will be accompanied by interviews with scientists and engineers of the Cassini-Huygens joint mission. A short news package will be transmitted near the end of transmission, and details will be announced on air. If the launch occurs promptly, ESA's TV operation will last until about 60 minutes after launch (i.e. about noon, European time). Technical details for TV reception Two satellites links are available, both carrying English on audio channel 1 and French on audio channel 2. Broadcasters and others with digital receivers will favour Intelsat K, while those with analogue receivers can use Eutelsat 2. Full information on transponders etc. is contained in an appendix to this press release. Paris press centre At ESA Headquarters in Paris, journalists will be able to view the TV transmission and to obtain news and background information about the Cassini-Huygens mission. The press centre will open at 10.00 a.m. on 13 October. If you wish to attend, please

  10. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  11. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  12. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  13. Big data en handschriften van Christiaan Huygens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In de achtste aflevering van een serie combinatiebesprekingen (digitaalandspeciaal) schenkt Jos Damen aandacht aan een onderzoek naar big data van bibliotheekcatalogi en een catalogus van het werk van het Nederlandse genie Christiaan Huygens.

  14. Huygens file service and storage architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape; Stabell-Kulo, Tage

    1993-01-01

    The Huygens file server is a high-performance file server which is able to deliver multi-media data in a timely manner while also providing clients with ordinary “Unix” like file I/O. The file server integrates client machines, file servers and tertiary storage servers in the same storage architectu

  15. Huygens file server and storage architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape; Stabell-Kulo, Tage

    1993-01-01

    The Huygens file server is a high-performance file server which is able to deliver multi-media data in a timely manner while also providing clients with ordinary “Unix” like file I/O. The file server integrates client machines, file servers and tertiary storage servers in the same storage architectu

  16. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    the morning of 25 December at about 05:08 CET. Since the Cassini orbiter will have to achieve precise pointing for the release, there will be no real-time telemetry available until it turns back its main antenna toward Earth and beams the recorded data of the release. It will take over an hour (67 min) for the signals to reach us on Earth. The final data confirming the separation will be available later on Christmas Day. After release, Huygens will move away from Cassini at a speed of about 35 cm per second and, to keep on track, will spin on its axis, making about 7 revolutions a minute. Huygens will not communicate with Cassini for the whole period until after deployment of the main parachute following entry into Titan’s atmosphere. On 28 December Cassini will then manoeuvre off collision course to resume its mission and prepare itself to receive Huygens data, which it will record for later playback to Earth. Huygens will remain dormant until a few hours before its arrival at Titan on 14 January. The entry into the atmosphere is set for 11:15 CET. Huygens is planned to complete its descent in about two hours and 15 minutes, beaming back its science data to the Cassini orbiter for replay to Earth later in the afternoon. If Huygens, which is designed as an atmospheric probe rather than a lander, survives touchdown on the surface, it could deliver up to 2 hours of bonus data before the link with Cassini is lost. Direct radio signals from Huygens will reach Earth after 67 minutes of interplanetary travel at the speed of light. An experiment has been set up by radio scientists that will use an array of radio telescopes around the Pacific to attempt to detect a faint tone from Huygens. If successful, early detection is not expected before around 11:30 CET. The European Space Agency owns and manages the Huygens probe and is in charge of operations of the probe from its control centre in Darmstadt, Germany. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California

  17. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  18. Cassini-Huygens results on Titan's surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athena Coustenis; Mathieu Hirtzig

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, has recently been consid-erably enhanced, thanks to the Cassini-Huygens mission. Since the Saturn Orbit Injection in July 2004, the probe has been harvesting new insights of the Kronian system. In par-ticular, this mission orchestrated a climax on January 14, 2005 with the descent of the Huygens probe into Titan's thick atmosphere. The orbiter and the lander have provided us with picturesque views of extraterrestrial landscapes, new in composition but reassuringly Earth-like in shape. Thus, Saturn's largest satellite displays chains of mountains, fields of dark and damp dunes, lakes and possibly geologic activity. As on Earth, landscapes on Titan are eroded and modeled by some alien hydrology: dendritic systems, hydrocarbon lakes, and methane clouds imply periods of heavy rainfalls, even though rain was never observed directly. Titan's surface also proved to be geologically active - today or in the recent past - given the small number of impact craters listed to date, as well as a few possible cryovolcanic features. We attempt hereafter a synthesis of the most significant results of the Cassini-Huygens endeavor, with emphasis on the surface.

  19. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  20. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  1. Christiaan Huygens and the Problem of the Hanging Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The seventeen-year-old Christiaan Huygens was the first to prove that a hanging chain did not take the form of the parabola, as was commonly thought in the early seventeenth century. We will examine Huygen's geometrical proof, and we will investigate the later history of the catenary.

  2. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    may arise,” said John Credland, Head of ESA’s Space Science Projects Department. “The measure of an organisation is the manner in which it recovers.” The new mission scenario will have some impact on Cassini’s propellant supply, consuming about a quarter of the Orbiter’s reserve fuel by the end of the four-year mission. It also involves several modifications to ensure maximum efficiency of the Huygens communications system. These include pre-heating the Probe to improve tuning of the transmitted signal, continuous commanding by the Orbiter to force the receiver into non-Doppler mode, and changes in the Probe’s on-board software. "I am very happy that we have found a good engineering solution,” said Kai Clausen, ESA’s Integral Project Manager and co-chairman of the HRTF. “But a lot more work still needs to be done. Now we need to complete the detailed design, implementation, validation and testing over the next few years." “There are still some uncertainties, for example the exact definition of the landing site, but these are minor problems,” said Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA’s Huygens Project Scientist. “What is important is that we have found the solution. It is now time for fine tuning.” The ESA Director of Science, David Southwood, and the NASA Associate Director for Space Science, Edward Weiler, have jointly agreed to the new mission approach and have asked the HRTF to hand over to the project teams in July for implementation of the joint recommendations. (**) The Doppler shift is a measure of the difference in tone between an emitted and a received wave (e.g. radio) when the transmitting source and the receiver move one with respect to the other. Note to editors Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA mission with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) launched by a Titan IVB/Centaur launch vehicle on 15 October 1997, that will reach Saturn in 2004. It consists of NASA's orbiter Cassini and ESA's probe Huygens. While Cassini

  3. Huygens-Fresnel Principle in Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    de Gomes, H A

    2006-01-01

    We first roughly present a summary of the optico-mechanical analogy, which has always been so profitable in physics. Then we put forward a geometrodynamical formulation of gravity suitable to our intentions, both formally and conceptually. We present difficulties in some approaches to canonically quantize gravity which can be ammended by the idea put forward in this paper, which we introduce in the last section. It consists basically in trying to find an intermediary between the quantization step going from the classical superhamiltonian constraint to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This is accomplished by inputing interference beyond the WKB approximation, through a sort of Huygens-Fresnel Principle (HFP) in superspace. It turns out that we can derive wave-like character for both domains from this principle by allowing backward angles of diffraction, and what is more, approximate to a high degree of accuracy Feynman's path integral method in any domain.

  4. The Cassini-Huygens visit to Saturn an historic mission to the ringed planet

    CERN Document Server

    Meltzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens was the most ambitious and successful space journey ever launched to the outer Solar System. This book examines all aspects of the journey: its conception and planning; the lengthy political processes needed to make it a reality; the engineering and development required to build the spacecraft; its 2.2-billion mile journey from Earth to the Ringed Planet; and the amazing discoveries from the mission. The author traces how the visions of a few brilliant scientists matured, gained popularity, and eventually became a reality. Innovative technical leaps were necessary to assemble such a multifaceted spacecraft and reliably operate it while it orbited a planet so far from our own. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft design evolved from other deep space efforts, most notably the Galileo mission to Jupiter, enabling the voluminous, paradigm-shifting scientific data collected by the spacecraft.  Some of these discoveries are absolute gems. A small satellite that scientists once thought of as a dead pi...

  5. Saturn's Exploration Beyond Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Tristan; Charnoz, Sébastien; Dougherty, Michele K; Read, Peter

    2009-01-01

    For its beautiful rings, active atmosphere and mysterious magnetic field, Saturn is a fascinating planet. It also holds some of the keys to understanding the formation of our Solar System and the evolution of giant planets in general. While the exploration by the Cassini-Huygens mission has led to great advances in our understanding of the planet and its moons, it has left us with puzzling questions: What is the bulk composition of the planet? Does it have a helium core? Is it enriched in noble gases like Jupiter? What powers and controls its gigantic storms? We have learned that we can measure an outer magnetic field that is filtered from its non-axisymmetric components, but what is Saturn's inner magnetic field? What are the rings made of and when were they formed? These questions are crucial in several ways: a detailed comparison of the compositions of Jupiter and Saturn is necessary to understand processes at work during the formation of these two planets and of the Solar System. This calls for the contin...

  6. Exploring evolutionary biology: readings from American Scientist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slatkin, M

    1995-01-01

    The articles in this collection are taken from the pages of American Scientist, an interdisciplinary magazine of science and technology published by Sigma Xi, the scientific Research Society. Contents...

  7. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  8. How to handle a Huygens' box inside an enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Franek, Ondrej;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is possible to replace printed circuit boards with a Huygens' box (HB) representation obtained from a near-field scan in simulation of far-fields from an apparatus. However, the surface equivalence theorem requires that the environment outside HB is the same in the n......It has been suggested that it is possible to replace printed circuit boards with a Huygens' box (HB) representation obtained from a near-field scan in simulation of far-fields from an apparatus. However, the surface equivalence theorem requires that the environment outside HB is the same...

  9. Built But Not Used, Needed But Not Built: Ground System Guidance Based On Cassini-Huygens Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Barbara S.

    2006-01-01

    These reflections share insight gleaned from Cassini-Huygens experience in supporting uplink operations tasks with software. Of particular interest are developed applications that were not widely adopted and tasks for which the appropriate application was not planned. After several years of operations, tasks are better understood providing a clearer picture of the mapping of requirements to applications. The impact on system design of the changing user profile due to distributed operations and greater participation of scientists in operations is also explored. Suggestions are made for improving the architecture, requirements, and design of future systems for uplink operations.

  10. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ IntroductionInterdisciplinary rehabilitation, or care by a team of rehabilitation professionals, has been a core strategy of rehabilitation medicine since its beginning. As a result, quality assessments of these programs universally include evaluating the effectiveness of their interdisciplinary teams. Rehabilitation programs for individuals with physical and cognitive disabilities originally were institutionally based, an environment that facilitated the communication needed for interdisciplinary care. These programs addressed a full spectrum of problems, including health, physical functioning, psychological adjustment, social integration, and vocational or other significant role participation. The implementation of truly interdisciplinary programs has always been difficult because of this complexity, but recent restrictions in the resources available to provide rehabilitation have increased this difficulty. With less professional time available because of limited funds, the interdisciplinary process is being challenged to show its value, and to be as efficient as possible.This paper discusses the benefits to be gained through the interdisciplinary process, factors that reduce its cost effectiveness and strategies to maintain its advantages at the least possible cost.

  11. Titan en Christiaan. Huygens in werk en leven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2000-01-01

    In three respects Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) poses a biographical problem. Unlike contemporaries he hardly ever reflected upon what he thought he was doing; his versatility makes it hard to gain a balanced view of what he was doing; his personality seems almost absent from his writings. In the

  12. The Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment: Results from Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkner, W. M.; Bird, M. K.; Dutta-Roy, R.; Allison, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Atkinson, D. H.; Edenhofer, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Tyler, L. H.; Preston, R. A.; Gurvits, L.

    2005-05-01

    The ESA Huygens Probe entered and descended for nearly 2.5 hours through the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005. Huygens survived impact on the surface and continued its telemetry broadcast to the NASA Cassini spacecraft on two separate radio links, denoted Channels A and B, respectively, for an additional 1.2 hours. The instrumentation for the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment (DWE) consisting of two Ultra-Stable Oscillators in the transmitter (TUSO) and receiver (RUSO), were implemented only in Channel A. Whereas Channel B functioned flawlessly during the entire mission, the receiver for Channel A was never able to lock onto the Huygens signal because the DWE-RUSO had not been properly programmed into the critical probe radio relay sequence. All data on Channel A, including the DWE measurements and probe telemetry, were thus lost. In spite of this setback, the Channel A signal was successfully received at many radio telescopes on Earth. The precision of these Doppler measurements, considered as an aggregate, is roughly equivalent to that which had been foreseen from the measurements on board Cassini. We present an overview of the DWE ground-based observations and the Titan wind profile derived from them.

  13. Huygens probe entry dynamic model and accelerometer data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; Ferri, Francesca; Angrilli, Francesco

    2008-04-01

    During the first phase of Huygens arrival into Titan's atmosphere the probe is subjected to gravitational and aerodynamic forces in aerodynamic hypersonic regime. Atmospheric drag exerts a strong deceleration on the capsule measured by Huygens atmospheric structure instrument (HASI) servo accelerometer. A 6 DOF (Degree of Freedom) model of the Huygens probe entry dynamics has been developed and used for data analysis. The accelerometer data are analysed and the model allows the retrieval of dynamics information of Huygens probe from 1545 km altitude down to end of the entry phase. Probe's initial conditions (velocity and position) were refined to match the measured deceleration profile resulting in a different altitude at interface epoch with respect to those of the Cassini Navigation Team. Velocity and position of probe at interface epoch are compatible with those used by Descent Trajectory Working Group (DTWG). Measurements acquired before atmosphere detection are used to estimate probe's angular rate, bound attitude and characterise the angle of attack profile which results to be lower than 4∘ during the whole entry. Probe's spin calculated (6.98 RPM) is slightly different with respect to DTWG of 7.28 RPM but considering a 2% error in the Inertia matrix these results are inside the 1-σ error band.

  14. Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T Love number and the obliquity. To derive the possible density profile, the obliquity is computed from a Cassini state model for a satellite with an internal liquid layer, each layer having an ellipsoidal shape consistent with the measured surface shape and gravity field [7]. We show that, once the observed surface flattening is taken into account, the measured obliquity can be reproduced only for internal models

  15. Medical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Projected Employment, 2024 Change, 2014-24 Employment by Industry Percent Numeric SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Medical scientists, except epidemiologists 19- ...

  16. Teaching Huygens in the Rue Huygens: Introducing the History of 17th-Century Mathematics in a Junior Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Maryvonne

    1992-01-01

    Recounts teaching mathematics to junior high school students in France in the context of seventeenth-century mathematics history. Examines extracts of original works by Leibniz on the origin of calculus and of Huygens on continued fractions. Investigates historical puzzles and a variety of mathematical problems arising out of the texts. (MDH)

  17. Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR): A Logic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V; Khetani, Mary A; Yinusa-Nyahkoon, Leanne; McManus, Beth; Gardiner, Paula M; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

    2017-07-01

    In a patient-centered care era, rehabilitation can benefit from researcher-clinician collaboration to effectively and efficiently produce the interdisciplinary science that is needed to improve patient-centered outcomes. The authors propose the use of the Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR) logic model to provide guidance to rehabilitation scientists and clinicians who are committed to growing their involvement in interdisciplinary rehabilitation research. We describe the importance and key characteristics of the FAIRR model for conducting interdisciplinary rehabilitation research.

  18. Huygens Crater: Insights into Noachian Volcanism, Stratigraphy, and Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiss, S. E.; Wray, J. J.; Seelos, K. D.; Niles, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Huygens crater is a well preserved peak ring structure on Mars centered at 13.5 deg S, 55.5 deg E in the Noachian highlands between Terras Tyrrhena and Sabaea near the NW rim of Hellas basin. With a diameter of approximately 470 km, it uplifted and exhumed pre-Noachian crustal materials from depths greater than 25 km, penetrating below the thick, ubiquitous layer of Hellas ejecta. In addition, Huygens served as a basin for subsequent aqueous activity, including erosion/deposition by fluvial valley networks and subsurface alteration that is now exposed by smaller impacts. Younger mafic-bearing plains that partially cover the basin floor and surrounding intercrater areas were likely emplaced by later volcanism.

  19. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    as the analytical framework for descri bing the complex relationship between academic science and its so called “external” habitat. Although relational skills and adaptability do seem to be at the heart of successful research management, the key to success does not lie with the ability to assimilate to industrial...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...... and industrial intere sts. The paper concludes by stressing the potential danger of policy habitats who have promoted the evolution of robust scientists based on a competitive system where only the fittest survive. Robust scientists, it is argued, have the potential to become a new “invasive species...

  20. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  1. Generalized Huygens principle with pulsed-beam wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thorkild [Seknion Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Kaiser, Gerald [Signals and Waves, Austin, TX (United States)], E-mail: thorkild.hansen@att.net, E-mail: kaiser@wavelets.com

    2009-11-27

    Huygens' geometric construction explaining wave motion has a well-known problem with unphysical back-propagation due to the spherical nature of the secondary wavelets. We solve this by analytically continuing the surface of integration. If the surface is a sphere S{sub R} of radius R, this is done by complexifying R to {alpha} = R + ia. The resulting complex sphere S{sub {alpha}} is shown to be equivalent to the real tangent disk bundle with base S{sub R} consisting of all disks with radius a tangent to S{sub R}. Huygens' secondary source points are thus replaced by disks, and his secondary wavelets by well-focused pulsed beams propagating outward. This solves the back-propagation problem. The generalized Huygens principle is a completeness relation for these pulsed-beam wavelets enabling a pulsed-beam representation of all radiation fields. Furthermore, this yields a natural and extremely efficient way to compute radiation fields numerically because all pulsed beams missing a given observer can be ignored with minimal error. Increasing the disk radius a sharpens the focus of the pulsed beams, which in turn raises the compression ratio of the representation.

  2. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t

  3. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    The concepts of “socially robust knowledge” and “mode 2 knowledge production” (Nowotny 2003, Gibbons et al. 1994) have migrated from STS into research policy practices. Both STS-scholars and policy makers have been known to propomote the idea that the way forward for today’s scientist is to jump...... from the ivory tower and learn how to create high-flying synergies with citizens, corporations and governments. In STS as well as in Danish research policy it has thus been argued that scientists will gain more support and enjoy greater success in their work by “externalizing” their research...... and adapting their interests to the needs of outside actors. However, when studying the concrete strategies of such successful scientists, matters seem a bit more complicated. Based on interviews with a plant biologist working in GMO the paper uses the biological concepts of field participants...

  4. Ranking scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Dorogovtsev, S N

    2015-01-01

    Currently the ranking of scientists is based on the $h$-index, which is widely perceived as an imprecise and simplistic though still useful metric. We find that the $h$-index actually favours modestly performing researchers and propose a simple criterion for proper ranking.

  5. Playing Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  6. Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) designed and built by Hasso Niemann has revolutionized our understanding of the Saturn system and demonstrated the importance of mass spectrometry as a tool for understanding formation, evolution, and chemical processes. In this talk that honors the accomplishments of Hasso I will discuss: 1) the major discoveries of INMS at Titan, Enceladus, and the other icy moons of Saturn, 2) the new perspective this has given us on understanding the formation and evolution of the outer solar system, and 3) the implications for future studies in the outer solar system using mass spectrometry.

  7. Lenses and Waves - Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of nature knowledge.

  8. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  9. Exact Finite-Difference Time-Domain Modelling of Broadband Huygens' Metasurfaces with Lorentz Dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Smy, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    An explicit time-domain finite-difference technique for modelling zero-thickness Huygens' metasurfaces based on Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTCs), is proposed and demonstrated using full-wave simulations. The Huygens' metasurface is modelled using electric and magnetic surface susceptibilities, which are found to follow a double-Lorentz dispersion profile. To solve zero-thickness Huygens' metasurface problems for general broadband excitations, the double-Lorentz dispersion profile is combined with GSTCs, leading to a set of first-order differential fields equations in time-domain. Identifying the exact equivalence between Huygens' metasurfaces and coupled RLC oscillator circuits, the field equations are then subsequently solved using standard circuit modelling techniques based on a finite-difference formulation. Several examples including generalized refraction are shown to illustrate the temporal evolution of scattered fields from the Huygens' metasurface under plane-wave normal incidence, in b...

  10. The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI): Expected Results at Titan and Performance Verification in Terrestrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Colombatti, G.; Stoppato, P. F. Lion; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A. M.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Hamelin, M.; Flamini, E.; Bianchini, G.; Angrilli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Huygens ASI is a multi-sensor package resulting from an international cooperation, it has been designed to measure the physical quantities characterizing Titan's atmosphere during the Huygens probe mission. On 14th January, 2005, HASI will measure acceleration, pressure, temperature and electrical properties all along the Huygens probe descent on Titan in order to study Titan s atmospheric structure, dynamics and electric properties. Monitoring axial and normal accelerations and providing direct pressure and temperature measurements during the descent, HASI will mainly contribute to the Huygens probe entry and trajectory reconstruction. In order to simulate the Huygens probe descent and verify HASI sensors performance in terrestrial environment, stratospheric balloon flight experiment campaigns have been performed, in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The results of flight experiments have allowed to determine the atmospheric vertical profiles and to obtain a set of data for the analysis of probe trajectory and attitude reconstruction.

  11. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  12. Discontinuous Electromagnetic Fields Using Huygens Sources For Wavefront Manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Selvanayagam, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the idea of discontinuous electric and magnetic fields at a boundary to design and shape wavefronts in an arbitrary manner. To create this discontinuity in the field we use electric and magnetic currents which act like a Huygens source to radiate the desired wavefront. These currents can be synthesized either by an array of electric and magnetic dipoles or by a combined impedance and admittance surface. A dipole array is an active implementation to impose discontinuous fields while the impedance/admittance surface acts as a passive one. We then expand on our previous work showing how electric and magnetic dipole arrays can be used to cloak an object demonstrating two novel cloaking schemes. We also show how to arbitrarily refract a beam using a set of impedance and admittance surfaces. Refraction using the idea of discontinuous fields is shown to be a more general case of refraction using phase discontinuities.

  13. Wind shear and turbulence on Titan: Huygens analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2017-10-01

    Wind shear measured by Doppler tracking of the Huygens probe is evaluated, and found to be within the range anticipated by pre-flight assessments (namely less than two times the Brunt-Väisälä frequency). The strongest large-scale shear encountered was ∼5 m/s/km, a level associated with 'Light' turbulence in terrestrial aviation. Near-surface winds (below 4 km) have small-scale fluctuations of ∼0.1 m/s on 1 s timescales, indicated both by probe tilt and Doppler tracking, and the characteristics of the fluctuation, of interest for future missions to Titan, can be reproduced with a simple autoregressive (AR(1)) model. The turbulent dissipation rate at an altitude of ∼500 m is found to be ∼0.2 cm2/s3, which may be a useful benchmark for atmospheric circulation models.

  14. Strong terahertz absorption in all-dielectric Huygens' metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael A; Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V

    2016-09-19

    We propose an all dielectric metamaterial that acts as a perfect terahertz absorber without a ground plane. The unit cell consists of a dielectric cylinder embedded in a low index material. In order to achieve near-perfect terahertz absorption (99.5%) we employ impedance matching of the electric and magnetic resonances within the cylinders of the Huygens' metasurface. The impedance matching is controlled by changing the aspect ratio between the height and diameter of the cylinder. We show that the absorption resonance can be tuned to particular frequencies from 0.3 to 1.9 THz via changing the geometry of the structure while keeping a nearly constant aspect ratio of the cylinders.

  15. 4th international interdisciplinary chaos symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Santo; Caglar, Suleyman; Ozer, Mehmet; Chaos and complex systems

    2013-01-01

    Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications.  The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysic...

  16. Chiral Huygens metasurfaces for nonlinear structuring of linearly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Lesina, A Calà; Ramunno, L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a chiral nanostructure, which we term a "butterfly nanoantenna," that, when used in a metasurface, allows the direct conversion of a linearly polarized beam into a nonlinear optical far-field of arbitrary complexity. The butterfly nanoantenna exhibits field enhancement in its gap for every incident linear polarization, which can be exploited to drive nonlinear optical emitters within the gap, for the structuring of light within a frequency range not accessible by linear plasmonics. As the polarization, phase and amplitude of the field in the gap are highly controlled, nonlinear emitters within the gap behave as an idealized Huygens source. A general framework is thereby proposed wherein the butterfly nanoantennas can be arranged on a surface to produce a highly structured far-field nonlinear optical beam with high purity. A third harmonic Laguerre-Gauss beam carrying an optical orbital angular momentum of 41 is demonstrated as an example, through large-scale simulations on a high-performance comp...

  17. ICES ON TITAN: LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS THAT COMPLEMENT THE HUYGENS PROBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. ROBINSON; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The composition of the cold bodies in the outer solar system may hold some of the key molecular clues concerning the composition of the prestellax molecular cloud that gave rise to the solar system. We studied the physical chemistry and heterogeneous (gas/surface) reactivity of extraterrestrial ice analogs of the surfaces of Saturn's moon Titan. This program coupled our surface spectroscopic techniques with physical adsorption measurements. We addressed several of the pressing questions regarding Titan such as: Is storage of hydrocarbons in Titan's water ice crust feasible? Do heterogeneous processes influence the atmospheric chemical composition of Titan? Are phase transitions to be expected? These data can be incorporated into photochemical models with the goal of improved modeling of the chemical composition and meteorology of Titan's atmosphere. Titan will be probed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Our results on Titan ice analogs can be used to help interpret the mission data.

  18. Huygens landing site to be named after Hubert Curien

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The naming ceremony for the Huygens landing site, which will be known as the "Hubert Curien Memorial Station", will be held at ESA’s Headquarters on 14 March, in the presence of ESA Council delegates and of Professor Curien’s wife, Mrs Perrine Curien, and one of their sons. Media interested in attending are invited to submit the reply form below. Huygens' landing on Saturn’s largest moon in January 2005 represented one of the greatest successes achieved by humankind in the history of space exploration. The part played by ESA, in cooperation with NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), was made possible thanks to the commitment of a man who, for several decades, worked to promote and strengthen the role of scientific research in his home country - France - and in Europe. Among his numerous responsibilities, Hubert Curien was French Minister of Research and Space under four Prime Ministers. As Chairman of the ESA Council from 1981 to 1984, Professor Curien played a crucial part in setting up ESA's former long-term science programme, "Horizon 2000", which included the Huygens mission among its projects. Professor Roger Bonnet, current President of COSPAR, and former ESA Director of Science (1983-2001), commented: "Curien’s diplomatic skills were hugely influential in bringing about the birth of European space science. In 1985, his support was pivotal when the European ministers had to decide how to build a solid space science programme and ensure that it would be financially sustainable in the long term." "ESA's present science programme, Cosmic Vision, draws on the heritage left by Hubert Curien", said Professor David Southwood, ESA's current Director of Science. "He encouraged cooperation between nations in the belief that space research is fundamental to the progress and welfare of a knowledge-based society like ours. He also promoted the concept of long-term planning", he continued. "It would seem almost inconceivable today to initiate any space venture

  19. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas

    2004-01-01

    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  20. Grounding clinical and cognitive scientists in an interdisciplinary discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In most clinical approaches the body receives little attention. In cognitive science, in contrast, the embodied and grounded perspective, which emphasizes the importance of the body, has been intensively explored over the last decade. The present article aims to engage theorists of embodied cognition and clinical experts in a discussion encouraging them to consider the insights that may arise from each other’s approaches. In a review of the cognitive and clinical literature substantial overlap is revealed between cognitive and clinical domains. PMID:24062713

  1. Efficient polarization insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens' metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength-thin metasurfaces have shown great promises for the control of optical wavefronts, thus opening new pathways for the development of efficient flat optics. In particular, Huygens' metasurfaces based on all-dielectric resonant meta-atoms have already shown a huge potential for practical applications with their polarization insensitivity and high transmittance efficiency. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a polarization insensitive holographic Huygens' metasurface based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms capable of complex wavefront control at telecom wavelengths. Our metasurface produces a hologram image in the far-field with 82% transmittance efficiency and 40% imaging efficiency. Such efficient complex wavefront control shows that Huygens' metasurfaces based on resonant dielectric meta-atoms are a big step towards practical applications of metasurfaces in wavefront design related technologies, including computer-generated holograms, ultra-thin optics, security and data storage devices.

  2. On the Huygens principle for bianisotropic mediums with symmetric permittivity and permeability dyadics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryad, Muhammad; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-02-01

    Mathematical statements of the Huygens principle relate the electric and magnetic field phasors at an arbitrary location in a source-free region enclosed by a surface to the tangential components of the electric and magnetic field phasors over that surface, via the dyadic Green functions applicable to the linear homogeneous medium occupying that region. We have mathematically formulated the Huygens principle for the electric and magnetic field phasors when the permittivity and permeability dyadics of the medium are symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics of the medium are negative of each other, and both magnetoelectric dyadics also contain anti-symmetric terms. We have also formulated the Huygens principle for the electric (resp. magnetic) field phasor in a medium whose permittivity (resp. permeability) is scalar, the permeability (resp. permittivity) is symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics reduce to dissimilar scalars, and anti-symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics are identical.

  3. High-efficiency light-wave control with all-dielectric optical Huygens' metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Manuel; Falkner, Matthias; Dominguez, Jason; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Pertsch, Thomas; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces have developed as a breakthrough concept for advanced wave-front engineering enabled by subwavelength resonant nanostructures. However, reflection and/or absorption losses as well as low polarisation-conversion efficiencies pose a fundamental obstacle for achieving high transmission efficiencies that are required for practical applications. Here we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, highly efficient all-dielectric metasurfaces for near-infrared frequencies using arrays of silicon nanodisks as meta-atoms. We employ the main features of Huygens' sources, namely spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances of equal strength, to demonstrate Huygens' metasurfaces with a full transmission-phase coverage of 360 degrees and near-unity transmission, and we confirm experimentally full phase coverage combined with high efficiency in transmission. Based on these key properties, we show that all-dielectric Huygens' metasurfaces could become a new paradigm for flat opti...

  4. Twenty Years of Systems Engineering on the Cassini-Huygens Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Chapman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Cassini-Huygens Mission has successfully utilized systems engineering to develop and execute a challenging prime mission and two mission extensions. Systems engineering was not only essential in designing the mission, but as knowledge of the system was gained during cruise and science operations, it was critical in evolving operational strategies and processes. This paper discusses systems engineering successes, challenges, and lessons learned on the Cassini-Huygens Mission gathered from a thorough study of mission plans and developed scenarios, and interviews with key project leaders across its twenty-year history.

  5. Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke. Pioneers in mathematical analysis and catastrophe theory from evolvents to quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnol'D, V. I.

    This book is an English translation of the Russian original of 1989. It is based on a college lecture commemorating the tercentenary of Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The author retraces the beginnings of mathematical analysis and theoretical physics in the works of the great scientists of the 17th century, and recounts the history of the discovery of the law of gravitation, discussions Newton had with Hooke and Leibniz, and much more. Some of Huygens' and Newton's ideas, several centuries ahead of their time, were developed only recently. The author follows the link between their inception and the break-throughs in contemporary mathematics and physics. The book provides present-day generalizations of Newton's theorems on the elliptical shape of orbits, attraction of spheres, and on the transcendence of Abelian integrals; it offers a brief review of the theory of regular and chaotic movement in celestial mechanics, including, for example, the problem of ports in the distribution of smaller planets and a discussion of the structure of planetary rings.

  6. Huygens' principle, the free Schrodinger particle and the quantum anti-centrifugal force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Fedorov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Huygens' principle following from the d'Alembert wave equation is not valid in two-dimensional space. A Schrodinger particle of vanishing angular momentum moving freely in two dimensions experiences an attractive force-the quantum anti-centrifugal force-towards its centre. We connect these two...

  7. Huygens-Feynman-Fresnel principle as the basis of applied optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitin, Andrey V

    2013-11-01

    The main relationships of wave optics are derived from a combination of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and the Feynman integral over all paths. The stationary-phase approximation of the wave relations gives the correspondent relations from the point of view of geometrical optics.

  8. Influence of nearby obstacles on the feasibility of a Huygens box as a field source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans;

    2012-01-01

    A method of substituting an electronic module with its Huygens box representation for the purpose of calculating the emitted field is discussed. It is pointed out that nearby obstacles may have harmful effect on the accuracy of such method. This is subsequently proven by performing finite-differe...

  9. Violation of the strong Huygen's principle and timelike signals from the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Ana; Garay, Luis J; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2015-04-10

    We analyze the implications of the violations of the strong Huygen's principle in the transmission of information from the early Universe to the current era via massless fields. We show that much more information reaches us through timelike channels (not mediated by real photons) than is carried by rays of light, which are usually regarded as the only carriers of information.

  10. Huygens' principle, the free Schrodinger particle and the quantum anti-centrifugal force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder; Fedorov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Huygens' principle following from the d'Alembert wave equation is not valid in two-dimensional space. A Schrodinger particle of vanishing angular momentum moving freely in two dimensions experiences an attractive force-the quantum anti-centrifugal force-towards its centre. We connect these two ph...

  11. Interdisciplinary Work in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Rasmussen, Gitte Lyng

    2016-01-01

    , combined with their more formal organizational affiliation. In this way, professionals can be working directly within the school or institution, or they can be in a supportive role being formally affiliated to the local council. Both these types of affiliations entail interdisciplinary cooperation...... the interdisciplinary cooperation in the local practice. What the systemic logic brings into the interdisciplinary cooperation is not just an organizational framework and support, but also a specific vocabulary and a specific task or way of thinking, which in some ways overrules the individual professionals’ own...

  12. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  13. Who Is a Computer Scientist and Why Do I Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A discussion on who should teach computer literacy in academe is presented. Computer science can be described as an experimental science with the computer as the laboratory but computer science is an interdisciplinary area. Defining a computer scientist is difficult. (MLW)

  14. Career Landmarks in Science: Individual Differences and Interdisciplinary Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1991-01-01

    Examined the location of the first, best, and last contributions of creative careers. Hypotheses specified the ways in which these landmarks should vary according to individual differences and interdisciplinary contrasts. Hypotheses were confirmed for scientists and inventors. Results lead to further theoretical constraints, new predictions, and…

  15. Weekly Interdisciplinary Colloquy on Cardiology: A Decade of Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmacher, William H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    An experimental, continuing, weekly interdisciplinary colloquy on cardiology is described. It is organized between the departments of medicine and physiology of Loyola University Medical Center to promote interaction between basic scientists and practicing physicians in the medical school. (Author/MLW)

  16. Titan's meridional wind profile and Huygens' orientation and swing inferred from the geometry of DISR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoschka, Erich

    2016-05-01

    The altitude and zonal motion of the Huygens probe descending through Titan's atmosphere was determined early under the assumption of no meridional motion (Bird et al. [2005]. Nature 438, 800-802). By comparing images taken during the descent, Karkoschka et al. (Karkoschka et al. [2007]. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1895-1935) determined the meridional motion of Huygens, which was generally much smaller than its zonal motion. Here, we present a comprehensive geometrical analysis of all images taken during the descent that is four times more accurate than the previous study. The result is a meridional wind profile across Titan's troposphere with northward winds by up to 0.4 m/s with an average of 0.1 m/s above 1 km altitude, and southward winds below, peaking at 0.9 m/s near 0.4 km altitude. The imaging data extend down to 0.22 km altitude, although additional information came from the horizontal impact speed near 0.8 m/s southward (Schröder et al. [2012]. Planet. Space Sci. 73, 327-340). There is a region between 5 and 8 km altitude with no significant meridional wind. In the stratosphere, the average meridional wind was 1.2 ± 1.5 m/s northward, and zero meridional motion is possible down to 15 km altitude. We present the difference between the zonal speeds of Huygens and the wind that was ignored in previous publications and amounts to up to 7 m/s. We determined the three rotational angles of Huygens for the times of each exposure that showed surface features. During 26 exposures, the swing speed of Huygens was fast enough to smear images. Inferred swing speeds were up to 20°/s during the calm phase of the descent, consistent with up to 40°/s swings reported before during the rough phase. The improved geometric calibration of images allowed identification of many features also seen in Cassini radar images. This comparison yields the location of the Huygens LandingSite as 192.34 ± 02° West and 10.47 ± 0.02° South.

  17. Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) test by a stratospheric balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudam, A.; Angrilli, F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bettanini, C.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Lion Stoppato, P.

    2002-09-01

    We developped a series of balloon experiments parachuting a 1:1 scale mock up of the Huygens probe from an altitude larger than 30 km in order to simulate at planetary scale the final part of the descent of the probe in the Titan atmosphere. The Earth atmosphere represents a natural laboratory where most of the physical parameters meet quite well the bulk condition of Titan's environment, with the exception of temperature. A first balloon experiment has been carried out in June 2001 and the results have been reported at the last DPS (V. Gaborit et al., BAAS 33, 38.03) The mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI sensors, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens SSP Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are i) to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere; ii) to investigate impact at ground to check the

  18. PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION IN NEUROEDUCATIONAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to overcome artificial obstructions and limitations in our scientific understanding of the complexity of educational issues is the major driver of interdisciplinary collaboration in the field of Neuroeducational Studies. To get full advantage of interdisciplinary collaboration therefore, it would be necessary to identify and develop a number of practical strategies that facilitate such endeavor. The relevance literature suggests that making effective interdisciplinary collaboration in the field is dependent on a number of factors, including: creating a common language and conceptual vocabulary; developing graduate educational programs; providing training programs for neuroscientists and educators; and developing neuroeducational research organizations. It is concluded that, interdisciplinary collaboration is a potential key that ensures a more prosperous future for the field and it will be best realized based on authentic dialogue among scientists and educators.

  19. Persistent, Global Identity for Scientists via ORCID

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, August E; Holmquist, Jane; Damon, James; Dietrich, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have an inherent interest in claiming their contributions to the scholarly record, but the fragmented state of identity management across the landscape of astronomy, physics, and other fields makes highlighting the contributions of any single individual a formidable and often frustratingly complex task. The problem is exacerbated by the expanding variety of academic research products and the growing footprints of large collaborations and interdisciplinary teams. In this essay, we outline the benefits of a unique scholarly identifier with persistent value on a global scale and we review astronomy and physics engagement with the Open Researcher and Contributor iD (ORCID) service as a solution.

  20. First Results From the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Experiment on the Cassini-Huygens Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick, J.; Haberman, J.; Harpold, D.; Kasprzak, W.; Raaen, E.; Way, S.; Atreya, S.; Carignan, G.; Bauer, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Huygens Probe of the Cassini Huygens Mission entered the atmosphere of the moon Titan on January 14,2005. The GCMS was part of the instrument complement on the Probe to measure in situ the chemical composition of the atmosphere during the probe descent and to support the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) experiment by serving as detector for the pyrolization products. The GCMS employed a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns. The mass spectrometer employed five electron impact ion sources with available electron energies of either 70 or 25 eV. Three ion sources served as detectors for the GC columns and two were dedicated to direct atmosphere sampling and ACP gas sampling, respectively. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and served to evaporate surface constituents after impact.

  1. O tratado sobre a luz de Huygens: comentários

    OpenAIRE

    Krapas, Sonia; Departamento de Física – UFF Niterói – RJ; Queiroz, Glória Regina Pessôa Campello; Instituto de Física - UERJ Rio de Janeiro – RJ; Uzêda, Diego; Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia Maria Thereza – FAMATh Niterói – RJ

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2011v28n1p123Huygens é conhecido no ensino introdutório de Física por dar conta da refração segundo um modelo ondulatório. Livros didáticos lhe rendem homenagens atribuindo seu nome a um princípio, mas em sua obra máxima, Tratado sobre a luz, é possível se ver muito mais: sua inventividade na defesa de um modelo ondulatório para a luz como alternativo ao modelo corpuscular. Neste trabalho, tenta-se evidenciar o raciocínio de Huygens, mostrando que, apesar d...

  2. Highly-efficient all-dielectric Huygens' surface holograms (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Katie; Wang, Lei; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Subramania, Ganapathi; Liu, Sheng; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-04-01

    Optical metasurfaces have developed as a breakthrough concept for advanced wave-front. Key to these "designer metasurfaces"[1] is that they provide full 360 degree phase coverage and that their local phase can be precisely controlled. The local control of phase, amplitude and polarization on an optically thin plane will lead to a new class of flat optical components in the areas of integrated optics, flat displays, energy harvesting and mid-infrared photonics, with increased performance and functionality. However, reflection and/or absorption losses as well as low polarization-conversion efficiencies pose a fundamental obstacle for achieving high transmission efficiencies that are required for practical applications. A promising way to overcome these limitations is the use of metamaterial Huygens' surfaces [2-4], i.e., reflection-less surfaces that can also provide full 360 degree phase coverage in transmission. Plasmonic implementations of Huygens' surfaces for microwave [2] and the mid-infrared spectral range [3], where the intrinsic losses of the metals are negligible, have been suggested, however, these designs cannot be transferred to near-infrared or even visible frequencies because of the high dissipative losses of plasmonic structures at optical frequencies. Here, we demonstrate the first holographic metasurface utilizing the concept of all-dielectric Huygens' surfaces thereby achieving record transmission efficiencies of approximately 82% at 1477nm wavelength. Our low-loss Huygens' surface is realized by two-dimensional subwavelength arrays of loss-less silicon nanodisks with both electric and magnetic dipole resonances [4]. By controlling the intrinsic properties of the resonances, i.e. their relative electric and magnetic polarizabilities, quality factors and spectral position, we can design silicon nanodisks to behave as near-ideal Huygens' particles. This allows us to realize all-dielectric Huygens' surfaces providing full 360 degree phase coverage

  3. A Huygens Surface Approach to Antenna Implementation in Near-Field Radar Imaging System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    critical geometrical details; re- casting the FDTD update equations on a grid conformal to a curvilinear coordinate system (e.g., cylindrical); and...Imaging System Simulations by Traian Dogaru and DaHan Liao Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...A Huygens Surface Approach to Antenna Implementation in Near-Field Radar Imaging System Simulations by Traian Dogaru and DaHan Liao Sensors

  4. Huygens-Fresnel principle for N-photon states of light

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We show that the propagation of a N-photon field in space and time can be described by a generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. Using two examples, we then demonstrate how familiar Fourier optics techniques applied to a N-photon wave function can be used to engineer the propagation of entanglement and to design the way the detection of one photon shapes the state of the others.

  5. Stories of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  6. Making Lists, Enlisting Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2011-01-01

    was the indicator conceptualised? How were notions of scientific knowledge and collaboration inscribed and challenged in the process? The analysis shows a two-sided process in which scientists become engaged in making lists but which is simultaneously a way for research policy to enlist scientists. In conclusion...

  7. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  8. ENTRA - or the chances of interdisciplinary work; ENTRIA - oder die Chancen des Interdisziplinaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Endlagerforschung; Smeddinck, Ulrich [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2015-07-01

    Since 2013 about 60 scientists work together in the research platform ENTRA (disposal options for radioactive residuals: interdisciplinary analyses and development of evaluation criteria). The scientists group includes physicists, mathematicians, engineers, jurists, experts from ethics, social and political sciences. The common question is the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The contribution describes the concept of interdisciplinary work, using the example of the definition of terms like risk by different scientists, projects for specific disposal options, the problem of public distrust, the problem of limiting values and the optimization of final repository systems.

  9. Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to identify research opportunities for gender scholars in all disciplines. The authors explain why a truly interdisciplinary approach is necessary to study gender and offer their current thinking about how to pursue this goal. They first provide a description of gender as it plays out at the individual, interpersonal, and…

  10. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinka, Ivan; Rössler, Otto

    2014-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the "ISCS 2013: Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems" held at the historical capital of Bohemia as a continuation of our series of symposia in the science of complex systems. Prague, one of the most beautiful European cities, has its own beautiful genius loci. Here, a great number of important discoveries were made and many important scientists spent fruitful and creative years to leave unforgettable traces. The perhaps most significant period was the time of Rudolf II who was a great supporter of the art and the science and attracted a great number of prominent minds to Prague. This trend would continue. Tycho Brahe, Niels Henrik Abel, Johannes Kepler, Bernard Bolzano, August Cauchy Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach, Albert Einstein and many others followed developing fundamental mathematical and physical theories or expanding them. Thus in the beginning of the 17th century, Kepler formulated here the first two of his three laws of planetary motion on ...

  11. Development of clinical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R V

    1987-01-01

    The education and training of clinical scientists has served society in several ways. For academic pharmacy, the emergence of clinical science has provided research and scholarship opportunities for clinical faculty development. Clinical scientists have also begun to play important roles in industrial drug research and development. For all faculty and students, clinical science research reinforces a "research mindset" that will become increasingly important as our society moves from a production/extraction to an information-based economy. Pharmacy will best evolve by increasing its commitment to clinical science research. In the process, academic pharmacy must continue to improve and support excellent education and training programs for clinical scientists.

  12. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  13. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  14. Scientists planning new internet

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2000-01-01

    British scientists are preparing to build the next generation internet - 'The Grid'. The government is expected to announce about 100 million pounds of funding for the project, to be done in collaboration with CERN (1/2 p).

  15. Scientists as writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  16. Sustainability: an interdisciplinary guide

    OpenAIRE

    John Pezzey

    1992-01-01

    A definition of sustainability as maintaining 'utility' (average human wellbeing) over the very long term future is used to build ideas from physics, ecology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, history, philosophy, economics and psychology, into a coherent, interdisciplinary analysis of the potential for sustaining industrial civilisation. This potential is highly uncertain, because it is hard to know how long the 'technology treadmill', of substituting accumulated tools and knowledge for de...

  17. Reflection formulae for ray tracing in uniaxial anisotropic media using Huygens's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán-Castañeda, Luis A; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha

    2016-11-01

    Ray tracing in uniaxial anisotropic materials is important because they are widely used for instrumentation, liquid-crystal displays, laser cavities, and quantum experiments. There are previous works regarding ray tracing refraction and reflection formulae using the common electromagnetic theory approach, but only the refraction formulae have been deduced using Huygens's principle. In this paper we obtain the reflection expressions using this unconventional approach with a specific coordinate system in which both refraction and reflection formulae are simplified as well as their deduction. We compute some numerical examples to compare them with the common expressions obtained using electromagnetic theory.

  18. Huygens' principle and radiation tails in a weak Schwarzschild fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piir, I. (Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    In approximation of a weak gravitational field the formula generalized Poisson formula for the wave equation is derived and the mechanism of tail aprearance of radial waves is discussed. It is shown that if the initial data of the Cauchy problem differ from zero in the two-connnected region of the initial hypersurface embracing by its internal boundary the Schwarzchild singularity there always arises the radiation tail through a linear approximation of the Huygens principle realized everywhere in a flat space-time.

  19. Gravitational waves in Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, material perturbations and the Huygens principle

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We analyze propagation equations for the polar modes of gravitational waves in cosmological space-times. We prove that polar gravitational waves must perturb --- unlike axial modes --- the material content of the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetimes. The whole gravitational dynamics reduces to the single "master equation" that has the same form as for axial modes. That allows us to conclude that the status of the Huygens principle is the same for axial and gravitational waves. In particular, this principle is valid exactly in radiation spacetimes with the vanishing cosmological constant, and it is broken otherwise.

  20. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  1. Marketing for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2012-01-01

    It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...

  2. Photochemical enrichment of deuterium in Titan's atmosphere: new insights from Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, D; Lunine, I J; Moudens, A; Vuitton, V

    2008-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens data are used to re-examine the potential sources of the D/H enhancement over solar, measured in methane, in Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that the system is closed with respect to carbon, the use of constraints from the Huygens probe for the determination of the current mass of atmospheric methane and the most up-to-date determination of D/H from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra allow us to show that photochemical enrichment of deuterium is not sufficient to be the sole mechanism yielding the measured D/H value. A possible fractionation between CH3D and CH4 during the escape process may slightly enhance the deuterium enrichment, but is not sufficient to explain the observed D/H value over the range of escape values proposed in the literature. Hence, alternative mechanisms such as a primordial deuterium enrichment must be combined with the photochemical enrichment in Titan's atmosphere in order to explain its current D/H value.

  3. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  4. A romantic scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar Jacobsen, Anja

    2013-12-01

    While giving a lecture on electricity, electrochemistry and magnetism in the spring of 1820, the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted noticed something remarkable: the magnetic needle he was using for one of his demonstrations was deflected by an electric current in a nearby wire.

  5. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  6. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  7. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  8. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  9. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  10. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups...

  11. The Outer Planets and their Moons Comparative Studies of the Outer Planets prior to the Exploration of the Saturn System by Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Encrenaz, T; Owen, T. C; Sotin, C

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives an integrated summary of the science related to the four giant planets in our solar system. It is the result of an ISSI workshop on «A comparative study of the outer planets before the exploration of Saturn by Cassini-Huygens» which was held at ISSI in Bern on January 12-16, 2004. Representatives of several scientific communities, such as planetary scientists, astronomers, space physicists, chemists and astrobiologists have met with the aim to review the knowledge on four major themes: (1) the study of the formation and evolution processes of the outer planets and their satellites, beginning with the formation of compounds and planetesimals in the solar nebula, and the subsequent evolution of the interiors of the outer planets, (2) a comparative study of the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, (3) the study of the planetary magnetospheres and their interactions with the solar wind, and (4) the formation and properties of satellites and rings, including their interiors, surfaces, an...

  12. Building Bridges. Researchers on their experiences with interdisciplinary research in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, Y.; De Gier, A.; Verschuur, M.; De Wit, B.

    2006-07-01

    The central question in this booklet is: what can we learn from interdisciplinary research and individual interdisciplinary researchers? How did they deal with specific problems in the field of epistemology, methodology and organization? What kind of persons are best suited to carry out interdisciplinary research or fulfil the task of project or programme coordinator? For this purpose, a series of interviews was held with fifteen scientists in the Netherlands. Most, but not all of the researchers interviewed are engaged in environmental and climate change research. A minority of the interviewed do research on other topics like demography, social geography, nano technology and philosophy of science.

  13. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  14. VLBI experiment with the Huygens Probe during its descent in the atmosphere of Titan : An evidence for meridional wind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogrebenko, Sergei; Gurvits, Leonid; Avruch, Ian; Cimo, Giuseppe; Team, Huygens VLBI Tracking

    Phase-referencing VLBI observations of the Huygens Probe were performed during its descent in the atmosphere of Titan on 14 January 2005 using a global network of 17 radio telescopes. The Probe's position in the Titanographic frame was determined with the accuracy of about 1 km relative to a priori

  15. A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi; Achi, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan's atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author's previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan's atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL webbook.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens' active acoustic sensor. In the N(2)-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind-measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens-on long-range propagation.

  16. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  17. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  18. Scientists want more children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  19. UZIG USGS research: Advances through interdisciplinary interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Rafael, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Because vadose zone research relates to diverse disciplines, applications, and modes of research, collaboration across traditional operational and topical divisions is especially likely to yield major advances in understanding. The Unsaturated Zone Interest Group (UZIG) is an informal organization sponsored by the USGS to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration in vadose or unsaturated zone hydrologic research across organizational boundaries. It includes both USGS and non-USGS scientists. Formed in 1987, the UZIG operates to promote communication, especially through periodic meetings with presentations, discussions, and fi eld trips. The 10th meeting of the UZIG at Los Alamos, NM, in August 2007 was jointly sponsored by the USGS and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Presentations at this meeting served as the initial basis for selecting papers for this special section of Vadose Zone Journal, the purpose of which is to present noteworthy cuting-edge unsaturated zone research promoted by, facilitated by, or presented in connection with the UZIG. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in interdisciplinary research

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Themistocles

    2014-01-01

    This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including  applications of computers  to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.  The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers i...

  1. Sizes of the Smallest Particles at the Outer B Ring Edge, Huygens Ringlet, and Strange Ringlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Stephanie; Colwell, Josh E.; Becker, Tracy M.; Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-10-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS)'s High Speed Photometer (HSP) has observed stellar occultations of Saturn's rings that reveal ring structure at high resolution. We observe diffraction spikes at the sharp edges of some rings and ringlets where the observed signal exceeds the unocculted star signal, indicating that small particles are diffracting light into the detector. Becker et al. (2015 Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.001) analyzed data at the A ring edge and edges of the Encke gap. The smallest particle sizes were a few mm. We use the same technique to analyze the diffraction signal at the outer edge of the B ring and the edges of the so-called Strange ringlet near the outer edge of the Huygens Gap. While we see diffraction from sub-cm particles in the Strange Ringlet, detections from the wider Huygens Ringlet which resides in between the Strange Ringlet and the outer edge of the B ring are weaker and narrower, indicating a cutoff of the size distribution above 1 cm. At the outer edge of the B ring we find strong diffraction signals in 7 of 19 occultations for which the signal and geometry make the detection possible. The typical value of the smallest particle size (amin) is 4 mm and the derived slope of the power-law size distribution (q) is 2.9. The average amin is similar to the 4.5 mm average observed at the A ring outer edge while the q value is lower than the A ring outer edge value of 3.2. In the Strange Ringlet we find strong diffraction signals in 2 of 19 possible occultations for the outer edge and 1 of 17 possible occultations for the inner edge. The smallest particle size is ~5 mm and the derived slope of the power-law size distribution is 3.3. These values are similar to the average values at the A ring outer edge. The absence of a broad diffraction signal at the Huygens Ringlet suggests a different size distribution for that ring than for the Strange Ringlet and the outer several km of the B ring or perhaps less vigorous

  2. Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    Universidad de la Republica in Uruguay, and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Minnesota. Mathematical Modeling of Shape Dr. Huiling Le...in wave chaos. Digital Color Management: Getting the Colors Right Dr. Michael J. Vrhel, Color Scientist Artifex Software Inc. Dr. Michael J. Vrhel...introduce the design and engineering of color management systems for devices and software that record, manipulate and reproduce color images. The focus

  3. LEAH interdisciplinary training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cynthia L; Rickert, Vaughn D

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the Leadership Education in Adolescent Health (LEAH) interdisciplinary training program in the United States. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau authorized by legislation provides monies to train leaders in adolescent health through a competitive grant process. Currently, seven academic medical centers have funding to provide leadership in adolescent health (LEAH) training in five core disciplines: medicine, nursing, psychology, social work and nutrition. LEAH training programs both ensure high clinical competence in core disciplines serving adolescents and prepare trainees for leadership positions in adolescent health and public health care realms. Together, these programs trained almost 1000 long-term trainees across these five disciplines, and graduates from these programs are working in 45 of the 50 states within the United States. About 90% of these graduates are working with maternal and child/adolescent health populations, and almost all have held leadership positions in the areas of public health, advocacy, public policy, academic medical centers and/or clinical care settings.

  4. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  5. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas: near-unity aperture efficiency from arbitrarily-large apertures

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Ariel; Eleftheriades, George V

    2015-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly-directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source cavity excitation is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectrum typical to standard partially-reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern. As shown, a single semianalytical formalism can be followed to achieve control of a variety of radiation features, such as the d...

  6. Passive Lossless Huygens Metasurfaces for Conversion of Arbitrary Source Field to Directive Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical formulation of the interaction between a given source field and a scalar Huygens metasurface (HMS), a recently introduced promising concept for wavefront manipulation based on a sheet of orthogonal electric and magnetic dipoles. Utilizing the equivalent surface impedance representation of these metasurfaces, we establish that an arbitrary source field can be converted into directive radiation via a passive lossless HMS if two physical conditions are met: local power conservation and local impedance equalization. Expressing the fields via their plane-wave spectrum and harnessing the slowly-varying envelope approximation we obtain semi-analytical formulae for the scattered fields, and prescribe the surface reactance required for the metasurface implementation. The resultant design procedure indicates that the local impedance equalization induces a Fresnel-like reflection, while local power conservation forms a radiating virtual aperture which follows the total excitation field magni...

  7. Analytical pyrolysis experiments of Titan aerosol analogues in preparation for the Cassini Huygens mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Boon, J. J.; Commandeur, J.; Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative pyrolysis mass spectrometric data of Titan aerosol analogs, called 'tholins', are presented. The Titan tholins were produced in the laboratory at Cornell by irradiation of simulated Titan atmospheres with high energy electrons in plasma discharge. Mass-spectrometry measurements were performed at FOM of the solid phase of various tholins by Curie-point pyrolysis Gas-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry (GCMS) and by temperature resolved in-source Pyrolysis Mass-Spectrometry to reveal the composition and evolution temperature of the dissociation products. The results presented here are used to further define the ACP (Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser)-GCMS experiment and provide a basis for modelling of aerosol composition on Titan and for the iterpretation of Titan atmosphere data from the Huygens probe in the future.

  8. Dielectric Huygens' Metasurface for High-Efficiency Hologram Operating in Transmission Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Huan; Liu, Bingyi; Song, Jie; Jiang, Yongyuan; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Conventional metasurface holograms relying on metal antennas for phase manipulation suffer from strong Ohmic loss and incomplete polarization conversion. The efficiency is limited to rather small values when operating in transmission mode. Here, we implement a high-efficiency transmissive metasurface hologram by leveraging the recently developed Huygens' metasurface to construct an electric and magnetic sheet with a transmission efficiency up to 86% and optical efficiency of 23.6%. The high-efficiency originates from the simultaneous excitations of the Mie-type electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the meta-atoms composed of silicon nanodisks. Our hologram shows high fidelity over a wide spectral range and promises to be an outstanding alternative for display applications.

  9. Temperature variations in Titan's upper atmosphere: Impact on Cassini/Huygens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kazeminejad

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variations of Titan's upper atmosphere due to the plasma interaction of the satellite with Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's high altitude monomer haze particles can imply an offset of up to ±30K from currently estimated model profiles. We incorporated these temperature uncertainties as an offset into the recently published Vervack et al. (2004 (Icarus, Vol. 170, 91-112 engineering model and derive extreme case (i.e. minimum and maximum profiles temperature, pressure, and density profiles. We simulated the Huygens probe hypersonic entry trajectory and obtain, as expected, deviations of the probe trajectory for the extreme atmosphere models compared to the simulation based on the nominal one. These deviations are very similar to the ones obtained with the standard Yelle et al. (1997 (ESA SP-1177 profiles. We could confirm that the difference in aerodynamic drag is of an order of magnitude that can be measured by the probe science accelerometer. They represent an important means for the reconstruction of Titan's upper atmospheric properties. Furthermore, we simulated a Cassini low Titan flyby trajectory. No major trajectory deviations were found. The atmospheric torques due to aerodynamic drag, however, are twice as high for our high temperature profile as the ones obtained with the Yelle maximum profile and more than 5 times higher than the worst case estimations from the Cassini project. We propose to use the Cassini atmospheric torque measurements during its low flybys to derive the atmospheric drag and to reconstruct Titan's upper atmosphere density, pressure, and temperature. The results could then be compared to the reconstructed profiles obtained from Huygens probe measurements. This would help to validate the probe measurements and decrease the error bars.

  10. Structure and physical conditions in the Huygens region of the Orion nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Peimbert, M.

    2017-02-01

    Hubble Space Telescope images, MUSE maps of emission lines, and an atlas of high velocity resolution emission-line spectra have been used to establish for the first time correlations of the electron temperature, electron density, radial velocity, turbulence, and orientation within the main ionization front of the nebula. From the study of the combined properties of multiple features, it is established that variations in the radial velocity are primarily caused by the photoevaporating ionization front being viewed at different angles. There is a progressive increase of the electron temperature and density with decreasing distance from the dominant ionizing star θ1 Ori C. The product of these characteristics (ne × Te) is the most relevant parameter in modelling a blister-type nebula like the Huygens region, where this quantity should vary with the surface brightness in Hα. Several lines of evidence indicate that small-scale structure and turbulence exist down to the level of our resolution of a few arcseconds. Although photoevaporative flow must contribute at some level to the well-known non-thermal broadening of the emission lines, comparison of quantitative predictions with the observed optical line widths indicates that it is not the major additive broadening component. Derivation of Te values for H+ from radio+optical and optical-only ionized hydrogen emission showed that this temperature is close to that derived from [N II] and that the transition from the well-known flat extinction curve which applies in the Huygens region to a more normal steep extinction curve occurs immediately outside of the Bright Bar feature of the nebula.

  11. New Results on Titan’s Atmosphere and Surface from Huygens Probe Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2013-10-01

    The global Titan perspective afforded by ongoing Cassini observations, and prospects for future in-situ exploration, have prompted a re-examination of Huygens data, yielding new results in several areas. Gravity waves have been detected (Lorenz, Ferri and Young, submitted) in the HASI descent temperature data, with 2K amplitude. These waves are seen above about 60km, and analysis suggests they may therefore be controlled by interaction of upward-propagating waves with the zonal wind field. A curious cessation of detection of sound pulses by a Surface Science Package ultrasound instrument about 15 minutes after the probe landed appears to be best explained (Lorenz et al., submitted) by an accumulation of polyatomic vapors such as ethane, sweated out of the ground by the warm probe. Such gases have high acoustic attenuation, and were independently measured by the probe GCMS. A new integrated timeline product, which arranges second-by-second measurements from several Huygens sensors on a convenient, common tabulation, has been archived on the PDS Atmospheres node. Also archived is an independent retrieval of Doppler information from VLBI receivers that has a higher time resolution than the DWE archive product, and an expanded event summary product that documents when key observations, system events and anomalies occurred. Finally, a troubling discrepancy exists between radio occultation and infrared soundings from Cassini, and the lower stratospheric temperature retrieved from the HASI accelerometer record. Two factors may contribute to this discrepancy - the assumed probe mass history, and the assumed zonal wind profile. The sensitivity of the recovered temperature profile to these factors is examined : in particular it is noted that the speed relative to the atmosphere in the late part of entry, when the hypersonic entry speed has been largely bled away by drag, is particularly sensitive to assumed winds, and it is in this altitude region where the recovered density

  12. Ernest Rutherford: scientist supreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. [Physics Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    1998-09-01

    One hundred years ago this month, Ernest Rutherford a talented young New Zealander who had just spent three years as a postgraduate student in Britain left for Canada, where he was to do the work that won him a Nobel prize. All three countries can justifiably claim this great scientist as their own. Ernest Rutherford is one of the most illustrious scientists that the world has ever seen. He achieved enduring international fame because of an incredibly productive life, during which he altered our view of nature on three separate occasions. Combining brilliantly conceived experiments with much hard work and special insight, he explained the perplexing problem of naturally occurring radioactivity, determined the structure of the atom, and was the world's first successful alchemist, changing nitrogen into oxygen. Rutherford received a Nobel prize for the first discovery, but the other two would have been equally worthy candidates, had they been discovered by someone else. Indeed, any one of his other secondary achievements many of which are now almost forgotten would have been enough to bring fame to a lesser scientist. For example, he invented an electrical method for detecting individual ionizing radiations, he dated the age of the Earth, and briefly held the world record for the distance over which wireless waves could be detected. He predicted the existence of neutrons, he oversaw the development of large-scale particle accelerators, and, during the First World War, he led the allied research into the detection of submarines. In this article the author describes the life and times of Ernest Rutherford. (UK)

  13. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  14. The Value of Participating Scientists on NASA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Baines, Kevin; Bland, Michael T.; Blewett, David T.; Brandt, Pontus; Diniega, Serina; Feaga, Lori M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Y McSween, Harry; Neal, Clive; Paty, Carol S.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    NASA has a long history of supporting Participating Scientists on its planetary missions. On behalf of the NASA Planetary Assessment/Analysis Groups (OPAG, MEPAG, VEXAG, SBAG, LEAG and CAPTEM), we are conducting a study about the value of Participating Scientist programs on NASA planetary missions, and how the usefulness of such programs might be maximized.Inputs were gathered via a community survey, which asked for opinions about the value generated by the Participating Scientist programs (we included Guest Investigators and Interdisciplinary Scientists as part of this designation), and for the experiences of those who've held such positions. Perceptions about Participating Scientist programs were sought from the entire community, regardless of whether someone had served as a Participating Scientist or not. This survey was distributed via the Planetary Exploration Newsletter, the Planetary News Digest, the DPS weekly mailing, and the mailing lists for each of the Assessment/Analysis Groups. At the time of abstract submission, over 185 community members have responded, giving input on more than 20 missions flown over three decades. Early results indicate that the majority of respondents feel that Participating Scientist programs represent significant added value for NASA planetary missions, increasing the science return and enhancing mission team diversity in a number of ways. A second survey was prepared for input from mission leaders such as Principal Investigators and Project Scientists.Full results of this survey will be presented, along with recommendations for how NASA may wish to enhance Participating Scientist opportunities into its future missions. The output of the study will be a white paper, which will be delivered to NASA and made available to the science community and other interested groups.

  15. Grzegorz Rozenberg: A Magical Scientist and Brother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomaa, Arto

    This is a personal description of Grzegorz Rozenberg. There is something magical in the fact that one man, Grzegorz, has been able to obtain so many and such good results in so numerous and diverse areas of science. This is why I have called him a “magical scientist.” He is also a very interdisciplinary scientist. In some sense this is due to his educational background. His first degree was in electronics engineering, the second a master’s in computer science, and the third a Ph.D. in mathematics. However, in the case of Grzegorz, the main drive for new disciplines comes from his tireless search for new challenges in basic science, rather than following known tracks. Starting with fundamental automata and language theory, he soon extended his realm to biologically motivated developmental languages, and further to concurrency, Petri nets, and graph grammars. During the past decade, his main focus has been on natural computing, a term coined by Grzegorz himself to mean either computing taking place in nature or human-designed computing inspired by nature.

  16. Scientists need political literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  17. CONFERENCE OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    article editorial

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A conference of young scientists dedicated to the 245th anniversary of the Scientific Center of Children's Health was held on September 12, 2008.Speakers at the conference were young professionals working at SCCH of RAMS, Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, Institute of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology. During the conference the poster session was held in which young scientists of the Centre took part. Presentations of participants were evaluated by the members of the Academic Council of SCCH, leading specialists of the Center. Gifts to the winners of the conference were provided by "Procter & Gamble".Winners and awardees:I place: Chistyakova V.P. - Clinical intern at SCCH of RAMS;II place: Gudkova E.Yu. - Researcher at the Department of Rheumatology of SCCH of RAMS;III place: Darmanyan A.S. - Researcher at the Department of diagnostics and rehabilitation treatment of SCCH of RAMS.Best poster paper: Plyakin V.A. - Researcher at Surgical Department NTSZD RAMS.Audience Award: Tikhomirova E.A. - Researcher at the Department of functional diagnostics of SCCH of RAMS.

  18. Another Kind of Scientist Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In a well-cited 1996 editorial in "Science," "The Activist Scientist," Jaleh Daie calls for scientists to take an assertive role in educating politicians and the public about the importance of government support for research. She writes that most scientists are reluctant to become involved in political lobbying for a variety of reasons--time…

  19. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  20. Challenges of interdisciplinary research: reconciling qualitative and quantitative methods for understanding human-landscape systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  1. [Geriatrics - an interdisciplinary challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Roland; Djukic, Marija; Wappler, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    The care of elderly patients will continue to challenge the healthcare system over the next decades. As a rule geriatric patients suffer from multimorbidities with complex disease patterns, and the ability to cope with everyday life is severely reduced. Treatment is provided by a multiprofessional geriatric team, and the primary goal is improvement of functional status, quality of life in the social environment and autonomy by employing a holistic approach. In Germany geriatric care is provided by physicians from various medical specialties (e.g. general practitioners, internists, neurologists and psychiatrists). In the training for the subspecialty clinical geriatrics, these specialties enjoy equal rights. Recent efforts to establish a qualification as physician for internal medicine and geriatrics have initiated a discussion to make the suitability for qualification as a geriatrician dependent on the medical specialty. Geriatric patients benefit from multidisciplinary cooperation. Neurologists possess great expertise in the treatment of patients with dementia, depression, delirium, consequences of degenerative spinal cord diseases and vertebral bone fractures, stroke, Parkinson's syndrome, epileptic seizures, vertigo and dizziness, neuropathies, lesions of peripheral nerves and in the multimodal therapy of pain. To function in a position of responsibility in a geriatric department, neurologists need skills in general internal medicine. These are acquired either on a geriatric ward or during specialization as a neurologist by full time secondment to large neurological or interdisciplinary intensive care units.

  2. Habituating field scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  3. Python for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, John M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific Python is a significant public domain alternative to expensive proprietary software packages. This book teaches from scratch everything the working scientist needs to know using copious, downloadable, useful and adaptable code snippets. Readers will discover how easy it is to implement and test non-trivial mathematical algorithms and will be guided through the many freely available add-on modules. A range of examples, relevant to many different fields, illustrate the language's capabilities. The author also shows how to use pre-existing legacy code (usually in Fortran77) within the Python environment, thus avoiding the need to master the original code. In this new edition, several chapters have been re-written to reflect the IPython notebook style. With an extended index, an entirely new chapter discussing SymPy and a substantial increase in the number of code snippets, researchers and research students will be able to quickly acquire all the skills needed for using Python effectively.

  4. Voices of Romanian scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    As Romania has now become a Member State of CERN, Romanian scientists share their thoughts about this new era of partnership for their community.   Members of ATLAS from Romanian institutes at CERN (from left to right): Dan Ciubotaru, Michele Renda, Bogdan Blidaru, Alexandra Tudorache, Marina Rotaru, Ana Dumitriu, Valentina Tudorache, Adam Jinaru, Calin Alexa. On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN, 25 years after the first cooperation agreement with the country was signed. “CERN and Romania already have a long history of strong collaboration”, says Emmanuel Tsesmelis, head of Relations with Associate Members and Non-Member States. “We very much look forward to strengthening this collaboration as Romania becomes CERN’s twenty-second Member State, which promises the development of mutual interests in scientific research, related technologies and education,” he affirms. Romania&...

  5. Roles of scientists as policy advisers on complex issues: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B.; Vasileiadou, Eleftheria; Devilee, Jeroen; Lebret, Erik; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Policymakers frequently encounter complex issues, and the role of scientists as policy advisers on these issues is not always clearly defined. We present an overview of the interdisciplinary literature on the roles of scientific experts when advising policymakers on complex issu

  6. 2nd Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications in Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This book collects a number of important contributions presented during the Second Conference on Interdisciplinary Applications of Kinematics (IAK 2013) held in Lima, Peru. The conference brought together scientists from several research fields, such as computational kinematics, multibody systems, industrial machines, robotics, biomechanics, mechatronics, computational chemistry, and vibration analysis, and embraced all key aspects of kinematics, namely, theoretical methods, modeling, optimization, experimental validation, industrial applications, and design. Kinematics is an exciting area of computational mechanics and plays  a central role in a great variety of fields and industrial applications nowadays. Apart from research in pure kinematics, the field deals with problems of practical relevance that need to be solved in an interdisciplinary manner in order for new technologies to develop. The results presented in this book should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. stud...

  7. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  8. Using speed of sound measurements to constrain the Huygens probe descent profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Zarnecki, John; Hathi, Brijen

    2004-02-01

    The Acoustic Properties Investigation (API) is a set of sensors for acoustic measurements in gases or liquids, making a part of the Surface Science Package (SSP) on the Huygens probe. It consists of two units, API-V (Velocity of sound) and API-S (Sounding). The API-V has two ultrasonic transducers sending and receiving acoustic pulses over an unobstructed path of 15 cm. An accurate timing circuit is measuring the time it takes to propagate over the distance. Measurements are made in both directions to eliminate the effect of a constant drift of the medium. The transducers have been optimised to operate at low pressure (high altitude) and will operate from about 60 km down to the surface. They will also perform well in case of landing in a liquid. The API-S unit is an acoustic sounder, sending short pulses at 15 kHz every second and listening for echoes in between. It will detect droplets in the atmosphere and for the last 100 m it will characterise the acoustic scattering properties of the surface below. It will also give an accurate value for the descend velocity during the last 100 m. In case of landing in a (liquid) lake/ocean it will measure the depth of the late-ocean down to a maximum of about 1000 m. Accurate measurements of the velocity of sound will, together with knowledge on the temperature, enable the mean molecular weight to be calculated along the descent trajectory. The temperature will be measured by complementary sensors inside the SSP Top Hat, near the API-V, and to a high accuracy by the HASI instrument at the periphery of the Huygens probe. The API units and associated electronics has been designed and build at the Research and Scientific Support Department at ESTEC, where also the testing and initial calibration has been done. Detailed calibration has been performed with different gas mixtures and at different temperatures in the Titan simulation chamber at the University of Kent, Canterbury, UK. Further supporting studies are planned in the

  9. A Serendipitous Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-07-17

    Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Data Processing for Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, K F

    1956-10-26

    This brief survey of integrated and electronic data processing has touched on such matters as the origin of the concepts, their use in business, machines that are available, indexing problems, and, finally, some scientific uses that surely foreshadow further development. The purpose of this has been to present for the consideration of scientists a point of view and some techniques which have had a phenomenal growth in the business world and to suggest that these are worth consideration in scientific data-handling problems (30). To close, let me quote from William Bamert on the experience of the C. and O. Railroad once more (8, p. 121): "Frankly, we have been asked whether we weren't planning for Utopia-the implication being that everyone except starry-eyed visionaries knows that Utopia is unattainable. Our answer is that of course we are! Has anyone yet discovered a better way to begin program planning of this nature? Our feeling is that compromise comes early enough in the normal order of things."

  11. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  12. What can High Resolution Inertial Rotation Sensing do for the Geosciences? (Christiaan Huygens Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Strap-Down inertial gyroscopes are essential for the attitude control of aircrafts - they keep helicopters and planes in the sky. What if the same technology is strapped to the Earth? It will allow the observation and understanding of the geophysical processes behind minute changes of the rate of rotation as well as variations of the orientation of the instantaneous axis of rotation of the Earth. Unlike the highly dynamic aircraft motion geophysical signals are very small and act on much longer timescales. Therefore we have to make a suitable gyro for the application in the Geosciences significantly more sensitive and stable than aircraft gyros, improving them by many orders of magnitude. Large scale optical interferometers suggest themselves for this purpose, but the requirements are demanding. We have built and explored a variety of monolithic and heterolithic ring lasers, spanning areas between 1 and more than 800 m2. On this road of applying a locally installed high resolution active optical interferometer to a global measurement quantity (earth rotation), we have encountered a number of serious challenges some of which already puzzled Christiaan Huygens some 300 years ago.

  13. Structure and Physical Conditions in the Huygens Region of the Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dell, C R; Peimbert, M

    2016-01-01

    HST images, MUSE maps of emission-lines, and an atlas of high velocity resolution emission-line spectra have been used to establish for the firrst time correlations of the electron temperature, electron density, radial velocity, turbulence, and orientation within the main ionization front of the nebula. From the study of the combined properties of multiple features, it is established that variations in the radial velocity are primarily caused by the photo-evaporating ionization front being viewed at different angles. There is a progressive increase of the electron temperature and density with decreasing distance from the dominant ionizing star Theta1 Ori C. The product of these characteristics (NexTe) is the most relevant parameter in modeling a blister-type nebula like the Huygens Region, where this quantity should vary with the surface brightness in Halpha. Several lines of evidence indicate that small-scale structure and turbulence exists down to the level of our resolution of a few arcseconds. Although ph...

  14. Titan Ground Complex Permittivity at the HUYGENS Landing Site; the PWA-HASI and Other Instruments Data Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, M.; Lethuillier, A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Grard, R.; Ciarletti, V.; Béghin, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Jernej, I.; Brown, V.; Ferri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Ten years after the successful landing of the HUYGENS probe on the surface of Titan, we reassess the complex permittivity measurements of the surface materials performed by the PWA-HASI experiment (Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry - Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument). The complex permittivity is inferred from the mutual impedance of a classical quadrupolar probe, ie. the ratio of the voltage measured by a receiving dipole over the current emitted by another dipole. Using a simple model of the quadrupole configuration, the dielectric constant of the material at the landing site was first estimated to be of the order of 1.8. A more realistic numerical model that took into account the influence of the HUYGENS gondola yielded a dielectric constant in the range 2-3 and a conductivity in the range 0.4 - 0.8 nS/m. due to uncertainties about the system geometry ( Grard et al., 2006). However, a puzzling experimental fact remains to be explained, namely a sudden variation of the amplitude and phase of the received voltage 11 mn after landing that cannot be associated with any lander mechanical disturbance. Permittivity estimations were based on the first 11 mn sequence. The present analysis takes advantage of a recent analysis of the landing process that provided more realistic final position and attitude for the HUYGENS lander (Schroder et al., 2012). The new results lie within former estimated ranges and attention is paid to their sensitivity to geometry and to the reference measurements collected immediately before landing. This point is particularly critical for the estimation of the conductivity. The complete data set has been analysed, including the sequence collected after the first 11 mn. We consider various scenarios that may explain the observed phase and amplitude discontinuity. We tested two layers ground models in order to investigate the possibility that the upper layer may have experienced a fast physical change due to deliquescence or outgasing

  15. Inverse Methods. Interdisciplinary Elements of Methodology, Computation, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Mosegaard, Klaus; Sibani, Paolo

    Over the last few decades inversion concepts have become an integral part of experimental data interpretation in several branches of science. In numerous cases similar inversion-like techniques were developed independently in separate disciplines, sometimes based on different lines of reasoning, but not always to the same level of sophistication. This book is based on the Interdisciplinary Inversion Conference held at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. For scientists and graduate students in geophysics, astronomy, oceanography, petroleum geology, and geodesy, the book offers a wide variety of examples and theoretical background in the field of inversion techniques.

  16. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  17. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  18. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  19. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  20. Scientist to scientist colloquium steering committee planning session. Summary report of the proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The reason for holding a scientific colloquium of this nature is to bring together the most active scientific researchers for cross-disciplinary exchanges. As one scientist commented, it is a way to compensate for over-specialization. As a scientist/administrator noted, it helps administrators to have access to high-level scientific information in a setting where they can ask stupid questions. At a meeting of between 80 and 100 people small group exchanges are possible, allowing more in-depth discussion. In five days of meetings, there are many opportunities for a great number of these exchanges. The Keystone Process facilitates intermingling across disciplines and encourages debate. Because this meeting is unlike discipline-specific meetings, presenters must write a talk specifically for an interdisciplinary audience, touching on various scientific and social implications of their work. They use this opportunity to practice addressing a broad audience which includes their peers from other /fields, university administrators, industry executives, government officials, and members of the media who will help bring forefront scientific findings to the public. This report discusses purpose, funding, and outcome of the colloquium.

  1. 40 CFR 1502.6 - Interdisciplinary preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1502.6 Interdisciplinary preparation. Environmental impact statements shall be prepared using an inter-disciplinary approach which will insure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and...

  2. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  3. Health Counseling: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Guyton, Rick

    1985-01-01

    The Counselor Education and Health Education programs at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, recently cooperated in developing a curriculum to prepare health counselors. The goals and objectives of counselor education and of health education are so similar that an interdisciplinary health care specialization is a natural development. (MT)

  4. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in EHDI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs were asked to complete a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the interdisciplinary area, 47 coordinators responded with 224 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  5. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  6. Something Essential about Interdisciplinary Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    The integrative thinking essential to interdisciplinary inquiry requires not only critical reflection concerning the points of convergence and dissonance between disciplinary insights, but also something more personal and less predictable that this paper describes as "holding in relationship difference ways of knowing." Using the process…

  7. Interdisciplinary Research Boosted by Serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbellay, Frédéric; Moody, Zoe; Sedooka, Ayuko; Steffen, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research can be defined as the practice of discovering new objects of knowledge beyond disciplinary borders. It often operates through the cross-fertilization and hybridization of concepts, theoretical frameworks, and methodological tools to enable the description, analysis, and understanding of the complexity of objects of study…

  8. The Twin Interdisciplinary Neuroticism Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, Harriette; Rijsdijk, Fruehling V.; Snieder, Harold; Ormel, Johan

    The Twin Interdisciplinary Neuroticism Study (TWINS) is a three-wave study including >800 twin pairs from the northern part of the Netherlands. The aim of the study is to unravel why neuroticism reflects vulnerability to mental disorders. In this study, we focus on possible mechanisms underlying

  9. Personal Finance: An Interdisciplinary Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jane; Bagwell, Dorothy C; Bailey, William C.; DeVaney, Sharon A.; Grable, John E.; Leech, Irene E.; Lown, Jean M.; Sharpe, Deanna L.; Xiao, Jing J.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary recommends that financial counseling and planning research, education, and practice be framed as an interdisciplinary profession called personal finance. Authors summarize the history of the profession and key theories providing the conceptual foundation. In order for the emerging profession of personal finance to achieve…

  10. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in EHDI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri; Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs were asked to complete a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the interdisciplinary area, 47 coordinators responded with 224 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  11. Health Counseling: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Guyton, Rick

    1985-01-01

    The Counselor Education and Health Education programs at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, recently cooperated in developing a curriculum to prepare health counselors. The goals and objectives of counselor education and of health education are so similar that an interdisciplinary health care specialization is a natural development. (MT)

  12. Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Adi; Kali, Yael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processes by which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that…

  13. Successful Components of Interdisciplinary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Katherine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This article presents 10 ideas for developing successful interdisciplinary curricula as suggested in the allied health literature. Implementation of the ideas is illustrated by examples from a clinical geriatric course involving physical therapy, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, and medical students. (Author/CT)

  14. An Interdisciplinary Practical for Multimedia Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Jorquera, Diego; Pertegal-Felices, María Luisa; Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Gilar-Corbí, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary projects in the industry typically require collaboration between professionals from various fields. However, this relationship is not generally addressed in the training offered by university programs, which often ignore this interdisciplinary approach. This paper offers an example of interdisciplinary interaction through joint…

  15. Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji

    2015-10-01

    Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.

  16. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  17. Scientists and Science Education: Working at the Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2004-05-01

    "Are we alone?" "Where did we come from?" "What is our future?" These questions lie at the juncture of astronomy and biology: astrobiology. It is intrinsically interdisciplinary in its study of the origin, evolution and future of life on Earth and beyond. The fundamental concepts of origin and evolution--of both living and non-living systems--are central to astrobiology, and provide powerful themes for unifying science teaching, learning, and appreciation in classrooms and laboratories, museums and science centers, and homes. Research scientists play a key role in communicating the nature of science and joy of scientific discovery with the public. Communicating the scientific discoveries with the public brings together diverse professionals: research scientists, graduate and undergraduate faculty, educators, journalists, media producers, web designers, publishers and others. Working with these science communicators, research scientists share their discoveries through teaching, popular articles, lectures, broadcast and print media, electronic publication, and developing materials for formal and informal education such as textbooks, museum exhibits and documentary television. There's lots of activity in science communication. Yet, the NSF and NASA have both identified science education as needing improvement. The quality of schools and the preparation of teachers receive national attention via "No Child Left Behind" requirements. The number of students headed toward careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is not sufficient to meet national needs. How can the research community make a difference? What role can research scientists fulfill in improving STEM education? This talk will discuss the interface between research scientists and science educators to explore effective roles for scientists in science education partnerships. Astronomy and astrobiology education and outreach projects, materials, and programs will provide the context for

  18. Heuristic thinking: interdisciplinary perspectives on medical error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret F. Hannawa

    2013-12-01

    Switzerland to stimulate such interdisciplinary dialogue. International scholars from eight disciplines and 17 countries attended the congress to discuss interdisciplinary ideas and perspectives for advancing safer care. The team of invited COME experts collaborated in compiling this issue of the Journal of Public Health Research entitled Interdisciplinary perspectives on medical error. This particular issue introduces relevant North American and European theorizing and research on preventable adverse events. The caliber of scientists who have contributed to this issue is humbling. But rather than naming their affiliations and summarizing their individual manuscripts here, it is more important to reflect on the contribution of this special issue as a whole. Particularly, I would like to raise two important take-home messages that the articles yield: i What new insights can be derived from the papers collected in this issue? ii What are the central challenges implied for future research on medical error?

  19. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  20. Women Scientists Dedicated to Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This old-style courtyard building in Beijing is located at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, where a large number of Chinese medical scientists work, and worldwide medical research achievements are accomplished every year.

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. [Scientists in cartoons: humanizing science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Carlos Henrique; Andrade, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Marques, Ivan da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Published daily from 1994 to 2002 in Correio Popular, a Campinas-based newspaper, Os cientistas (The scientists) comic strips produced by Brazilian researchers and journalists presented science critically and irreverently, exposing the insecurities and frustrations of scientists, as well as the conflicts between them and their communication difficulties with other groups, like journalists. This article shows the diversity of personalities, subjects, graphic styles, and potential meanings in a sample of comic strips published in the first four years.

  3. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  4. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansek, R

    1999-01-01

    The use of a multidisciplinary team in managing end-stage PD was described, emphasizing the use of a specifically designed rehabilitation program based on current concepts of basal ganglia function and malfunction in PD as a means of unifying the team members, providing them with a common knowledge base and enabling the team members to speak to the patients with a common language. This approach has enabled the multidisciplinary team to function in an interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary manner.

  5. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  6. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kidron, Adi; Kali, Yael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processes by which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1) compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2) traditional pedagogy; and (3) traditional hier...

  7. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  8. Structural Narratology and Interdisciplinary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi Kalesar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between structural narratology and interdisciplinary studies. We will try to answer two main questions: What factors have been effective in narratology’s orientation toward interdisciplinary studies? Is this tendency the result of a possibility in narration or a methodological necessity? The movement of narratology to interdisciplinary is observable not only in new narratological tendencies but also in changes in structural theories. Therefore, this article will trace the roots of this tendency in the revises and critiques of these theories until 1970s. By tracing these changes it can be realized that the theories of structural narrotology have broken with idea of independence and self-sufficiency of literature and embraced other disciplines. The main factors in these changes are: attention to cultural elements and reading process in the perception of narrative structure. These considerations have been accompanied by some results; first, the main targets of narratology changed from investigating textual properties to reading and understanding the narration process; second, some disciplines and fields related to culture and mind studies found their way into narratology.

  9. Implications of internal processes in the interpretation of Titan's volatile inventory measured by Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, Gabriel; Gautier, D.; Hersant, F.; Lunine, J. I.

    2010-04-01

    Based on a series of data collected by Cassini-Huygens, we constrain the composition of the primordial bricks that formed Titan and quantify the chemical exchanges that occurred on Titan between the interior and the atmosphere since its accretion. Assuming that the bricks that formed Titan had a composition close to that of Enceladus and that of the planetesimals in the feeding zone of Saturn, we show that accretional melting generate an CH4-CO2-H2S - dominated atmosphere of more than 10 bars in equilibrium with a water ocean. The partial atmospheric pressure of ammonia remains low (ammonia into nitrogen is possible just after accretion but requires the water ocean remains in contact with the atmosphere during at least 10-50 millions of years. We show that most of the gas species, except N2 and 36Ar, released during accretion are likely to be re-incorporated in the interior during the post-accretional cooling phase, owing to efficient clathration at the water/ocean interface. During this process, xenon is predicted to be almost entirely removed from the primitive atmosphere and to be stored in the form of clathrate hydrate in the interior. The composition of gases released during the rest of the evolution is determined by the stability of each gas species relative to the clathrate phase and is expected to be dominated by CH4 and CO2, and to contain small amounts of argon and CO. It can be anticipated from our analysis that flows and deposits of CO2-rich materials would be associated to cryovolcanic events. Although the detection of 40Ar clearly support that interaction with the silicate phase has occurred during Titan's history, it is still unclear if significant chemical exchanges has occurred with the rocky core. Only detection of 38Ar and of the other noble gas isotopes by a future mission will permit to determine how the silicate phase has contributed to the volatile budget of Titan. Isotopic ratios in the surface materials (H2O, CO2 ice, organic matters, gas

  10. Providing Data Access for Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Couch, A.

    2012-12-01

    , such as gridded data, have standard storage formats (e.g., netCDF) but its native format is not convenient for water research. Some progress has been made to "transpose" these data sets from gridded data to a grid of virtual gages with time series. Such a format is more convenient for research of a limited spatial extent through time. Advances in relational data base structure now make it possible to serve very large data sets, such as radar-based precipitation grids, through HIS. Expanding the use of a standards-based services-oriented architecture will enable interdisciplinary research to proceed far more rapidly by putting data onto scientists' computers with a fraction of the effort previously required.

  11. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  12. From Science to Business: Preparing Female Scientists and Engineers for Successful Transitions into Entrepreneurship--Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Catherine Jay; Guenther, Rita S.; Gunderson, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, engineers, and medical professionals play a vital role in building the 21st- century science and technology enterprises that will create solutions and jobs critical to solving the large, complex, and interdisciplinary problems faced by society: problems in energy, sustainability, the environment, water, food, disease, and healthcare.…

  13. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  14. The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Paysics.Nuclear Paysic8and Cosmology was held on July 22-27,2007 in Lijiang,Yunan Province.Over 70 scientists who were activelv working in the fields attended the conference and 42 physicists gave talks.9 papers have been selected to be published in the proceedings.

  15. Music in Spain in the 1670s through the eyes of Sébastien Chièze and Constantijn Huygens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasch, Rudolf A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution the various remarks about music in Spain that can be found in the correspondence between Sébastien Chièze (envoy on behalf of the Prince of Orange in Madrid and Constantijn Huygens (The Hague from 1672 to 1679 are discussed. Huygens asked Chièze to find for him a copy of Salinas’s De musica (1577, as well as Spanish airs and pieces for guitar. It took Chièze two years to find a copy of De musica in Spain and have it sent safely to Holland. Huygens did not like the Spanish airs sent by Chièze, by composers such as Juan del Vado, José Marín, Cristóbal Galán, and Juan Hidalgo. He found them too “African”. Nor did he like the guitar tablature, which turned the notation as he was used to seeing it upside down. Chièze also had a guitar made for Huygens in Madrid, but this instrument also met with disapproval. In the end, Chièze asked two Bolognese acquaintances, Giulio and Guido Bovio, to search for a suitable lute for Huygens in Bologna. They found two, but it is unknown whether these ever arrived in Holland. The contribution shows the importance of foreign (diplomatic contacts in the acquisition of musical articles, such as books about music, musical compositions and musical instruments.

    Este artículo trata de las diversas observaciones a propósito de la música en España, que se encuentran en la correspondencia entre Sébastien Chièze (embajador del Príncipe de Orange en Madrid y Constantijn Huygens (La Haya, entre 1672 y 1679. Huygens pidió a Chièze que le encontrara un ejemplar del De musica de Salinas (1577, así como tonadas españolas y piezas para guitarra. A Chièze le llevó dos años hallar una copia del De musica en territorio español y hacer que el libro llegara a Holanda sano y salvo. Las tonadas remitidas por Chièze (de compositores tales como Juan del Vado, José Marín, Cristóbal Galán y Juan Hidalgo, no gustaron nada a Huygens, que las halló demasiado “africanas”. Como

  16. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  17. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.

  18. Award Set for Future Scientists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen-year-old Zhou Licheng is a pupil at the Beijing Xicheng Experimental School, and recently won second prize in the "Future Scientist Award" for his invention - a device that prevents smoke from coming down the flue. He won a 10,000-yuan cash prize, and his school was also awarded 40,000 yuan. The "Future Scientist Award" was set up through the joint efforts of the Ministry of Education, the China Association for Science and Technology, and the Hong Kong H. S. Chau Foundation. Its aim is to reward

  19. Creating Catalytic Collaborations between Theater Artists, Scientists, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Debra

    2012-02-01

    Catalyst Collaborative@MIT (CC@MIT) is a collaboration between MIT and Underground Railway Theater (URT), a company with 30 years experience creating theater through interdisciplinary inquiry and engaging community. CC@MIT is dedicated to creating and presenting plays that deepen public understanding about science, while simultaneously providing artistic and emotional experiences not available in other forms of dialogue about science. CC@MIT engages audiences in thinking about themes in science of social and ethical concern; provides insight into the culture of science and the impact of that culture on society; and examines the human condition through the lens of science that intersects our lives and the lives of scientists. Original productions range from Einstein's Dreams to From Orchids to Octopi -- an evolutionary love story; classics re-framed include The Life of Galileo and Breaking the Code (about Alan Turing). CC@MIT commissions playwrights and scientists to create plays; engages audiences with scientists; performs at MIT and a professional venue near the campus; collaborates with the Cambridge Science Festival and MIT Museum; engages MIT students, as well as youth and children. Artistic Director Debra Wise will address how the collaboration developed, what opportunities are provided by collaborations between theaters and scientific research institutions, and lessons learned of value to the field.

  20. Translation and Transfer: Interdisciplinary Writing and Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Comer

    2013-01-01

    As institutions of higher learning make growing numbers of interdisciplinary faculty hires, establish ever more interdisciplinary units, develop interdisciplinary curricula, and pursue growth sectors such as global and online education, the ability to write effectively across disciplinary boundaries is becoming ever more vital, and ever more complex. The rapidly changing and expanding academic climate lends urgency for all students, faculty, staff, and administrators not only to learn how to ...

  1. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, S.A.; Booth, A; Ariss, S; T. Smith; Enderby, P; Roots, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary te...

  2. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  3. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  4. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  5. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  6. Comprehensive mathematics for computer scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzola, Guerino; Weissmann, Jody

    2005-01-01

    This two-volume textbook Comprehensive Mathematics for the Working Computer Scientist is a self-contained comprehensive presentation of mathematics including sets, numbers, graphs, algebra, logic, grammars, machines, linear geometry, calculus, ODEs, and special themes such as neural networks, Fourier theory, wavelets, numerical.

  7. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  8. The Scientists in Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Leonie; Heard, Marian; Yuncken, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Scientists in Schools is a project funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment, and Workplace Relations and managed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Education Section. This paper describes how the project is working to establish and maintain sustained and ongoing partnerships between…

  9. Issues in Training Family Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Issues related to graduate education in family science, especially at the doctoral level, are explored. Discusses competencies family scientists should have, as well as experiences necessary to help students acquire them. Proposes ideas for a core curriculum, identifies controversies and unresolved issues, and examines training for the future.…

  10. The electrical properties of Titan's surface at the Huygens landing site measured with the PWA-HASI Mutual Impedance Probe. New approach and new findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Michel; Lethuillier, Anthony; Le Gall, Alice; Grard, Réjean; Béghin, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jernej, Irmgard; López-Moreno, José-Juan; Brown, Vic; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Ferri, Francesca; Ciarletti, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    Ten years after the successful landing of the Huygens Probe on the surface of Titan, we reassess the derivation of ground complex permittivity using the PWA-MIP/HASI measurements (Permittivity, Waves and Altimetry-Mutual Impedance Probe/Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument) at the frequencies 45, 90 and 360 Hz. For this purpose, we have developed a numerical method, namely "the capacity-influence matrix method", able to account for new insights on the Huygens Probe attitude at its final resting position. We find that the surface of Titan at the landing site has a dielectric constant of 2.5 ± 0.3 and a conductivity of 1.2 ± 0.6 nS/m, in agreement with previously published results but with much more reliable error estimates. These values speak in favour of a photochemical origin of the material in the first meter of the subsurface. We also propose, for the first time, a plausible explanation for the sudden change observed by PWA-MIP ∼11 min after landing: this change corresponds to a drop in the ground conductivity, probably due to the removal of a superficial conductive layer in association with the release of volatile materials warmed by the Huygens Probe.

  11. Teaching about Fascism: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Claire

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which teaches the history of fascism and nazism through interdisciplinary methods: philosophy, film, literature, and art. Visiting lecturers include survivors of concentration camps. (KC)

  12. Teaching about Fascism: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Claire

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which teaches the history of fascism and nazism through interdisciplinary methods: philosophy, film, literature, and art. Visiting lecturers include survivors of concentration camps. (KC)

  13. Transporting ideas between marine and social sciences: experiences from interdisciplinary research programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy M. Turner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The oceans comprise 70% of the surface area of our planet, contain some of the world’s richest natural resources and are one of the most significant drivers of global climate patterns. As the marine environment continues to increase in importance as both an essential resource reservoir and facilitator of global change, it is apparent that to find long-term sustainable solutions for our use of the sea and its resources and thus to engage in a sustainable blue economy, an integrated interdisciplinary approach is needed. As a result, interdisciplinary working is proliferating. We report here our experiences of forming interdisciplinary teams (marine ecologists, ecophysiologists, social scientists, environmental economists and environmental law specialists to answer questions pertaining to the effects of anthropogenic-driven global change on the sustainability of resource use from the marine environment, and thus to transport ideas outwards from disciplinary confines. We use a framework derived from the literature on interdisciplinarity to enable us to explore processes of knowledge integration in two ongoing research projects, based on analyses of the purpose, form and degree of knowledge integration within each project. These teams were initially focused around a graduate program, explicitly designed for interdisciplinary training across the natural and social sciences, at the Gothenburg Centre for Marine Research at the University of Gothenburg, thus allowing us to reflect on our own experiences within the context of other multi-national, interdisciplinary graduate training and associated research programs.

  14. How to Enhance Interdisciplinary Competence--Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning versus Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Mirjam; Dettmers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary competence is important in academia for both employability and sustainable development. However, to date, there are no specific interdisciplinary education models and, naturally, no empirical studies to assess them. Since problem-based learning (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) are learning approaches that emphasize…

  15. Ethnicity and interdisciplinary pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Christine M; Matsuura, Justin T; Smith, Clark C; Stanos, Steven P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify ethnic differences in interdisciplinary pain treatment outcome and whether these differences occur while controlling for the effects of demographics, psychosocial, and secondary gain. We assessed a sample of 116 (Caucasian, African American, and Latino/a) chronic pain patients who participated a 4-week interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Outcome measure included pretreatment, post-treatment, and change scores on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire-revised, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-short form. Analysis of covariances revealed that after accounting for educational and sex differences, ethnic minorities differed from Caucasians on a number of treatment outcome measures at pre- and post-treatment [F's ≥ 5.38; P's activity than Caucasians. Results support the notion that ethnic differences in pain treatment outcome exist. Further, ethnic minority groups appear to have greater levels of distress compared to Caucasians. However, African Americans, Latino/a's and Caucasians demonstrated similar improvements on all outcome measures, with exception of the use of prayer. Future studies should begin to explore the mechanisms to explain why ethnic group differences in pain treatment outcome occur. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Interdisciplinary Approach in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Zeidmane

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the scientific literature available on the types of general competences and their classification caused the authors to conclude that it is necessary to implement interdisciplinary approach in engineering education to develop competences necessary for engineers to make them competitive in the labour market. The attention should be paid to a professional foreign language, computer literacy and educational psychology recommendations. To improve professional foreign language skills, CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning method should be integrated in the study process of engineering education. In order to develop information literacy competence, it is important to create a single e-study environment. The academic staff, developing study subjects for engineering programmes, should focus on the study content and study methods. As regards the content, the compromise should be sought between fundamental acquisition of the knowledge of the subject matter, the know-how of the application of this knowledge as well as the use of brand new software in the calculations. The paper presents the examples of the application of the interdisciplinary approach in the universities, where the authors of the paper are affiliated: the LUA (Latvia University of Agriculture and the RTU (Riga Technical University, respectively.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of scattering in optical coherence tomography skin images using the extended Huygens-Fresnel theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Mohammad R N; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh; Schofield, John B; Jones, Carole; Sira, Manu; Liu, Yan; Hojjat, Ali

    2013-03-10

    An optical properties extraction algorithm is developed based on enhanced Huygens-Fresnel light propagation theorem, to extract the scattering coefficient of a specific region in an optical coherence tomography (OCT) image. The aim is to quantitatively analyze the OCT images. The algorithm is evaluated using a set of phantoms with different concentrations of scatterers, designed based on Mie theory. The algorithm is then used to analyze basal cell carcinoma and healthy eyelid tissues, demonstrating distinguishable differences in the scattering coefficient between these tissues. In this study, we have taken advantage of the simplification introduced by the utilization of a dynamic focus OCT system. This eliminates the need to deconvolve the reflectivity profile with the confocal gate profile, as the sensitivity of the OCT system is constant throughout the axial range.

  18. How can scientists bring research to use: the HENVINET experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health concerns have driven the European environmental policies of the last 25 years, with issues becoming more complex. Addressing these concerns requires an approach that is both interdisciplinary and engages scientists with society. In response to this requirement, the FP6 coordination action “Health and Environment Network” HENVINET was set up to create a permanent inter-disciplinary network of professionals in the field of health and environment tasked to bridge the communication gap between science and society. In this paper we describe how HENVINET delivered on this task. Methods The HENVINET project approached the issue of inter-disciplinary collaboration in four ways. (1 The Drivers-Pressures-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework was used to structure information gathering, collaboration and communication between scientists in the field of health and the environment. (2 Interactive web-based tools were developed to enhance methods for knowledge evaluation, and use these methods to formulate policy advice. (3 Quantification methods were adapted to measure scientific agreement. And (4 Open architecture web technology was used to develop an information repository and a web portal to facilitate collaboration and communication among scientists. Results Twenty-five organizations from Europe and five from outside Europe participated in the Health and Environment Network HENVINET, which lasted for 3.5 years. The consortium included partners in environmental research, public health and veterinary medicine; included medical practitioners and representatives of local administrations; and had access to national policy making and EEA and WHO expertise. Dedicated web-based tools for visualisation of environmental health issues and knowledge evaluation allowed remote expert elicitation, and were used as a basis for developing policy advice in five health areas (asthma and allergies; cancer; neurodevelopmental disorders

  19. Mathematics for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Although designed as a textbook with problem sets in each chapter and selected answers at the end of the book, Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists, Sixth Edition serves equally well as a supplemental text and for self-study. The author strongly encourages readers to make use of computer algebra software, to experiment with it, and to learn more about mathematical functions and the operations that it can perform.

  20. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  1. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  2. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  3. Fostering Interdisciplinary Communication between Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Aleda M. H.; Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content.

  4. Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossanova, Altynay Zh.; Ismakova, Bibissara S.; Tapanova, Saule E.; Ayupova, Gulbagira K.; Gotting, Valentina V.; Kaltayeva, Gulnar K.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose is the implementation of the interdisciplinary approach to understanding and the construction of integrative models of understanding literary texts. The interdisciplinary methodological paradigm of studying text understanding, based on the principles of various sciences facilitating the identification of the text understanding…

  5. Authentic Interdisciplinary Instruction: Raising the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This article addressed the need for authentic interdisciplinary instruction. Authentic interdisciplinary instruction is defined as a learning activity that simultaneously improves student performance related to grade-level standards in two or more disciplines (e.g., science and physical education). The process described for creating authentic…

  6. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  7. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  8. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  9. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  10. Interdisciplinary Training: Preparing Counselors for Collaborative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okech, Jane E. Atieno; Geroski, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This article utilizes one counselor education program's experience as a framework for exploring how to prepare counselors to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on an interdisciplinary training program that involves faculty and graduate students from counseling, social work, nursing, internal medicine and family medicine, the article explores…

  11. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  12. Teaching Interdisciplinary Engineering and Science Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the challenges for the involved teachers who plan and implement interdisciplinary educations. They are confronted with challenges regarding their understanding of using known disciplines in a new interdisciplinary way and see the possibilities of integrating disciplines when...

  13. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  14. Pavlov as a psychophysiological scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, W P

    1990-05-01

    It is suggested that Pavlov was not only a famous physiologist, but due to his work on the conditional reflex, he could be considered a behavioral scientist. In addition his work on experimental neurosis gives him the distinction of being a pioneer investigator in the area of psychological stress. Pavlov's research is viewed against a background of primitive research tools and unproductive subjective theories. Nineteenth century scientists who influenced Pavlov included Darwin, Botkin, Heidenhain, Gaskell and Bernard. Pavlov's research on the digestive system emphasized the role of the nervous system, launched the field of gastroenterology, and emphasized the concept of the conditional reflex. Pavlov's conditional reflex formulations were based on the theoretical formulations of Sechenov, and possibly the work of David Hartley. The discovery of secretin, by Bayliss and Starling, and its influence on the stomach led Pavlov to diminish his work on the digestive system and to focus his research on the conditional reflex phenomenon. Arguments which suggest that Pavlov worked as a behavioral scientist include his conceptual formulations, his research on traditional psychological topics and his investigation of psychiatric disorders. His conditioning research emphasized the individual differences of his animal subjects which led to his research on typology and experimental neurosis which formed the basis for his work on environmental stressors and psychopathology.

  15. An Interdisciplinary Network Making Progress on Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J. C.; Bales, S.; Fraser, J.; Yoder, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change continues to lag far behind the scientific consensus not merely because the public lacks information, but because there is in fact too much complex and contradictory information available. Fortunately, we can now (1) build on careful empirical cognitive and social science research to understand what people already value, believe, and understand; and then (2) design and test strategies for translating complex science so that people can examine evidence, make well-informed inferences, and embrace science-based solutions. Informal science education institutions can help bridge the gap between climate scientists and the public. In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, etc.) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Extensive research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change and trust these institutions as reliable sources. Ultimately, we need to take a strategic approach to the way climate change is communicated. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to bring together three key areas of expertise (as recommended by Pidgeon and Fischhoff, 2011): 1. Climate and decision science experts - who can summarize and explain what is known, characterize risks, and describe appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies; 2. Social scientists - who can bring to bear research, theory, and best practices from cognitive, communication, knowledge acquisition, and social learning theory; and 3. Informal educators and program designers - who bring a practitioner perspective and can exponentially facilitate a learning process for additional interpreters. With support from an NSF CCEP Phase I grant, we have tested this approach, bringing together Interdisciplinary teams of colleagues for a five month "study circles" to develop skills to communicate climate change based on research in the social and cognitive sciences. In 2011

  16. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where...... there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory...... of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem...

  17. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where...... there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory...... of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem...

  18. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  19. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  20. Interdisciplinary in the Information Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity and its implications for developing a conceptual framework for the Information Field is discussed, and Zhang & Benjamin’s (2007) paper Understanding Information Related Fields: A Conceptual Framework is examined. It is argued that the fundamental components of a framework must...... be seen as embedded in disciplines, with their theories, concepts, approaches and assumptions. It is argued that a theoretically based distinction between multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity is important as a foundation for a discussion of a conceptual framework for the Information Field. It is shown...... how interdisciplinary theory may inform the development of a shared conceptual framework for the Information Field. A continuum of integration from multi- to inter- to transdisciplinarity is useful for a distinction of different degrees of synthesis, as common conceptual frameworks tend...

  1. Excel for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuuren, Dr Gerard

    2005-01-01

    For scientists and engineers tired of trying to learn Excel with examples from accounting, this self-paced tutorial is loaded with informative samples from the world of science and engineering. Techniques covered include creating a multifactorial or polynomial trendline, generating random samples with various characteristics, and tips on when to use PEARSON instead of CORREL. Other science- and engineering-related Excel features such as making columns touch each other for a histogram, unlinking a chart from its data, and pivoting tables to create frequency distributions are also covered.

  2. A scientist at the seashore

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James S

    2005-01-01

    ""A marvelous excursion from the beach to the ends of the solar system . . . captivating.""-The New York Times""So easy to understand yet so dense with knowledge that you'll never look at waves on a beach the same way again.""-San Francisco Chronicle""One of the best popular science books.""-The Kansas City Star""Perfect for the weekend scientist.""-The Richmond News-LeaderA noted physicist and popular science writer heads for the beach to answer common and uncommon questions about the ocean. James S. Trefil, author of Dover Publications' The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics from Before th

  3. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch ...

  7. Developing a Student-Scientist Partnership: Boreal Forest Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Shannon; Huczek, George; Muir, Bradley

    1998-03-01

    A student-scientist partnership outreach program was funded by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) to involve students and teachers in scientific investigations pertinent to global change research occurring within the boreal region of Canada. Boreal Forest Watch was planned, designed and piloted by an interdisciplinary group of education and science professionals from the University of New Hampshire, the Prince Albert National Park, and several schools in central Saskatchewan, Canada. A two goal approach was adopted to 1) ensure the educational significance of the program and 2) introduce scientifically valid methods for collection of research data pertinent to global change scientists. Professional educators and school administrators from Saskatchewan were recruited to assist in project planning to ensure that the proposed activities fit within the existing curriculum framework. This process was essential for successful adoption of the program by participating teachers. The process and approach of initiating Boreal Forest Watch are presented in this paper. This program became fully functional in September, 1996 with the training of several participating teachers. Perspectives of the program and its future are provided by members of the design team. Boreal Forest Watch is a unique opportunity for both Canadian students and their teachers to explore their natural environment, learn scientific methods and principles, and contribute data to the global change research community.

  8. Students work as scientists for the summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, Marianne Vang

    2006-01-01

    Each year, Risø offers its PhD students a course to challenge the natural scientists of the future and to provide them with a more balanced view of their own role as scientists in society.......Each year, Risø offers its PhD students a course to challenge the natural scientists of the future and to provide them with a more balanced view of their own role as scientists in society....

  9. Teaching Interdisciplinary Engineering and Science Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; S. Stachowicz, Marian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the challenges for the involved teachers who plan and implement interdisciplinary educations. They are confronted with challenges regarding their understanding of using known disciplines in a new interdisciplinary way and see the possibilities of integrating disciplines when...... curriculum are used to find the problems. The conclusion is that teachers have to develop understanding of how to integrate their expertise in a new interdisciplinary curriculum. Furthermore they have to be aware of their knowledge profile. Teachers also need to use resources to find a common goal...

  10. Young scientists in the making

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    Some 700 local primary-school children will be trying out the scientific method for themselves from February to June. After "Draw me a physicist", the latest project "Dans la peau d’un chercheur" ("Be a scientist for a day") is designed to give children a taste of what it's like to be a scientist. Both schemes are the fruit of a partnership between CERN, "PhysiScope" (University of Geneva) and the local education authorities in the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva.   Juliette Davenne (left) and Marie Bugnon (centre) from CERN's Communication Group prepare the mystery boxes for primary schools with Olivier Gaumer (right) of PhysiScope. Imagine a white box that rattles and gives off a strange smell when you shake it… How would you go about finding out what's inside it without opening it? Thirty primary-school teachers from the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva tried out this exercise on Wednesday 26 ...

  11. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  12. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in…

  13. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  14. Bangladesh women scientists' association honours ICDDR,B scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Ayesha Molla, an ICDDR,B biochemist-nutritionist, was awarded a gold medal by the Bangladesh Women Scientists' Association and named Best Woman Scientist of the Year. She was honored for outstanding achievements in diarrhea/nutrition research especially in her classic studies on nutrient absorption during diarrhea. Her recent work has focused on the diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism in children. Her findings indicate that eating during acute diarrhea should be encouraged to reduce post-diarrhea malnutriton in vulnerable developing country children. In another study in collaboration with her husband, a pediatrician and gastroenterologist, it was found that diarrhea has a negligible effect on secretion of digestive enzymes which partially explains why significant digestion and absorption continue during diarrhea. Dr. Molla was also honored for related studies on the vitamin A/diarrhea/malnutrition mechanism. This is of immense importance in developing countries since repeated diarrheal infections in children aggravate malnutrition and lead to vitamin A deficiency blindness. Most blindness seems to be associated with or preceded by recurrent diarrheal infections. Dr. Molla found that water-soluble vitamin A administrated orally was associated with rapid improvement of deteriorating eye conditions. A brief outline of her background is given and her current work discussed. She is presently involved in seeking the best possible diet for children suffering from severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). This problem results in coincident lack of varying proportions of protein and energy. Dr. Molla is attempting to determine the fastest, most tolerable, low cost, readily available and culturally acceptable diet. Maternal training in feeding practices will be provided. In collaboration with her husband, Dr. Molla is also studying the 2nd generation Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). They are working to substitute rice or other staples for the traditional sugar in ORS.

  15. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  16. Interdisciplinary German-Language Cultural-Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Meriam M.

    1974-01-01

    The suggested themes, activities and projects presented here evolved from the interdisciplinary advanced German-language-mini-courses at Ridgefield (Connecticut) High School. Many of the activities can be adapted for use at earlier levels. (PP)

  17. Is pretenure interdisciplinary research a career risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E. V.; Mackey, K. R. M.; Cusack, D. F.; DeSantis, L. R. G.; Hartzell-Nichols, L.; Lutz, J. A.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Meyer, R.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Sorte, C. J. B.; Taylor, J. R.; White, S. A.

    2012-08-01

    Despite initiatives to promote interdisciplinary research, early-career academics continue to perceive professional risks to working at the interface between traditional disciplines. Unexpectedly, the inherent practical challenges of interdisciplinary scholarship, such as new methodologies and lexicons, are not the chief source of the perceived risk. The perception of risk is pervasive across disciplines, and it persists despite efforts to support career development for individuals with common interests [Mitchell and Weiler, 2011]. Suggestions that interdisciplinary work can go unrewarded in academia [Clark et al., 2011] foster a concern that targeting interdisciplinary questions, such as those presented by climate change, will pose problems for acquiring and succeeding in a tenure-track position. If self-preservation limits the questions posed by early-career academics, a perceived career risk is as damaging as a real one to new transdisciplinary initiatives. Thus, institutions should address the source of this perception whether real or specious.

  18. Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics: Standards Correlation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This guide outlines teacher preparation, professional association, and Common Core State Standards aligned to an "interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics" approach using Junior Achievement educational programs within a Math Methods course to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math.

  19. Evolution--A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, Pat; Keating, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Outlines an award-winning interdisciplinary unit of study (used in biology and English classrooms) that combines literature, mythology, religious history relating to origins, and Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. (RS)

  20. Integrative and Interdisciplinary Approaches to Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Julie E

    2015-01-01

    Integrating diverse conceptions of leadership across different disciplines, perspectives, and epistemologies is imperative if leaders are to operate in a global and networked world. Interdisciplinary and integrative leadership courses and digital learning communities are featured examples.

  1. Towards mutual understanding within interdisciplinary palaeoenvironmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, F.; Großmann, R.; Hinz, M.;

    2013-01-01

    The term landscape is a crucial term for a diversity of scientific disciplines researching the Quaternary, each of which maintains different concepts and definitions. With increasing interdisciplinary research cooperation between disparate disciplines, a basis for communication has to be establis......The term landscape is a crucial term for a diversity of scientific disciplines researching the Quaternary, each of which maintains different concepts and definitions. With increasing interdisciplinary research cooperation between disparate disciplines, a basis for communication has...

  2. Interdisciplinary approach for improved esthetic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical report describes an interdisciplinary (orthodontic, prosthodontics and operative dentist approach for the coordinated treatment of an adult patient diagnosed with severely mutilated dentition secondary to caries lesion warranting restorative procedures that was facilitated with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s specific esthetic expectation for the anterior teeth and improved smile were successfully met through planned treatment, including orthodontic tooth movement, restoration and porcelain conversion crowns. Such coordinated interdisciplinary evaluations and treatment are necessary for improved esthetics.

  3. Is evaluation of scientist's objective

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, A

    2000-01-01

    There is ample data demonstrating that female scientists advance at a far slower rate than their male colleagues. The low numbers of female professors in European and North American universities is, thus, not solely an effect of few women in the recruitment pool but also to obstacles specific to the female gender. Together with her colleague Christine Wennerås, Agnes Wold conducted a study of the evaluation process at the Swedish Medical Research Council. Evaluators judged the "scientific competence", "research proposal" and "methodology" of applicants for post-doctoral positions in 1995. By relating the scores for "scientific competence" to the applicants' scientific productivity and other factors using multiple regression, Wennerås and Wold demonstrated that the applicant's sex exerted a strong influence on the "competence" score so that male applicants were perceived as being more competent than female applicants of equal productivity. The study was published in Nature (vol 387, p 341-3, 1997) and inspir...

  4. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  5. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  6. Special Functions for Applied Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M

    2008-01-01

    Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...

  7. Interdisciplinary research has consistently lower funding success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Dinnage, Russell; Hua, Xia

    2016-06-30

    Interdisciplinary research is widely considered a hothouse for innovation, and the only plausible approach to complex problems such as climate change. One barrier to interdisciplinary research is the widespread perception that interdisciplinary projects are less likely to be funded than those with a narrower focus. However, this commonly held belief has been difficult to evaluate objectively, partly because of lack of a comparable, quantitative measure of degree of interdisciplinarity that can be applied to funding application data. Here we compare the degree to which research proposals span disparate fields by using a biodiversity metric that captures the relative representation of different fields (balance) and their degree of difference (disparity). The Australian Research Council's Discovery Programme provides an ideal test case, because a single annual nationwide competitive grants scheme covers fundamental research in all disciplines, including arts, humanities and sciences. Using data on all 18,476 proposals submitted to the scheme over 5 consecutive years, including successful and unsuccessful applications, we show that the greater the degree of interdisciplinarity, the lower the probability of being funded. The negative impact of interdisciplinarity is significant even when number of collaborators, primary research field and type of institution are taken into account. This is the first broad-scale quantitative assessment of success rates of interdisciplinary research proposals. The interdisciplinary distance metric allows efficient evaluation of trends in research funding, and could be used to identify proposals that require assessment strategies appropriate to interdisciplinary research.

  8. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  9. Staged Models for Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuerza, Luis F; Edmonds, Bruce; McKane, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Modellers of complex biological or social systems are often faced with an invidious choice: to use simple models with few mechanisms that can be fully analysed, or to construct complicated models that include all the features which are thought relevant. The former ensures rigour, the latter relevance. We discuss a method that combines these two approaches, beginning with a complex model and then modelling the complicated model with simpler models. The resulting "chain" of models ensures some rigour and relevance. We illustrate this process on a complex model of voting intentions, constructing a reduced model which agrees well with the predictions of the full model. Experiments with variations of the simpler model yield additional insights which are hidden by the complexity of the full model. This approach facilitated collaboration between social scientists and physicists -- the complex model was specified based on the social science literature, and the simpler model constrained to agree (in core aspects) with...

  10. [Comment on "Meeting Ph.D. Graduates' needs in a changing global environment"] Challenges to fostering interdisciplinary graduate education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Beaudry

    C. Susan Weiler's article ("Meeting Ph.D. graduates' needs in a changing global environment," Eos, 55(13), 149, 151) calling for more care and attention to interdisciplinary graduate education illuminated an important and neglected issue. Weiler makes the excellent point that for society to manage complex natural systems effectively, it is imperative that we establish stronger connections between science and public policy. However, as a nation, the United States lacks the institutional research culture to foster this. Nor are we training sufficient numbers of professionals with the skills to make these connections; and when the small number of truly interdisciplinary scientists emerge annually into the workforce, there are few positions that fit them.I echo Weiler's call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration, and the necessary training to support this increase. However, there are some fundamental obstacles her article does not explore.

  11. Patterns of citation when Korean scientists cite other Korean scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonok Chung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citation patterns of Korean scientists are investigated by analyzing the references of the papers authored by Korean chemists and published in two journals of different standing. Particular interest is given to how frequently Korean researchers quote the papers written by other Korean researchers and whether there is any difference in the citation pattern when Korean researchers publish their papers in a top international journal or in a domestic journal. Two journals in the category of multidisciplinary chemistry, the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, are chosen and a detailed analysis of the references of the papers written by Korean authors in 2015 was performed. The author self-citation rate is found to be much larger than the citation rate of other Korean authors. It is also found that the percentage of self-citations and the percentage of the references by Korean authors excluding self-citations are both significantly larger in the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society than in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Interpretations of the results based on social exchange theory are proposed.

  12. Possible Niches For Extant Life On Titan In Light Of The First Six Years Of Cassini/Huygens Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, David H.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2010-10-01

    At the 2005 DPS meeting we presented an assessment of the possibility of extant life on Titan after the first year of the Cassini mission at Saturn. We suggested then that hydrogenation of photochemically produced acetylene could provide metabolic energy for near-surface organisms and also replenish atmospheric methane (Schulze-Makuch and Grinspoon, 2005). In this talk we will offer a brief reassessment of the possibility of extant life in light of five more years of the Cassini/Huygens results, including the recent reports suggesting a lack of acetylene on the surface (Clark et al., 2010) and a possible sink of H2 at the surface (Strobel, 2010). Both results are consistent with earlier predictions for the existence of an acetylene-powered biosphere on Titan (Schulze-Makuch and Grinspoon, 2005; McKay and Smith, 2005), but can potentially be explained by more prosaic phenomena. D. Schulze-Makuch and D. H. Grinspoon(2005), Biologically Enhanced Energy and Carbon Cycling on Titan? Astrobiology 5, 560-567; Clarke, R.N. et al. (2020), Detection and Mapping of Hydrocarbon Deposits on Titan, JGR-Planets; Strobel, D.F(2010) Molecular hydrogen in Titan's atmosphere: Implications of the measured tropospheric and thermospheric mole fractions. Icarus; McKay, C.P., Smith, H.D.( 2005) Possibilities for methanogenic life in liquid methane on the surface of Titan. Icarus 178, 274-276.

  13. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  14. Interdisciplinary Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L. M.; Lopresti, V. C.; Papali, P.

    1993-05-01

    The practice of science is by its very nature interdisciplinary. Most school curricula, however, present science as a "layer cake" with one year each of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Students are too often left with a fragmented, disjointed view of the sciences as separate and distinct bodies of information. The continuity of scientific thought and the importance of major ideas such as energy, rates of change, and the nature of matter are not seen. We describe two efforts to integrate the sciences in a middle school curriculum and in an introductory science course for prospective elementary teachers. Introductory physical science for eighth graders at the Park School has three major units: "Observing the Sky", "The Nature of Matter", and "The Nature of Light". The course moves from simple naked-eye observations of the Sun and Moon to an understanding of the apparent motions of the Sun and of the Earth's seasons. In "The Nature of Matter", students construct operational definitions of characteristic properties of matter such as density, boiling point, solubility, and flame color. They design and perform many experiments and conclude by separating a mixture of liquids and solids by techniques such as distillation and fractional crystallization. In studying flame tests, students learn that different materials have different color "signatures" and that the differences can be quantified with a spectroscope. They then observe solar absorption lines with their spectroscopes and discover which elements are present in the Sun. Teachers of young children are potentially some of the most powerful allies in increasing our country's scientific literacy, yet most remain at best uneasy about science. At Wheelock College we are designing a course to be called "Introduction to Natural Science" for elementary education majors. We will address special needs of many in this population, including science anxiety and poor preparation in mathematics. A broad conceptual

  15. Interdisciplinary Adventures in Perceptual Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, Christopher S.

    A portfolio dissertation that began as acoustic ecology and matured into perceptual ecology, centered on ecomusicology, bioacoustics, and translational audio-based media works with environmental perspectives. The place of music in Western eco-cosmology through time provides a basis for structuring an environmental history of human sound perception. That history suggests that music may stabilize human mental activity, and that an increased musical practice may be essential for the human project. An overview of recent antecedents preceding the emergence of acoustic ecology reveals structural foundations from 20th century culture that underpin modern sound studies. The contextual role that Aldo Leopold, Jacob von Uexkull, John Cage, Marshall McLuhan, and others played in anticipating the development of acoustic ecology as an interdiscipline is detailed. This interdisciplinary aspect of acoustic ecology is defined and defended, while new developments like soundscape ecology are addressed, though ultimately sound studies will need to embrace a broader concept of full-spectrum "sensory" or "perceptual" ecology. The bioacoustic fieldwork done on spawning sturgeon emphasized this necessity. That study yielded scientific recordings and spectrographic analyses of spawning sounds produced by lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, during reproduction in natural habitats in the Lake Winnebago watershed in Wisconsin. Recordings were made on the Wolf and Embarrass River during the 2011-2013 spawning seasons. Several specimens were dissected to investigate possible sound production mechanisms; no sonic musculature was found. Drumming sounds, ranging from 5 to 7 Hz fundamental frequency, verified the infrasonic nature of previously undocumented "sturgeon thunder". Other characteristic noises of sturgeon spawning including low-frequency rumbles and hydrodynamic sounds were identified. Intriguingly, high-frequency signals resembling electric organ discharges were discovered. These

  16. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  17. Building Interdisciplinary Research and Communication Skills in the Agricultural and Climate Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Maynard, J.; Borrelli, K.; Wolf, K.; Bernacchi, L.; Eigenbrode, S.; Daley Laursen, D.

    2015-12-01

    Preparing scientists and educators to create and promote practical science-based agricultural approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation is a main focus of the Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) project. Social, political and environmental complexities and interactions require that future scientists work across disciplines rather than having isolated knowledge of one specific subject area. Additionally, it is important for graduate students earning M.S. or Ph.D. degrees in agriculture and climate sciences to be able to communicate scientific findings effectively to non-scientific audiences. Unfortunately, university graduate curricula rarely adequately prepare students with these important skills. REACCH recognizes the need for graduate students to have thorough exposure to other disciplines and to be able to communicate information for outreach and education purposes. These priorities have been incorporated into graduate training within the REACCH project. The interdisciplinary nature of the project and its sophisticated digital infrastructure provide graduate students multiple opportunities to gain these experiences. The project includes over 30 graduate students from 20 different disciplines and research foci including agronomy, biogeochemistry, soil quality, conservation tillage, hydrology, pest and beneficial organisms, economics, modeling, remote sensing, science education and climate science. Professional develop workshops were developed and held during annual project meetings to enhance student training. The "Toolbox" survey (http://www.cals.uidaho.edu/toolbox/) was used to achieve effective interdisciplinary communication. Interdisciplinary extension and education projects were required to allow students to gain experience with collaboration and working with stakeholder groups. Results of student surveys and rubrics developed to gauge success in interdisciplinary research and communication may provide a helpful starting point for

  18. Educating the next generation of atmospheric scientists within a European Network of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.; Uherek, E.; Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A.; Jacob, M. J.

    In order to promote the next generation of atmospheric scientists, the task Training and Education (T&E) in ACCENT, the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ( www.accent-network.org) has developed and implemented an Integrated Learning Environment (ILE). For school teachers and their students, the Internet-based "Global Change Magazine" provides up-to-date and freely accessible scientific material in English and five other languages. Additionally, T&E has produced online teaching material for early-career scientists. These e-learning modules are now being used in University Master's courses across Europe. T&E also organised training events for early-career scientists, combining scientific content with development in transferable skills, to focus on interdisciplinary collaboration, interaction with senior scientists, communication with stakeholders, and dissemination to the general public. Evaluation based on participant feedback evidences the effectiveness of these events, e.g., in terms of motivation to remain in the field. Methodologies and materials from T&E are being published in a Handbook on Best Practice, intended for both educators and scientists around the globe who are involved in education in the field of air quality and climate change science.

  19. Gifted and Talented Students’ Images of Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Camcı-Erdoğan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate gifted students’ images of scientists. The study involved 25 students in grades 7 and 8. The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST (Chamber, 183 was used to collect data. Drawings were eval-uated using certain criterion such as a scien-tist’s appearance and investigation, knowledge and technology symbols and gender and working style, place work, expressions, titles-captions-symbols and alternative images and age. The results showed that gifted students’ perceptions about scientists were stereotypical, generally with glasses and laboratory coats and working with experiment tubes, beakers indoors and using books, technological tools and dominantly lonely males. Most gifted stu-dents drew male scientists. Although females drew male scientists, none of the boys drew female scientist.

  20. Exploring Scientists' Working Timetable: A Global Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Zhang, Chunbo; Xu, Shenmeng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chuanli; Wang, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study (Wang et al., 2012), we analyzed scientists' working timetable of 3 countries, using realtime downloading data of scientific literatures. In this paper, we make a through analysis about global scientists' working habits. Top 30 countries/territories from Europe, Asia, Australia, North America, Latin America and Africa are selected as representatives and analyzed in detail. Regional differences for scientists' working habits exists in different countries. Besides different working cultures, social factors could affect scientists' research activities and working patterns. Nevertheless, a common conclusion is that scientists today are often working overtime. Although scientists may feel engaged and fulfilled about their hard working, working too much still warns us to reconsider the work - life balance.

  1. Walter sutton: physician, scientist, inventor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gregory J; Hulston, Nancy J; Kovac, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Walter S. Sutton (1877-1916) was a physician, scientist, and inventor. Most of the work on Sutton has focused on his recognition that chromosomes carry genetic material and are the basis for Mendelian inheritance. Perhaps less well known is his work on rectal administration of ether. After Sutton's work on genetics, he completed his medical degree in 1907 and began a 2-year surgical fellowship at Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, NY, where he was introduced to the technique of rectal administration of ether. Sutton modified the work of others and documented 100 cases that were reported in his 1910 landmark paper "Anaesthesia by Colonic Absorption of Ether". Sutton had several deaths in his study, but he did not blame the rectal method. He felt that his use of rectal anesthesia was safe when administered appropriately and believed that it offered a distinct advantage over traditional pulmonary ether administration. His indications for its use included (1) head and neck surgery; (2) operations when ether absorption must be minimized due to heart, lung, or kidney problems; and (3) preoperative pulmonary complications. His contraindications included (1) cases involving alimentary tract or weakened colon; (2) laparotomies, except when the peritoneal cavity was not opened; (3) incompetent sphincter or anal fistula; (4) orthopnea; and (5) emergency cases. Sutton wrote the chapter on "Rectal Anesthesia" in one of the first comprehensive textbooks in anesthesia, James Tayloe Gwathmey's Anesthesia. Walter Sutton died of a ruptured appendix in 1916 at age 39.

  2. Exploring Scientists' Working Timetable: A Global Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Peng, Lian; Zhang, Chunbo; Xu, Shenmeng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chuanli; Wang, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study (Wang et al., 2012), we analyzed scientists' working timetable of 3 countries, using realtime downloading data of scientific literatures. In this paper, we make a through analysis about global scientists' working habits. Top 30 countries/territories from Europe, Asia, Australia, North America, Latin America and Africa are selected as representatives and analyzed in detail. Regional differences for scientists' working habits exists in different countries. Besides differen...

  3. Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies Provide Science-Society Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. M.; Hancock, G. S.; Swaddle, J. P.; Hicks, R. L.; Roberts, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental issues typically occur at the intersection of traditional disciplines such as biology, geology, economics, public policy, and sociology, but many undergraduate students possess neither the tools nor the required interdisciplinary skills to effectively work together to address these complex issues. Our REU program--Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies at the College of William and Mary--with its common watershed theme, improves our students' independence as scientists, increases environmental science literacy across disciplines, and contributes to the educational development of undergraduates as environmental spokespersons. The cohort of students work with W&M faculty mentors on aquatic and associated upland habitats under increasing pressures from urbanization, posing questions integrated across disciplines to address relevant management issues identified by local government agencies and NGOs. Investigations of current hydrogeologic and ecological status in watersheds are completed by analyzing riparian corridor impacts associated with channel incision, stormwater management effectiveness, spatial variation in water quality, lake-wide budgets for water, sediment and nutrients, and population/community structure in aquatic and terrestrial portions of the watershed. Because the status of any watershed system is the result of historical changes in land use, sociologic and economic surveys of residents' perception of development, environmental protection and water and property rights are used to determine the current direction and strength of population and market forcing functions. Students work on each other's projects and develop an understanding of research approaches among fields. In addition to presenting their work at scientific conferences, many students give presentations at local meetings and agency workshops to enhance science-society links. Watershed analysis provides a comprehensive approach to environmental instruction that strengthens the

  4. Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini

    2017-04-01

    part in moving in the right direction, because it may take some time to achieve true gender equity in science. The MCAA is committed to the promotion of women scientists and is sensitive to gender issues in science, and thus a Women in Science working group has been established, namely the Gender Equality for Mobile researchers in Science (GEMS). The GEMS working group has been active since September 2014 in order to promote mobility among the women scientists community, provide feedback from the European Community on policy issues regarding mobility in particular, and to collaborate with other associations and organizations active in the same fields. The main goal is to find ways to promote the participation of and motivation for women with regard to science and therefore finding and analyzing reasons why women face problems or give up at the high levels of the science field. The WG GEMS has participated in WiS conferences at the European level and outside of it, including Gender Summit, WIRES, MARIE CURIE CONFERENCES, ESOF2016, and are also applying to HORIZON2020 to study different types of researchers' mobility, such as virtual mobility, Intersectoral mobility between industry and academia, interdisciplinary mobility, and others.

  5. Research Experience for Undergraduates: an International Program Enhancing Interdisciplinary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Gihring, T. M.; Onstott, T. C.; Nthangeni, B.; Piater, L.; van Heerden, E.

    2004-12-01

    This NSF-funded research experience for undergraduates (REU) took place in South Africa, where gold mines provided outstanding field sites to investigate biogeochemical processes in deep subsurface environments. Underrepresented minorities were encouraged to participate. Cross-disciplinary training was a major ambition for this REU Site: Biogeochemical Educational Experiences - South Africa. Students were selected from diverse academic disciplines (biology, chemistry, and geology) to participate in this interdisciplinary research program. Research projects included characterizing microbial communities with molecular and biochemical techniques, cultivating microorganisms, utilizing geochemical and isotopic parameters to constrain nutrient cycling in groundwater, investigating extreme enzymes and examining functional genes. During the REU, students collected biofilms and fissure water emanating from gas-rich boreholes in 2-3 km deep mines and performed laboratory research in teams under joint mentorship of U.S. and South African scientists. Research teams consisted of three to five students with at least one student from each country and at least two of the disciplines represented. Team membership reflected students' ranking of their choices among mentor-proposed projects. The REU encouraged students to increase scientific knowledge across disciplines, improve oral and written communication skills, and explore cultural and international challenges for scientific research in the global community. Each research team presented oral progress reports to the other research teams to provide communication skill development and to provide a forum for data exchange and interpretation among the various disciplines. Oral communication training culminated in a public presentation by each team at a university/industry science symposium. Mentors reviewed students' writing skills as they prepared text on experimental design, research findings, data interpretation, and literature

  6. Empowering Graduate Students to Lead on Interdisciplinary Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.

    2015-12-01

    than problem-spotting activities with stakeholders. The ELISS strategy of establishing a cultural norm that young scientists can and should engage global societal issues is a novel approach to fostering leadership skills and interdisciplinary comfort that can readily be translated to both academic and nonacademic success.

  7. New Methodologies for Interdisciplinary Research and Action in an Urban Ecosystem in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Stotz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article synthesizes recent work carried out at The Field Museum that applies an ecosystems approach to ecological and anthropological research, conservation planning, and environmental action. This work is part of an effort to protect biological diversity in the Lake Calumet region of metropolitan Chicago. The need for an ecosystems approach to urban areas, particularly in relation to conservation efforts, is discussed. Reviewing the problems of alternative, non-systemic perspectives in both research and policy toward urban problems, the article describes how the efforts of Field Museum scientists and educators integrate interdisciplinary research into a conservation and information design process.

  8. Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  9. Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  10. Interdisciplinary Educational Collaborations: Chemistry and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Ronald S.; Woo, Daniel T.; Hudson, Benjamin T.; Mori, Joji C.; Ngan, Evey S. M.; Pak, Wing-Yee

    2007-01-01

    Research collaborations between chemists and other scientists resulted in significant outcomes such as development of software. Such collaboration provided a realistic learning experience for computer science students.

  11. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  12. Optical properties of Titan's aerosols: comparison between DISR/Huygens observations and VIMS/Cassini solar occultation observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmuse, Florian; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger Nelson; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2016-10-01

    Titan, the only satellite with a dense atmosphere, presents a hydrocarbon cycle that includes the formation and sedimentation of organic aerosols. The optical properties of Titan's haze inferred from measurement of the Huygens probe were recently revisited by Doose et al. (Icarus, 2016). The present study uses the solar occultation observations in equatorial regions of Titan that have been acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft to infer similar information in a broader wavelength range. Preliminary studies have proven the interest of those solar occultation data in the seven atmospheric windows to constrain the aerosol number density, but could not directly compare with the Descent Imager and Spectral Radiometer (DISR) data because models predict that the density profile vary with latitude. The present study compares the DISR measurements of aerosol extinction coefficients and the solar occultation data acquired by the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini. These sets of data differ in their acquisition method and time, spectral range, and altitude: the DISR measurements have been taken in 2005, along a vertical line of sight, in the visible spectral range (490-950nm) and under 140km of altitude. The relevant solar occultation data at equator have been acquired in 2009, along a horizontal line of sight, in the IR range (0.9-5.1µm), with sun light scanning all altitudes for a long enough wavelength, namely in the five-micron atmospheric window. These sets of data have been analyzed previously, separately and using different models. Here, we present a cross analysis of these sets of data, that allows us to test the different models describing the density profile of aerosols. In addition to providing wavelength dependence of the extinction coefficient, the comparison allows us to assess the impact of refraction in Titan's atmosphere. It also provides optical depth and scattering properties that are crucial information

  13. Disciplinary knowledge production and interdisciplinary humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Emmeche, Claus

    2016-01-01

    to include the social sciences and humanities research in interdisciplinary collaboration. In European research and innovation initiatives, science, technology and innovation can no longer be seen in isolation from wider cultural, societal and ethical aspects. For instance, the shift to a green sustainable...... economy needs to include combined efforts in developing new technologies and at the same time creating new models of democracy, engagement, and sustainable behaviour, which draw on a range of interdisciplinary competences. Special challenges such as the role reserved for humanities and how to integrate...

  14. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration....... Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image...

  15. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  16. Music and physics: a cultural, interdisciplinary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Myles W

    2008-06-01

    This essay investigates the triangular exchange among physicists, musicians, and instrument makers in nineteenth-century Germany by proffering a material, cultural, and interdisciplinary history. It does so by analyzing four concrete examples of such exchanges: the relationship between musical automata and virtuosi, the reed pipe as an object of music and scientific measurement, the history of standardizing performance pitch, and the attempts to measure musical virtuosity. The goal of the essay is to suggest ways in which interdisciplinary cultural histories, which take the scientific content seriously, can be an improvement upon purely disciplinary histories.

  17. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  19. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  20. Tens of Romanian scientists work at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Silian, Sidonia

    2007-01-01

    "The figures regarding the actual number of Romanian scientists working at the European Center for Nuclear Research, or CERN, differ. The CERN data base lists some 30 Romanians on its payroll, while the scientists with the Nuclear Center at Magurele, Romania, say they should be around 50." (1 page)

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  2. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  3. Response: Training Doctoral Students to Be Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to begin framing doctoral training for a science of social work. This process starts by examining two seemingly simple questions: "What is a social work scientist?" and "How do we train social work scientists?" In answering the first question, some basic assumptions and concepts about what constitutes a "social work…

  4. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  5. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  6. Improving Teaching Practice through Interdisciplinary Dialog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardetti, Fabiana A.; Orgnero, M. Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a self-study of interdisciplinary work that has generated profound changes in our teaching practices. The research grew out of an interest in exploring the nature of our work and the practices that contribute to its success. Our self-study revealed that our work process consists of five stages and is the product…

  7. Interdisciplinary Information Design with an Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    's perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived...

  8. Scientific report training workshop interdisciplinary life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, E.G.; Merks, R.M.H.; Boas, S.E.M.; Rens, E.G.; Merks, R.M.H.; et al, not CWI

    2014-01-01

    This preprint is the outcome of the “Training Workshop Interdisciplinary Life Sciences”, held in October 2013 in the Lorentz Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. The motivation to organize this event stems from the following considerations: The enormous progress in laboratory techniques and facilities l

  9. Small Worlds: Biography in the Interdisciplinary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David

    2008-01-01

    The interdisciplinary survey inherits from more traditional survey courses the weaknesses embodied in the survey textbook. The standard textbook presentation gives students the impression that each figure's music, art, or literature is the product of the "spirit of the age." Well-chosen biographies temper that presentation by drawing attention to…

  10. Interdisciplinary Teams for High Schools. Fastback 416.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Paul

    A learning team comprises two or more teachers of any two or more subject areas who seek to create a small, cohesive learning community. Interdisciplinary learning teams are vehicles that can empower school community members. This first part of this handbook introduces the learning team concept, discusses issues to consider in implementing…

  11. Teaching design engineering in an interdisciplinary programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel; Homminga, Jasper; Endedijk, Maaike; Visscher, Klaasjan; Krab-Hüsken, Leonie; Berg, van den Frank; Wilhelm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS, the Academy of Technology and Liberal Arts & Sciences, is an interdisciplinary three-year Bachelor of Science honours programme for talented students that opened its doors in September 2013. This international programme uses the concept of project-led education to teach students to integrate

  12. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…

  13. Synergistic Knowledge Development in Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Shorna R.; La Lopa, Joseph Mick; Ross-Davis, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Problem solving, interpersonal skills, information literacy, and critical and independent thinking are essential qualities that employers seek, yet many undergraduates lack. We structured an interdisciplinary classroom and experiential learning environment where students from three undergraduate courses (Hospitality and Tourism Management,…

  14. Interdisciplinary Curriculum Reform in the Changing University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In response to the current demands and trends within education, the disciplines as one of the core long-standing organizing structures within knowledge production and transmission are questioning and shifting what and how they teach. Universities are increasingly offering interdisciplinary subjects and programmes as an alternative to or alongside…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Study in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraz Rada, Virginia; Yáñez de Aldecoa, Cristina; Gisbert Cervera, Mercè; Espuny Vidal, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC) and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to…

  16. The Challenges of Interdisciplinary Epistemology in Neuroaesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, James

    2011-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a burgeoning new interdisciplinary research space in which cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy intersect in order to better inform our understanding of aesthetic experience. The purpose of this study is to analyze high-profile work in neuroaesthetics in the light of recent research into interdisciplinary…

  17. Bridges and the City: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judith Y.; Goodman, Cecelia; Ridley, Theodora; Singer, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project to help elementary school children discover the relationship among technology, history, and geography that involved the building of a model Brooklyn Bridge and considering the history and role of the real bridge. Suggestions for similar projects for other cities are appended. (JPB)

  18. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  19. Synergistic Knowledge Development in Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Shorna R.; La Lopa, Joseph Mick; Ross-Davis, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Problem solving, interpersonal skills, information literacy, and critical and independent thinking are essential qualities that employers seek, yet many undergraduates lack. We structured an interdisciplinary classroom and experiential learning environment where students from three undergraduate courses (Hospitality and Tourism Management,…

  20. Whales and Whaling--An Interdisciplinary Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the content of this interdisciplinary course and includes a list of the texts being used. Parts one and two are concerned with the biology of the whale and other marine mammals, while part three covers the whaling industry and related topics. (MA)

  1. Thoughts about multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2013-10-01

    This essay focuses on multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary research. The definitions and objectives for these three types of multiple discipline research are given. Discussion centers on the gains and losses that may be experienced by individual nurses who engage in such research, as well as gains and losses for the discipline of nursing.

  2. Enriching Social Work through Interdisciplinary Disability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Irene; Quaglia, Christine; Leslie, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper recommends that faculties of Social Work incorporate Disability Studies in their curriculum by embracing its interdisciplinary deconstructionist perspective. Disability Studies encourages Social Work to move beyond person-in--the-environment and anti-oppressive approaches to find more effective ways of removing barriers for persons with…

  3. Interdisciplinary analysis of digital government work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans J.; Mai, Jens Erik; Fidel, Raya

    2006-01-01

    This bird-of-a-feather session attempts to break interdisciplinary ground in the context of work content, workflow, and work context analysis in Digital Government. The authors argue that using and connecting multiple theories and disciplines might yield more robust results and deeper understanding...

  4. Interdisciplinary Approach: A Lever to Business Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmak, Jamil; Bélanger, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The advances in interdisciplinary studies are driving universities to utilize their available resources to efficiently enable development processes and provide increasing examples of research while gradually allocating the disciplines' resources. Ultimately, this trend asks universities to provide a platform of integrated disciplines, along with…

  5. The World through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen; Bannon, Bryan; Isard, Jeremy; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Royer, Dana; Yohe, Gary; Chernoff, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Scholars and teachers have long struggled to respond to the growing demand for interdisciplinary approaches to complex social issues. They come to the table with their own disciplinary perspectives (scholars more rigidly than students, perhaps), but they also recognize the limitations of investigating social issues through a single disciplinary…

  6. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…

  7. Whales and Whaling--An Interdisciplinary Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the content of this interdisciplinary course and includes a list of the texts being used. Parts one and two are concerned with the biology of the whale and other marine mammals, while part three covers the whaling industry and related topics. (MA)

  8. Teaching design engineering in an interdisciplinary programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Homminga, Jasper Johan; Endedijk, Maaike Dorine; Visscher, Klaasjan; Krab-Hüsken, Leonie; van den Berg, Frank; Wilhelm, P.

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS, the Academy of Technology and Liberal Arts & Sciences, is an interdisciplinary three-year Bachelor of Science honours programme for talented students that opened its doors in September 2013. This international programme uses the concept of project-led education to teach students to integrate

  9. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  10. QUANTA: An Interdisciplinary Learning Community (Four Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, Cynthia; Zelley, Richard

    QUANTA is a year-long interdisciplinary program at Daytona Beach Community College (Florida) that seeks to establish a learning community of students and teachers. Three courses (English, Pyschology, and Humanities) are integrated around a common theme each semester of the freshman year, and are taught using a collaborative teaching model. This…

  11. The Challenges of Interdisciplinary Epistemology in Neuroaesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, James

    2011-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics is a burgeoning new interdisciplinary research space in which cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy intersect in order to better inform our understanding of aesthetic experience. The purpose of this study is to analyze high-profile work in neuroaesthetics in the light of recent research into interdisciplinary…

  12. Legal Doctrinal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bodig (Matyas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an

  13. Three Interdisciplinary Studies on IT Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Sonia Vilvovsky

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides interdisciplinary insights into the role of client's internal collaborative experience in managing communication during a complex outsourced project, building a quality client-vendor relationship and ultimately achieving success in the project. Each of the three studies in this dissertation identifies a gap in…

  14. Exploring Interdisciplinary Themes in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristin A.; Bott, Jennifer P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for helping introductory psychology students identify interdisciplinary connections among 5 social science disciplines. Pre- and posttest data assessed 359 undergraduates' understanding of psychology's relation to other fields. Results indicate the method is effective and provides one way for individual instructors to address…

  15. Three Interdisciplinary Studies on IT Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Sonia Vilvovsky

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides interdisciplinary insights into the role of client's internal collaborative experience in managing communication during a complex outsourced project, building a quality client-vendor relationship and ultimately achieving success in the project. Each of the three studies in this dissertation identifies a gap in…

  16. Validation of Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sheila D.

    A field test examined the validity of the "Interdisciplinary Cooperative Education Curriculum Manual." (Among those topics covered in the manual are the following: vocational student organizations, leadership, civic responsibility, health and safety, human relations, communications, resource management, consumer skills, consumer law,…

  17. Developing Interdisciplinary Workforce to Meet Future Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the importance of interdisciplinary research for addressing future aerospace challenges. Examples of current research activities at NASA's Glenn Research Center will be provided to illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary research. Challenges with conducting interdisciplinary research will be discussed.

  18. Teaching and Learning in Interdisciplinary Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, E.J.H.; Biemans, H.; Tobi, H.; Luning, P.A.; Mulder, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary higher education aims to develop boundary-crossing skills, such as interdisciplinary thinking. In the present review study, interdisciplinary thinking was defined as the capacity to integrate knowledge of two or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement in ways that would

  19. Starting to Uncover the Mystery of Interdisciplinary Research in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of kinesiology seems to be an ideal configuration for conducting interdisciplinary research. Proposed as a potential solution to overcome fragmentation, interdisciplinary research has a role within kinesiology that remains unknown. In this study, we explored kinesiologists' perceptions of interdisciplinary research,…

  20. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  1. Big Data: An Opportunity for Collaboration with Computer Scientists on Data-Driven Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, C.

    2014-12-01

    Big data technologies are evolving rapidly, driven by the need to manage ever increasing amounts of historical data; process relentless streams of human and machine-generated data; and integrate data of heterogeneous structure from extremely heterogeneous sources of information. Big data is inherently an application-driven problem. Developing the right technologies requires an understanding of the applications domain. Though, an intriguing aspect of this phenomenon is that the availability of the data itself enables new applications not previously conceived of! In this talk, we will discuss how the big data phenomenon creates an imperative for collaboration among domain scientists (in this case, geoscientists) and computer scientists. Domain scientists provide the application requirements as well as insights about the data involved, while computer scientists help assess whether problems can be solved with currently available technologies or require adaptaion of existing technologies and/or development of new technologies. The synergy can create vibrant collaborations potentially leading to new science insights as well as development of new data technologies and systems. The area of interface between geosciences and computer science, also referred to as geoinformatics is, we believe, a fertile area for interdisciplinary research.

  2. Reinventing Biostatistics Education for Basic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Garovic, Vesna D; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena S; Winham, Stacey J; Obradovic, Zoran; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Milic, Natasa M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrating that statistical errors are common in basic science publications have led to calls to improve statistical training for basic scientists. In this article, we sought to evaluate statistical requirements for PhD training and to identify opportunities for improving biostatistics education in the basic sciences. We provide recommendations for improving statistics training for basic biomedical scientists, including: 1. Encouraging departments to require statistics training, 2. Tailoring coursework to the students' fields of research, and 3. Developing tools and strategies to promote education and dissemination of statistical knowledge. We also provide a list of statistical considerations that should be addressed in statistics education for basic scientists.

  3. Social media for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    DiPietro, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the rising phenomena of internet-based social networking and discusses the particular challenges faced by engineers and scientists in adapting to this new, content-centric environment. Social networks are both a blessing and a curse to the engineer and scientist. The blessings are apparent: the abundance of free applications and their increasing mobility and transportability. The curse is that creating interesting and compelling content on these user-driven systems is best served by right-brain skills. But most engineers and scientists are left-brain oriented, have genera

  4. Bridges and Barriers to Developing and Conducting Interdisciplinary Graduate-Student Team Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayde Cameron. Morse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding complex socio-environmental problems requires specialists from multiple disciplines to integrate research efforts. Programs such as the National Science Foundation's Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship facilitate integrated research efforts and change the way academic institutions train future leaders and scientists. The University of Idaho and the Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center in Costa Rica collaborate on a joint research program focusing on biodiversity conservation and sustainable production in fragmented landscapes. We first present a spectrum of integration ranging from disciplinary to transdisciplinary across seven aspects of the research process. We then describe our experiences and lessons learned conducting interdisciplinary graduate student team research. Using our program as a case study, we examine the individual, disciplinary, and programmatic bridges and barriers to conducting interdisciplinary research that emerged during our student team research projects. We conclude with a set of recommendations for exploiting the bridges and overcoming the barriers to conducting interdisciplinary research, especially as part of graduate education programs.

  5. Interdisciplinary Laboratory Course Facilitating Knowledge Integration, Mutualistic Teaming, and Original Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert; Koehl, M A R; Libby, Thomas; Schwab, Cheryl

    2015-11-01

    Experiencing the thrill of an original scientific discovery can be transformative to students unsure about becoming a scientist, yet few courses offer authentic research experiences. Increasingly, cutting-edge discoveries require an interdisciplinary approach not offered in current departmental-based courses. Here, we describe a one-semester, learning laboratory course on organismal biomechanics offered at our large research university that enables interdisciplinary teams of students from biology and engineering to grow intellectually, collaborate effectively, and make original discoveries. To attain this goal, we avoid traditional "cookbook" laboratories by training 20 students to use a dozen research stations. Teams of five students rotate to a new station each week where a professor, graduate student, and/or team member assists in the use of equipment, guides students through stages of critical thinking, encourages interdisciplinary collaboration, and moves them toward authentic discovery. Weekly discussion sections that involve the entire class offer exchange of discipline-specific knowledge, advice on experimental design, methods of collecting and analyzing data, a statistics primer, and best practices for writing and presenting scientific papers. The building of skills in concert with weekly guided inquiry facilitates original discovery via a final research project that can be presented at a national meeting or published in a scientific journal.

  6. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS): A Model for the Professional Development of Scientists (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Apecs Leadership Team

    2010-12-01

    Efforts like the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) have helped to increase research efforts as well as enhancing the integration of education and outreach into research projects and developing the next generation of researchers. One of the major legacies of the IPY was the creation of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), which was developed in 2006 by young researchers and focuses on helping each other develop the skills needed for successful careers in research by working with senior mentors. APECS is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 2000 early career researchers and educators with interests in the Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from 45 countries. APECS aims to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. This is achieved by - Facilitating international and interdisciplinary networking opportunities to share ideas and experiences and to develop new research directions and collaborations, - Providing opportunities for professional career development for both academic and alternative research professions, and - Promoting education and outreach as an integral component of polar research and to stimulate future generations of polar researchers. Since its inception, APECS has strived to develop a strong network of partnerships with senior international organizations and scientific bodies to provide career development opportunities for young researchers. These partnerships have led to early-career representation on science planning bodies at an international level, the mandate of early career researchers serving as co-chairs at science conferences, the development of a mentorship program, field schools and techniques workshops, mentor panel discussions at conferences and increased funding for young researchers to attend conferences. APECS has also worked with an international teachers network to develop

  7. Cognitive empathy in inter-disciplinary research: the contrasting attitudes of plant breeders and molecular biologists towards rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Haribabu

    2000-12-01

    I draw attention to the perceptions of and interactions between molecular biologists and scientists engaged in plant breeding in India, who have been attempting to employ molecular biology tools to understand and intervene to improve the rice crop. The present essay suggests that the concept of cognitive empathy is crucial for enabling basic scientists and applied scientists to begin to understand phenomena from the point of view of the other and from the point of view of society at large, and in arriving at solutions that are scientifically feasible and socially acceptable. Socialization into disciplinary cultures, organizational factors and individual anxieties seem to inhibit inter-disciplinary collaboration. The majority of rice breeders and a small group of molecular biologists emphasize the relative merits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in the near term vis-à-vis the currently controversial transgenic approach for rice crop improvement in India.

  8. The crucial role of nomothetic and idiographic conceptions of time: interdisciplinary collaboration in nuclear waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius; Scholz, Roland W

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste involves extensive time scales. Technical experts consider up to 1 million years for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in their safety assessment. Yet nuclear waste is not only a technical but also a so-called sociotechnical problem and, therefore, requires interdisciplinary collaboration between technical, natural, social sciences, and the humanities in its management. Given that these disciplines differ in their language, epistemics, and interests, such collaboration might be problematic. Based on evidence from cognitive psychology, we suggest that, in particular, a concept like time is presumably critical and can be understood differently. This study explores how different scientific disciplines understand extensive time scales in general and then focuses on nuclear waste. Eighteen qualitative exploratory interviews were conducted with experts for time-related phenomena of different disciplines, among them experts working in nuclear waste management. Analyses revealed two distinct conceptions of time corresponding to idiographic and nomothetic research approaches: scientists from the humanities and social sciences tend to have a more open, undetermined conception of time, whereas natural scientists tend to focus on a more determined conception that includes some undetermined aspects. Our analyses lead to reflections on potential difficulties for interdisciplinary teams in nuclear waste management. We focus on the understanding of the safety assessment, on potential implications for communication between experts from different disciplines (e.g., between experts from the humanities and engineering for risk assessment and risk communication), and we reflect on the roles of different disciplines in nuclear waste management.

  9. Quality improvement of interdisciplinary rounds by leadership training based on essential quality indicators of the Interdisciplinary Rounds Assessment Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C. M.; Nap, Raoul E.; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. Daily interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs) in ICUs integrate leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork. The purpose of this intervention study was to measure the effect of

  10. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see ... eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your eyes? Select a video below to get answers to questions like ...

  13. Women scientists reflections, challenges, and breaking boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do ... fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to ...

  15. Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...

  16. Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162368.html Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering MRI shows involvement of brain areas controlling speech, ... speech, attention and emotion are all linked to stuttering. Stuttering is characterized by involuntarily repeating certain sounds, ...

  17. Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162815.html Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant Device an improvement on current implants, researchers ... News) -- Doctors report that they have crafted a penis implant that becomes erect when heated. Dubbed by ...

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see ... eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your eyes? Select a video below to get answers to questions like ...

  19. Elements of ethics for physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Greer, Sandra C

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers’ ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of scien...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  1. Scientists Create Clothing with 'Knitted' Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163272.html Scientists Create Clothing With 'Knitted' Muscle Power Fabric reacts to low voltage charge and could ... techniques that one day might help provide muscle power to disabled people or seniors who have trouble ...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do ... fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  4. Using student feedback to improve student attitudes and mathematical confidence in a first year interdisciplinary quantitative course: from the ashes of disaster!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette; Gyuris, Emma; Sexton, Justin

    2013-09-01

    Today's scientist is faced with complex problems that require interdisciplinary solutions. Consequently, tertiary science educators have had to develop and deliver interdisciplinary science courses to equip students with the skills required to solve the evolving real-world challenges of today and tomorrow. There are few reported studies of the lessons learned from designing and delivering first year compulsory interdisciplinary science subjects at regional universities. Even fewer studies assess the impact that teaching interventions within interdisciplinary courses have on students' attitudes towards mathematics and technology, and mathematics anxiety. This paper discusses the feedback received from the first student cohort of a new compulsory, first year interdisciplinary science subject at a regional Australian university which resulted in curricular revisions. These revisions included a greater emphasis on the subject relevance and increased student support in tutorials. Assessment practices were also dramatically modified. The change in student attitudes and anxiety levels a priori and a posteriori to the interventions was measured quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-intervention, female and non-mathematics major students had grown in mathematical confidence and were less anxious. It is important that positive and negative research findings are reported, so science educators can learn from one another, and can better prepare their students for the challenges they will face in bringing interdisciplinary solutions to contemporary real-world problems.

  5. Interdisciplinary research: putting the methods under the microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Douglas K

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the desirability of interdisciplinary inquiry has been widely acknowledged, indeed has become 'the mantra of science policy', the methods of interdisciplinary collaboration are opaque to outsiders and generally remain undescribed. Discussion Many have analysed interdisciplinarity, especially in relation to the creation of new disciplines and institutions. These analyses are briefly outlined. Still, there currently persists a silence about the methods of interdisciplinary collaboration itself, and the core of this paper proposes a template for such methods. Summary Breaking this silence – by making the methods of interdisciplinary projects transparent – could further invigorate interdisciplinary research.

  6. Methodology and Politics in Science: The Fate of Huygens' 1673 Proposal of the Seconds Pendulum as an International Standard of Length and Some Educational Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    This paper is part of a larger work on the history, philosophy and utilisation of pendulum motion studies (Matthews 2000). The paper deals with the fate of Christiaan Huygens 1673 proposal to use the length of a seconds pendulum (effectively one metre) as a universal, natural and objective standard of length. This is something which, if it had been adopted, would have been of inestimable scientific, commercial and cultural benefit. Why it was not originally adopted in the late seventeenth century, and why it was again rejected in the late eighteenth century (1795) when the Revolutionary Assembly in France adopted the metric system with the metre being defined as one ten-millionth of the quarter meridan distance - raise interesting questions about the methodology and politics of science. Given that pendulum motion is a standard component of all science courses throughout the world, and given that most science education reforms, including the US National Science Education Standards and recent Australian state reforms, require that something of the big picture of science be conveyed to students (the relationship of science to culture, commerce, history and philosophy) - it is suggested that these educational goals can be advanced by teaching about the fate of Huygens' proposal.

  7. Poetry and Neuroscience: : An Interdisciplinary Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, James; Scott, Sophie K

    2016-01-01

    Dialogues and collaborations between scientists and non-scientists are now widely understood as important elements of scientific research and public engagement with science. In recognition of this, the authors, a neuroscientist and a poet, use a dialogical approach to extend questions and ideas first shared during a lab-based poetry residency. They recorded a conversation and then expanded it into an essayistic form, allowing divergent disciplinary understandings and uses of experiment, noise, voice and emotion to be articulated, shared and questioned.

  8. Desegregating undergraduate mathematics and biology--interdisciplinary instruction with emphasis on ongoing biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeva, Raina

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the field of biology in the last decade, specifically in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and systems biology, have demonstrated how critically important mathematical models and methods are in addressing questions of vital importance for these disciplines. There is little doubt that the need for utilizing and developing mathematical methods for biology research will only grow in the future. The rapidly increasing demand for scientists with appropriate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge, however, is not being reflected in the way undergraduate mathematics and biology courses are structured and taught in most colleges and universities nationwide. While a number of institutions have stepped forward and addressed this need by creating and offering interdisciplinary courses at the juncture of mathematics and biology, there are still many others at which there is little, if any, interdisciplinary interaction between the curricula. This chapter describes an interdisciplinary course and a textbook in mathematical biology developed collaboratively by faculty from Sweet Briar College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine. The course and textbook are designed to provide a bridge between the mathematical and biological sciences at the lower undergraduate level. The course is developed for and is being taught in a liberal arts setting at Sweet Briar College, Virginia, but some of the advanced modules are used in a course at the University of Virginia for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The individual modules are relatively independent and can be used as stand-alone projects in conventional mathematics and biology courses. Except for the introductory material, the course and textbook topics are based on current biomedical research.

  9. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  10. The geriatric interdisciplinary team training (GITT) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Flaherty, Ellen; Hyer, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Geriatric interdisciplinary team training (GITT) is an initiative funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation since 1995. Building from the substantial knowledge gained from the Veteran's Administration project in interdisciplinary team training and lessons from the Pew Foundation initiative, GITT was reconceived by the Foundation to address the need for teams in the care of older adults in the new era of managed care and health care cost containment. This training program has served to help us understand attitudes toward teams, how teams function, and how teams should be trained in the changing health care environment, where length of stay is dramatically different from the earlier team training projects. This introductory paper provides an overview of GITT, and the companion papers give detail of the GITT curricula, measures and lessons learned.

  11. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

    quality of treatment.   Patients/ Methods We developed an interdisciplinary programme including patient data from the records of doctors, nurses, anaesthetists and observations. This programme was applied on a population of 65 women with ovarian malignancies. Subsequently analyses were performed......  Introduction Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer, with more than 200,000 new cases each year and 125,000 related deaths. During the last decade, centralization and standardisation of surgical treatment have proven to be important tools in ovarian cancer to improve...... care resources and in future research. By using the interdisciplinary approach, women with ovarian cancer can benefit from a coherent and collaborative health care system.  ...

  12. Interdisciplinary Integrated Engineering Development Course in HITACHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Masahiro

    As an example of interdisciplinary education for engineers in private companies, IED (Integrated Engineering Development) course at HITACHI Ltd. is presented. To help 30 years old or so promising engineers create a new product based on a new technology, one year term course is designed for four types of engineers; mechanical, electric & electronic, information software, and digital systems. Each course has core basic technologies plus related supplementary subjects to promote an interdisciplinary integrated engineer. Not only lectures given by university professors but heavy duty home work is also given by senior engineers of HITACHI to make them apply basic theory to practical problems. Furthermore, self development planning, leadership development program and technology-marketing project are introduced to promote human skills and business sense needed for technology leaders in company.

  13. Crisis Typologies Revisited: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Björck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective crisis management and communication, a decision maker has to understand the causes and nature of a crisis and how it influences stakeholder perceptions. Identifying an organization’s vulnerabilities is essential for crisis prevention but practitioners often lack the ability to define crisis scenarios, especially the worst-case ones. A crisis typology is a structured approach to analyze crisis situations and to introduce measures for crisis prevention and containment. This paper aims to review recent literature on crisis classifications and to discuss their application. Because a single typology cannot capture the complexity and the interdisciplinary nature of a crisis, four relevant typologies from different disciplines are compared. Their combined application in an interdisciplinary framework is suggested. The paper discusses the need for typologies that reflect the cultural and contextual dimensions. Conclusions concerning the limitations and directions for further research are drawn.

  14. Leadership styles in interdisciplinary health science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasnett, Bonita; Clay, Maria

    2008-12-01

    The US Institute of Medicine recommends that all health professionals should deliver patient-centered care as members of interdisciplinary health science teams. The current application of the Bolman and Deal Leadership model to health sciences provides an interesting point of reference to compare leadership styles. This article reviews several applications of that model within academic health care and the aggregate recommendations for leaders of health care disciplines based on collective findings.

  15. Interdisciplinary glossary — particle accelerators and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, V. V.; Dyubkov, V. S.; Nikitaev, V. G.; Ulin, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A general concept of a new interdisciplinary glossary, which includes particle accelerator terminology used in medicine, as well as relevant medical concepts, is presented. Its structure and usage rules are described. An example, illustrating the quickly searching technique of relevant information in this Glossary, is considered. A website address, where one can get an access to the Glossary, is specified. Glossary can be refined and supplemented.

  16. Lexicon acquisition in an interdisciplinary learning context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA PAULA SANTOS SOARES DA SILVA LAGO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the questions that led to the field research, the theoretical frame, the subsequent methodology, and some of the results and conclusions. One of these conclusions is the need of specific tasks aimed at lexicon acquisition and of interdisciplinary work within that acquisition. Some strategies of minimizing failure and e learning enhancement will also be discussed, as well as the learning results achieved in the strict area of lexicon acquisition.

  17. Building interdisciplinary biomedical research using novel collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Katya; Faux, Russell; Corkey, Barbara; Coleman, David

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research has been carried out mainly within departmental boundaries. However, successful biomedical research increasingly relies on development of methods and concepts crossing these boundaries, requiring expertise in different disciplines. Recently, major research institutes have begun experimenting with ways to foster an interdisciplinary ethos. The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research ("the Evans Center") at Boston University is a new organizational paradigm to address this challenge. The Evans Center is built around interdisciplinary research groups termed affinity research collaboratives (ARCs). Each ARC consists of investigators from several academic departments and at least two research disciplines, bound by a common goal to investigate biomedical problems concerning human disease. Novel aspects of the Evans Center include a "bottom-up" approach to identifying areas of ARC research (research vision and strategy are typically initiated by a core group of faculty with input from the center director); a pre-ARC period of faculty affiliation/project(s)' self-selection prior to formation of a peer-reviewed ARC; and Evans Center support for innovative ARCs for up to three years pending yearly metric evaluation, followed by continued administrative support as a group matures into an ARC program.Since its inception in early 2009, the Evans Center has documented achievements at discovery/publication, grant award, and educational levels. Enhanced interactions between members of individual ARCs, as assessed by quantitative networking analysis, are discussed in the context of high productivity. As universities seek new approaches to stimulate interdisciplinary research, the Evans Center and its ARCs are offered as a productive model for leveraging discovery.

  18. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Hospice Team Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Regehr, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Hospice and palliative care teams provide interdisciplinary care to seriously-ill and terminally-ill patients and their families. Care teams are comprised of medical and non-medical disciplines and include volunteers and lay workers in healthcare. The authors explored the perception of collaboration among hospice team members and actual collaborative communication practices in team meetings. The data set consisted of videotaped team meetings, some of which included caregiver participation, an...

  19. Treatment of crown dilaceration: an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Naidu, P

    2010-01-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can result in a wide range of disturbances to the underlying permanent teeth, such as dilaceration. Root dilacerations occur more commonly than crown dilacerations. This paper is a report of an 11-year-old girl with a missing maxillary left anterior tooth. Past history revealed premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of permanent maxillary left central incisor. An interdisciplinary approach in the management of this child is presented herewith.

  20. The interdisciplinary approach in community interpreting research

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Urpi, Mireia

    2011-01-01

    Community interpreting is a complex activity that has been studied from many different angles. Based on a review of the literature, this paper aims to highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in community interpreting research, as well as the close relationship between the theoretical and methodological frameworks that have been used to date. As a prospective study and by describing theories applied from five different fields (i.e. anthropology, sociology, applied linguistics...

  1. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  2. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  3. Interdisciplinary information design with an empowerment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health professionals, and voluntary groups of patients from an athletic clinic in a Danish University Hospital.Results are as follows: INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: Empowerment is evaluated as successful using Empiric reception analysis, based on social and humanistic sciences, and showing traces of Empowerment from the patient's perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived from the patient's perspective.

  4. An overlooked source of physician-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljak, Livia

    2007-12-01

    A shortage of physician-scientists in the United States is an ongoing problem. Various recommendations have been made to address this issue; however, none of them have ameliorated the situation. Foreign medical school graduates with postdoctoral training in the United States are an overlooked and untapped resource for combating the dearth of physician-scientists. Evaluation of the scientific staff at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center revealed that 11% of all postdoctoral fellows were international medical graduates. Interestingly, a survey taken by these individuals revealed a lack of institutional and/or mentor support for career development and preparation for becoming physician-scientists. Foreign postdoctoral fellows with medical degrees are not even eligible for physician-scientist grants and awards since they are not US citizens. Although physicians educated in the United States usually matriculate from medical school with high educational debt that prevents most of them from entering into scientific careers, doctors trained outside the United States generally have minimal, if any, debt. Furthermore, many of them have a keen interest in remaining in the United States once they complete their postdoctoral training. Thus, foreign-trained medical professionals who have pursued scientific training in the United States can be one of the solutions for the current dearth of physician-scientists.

  5. Assessing interdisciplinary education in U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, L; Bray, K; Mayberry, B; Overman, P

    2000-01-01

    This study was done to examine the role of interdisciplinary education in dental hygiene curricula, identify factors associated with its implementation, explore the perceptions of dental hygiene educators related to interdisciplinary education, and explore these educators' perception of its validity and barriers to implementation. A 36-item questionnaire mailed to directors of all 216 dental hygiene programs in the United States elicited program demographics and information about participation in clinical and didactic interdisciplinary educational experience as well as attitudes regarding such experiences. The response rate was 63% (n = 136). Of the 136 respondents, 31% (n = 69) indicated that the dental hygiene curricula at their institutions included interdisciplinary activities; 15% (n = 33) indicated participation in both clinical and didactic interdisciplinary course work. Student participation was minimal, with most interdisciplinary activities taking place in didactic course work, but 74% (n = 160) of the respondents felt their students should be participating in interdisciplinary educational experiences. Chi-square analysis identified no consistent association among interdisciplinary activity variables. Many respondents felt that interdisciplinary educational experiences would benefit their students, but very few had incorporated them into their curricula, citing lack of resources and time as reasons. In addition, the term interdisciplinary was interpreted variably.

  6. Legal education for scientists at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-10-01

    In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.

  7. Putting the scientist in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A personal account is given of some of the ways scientists could get involved in science education at the local level. Being employed at a National Laboratory such as Argonne presents a myriad of opportunities and programs involving the educational community. There have been basically, three areas of involvement at present, through our Division of Educational Programs (DEP), through initiatives presented, in conjunction with the Argonne Chapter of Sigma Xi and a volunteer effort with the Museum of Science and Industry of Chicago, Scientists, and School Program. Some descriptions of these efforts will be outlined from a personal perspective, and hopefully a measure of the impact gained by the scientists` involvement in the education process.

  8. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  9. A distant light scientists and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A collection of essays by a Nobel Prize Laureate on a wide range of critical issues facing the world, and the role of scientists in solving these problems. Kendall has been closely involved with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group that began as an informal assocation at MIT in 1969 to protest US involvement in Vietnam and is today an organization with an annual budget exceeding $6 million, with 100,000 supporters worldwide. UCD is today a voice of authority in US government science policy, particularly with regard to environment issues, most recently the worldwide initiatives on global warming. Together, these essays represent both the sucessses and failures of science to impact public policy, the challenges facing scientists, and offers practical guidelines for involvement in science policy. The essays are roughly chronological, organized by subject with introductions, beginning with the controversies on nuclear power safety and Three Mile Island,then followed by sections on national security issues, ...

  10. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  11. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Geoscience communication in Namibia: YES Network Namibia spreading the message to young scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhopjeni, Kombada

    2015-04-01

    The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network is an international association for early-career geoscientists under the age of 35 years that was formed as a result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) in 2007. YES Network aims to establish an interdisciplinary global network of early-career geoscientists to solve societal issues/challenges using geosciences, promote scientific research and interdisciplinary networking, and support professional development of early-career geoscientists. The Network has several National Chapters including one in Namibia. YES Network Namibia (YNN) was formed in 2009, at the closing ceremony of IYPE in Portugal and YNN was consolidated in 2013 with the current set-up. YNN supports the activities and goals of the main YES Network at national level providing a platform for young Namibian scientists with a passion to network, information on geoscience opportunities and promoting earth sciences. Currently most of the members are geoscientists from the Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and University of Namibia. In 2015, YNN plans to carry out two workshops on career guidance, establish a mentorship program involving alumni and experienced industry experts, and increase involvement in outreach activities, mainly targeting high school pupils. Network members will participate in a range of educational activities such as school career and science fairs communicating geoscience to the general public, learners and students. The community outreach programmes are carried out to increase awareness of the role geosciences play in society. In addition, YNN will continue to promote interactive collaboration between the University of Namibia, Geological Survey of Namibia (GSN) and Geological Society of Namibia. Despite the numerous potential opportunities YNN offers young scientists in Namibia and its presence on all major social media platforms, the Network faces several challenges. One notable challenge the Network faces is indifference among

  13. Media and the making of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  14. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  15. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  16. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  17. Scientists' coping strategies in an evolving research system: the case of life scientists in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of th

  18. Scientists' coping strategies in an evolving research system: the case of life scientists in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of

  19. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  20. CAS scientists active in earthquake relief operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Soon after the devastating earthquake taking place on last 12 May in Sichuan, the CAS leadership promptly mobilized its researchers to dedicate their expertise to the nationwide drive of the disaster's relief and reduction. A leading group was established to coordinate the Academy's efforts in this regard. All of the eight CAS institutions located in Sichuan were organized to do everything possible to reduce their losses to the minimum. At the same time, a trans-departmental and interdisciplinary taskforce was formed to provide a powerful S&T backing for the nationwide drive.

  1. Chasing polys: Interdisciplinary affinity and its connection to physics identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tyler D.

    This research is based on two motivations that merge by means of the frameworks of interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. First, a goal of education is to develop interdisciplinary abilities in students' thinking and work. But an often ignored factor is students interests and beliefs about being interdisciplinary. Thus, this work develops and uses a framework called interdisciplinary affinity. It encompasses students interests in making connections across disciplines and their beliefs about their abilities to make those connections. The second motivation of this research is to better understand how to engage more students with physics. Physics identity describes how a student sees themselves in relation to physics. By understanding how physics identity is developed, researchers and educators can identify factors that increase interest and engagement in physics classrooms. Therefore, physics identity was used in conjunction with interdisciplinary affinity. Using a mixed methods approach, this research used quantitative data to identify the relationships interdisciplinary affinity has with physics identity and the physics classroom. These connections were explored in more detail using a case study of three students in a high school physics class. Results showed significant and positive relationships between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity, including the individual interest and recognition components of identity. It also identified characteristics of physics classrooms that had a significant, positive relationship with interdisciplinary affinity. The qualitative case study highlighted the importance of student interest to the relationship between interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity. It also identified interest and mastery orientation as key to understanding the link between interdisciplinary affinity and the physics classroom. These results are a positive sign that by understanding interdisciplinary affinity and physics identity

  2. Exposing interdisciplinary diversity in a health care setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nørtoft, Kamilla

    and reflection process orally and in writing. Once the play started, we stepped back as facilitators and let the participants handle the role play and the following dialogical process themselves. Findings The participants appear to be challenged by their interdisciplinary and personal differences and we explore...... professionals´ analytic skills and their ability to link observations with relevant actions. However, it is a challenge to facilitate interdisciplinary differences. More research is called for into facilitation of interdisciplinary learning processes....

  3. Modern Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Recommends a change in the way mathematics is taught to engineers and scientists. Espouses a shift away from traditional methods to an approach that makes significant use of algebra packages. Suggests that teaching the language comprised of the notation and grammar of mathematics would be of more use and more accessible than focusing entirely on…

  4. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  5. Career development for women scientists in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Nancy Y

    2011-06-23

    Previously, challenges faced by women scientists have made it difficult for them to realize their dreams. The remarkable growth of Asian bioscience over the past decade, however, has created opportunities for young women in their home countries. The time is ripe for women in Asia to pursue their scientific aspirations.

  6. Scientists riff on fabric of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Their music may be the scourge of parents, but the thrashing guitars of heavy metal bands like Metallica and Iron Maiden could help explain the mysteries of the universe. The string vibrations from the frantic strumming of rock guitarists form the basis of String Theory, a mathematic theory that seeks to explain what the world is made of, says scientist Mark Lewney.

  7. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Kasia; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Peter A.Th.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists: mode

  8. Russian scientists decry savage job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-09-01

    More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  10. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen…

  11. Engineers, scientists to benefit from CERN agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi will later this week sign a memorandum of understanding with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva (CERN), the largest laboratory of its kind in the world, which will create new opportunities for Maltese engineers and scientists.

  12. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  13. Scientists hope collider makes a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Nickerson, Colin

    2007-01-01

    "In a 17-ile circular tunnel curving beneath the Swiss-French border, scientists are poised to recreate the universe's first trillionth of a second. The aim of the audacious undertaking is to solve one of the most perturbing puzzles of physics: How did matter attain mass and form the cosmos? (2 pages)

  14. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists:

  15. University scientists test Mars probe equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).

  16. Why Frankenstein is a Stigma Among Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Wylie, Ruth; Eschrich, Joey; Finn, Ed

    2017-06-26

    As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices. This stigma produces ambivalent reactions towards scientific artifacts and it leads to negative connotations because it implies that some sciences are dangerous and harmful. We argue that understanding the Frankenstein stigma can empower scientists by helping them revisit their own biases as well as responding effectively to people's expectations for, and attitudes towards, scientists and scientific artifacts. Debunking the Frankenstein stigma could also allow scientists to reshape their professional identities so they can better show the public what ethical and moral values guide their research enterprises.

  17. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  18. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  20. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  1. Improving the scientist/journalist conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, J M

    2000-10-01

    How well do scientists communicate to members of the mass media? A communication scholar reviews potential barriers to the essential dialogue necessary between those in the sciences and journalists who report science to the public. Suggestions for improving communication within this relationship, in spite of professional process differences, are offered, emphasizing adherence to shared ethical standards.

  2. New Zealand scientists in firing line

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)

  3. Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

  4. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  6. Interdisciplinary evidence-based practice: moving from silos to synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Robin P; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the assumption that health care providers work synergistically in practice, professions have tended to be more exclusive than inclusive when it comes to educating students in a collaborative approach to interdisciplinary evidence-based practice (EBP). This article explores the state of academic and clinical training regarding interdisciplinary EBP, describes efforts to foster interdisciplinary EBP, and suggests strategies to accelerate the translation of EBP across disciplines. Moving from silos to synergy in interdisciplinary EBP will require a paradigm shift. Changes can be leveraged professionally and politically using national initiatives currently in place on improving quality and health care reform.

  7. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Managing Pain in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Herr, Keela

    2016-11-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to managing pain has been widely used in managing specific pain conditions (eg, lower back and fibromyalgia) but not reviewed specifically for older adults. Interdisciplinary approaches have been used in primary, residential long-term, and acute care settings, where a variety of health care professionals work on pain teams to manage pain in older adults. Given the multidimensional nature of pain in older adults, interdisciplinary approaches to managing pain are recommended in practice. This article reviews the rationale supporting an interdisciplinary approach to managing pain in older adults and summarizes studies that have evaluated this approach. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Interdisciplinary contributions to theory for collaborative networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Scientific progress on a field is mostly discussed within disciplines. Far less attention is paid to outside or between disciplines' work. To speed up research progresses for Collaborative Networks in Manufacturing, a base for further grounded theory establishment is propagated recalling some of the most relevant chapters of philosophy of science. The focus is put onto the roles of disciplines and their scholars involved in interdisciplinary contexts in order to further motivate as well as to hint at a number of catalysing forces and fruitful impacts of outside disciplines' work.

  9. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  10. Biophysics software for interdisciplinary education and research

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, J M

    2013-01-01

    Biophysics is a subject that is spread over many disciplines and transcends the skills and knowledge of the individual student. This makes it challenging both to teach and to learn. Educational materials are described to aid in teaching undergraduates biophysics in an interdisciplinary manner. Projects have been devised on topics that range from x-ray diffraction to the Hodgkin Huxley equations. They are team-based and encourage collaboration. The projects make extensive use of software written in Python/Scipy which can be modified to explore a large range of possible phenomena. The software can also be used in lectures and in the teaching of more traditional biophysics courses.

  11. The nephrology interdisciplinary team: an education synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jane S; Zuber, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Patients with kidney disease often have a poor understanding of their condition. The interdisciplinary team can effectively educate these patients to slow disease progression and enhance self-management. The kidney community needs large, well-designed studies to determine the best way to educate patients and hopefully stem the tide of a rapidly increasing population of kidney patients. Congress authorized payment to eligible providers for kidney disease education for Medicare beneficiaries. However, this benefit is not being optimally used. In addition, reimbursement denials were 14-17% in 2011 and 20-23% in 2012. This is more than 4 times the usual Medicare denial rate for current procedural terminology (CPT) codes.

  12. Chronicles of laboratory workshops and interdisciplinary teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Signe Juhl; Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    , exploring open ending activities within practice-based learning in a teaching setting, an in-progress research project, studying students interdisciplinary and inter-sectorial collaborations through practice related issues in a module on Maternal and Child Health will be presented. Doing so theory...... production within the social and humanistic sciences as a case, this presentation wishes to explore practiced-based research to draw out what this research strategy might offer to the conventional modes of research. Hence this will provide an interpretation of a case of practiced-based research. Furthermore...

  13. History and Psi knowledges – interdisciplinary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D'Assunção Barros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the interdisciplinary relations between History and psi knowledge, attempting to elaborate a comparative parallel between History of Mentalities, History of Imaginary, and also other historiographical modalities that interact with Psychology. The intention is to clarify some central aspects related to these fields of History and to discuss the historiography concerning each one of these modalities, in order to examine authors as Johannes Huizinga, Marc Bloch, Lucien Febvre, Robert Mandrou, Carlo Ginzburg, Philippe Ariès, Michel Vovelle, Georges Duby, Jacques Le Goff e Jean Delumeau, and at the same time discuss influences of Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Wilhelm Reich and others.

  14. Treatment of crown dilaceration: An interdisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to primary teeth can result in a wide range of disturbances to the underlying permanent teeth, such as dilaceration. Root dilacerations occur more commonly than crown dilacerations. This paper is a report of an 11-year-old girl with a missing maxillary left anterior tooth. Past history revealed premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of permanent maxillary left central incisor. An interdisciplinary approach in the management of this child is presented herewith.

  15. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping

  16. National Conference on Student & Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, D.

    2001-05-01

    Science education is turning an exciting corner with the development of a new class of projects called Student and Scientist Partnerships for authentic research. Examples include GLOBE, Hands-On Universe and EarthKAM. These projects engage students as learners and as participants in authentic research.Through such projects scientists acquire new research partners. At the same time, students experience real science, learning up-to-date science content and developing essential investigation skills. To better understand the nature and potential of these partnerships, an invitational conference was held in Washington, D.C.,from October 23-25, 1996. The conference, funded by the National Science Foundation and coordinated by TERC and the Concord Consortium, brought together 60 leaders in science and education who have research backgrounds, practical experience, or a high interest in Student, Scientists & Partnerships. The participants confirmed that this shift from the "student as recipient" to the "student as partner" model can be of real and substantive benefit for both the scientists and the students. The primary and most obvious benefits for the students are the excitement of doing authentic science, a new context for hands-on experiential learning, and the linkage of school learning with the "real world." For the scientists, the primary benefits are the help of student partners who enable the scientists to do research that might not otherwise be possible and the personal rewards of supporting education. Beyond these primary benefits, however, is a secondary and perhaps deeper level of benefits, resulting from the cross-fertilization between these two rich cultures. In each partnership, it helps to recognize and articulate what I call "the three authentics". Authentic Science-The science must be real science. It must contribute new knowledge. The research must be central to the scientists' work, and the student participation must contribute in a meaningful way to

  17. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  18. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the "storybook image of the scientist" is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one's own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists' willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science.

  19. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  20. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  1. Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

  2. Interdisciplinary Professional Development: Astrolabes for Medievalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2014-06-01

    Astronomers and astronomy educators have significantly broadened the intended audience for their outreach activities, from the traditional venues of public schools, libraries and planetariums to national parks, coffee houses, and concert halls. At the same time, significant attention has been paid to improving the quality and relevance of professional development directed toward preservice and inservice science teachers. Many of our outreach and professional development programs have also become increasingly creative in their use of interdisciplinary connections to astronomy, such as cultural astronomy and the history of astronomy. This poster describes a specific example of interdisciplinary professional development directed at a different audience, humanities faculty and researchers, through hands-on workshops on the basic astronomical background and usage of an astrolabe conducted at the International Congress on Medieval Studies at Western Michigan University in 2013 and 2014. The goal was to explain the basic astronomy behind astrolabes (as well as their cultural relevance) to medieval scholars in history, literature, and other disciplines. The intention was to increase their comfort with manipulating and explaining astrolabes to a basic level where they could share their knowledge with their own college classes. In this way the relevance of astronomy to myriad human endeavors could be reinforced by humanities faculty within their own courses.

  3. Criminologyof the future: interdisciplinary scientific connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyan Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of interdisciplinary scientific connections of the modern criminology conditional on the open character of this science and the necessity of its further development are given. The narrow-purpose character of criminological researches is noted: trivial subject matter; the criminologists’ lack of psychological, psychiatric, economical, historical, biological, ethnological and other knowledge; insufficiency of complex interdisciplinary works and empirical studies. Different viewpoints on the type of criminologists’ education are analyzed. That emphasizes the necessity of cooperation between criminology and other sciences, such as: sociology, demography, culturology, psychology, economics, pedagogics, psychiatry, ethnology, history, biology, political science, philosophy and others. The phenomenon of criminology is argued: it studies a “bad”, criminal, immoral person unlike other sciences (it belongs to the number of sciences which object is person. The main parameter of criminology as a science is examined – its subject which allows to distinguish it from other legal disciplines especially from criminal law. New aspects of interconnection between criminology and criminal procedure, criminalistics, the theory of investigation activity and criminal executive law are shown. The stable connections with family law, banking law, financial law and administrative law are considered. The author emphasizes the significant potential of developing criminology in its connection with nonlegal sciences: sociology, psychiatry, economics, statistics, psychology (including criminal psychology, biology and philosophy. It is noted that prospects and progress of criminology are possible only in its cooperation with other sciences.

  4. An interdisciplinary study in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Larraz Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to foster the use of technological resources and digital materials, with the aim of drawing cultural heritage closer to the classroom. Based on a previous study of documentation and an analysis of online educational materials, the students have to design an e-book, which is understood to be digital material in the curricular field of cultural heritage. This digital material is a didactic proposal that focuses on the construction of knowledge by primary school students. During the elaboration of the materials the instructors introduce follow-up activities. The results of the experiment show that, from an interdisciplinary approach, and a problem-solving, learning-centered methodology, specific and transferable abilities in initial teacher training can be studied and evaluated.

  5. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  6. Transformation of Geography as an Interdisciplinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afrakhteh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science of the spatial analysis of phenomena is based on three main objectives: studying spatial structures, examining the locational-spatial order of socio-economic activities, and searching spatial relationships and functions through hierarchical leveling of rural and urban settlements. The applied form of geography or “spatial planning” addresses the modification of spatial structures, the locational-spatial order of activities, and the organization of spatial relationships and functions. There are mutual interactions between structure and function in this spatial order. Science has developed a complex structure through the electronic revolution, which is called “third wave science”; also specialized studies have developed. Specialized studies result in a very deep understanding of subjects, but this deep understanding always remains just in a “spot” and its applications could be traumatic, which is because it is not regulated in combination with other dimensions of human life. This kind of science cannot be beneficial in human life or solve some important problems. The main aim of this article, which is based on qualitative content analysis, is to analyze geography as an interdisciplinary science. The findings of the study show that geographical research has interdisciplinary characteristics; otherwise it cannot explain today’s complex problems. Geography can both use the findings of other sciences, including statistics, mathematics, economics, sociology, history and psychology, and provide them with services and help.

  7. Interdisciplinary perspectives on Latin American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Pakkasvirta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia de los estudios sobre América Latina es sin lugar a dudas, multi e interdisciplinaria pero menos transdisciplinaria. Sin embargo, existen una variedad de posibilidades y oportunidades interesantes para desarrollar los estudios temáticos y culturales hacia un enfoque más radical y transdisciplinario. Este artículo analiza diferentes formas de sistematizar algunos aspectos de los estudios Latino-americanos como un campo específico o como una ‘disciplina’. Esto incluye como requisito una cultura de aprendizaje democrática, el uso del realismo crítico de una manera interdisciplinaria, la combinación de análisis interno-externo y el repensar las formas de análisis de datos cualitativos y cuantitativos. English: The history of Latin American studies is, without doubt, multi- and interdisciplinary but less transdisciplinary. There are nevertheless a host of interesting possibilities and opportunities to develop area and cultural studies toward a more radical transdisciplinary approach. This article, addresses several ways of systematising some aspects of Latin American studies as a distinct academic field or as a ‘discipline’. These include a request for a democratic learning culture, the use of critical realism in an interdisciplinary way, the combination of internal–external analysis, and the rethinking of quantitative and qualitative analysis and data.

  8. Evaluating an interdisciplinary undergraduate training program in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Harvey, Richard H; Stokols, Daniel; Pine, Kathleen H; Fuqua, Juliana; Shokair, Said M; Whiteley, John M

    2009-04-01

    The University of California at Irvine Interdisciplinary Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (ID-SURE) program had three objectives: (1) designing an interdisciplinary health promotion training curriculum for undergraduate research fellows; (2) developing measures for evaluating and assessing program-related educational processes and products; and (3) comparing these educational process and product measures between groups of students who did or did not receive the training. A total of 101 students participated in the ID-SURE program during 2005, 2006, and 2007. A longitudinal research design was employed whereby students' interdisciplinary attitudes and behaviors were assessed at the beginning and end of the training program. The interdisciplinary and intellectual qualities of students' academic and research products were assessed at the conclusion of the training activities. In addition, ID-SURE participants' interdisciplinary attitudes, behaviors, and research products were compared to those of 70 participants in another fellowship program that did not have an interdisciplinary training component. Exposing undergraduate research fellows to the interdisciplinary curriculum led to increased participation in, and positive attitudes about, interdisciplinary classroom and laboratory activities. Products, such as the integrative and interdisciplinary quality of student research projects, showed no differences when compared to those of undergraduates who were not exposed to the interdisciplinary curriculum. However, undergraduates exposed to the training engaged in more interdisciplinary behaviors at the end of the program than students who were not trained in interdisciplinary research techniques. The findings from this study offer evidence for the efficacy of the ID-SURE program for training undergraduate students in transdisciplinary concepts, methods, and skills that are needed for effective scientific collaboration. Additionally, this study makes two important

  9. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  10. The training, careers, and work of Ph.D. physical scientists: Not simply academic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pedersen-Gallegos, Liane; Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2002-11-01

    We present an in-depth portrait of the training, careers, and work of recent Ph.D. physical scientists. Use of specialized training varies widely, with about half often using knowledge of their Ph.D. specialty area in their jobs. The use of specialized training does not, however, correlate with job satisfaction. In this and other important measures, there are relatively few differences between "academics" and "nonacademics." Important job skills for all employment sectors include writing, oral presentation, management, data analysis, designing projects, critical thinking, and working in an interdisciplinary context. Rankings given by respondents of graduate training in some of these skill areas were significantly lower than the importance of these skills in the workplace. We also found that the rated quality of graduate training varies relatively little by department or advisor. Finally, although nonacademic aspirations among graduate students are fairly common, these do not appear to be well supported while in graduate school.

  11. Scientists and educators facilitating science education through school-based family learning programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, J. [Laboratory for Astrophysics, Washington, DC (United States); Sheldon, L.; Davis, R. [National Zoological Park, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Last year the National Air and Space Museum (NASM) and National Zoological Park (NZP) co-sponsored an educational outreach experiment, Learning is a Family Experience (LiFE). LiFE`s goal was to create friendly bridges to science and technology for forty-seven local area elementary and middle schools with a high proportion of minority and/or low income students. LiFE provided a school-based family field trip, within a framework of classroom activities. Scientists and educators used the space sciences in an interdisciplinary framework, to teach young and old the process of science. The program, mated to the curriculum, included five elements: teacher in-servicing; a donation package to the schools; a special evening at the NASM for students, parents and teachers; pre-and post-visit activities; and program assessment. We will report on exit questionnaire data, identify scientific/educational partnerships.

  12. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  13. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  14. Tradition and Innovation in Scientists' Research Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jacob G; Evans, James A

    2013-01-01

    What factors affect a scientist's choice of research problem? Qualitative research in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science suggests that this choice is shaped by an "essential tension" between the professional demand for productivity and a conflicting drive toward risky innovation. We examine this tension empirically in the context of biomedical chemistry. We use complex networks to represent the evolving state of scientific knowledge, as expressed in publications. We then define research strategies relative to these networks. Scientists can introduce novel chemicals or chemical relationships--or delve deeper into known ones. They can consolidate existing knowledge clusters, or bridge distant ones. Analyzing such choices in aggregate, we find that the distribution of strategies remains remarkably stable, even as chemical knowledge grows dramatically. High-risk strategies, which explore new chemical relationships, are less prevalent in the literature, reflecting a growing focus on established know...

  15. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  16. Kristian Birkeland the first space scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell’s newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland’s ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth’s atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway’s largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demo...

  17. Conservation beyond science: scientists as storytellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Veríssimo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As scientists we are often unprepared and unwilling to communicate our passion for what we do to those outside our professional circles. Scientific literature can also be difficult or unattractive to those without a professional interest in research. Storytelling can be a successful approach to enable readers to engage with the challenges faced by scientists. In an effort to convey to the public what it means to be a field biologist, 18 Portuguese biologists came together to write a book titled “BIOgraphies: The lives of those who study life”, in the original Portuguese “BIOgrafias: Vidas de quem estuda a vida”. This book is a collection of 35 field stories that became career landmarks for those who lived them. We discuss the obstacles and opportunities of the publishing process and reflect on the lessons learned for future outreach efforts.

  18. Nobelist TD Lee Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Jin-qing; LIU; Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We have studied Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network(TDLSCN)and their innovation ability(Fig.1a).It is found that TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation network,but also the number of TD Lee’s published article appears the phenomenon of multiple-peak with year evolution,which becomes Nobelist TD Lee’s

  19. A multidimensional approach to examine student interdisciplinary learning in science and engineering in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, Elsbeth; Luning, Pieternelleke Arianne; Boekel, van Tiny; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Preparing science and engineering students to work in interdisciplinary teams necessitates research on teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking. A multidimensional approach was taken to examine student interdisciplinary learning in a master course on food quality management. The collected

  20. What makes interdisciplinarity difficult? Some consequences of domain specificity in interdisciplinary practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacLeod, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Research on interdisciplinary science has for the most part concentrated on the institutional obstacles that discourage or hamper interdisciplinary work, with the expectation that interdisciplinary interaction can be improved through institutional reform strategies such as through reform of peer rev

  1. Interdisciplinary research in global biogeochemical cycling Nitrous oxide in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. D.; Peterson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    NASA has begun an interdisciplinary research program to investigate various aspects of Global Biology and Global Habitability. An important element selected for the study of global phenomena is related to biogeochemical cycling. The studies involve a collaboration with recognized scientists in the areas of plant physiology, microbiology, nutrient cycling theory, and related areas. Selected subjects of study include nitrogen cycling dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems with special attention to biosphere/atmosphere interactions, and an identification of sensitive response variables which can be used in ecosystem models based on parameters derived from remotely sensed variables. A description is provided of the progress and findings over the past two years. Attention is given to the characteristics of nitrous oxide emissions, the approach followed in the investigations, the selection of study sites, radiometric measurements, and research in Sequoia.

  2. Solar System Astronomy in America, Communities, Patronage, and Interdisciplinary Science, 1920-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E.

    1996-04-01

    Between 1920 and 1960 astronomers began working with scientists in other fields in order to better understand the nature of the solar system. Researchers made wide-ranging attempts to solve such problems as the nature of lunar and terrestrial craters, the origin of comets and meteors, and the birth of the solar system. While often tinged with controversy, this work provided the foundation for planetary science in the space age. Exploiting previously unused archival material, Ronald Doel investigates this emerging interdisciplinary scientific community and its influence on astronomy, meteorology, geology, and geophysics. He examines how studies in planetary science were influenced by shifts in institutional mandates, new research techniques, and Cold War government-military funding. Above all, the book explores an important branch of what is now called the environmental sciences. This book will interest historians of science as well as astronomers.

  3. Reshaped destinies: confronting our human future the need for and promise of an interdisciplinary colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C

    2008-12-01

    The genomic revolution is bringing with it simultaneous needs for both scientists and nonscientists to understand and assess, in an unvarnished and nonjudgmental way, the implications of genometry. This is the field of science and technology that is taking the genetic code and what we have learned from its secrets, and reshaping our individual and collective human destinies. Together with the editor-in-chief of Gender Medicine, the authors propose an interdisciplinary group-populated by those in science, law, ethics, social policy, and the interested public-to observe, understand, and disseminate information about what is occurring in the fields of biology and chemistry that is the driving force of the genomic revolution. This article discusses the background to the Redefined Destinies Colloquium (RDC) and summarizes 4 of the topics the RDC is studying.

  4. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  5. Preparing Students to Be Empathic Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Team Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lynn; Gitchel, Dent; Higgins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is a key component of rehabilitation practice. It ensures that a holistic and coordinated approach to planning is implemented. Just as the therapeutic relationship is enhanced through empathic understanding and communication, so too is the effectiveness of the interdisciplinary rehabilitation team in achieving…

  6. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  7. Inclusive and Exclusive Knowledge Practices in Interdisciplinary, International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a critical engagement with the principle of inclusion, as manifest in three international, interdisciplinary master programmes in Denmark. Initially, it is proposed that one focuses on the knowledge practices found in international, interdisciplinary education, asking to what extent these suggest inclusion in the sense that all…

  8. Ontological Metaphors for Negative Energy in an Interdisciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy…

  9. Exploring Parental Involvement Strategies Utilized by Middle School Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chris; Searby, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents present a unique collection of characteristics and challenges which middle school interdisciplinary teams were designed to address. This article describes a research study which explored parental involvement strategies employed by interdisciplinary teaching teams from three very different middle schools: an affluent suburban school, a…

  10. Interdisciplinary approach to a total knee replacement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, S

    2000-06-01

    An orthopedic clinical nurse specialist facilitated an interdisciplinary evaluation, design, and implementation of best practice initiatives for the total knee replacement patient population using the Center for Advanced Nursing Practice's Evidence-Based Practice Model. The interdisciplinary team approach enhanced the total joint program by achieving positive patient outcomes, demonstrating financial stewardship of resources, and facilitating inter- and intradisciplinary communication.

  11. Fostering Interdisciplinary Thinking through an International Development Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Rachel L.; Esperanza, Jennifer; Phan, Diep

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of interdisciplinary pedagogy, disciplinary teaching remains the norm on most campuses, primarily due to cost and institutional constraints. Bridging the gap between literature on interdisciplinary teaching and active-learning techniques, this article describes an innovative and less costly…

  12. An Interdisciplinary Model for Connecting Writing, Psychology, and Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Staci

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an effective model for a manageable interdisciplinary project that shows students the connections among art, English, and other disciplines; gives composition students an external audience for their writing; and emphasizes the importance of research in the process of creating arguments and art. This interdisciplinary project…

  13. Understanding Interdisciplinarity: Curricular and Organizational Features of Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, David B.; Lattuca, Lisa R.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.; Reason, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Though the number of interdisciplinary undergraduate programs has increased rapidly over the past several decades, little empirical research has characterized such programs. In this article we report on our investigation of the characteristics of interdisciplinary programs and develop typologies to describe the multiple ways in which such programs…

  14. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  15. Chaos: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Saebyok

    2009-01-01

    Since society and science need interdisciplinary works, the interesting topic of chaos is chosen for interdisciplinary education in physics. The educational programme contains various university-level activities such as computer simulations, chaos experiment and team projects besides ordinary teaching. According to the participants, the programme…

  16. The flip side: scientists who rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Many scientists play music. I'm one. I'm the rhythm guitar player, song writer, and singer in The Amygdaloids. We play original music about mind and brain and mental disorders. The songs are inspired by research that I do, as well as general ideas in the brain and cognitive sciences, and the philosophy of mind. For me, playing music is not a distraction to other life obligations. It makes me better at everything else I do.

  17. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensively revised - essentially rewritten - new edition of the 1990 edition (described as ""extremely useful"" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as ""understandable and comprehensive"" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallogr

  18. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, D.; van der Putten, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  19. Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Adrian A

    2011-01-01

    The third edition of this bestseller examines the principles of artificial intelligence and their application to engineering and science, as well as techniques for developing intelligent systems to solve practical problems. Covering the full spectrum of intelligent systems techniques, it incorporates knowledge-based systems, computational intelligence, and their hybrids. Using clear and concise language, Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition features updates and improvements throughout all chapters. It includes expanded and separated chapters on genetic algorithms and

  20. China-Pakistan Young Scientist Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The China-Pakistan Young Scientist Forum, cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST), was held at the China International Conference Center for Science and Technology on April 17. Feng Zuoku, Vice President of the CPAFFC, Xu Yanhao, a member of the CAST Secretariat, and Zahoor Ahmed, Charge d’Affaires of the Pakistani Embassy in China, addressed the opening ceremony.

  1. What Scientists Who Study Emotion Agree About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the field of emotion has grown enormously-recently, nearly 250 scientists were identified who are studying emotion. In this article, I report a survey of the field, which revealed high agreement about the evidence regarding the nature of emotion, supporting some of both Darwin's and Wundt's 19th century proposals. Topics where disagreements remain were also exposed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Teaching Fundamentals of Robotics to Computer Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to reinforce the teaching of fundamentals of robotics to computer scientists. The pedagogical basis is focused on engaging students in an in-depth study of the subject using computing in a substantive way. The approach consists in complementing the lectures by programming assignments focused on giving students a deeper understanding of how robotic systems work from the inside. This article presents the author's experience in the use of this approach, as wel...

  3. Scientists in the public sphere: Interactions of scientists and journalists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Peters, Hans P

    2016-06-07

    In order to map scientists' views on media channels and explore their experiences interacting with journalists, the authors conducted a survey of about 1,000 Brazilian scientists. Results indicate that scientists have clear and high expectations about how journalists should act in reporting scientific information in the media, but such expectations, in their opinion, do not always seem to be met. Nonetheless, the results show that surveyed scientists rate their relation with the media positively: 67% say that having their research covered by media has a positive impact on their colleagues. One quarter of the respondents expressed that talking to the media can facilitate acquisition of more funds for research. Moreover, 38% of the total respondents believe that writing about an interesting topic for release on media channels can also facilitate research publication in a scientific journal. However, 15% of the respondents outright agree that research reported in the media beforehand can threaten acceptance for publication by a scientific journal. We hope that these results can foster some initiatives for improving awareness of the two cultures, scientists and journalists; increasing the access of journalists to Brazilian scientific endeavors; stimulating scientists to communicate with the public via social networks.

  4. Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships: Reimagining Scientists in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Terwilliger, Michael; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships Team

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our work to reimagine Teacher-Scientist partnerships to improve relationships and outcomes. We describe our work in implementing Teacher-Scientist partnerships that are expanded to include a communicator, and the learners themselves, as genuine members of the partnership. Often times in Teacher-Scientist partnerships, the scientist can often become more easily described as a special guest into the classroom, rather than a genuine partner in the learning experience. We design programs that take the expertise of the teacher and the scientist fully into account to develop practical and meaningful partnerships, that are further enhanced by using an expert in communications to develop rich experiences for and with the learners. The communications expert may be from a broad base of backgrounds depending on the needs and desires of the partners -- the communicators include, for example: public speaking gurus; journalists; web and graphic designers; and American Sign Language interpreters. Our partnership programs provide online support and professional development for all parties. Outcomes of the program are evaluated in terms of not only learning outcomes for the students, but also attitude, behavior, and relationship outcomes for the teachers, scientists, communicators and learners alike.

  5. The scientist's education and a civic conscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed.

  6. Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC) - A Field Campaign Scoping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimates in time and space of organic carbon export to the ocean interior via plankton net community production (NCP) for the global oceans (the biological pump) are essential for understanding the feedback between NCP, atmospheric CO2 and climate. Since integrated, multi-sensor satellite and in situ observations of many ocean variables are required to estimate NCP from space, this is a complex, interdisciplinary challenge. Satellite ocean color sensors are a fundamental component in estimating spatial and temporal variations in NCP. Therefore, NASA's PACE mission (NASA-PACE 2012), a mission included in NASA's Climate Architecture Plan (NASA-CAP, 2010), specifies a need for field programs to improve satellite algorithms and models to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NCP. Diverse data from sediment and glacial cores, and climate models, indicate that the Southern Ocean plays a large role in the glacial-interglacial variations in the biological pump, with considerable implications for variations in atmospheric CO2. The "Interdisciplinary Coordinated Experiment of the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle (ICESOCC)" project is a NASA-funded field campaign scoping (planning) effort. Over 18 months and many public meetings and workshops, the ICESOCC team of 13 interdisciplinary scientists has integrated the input from scientific experts in ocean, atmosphere, ice physics, biogeochemistry, advanced observational tools (ship, autonomous, atmospheric gases and dust, cryosphere dynamics, winds), and models, to create a draft recommendation to NASA for field observations required to constrain uncertainty of NCP for the Southern Ocean. The ICESOCC team requests and encourages careful review and comments of the draft to ensure the most robust final recommendations are submitted in early 2016 for NASA consideration.

  7. Bringing Society to a Changing Polar Ocean: Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic and Antarctic appear to be accelerating and scientists are trying to understand both the patterns and the impacts of change. These changes will have profound impact on humanity and create a need for public education about these critical habitats. We have focused on a two-pronged strategy to increase public awareness as well as enable educators to discuss comfortably the implications of climate change. Our first focus is on entraining public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has been released in May 2015 and has garnered interest in movie theatres and on social media stores (NetFlix, ITunes). This broad outreach is coupled with our group's interest assisting educators formally. The majority of current polar education is focused on direct educator engagement through personal research experiences that have impact on the participating educators' classrooms. Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) proposes to improve educator and student engagement in polar sciences through exposure to scientists and polar data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, Polar ICE will reduce the logistical costs of bringing polar science to students in grades 6-16. We will provide opportunities to: 1) build capacity of polar scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with polar scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia; and 3) evaluate the outcomes of Polar ICE and contribute to our understanding of science education practices. We will use a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. This combined multi-pronged approach

  8. Examining Sociology’s Position in an Increasingly Interdisciplinary Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Žažar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of growing interdisciplinarity implies the need to establish sociology’s position within an even more ‘interdisciplinary environment’ of contemporary science. Sociology’s relationship with other sciences is intimately intertwined with several types of issues scrutinised here: a the modalities of interdisciplinary conjunctions; b the attributes of levels at which interdisciplinary cooperation may appear; c what sociology can provide to and what it may require from other disciplines; and d potential advantages of participation in interdisciplinary scientific ventures, as well as their possible hazards. Further, the preference for multidisciplinarity as a ‘softer’ variant of interdisciplinary connection is emphasised. Finally, the urgency pertaining to the disciplinary uniqueness of sociology, due to its capability to adequately answer a vast number of social challenges today, is underlined.

  9. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  10. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  11. Life and Quantum Biology, an Interdisciplinary Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Driessen, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly increasing interest in the quantum properties of living matter stimulates a discussion of the fundamental properties of life as well as quantum mechanics. In this discussion often concepts are used that originate in philosophy. In the present work a classic philosophical tradition based on Aristotle and Aquinas is employed which surprisingly is able to make important aspects in science intelligible. Especially one could mention the unity in living objects and the occurrence of qualitative changes in quantum mechanics. It is recommended that scientists and philosophers have a strong interaction that enriches both. Scientists could redirect their investigation, as paradigm shifts like the one originating from quantum mechanics give new insight about the relation between the system en the components. Whereas philosophers could use scientific results as a consistency check for the philosophical framework for understanding reality.

  12. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  13. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists.

  14. The Interdisciplinary Generalist Curriculum Project at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitia, M; McCarty, S; Kelly, P; Szarek, J; Harvey, H

    2001-04-01

    The Interdisciplinary Generalist Curriculum (IGC) Project was designed to enhance interest in and support of generalism during the first two years of medical education. The original goals at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University included the design and implementation of a core curriculum, Introduction to Patient Care (IPC), and enhancement of teaching excellence through faculty development. The core curriculum facilitated integration with the basic sciences and early introduction of physical examination skills, which were further developed in longitudinal clinical experiences with mentors. Although it was not originally intended to include basic scientists in the preceptor groups, they became important additions and created additional opportunities for interdisciplinary teaching and reciprocal learning. The mentor program, another well-received and intended curriculum change, evolved from a structured experience to a more flexible component of the curriculum. The program met the requirements of the IGC Project but 53% of the originally intended mentor time was achievable, due to curriculum constraints. Faculty development, another success, was originally intended to target IPC faculty but ultimately became a university-wide effort. The changes implemented as a result of the IGC Project continue to flourish beyond the funding period and have become integral aspects of the curriculum and the medical school.

  15. Market engineering - towards an interdisciplinary approach [online

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Carsten; Neumann, Dirk; Weinhardt, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The success of electronic markets does not only hinge upon scalable IT platforms combined with extensive marketing campaigns. Scientists and practitioners tend to agree that electronic markets have to be carefully designed, since even small failures in design decide on the overall success or failure of a marketplace. Unfortunately, traditional market design literature is often limited to the design of the trading rules. To solve practical challenges, the design of an a...

  16. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Hartgerink, Chris H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the scientist” is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one’s own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists’ willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science. PMID:28001440

  17. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  18. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  19. Why Is Being Interdisciplinary so Very Hard to Do? Thoughts on the Perils and Promise of Interdisciplinary Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the challenges facing students and teachers in the interdisciplinary classroom. Based on observations of a team-taught interdisciplinary class and drawing on cultural historical activity theory, I argue that the psychological double binds that result from the clash of different disciplinary activity systems constitute both the…

  20. Why Is Being Interdisciplinary so Very Hard to Do? Thoughts on the Perils and Promise of Interdisciplinary Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the challenges facing students and teachers in the interdisciplinary classroom. Based on observations of a team-taught interdisciplinary class and drawing on cultural historical activity theory, I argue that the psychological double binds that result from the clash of different disciplinary activity systems constitute both the…