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Sample records for huxley work allowing

  1. Author as a Corporal Subject of A. Huxley's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleeva, Svetlana S.; Musaeva, Diana R.; Samoylova, Tatiana I.; Linnik, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem studied in the article is conditioned by the fact that A. Huxley's works are regarded in the context of the modern theory of mimesis for the first time. The aim of the article is to analyze the author's problem as a corporal subject of Huxley's works in the context of the modern theory of mimesis. The leading method…

  2. 'Great is Darwin and Bergson his poet': Julian Huxley's other evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Emily

    2018-01-01

    In 1912, Julian Huxley published his first book The Individual in the Animal Kingdom which he dedicated to the then world-famous French philosopher Henri Bergson. Historians have generally adopted one of two attitudes towards Huxley's early encounter with Bergson. They either dismiss it entirely as unimportant or minimize it, deeming it a youthful indiscretion preceding Huxley's full conversion to Fisherian Darwinism. Close biographical study and archive materials demonstrate, however, that neither position is tenable. The study of the Bergsonian elements in play in Julian Huxley's early works fed into Huxley's first ideas about progress in evolution and even his celebrated theories of bird courtship. Furthermore, the view that Huxley rejected Bergson in his later years needs to be revised. Although Huxley ended up claiming that Bergson's theory of evolution had no explanatory power, he never repudiated the descriptive power of Bergson's controversial notion of the élan vital. Even into the Modern Synthesis period, Huxley represented his own synthesis as drawing decisively on Bergson's philosophy.

  3. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented considers the initial boundary value problem for nonlinear singularly perturbed time dependent Burger- Huxley equation. The equation contains two terms with nonlinearities, the cubic term and the advection term. Generally, the severe difficulties of two types encounter in solving this problem. The first ...

  4. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    solutions of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations. ... for solving generalized Burgers-Huxley equation but this equation is not singularly ...... Solitary waves solutions of the generalized Burger Huxley equations, Journal of.

  5. Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Perez, Octavio [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: octavio@ipicyt.edu.mx; Femat, Ricardo [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfemat@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2005-07-01

    Synchronization dynamics of two noiseless Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons under the action of feedback control is studied. The spiking patterns of the action potentials evoked by periodic external modulations attain synchronization states under the feedback action. Numerical simulations for the synchronization dynamics of regular-irregular desynchronized spiking sequences are displayed. The results are discussed in context of generalized synchronization. It is also shown that the HH neurons can be synchronized in face of unmeasured states.

  6. The what and where of adding channel noise to the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Goldwyn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conductance-based equations for electrically active cells form one of the most widely studied mathematical frameworks in computational biology. This framework, as expressed through a set of differential equations by Hodgkin and Huxley, synthesizes the impact of ionic currents on a cell's voltage--and the highly nonlinear impact of that voltage back on the currents themselves--into the rapid push and pull of the action potential. Later studies confirmed that these cellular dynamics are orchestrated by individual ion channels, whose conformational changes regulate the conductance of each ionic current. Thus, kinetic equations familiar from physical chemistry are the natural setting for describing conductances; for small-to-moderate numbers of channels, these will predict fluctuations in conductances and stochasticity in the resulting action potentials. At first glance, the kinetic equations provide a far more complex (and higher-dimensional description than the original Hodgkin-Huxley equations or their counterparts. This has prompted more than a decade of efforts to capture channel fluctuations with noise terms added to the equations of Hodgkin-Huxley type. Many of these approaches, while intuitively appealing, produce quantitative errors when compared to kinetic equations; others, as only very recently demonstrated, are both accurate and relatively simple. We review what works, what doesn't, and why, seeking to build a bridge to well-established results for the deterministic equations of Hodgkin-Huxley type as well as to more modern models of ion channel dynamics. As such, we hope that this review will speed emerging studies of how channel noise modulates electrophysiological dynamics and function. We supply user-friendly MATLAB simulation code of these stochastic versions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations on the ModelDB website (accession number 138950 and http://www.amath.washington.edu/~etsb/tutorials.html.

  7. Crisis of interspike intervals in Hodgkin-Huxley model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wuyin; Xu Jianxue; Wu Ying; Hong Ling; Wei Yaobing

    2006-01-01

    The bifurcations of the chaotic attractor in a Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model under stimulation of periodic signal is presented in this work, where the frequency of signal is taken as the controlling parameter. The chaotic behavior is realized over a wide range of frequency and is visualized by using interspike intervals (ISIs). Many kinds of abrupt undergoing changes of the ISIs are observed in different frequency regions, such as boundary crisis, interior crisis and merging crisis displaying alternately along with the changes of external signal frequency. And there are logistic-like bifurcation behaviors, e.g., periodic windows and fractal structures in ISIs dynamics. The saddle-node bifurcations resulting in collapses of chaos to period-6 orbit in dynamics of ISIs are identified

  8. Thomas Henry Huxley et la Bible Thomas Henry Huxley and the Bible

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    Christophe Duvey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Henry Huxley devoted several essays to the study of the Bible. This interest can only be accounted for if his ideas on history, religion as well as epistemology are examined. According to him, a struggle between free thought and supernaturalism was culminating during the Victorian era, hence the need for a “New Reformation” which was heir to the ideals of freedom defended by the humanists of the Renaissance. This movement opposed the principles of the supporters of what he called “ecclesiasticism”. The advocates of the “New Reformation” could rely on the progress of modern science, and agnosticism, which Huxley identified with scientific method, became its epistemological foundation. As a result, Huxley thought that the authority of physical science was in conflict with the infallibility of the Scriptures and with the theological arguments which rested on it, and this notably led him to the conclusion that the biblical narrative of the Flood was unhistorical. The naturalisation of the Scriptures seems then logically to follow his philosophical views based on the limits of human knowledge.It appears that it was the question of authority which underlay Huxley’s interest in the Bible. He thought that the authority of the Scriptures must be replaced by that of science.

  9. expansion method for the Burgers, Burgers–Huxley and modified

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    expansion method; Burgers equation; Burgers–Huxley equation; modified. Burgers–KdV equation .... Substituting the solution set (12) and the corresponding solutions of (4) into (8), we have ..... During the past several years, many have done.

  10. Whistles, bells, and cogs in machines: Thomas Huxley and epiphenomenalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, John

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I try to shed some historical light upon the doctrine of epiphenomenalism, by focusing on the version of epiphenomenalism championed by Thomas Huxley, which is often treated as a classic statement of the doctrine. I argue that it is doubtful if Huxley held any form of metaphysical epiphenomenalism, and that he held a more limited form of empirical epiphenomenalism with respect to consciousness but not with respect to mentality per se. Contrary to what is conventionally supposed, Huxley's empirical epiphenomenalism with respect to consciousness was not simply based upon the demonstration of the neurophysiological basis of conscious mentality, or derived from the extension of mechanistic and reflexive principles of explanation to encompass all forms of animal and human behavior, but was based upon the demonstration of purposive and coordinated animal and human behavior in the absence of consciousness. Given Huxley's own treatment of mentality, his characterization of animals and humans as "conscious automata" was not well chosen.

  11. A path integral approach to the Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, Roman; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Montani, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To understand how single neurons process sensory information, it is necessary to develop suitable stochastic models to describe the response variability of the recorded spike trains. Spikes in a given neuron are produced by the synergistic action of sodium and potassium of the voltage-dependent channels that open or close the gates. Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) equations describe the ionic mechanisms underlying the initiation and propagation of action potentials, through a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that approximate the electrical characteristics of the excitable cell. Path integral provides an adequate approach to compute quantities such as transition probabilities, and any stochastic system can be expressed in terms of this methodology. We use the technique of path integrals to determine the analytical solution driven by a non-Gaussian colored noise when considering the HH equations as a stochastic system. The different neuronal dynamics are investigated by estimating the path integral solutions driven by a non-Gaussian colored noise q. More specifically we take into account the correlational structures of the complex neuronal signals not just by estimating the transition probability associated to the Gaussian approach of the stochastic HH equations, but instead considering much more subtle processes accounting for the non-Gaussian noise that could be induced by the surrounding neural network and by feedforward correlations. This allows us to investigate the underlying dynamics of the neural system when different scenarios of noise correlations are considered.

  12. Spike neural models (part I: The Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, Melissa G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks, or ANNs, have grown a lot since their inception back in the 1940s. But no matter the changes, one of the most important components of neural networks is still the node, which represents the neuron. Within spiking neural networks, the node is especially important because it contains the functions and properties of neurons that are necessary for their network. One important aspect of neurons is the ionic flow which produces action potentials, or spikes. Forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure work together with the physical properties of the cell to move ions around changing the cell membrane potential which ultimately produces the action potential. This tutorial reviews the Hodkgin-Huxley model and shows how it simulates the ionic flow of the giant squid axon via four differential equations. The model is implemented in Matlab using Euler's Method to approximate the differential equations. By using Euler's method, an extra parameter is created, the time step. This new parameter needs to be carefully considered or the results of the node may be impaired.

  13. Teaching and learning the Hodgkin-Huxley model based on software developed in NEURON's programming language hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Oscar E; Zurek, Eduardo E

    2013-05-15

    We present a software tool called SENB, which allows the geometric and biophysical neuronal properties in a simple computational model of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) axon to be changed. The aim of this work is to develop a didactic and easy-to-use computational tool in the NEURON simulation environment, which allows graphical visualization of both the passive and active conduction parameters and the geometric characteristics of a cylindrical axon with HH properties. The SENB software offers several advantages for teaching and learning electrophysiology. First, SENB offers ease and flexibility in determining the number of stimuli. Second, SENB allows immediate and simultaneous visualization, in the same window and time frame, of the evolution of the electrophysiological variables. Third, SENB calculates parameters such as time and space constants, stimuli frequency, cellular area and volume, sodium and potassium equilibrium potentials, and propagation velocity of the action potentials. Furthermore, it allows the user to see all this information immediately in the main window. Finally, with just one click SENB can save an image of the main window as evidence. The SENB software is didactic and versatile, and can be used to improve and facilitate the teaching and learning of the underlying mechanisms in the electrical activity of an axon using the biophysical properties of the squid giant axon.

  14. Teaching and learning the Hodgkin-Huxley model based on software developed in NEURON’s programming language hoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We present a software tool called SENB, which allows the geometric and biophysical neuronal properties in a simple computational model of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) axon to be changed. The aim of this work is to develop a didactic and easy-to-use computational tool in the NEURON simulation environment, which allows graphical visualization of both the passive and active conduction parameters and the geometric characteristics of a cylindrical axon with HH properties. Results The SENB software offers several advantages for teaching and learning electrophysiology. First, SENB offers ease and flexibility in determining the number of stimuli. Second, SENB allows immediate and simultaneous visualization, in the same window and time frame, of the evolution of the electrophysiological variables. Third, SENB calculates parameters such as time and space constants, stimuli frequency, cellular area and volume, sodium and potassium equilibrium potentials, and propagation velocity of the action potentials. Furthermore, it allows the user to see all this information immediately in the main window. Finally, with just one click SENB can save an image of the main window as evidence. Conclusions The SENB software is didactic and versatile, and can be used to improve and facilitate the teaching and learning of the underlying mechanisms in the electrical activity of an axon using the biophysical properties of the squid giant axon. PMID:23675833

  15. Synchronization of two Hodgkin-Huxley neurons due to internal noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Jose Manuel

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that a strong coupling can synchronize a population of nonlinear oscillators. This fact has deep implications for the current understanding of information processing by the brain. The focus of this Letter is on the role of conductance noise on a system of two coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons in the so-called excitable region, where both neurons are at rest in the absence of noise. It is shown that, in this region, conductance noise allows the neurons to achieve both frequency and phase synchronization. This suggests that internal noise could play a role in the emergence of synchronous neural activity in populations of weakly coupled neurons

  16. Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Lopez, R. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: raguilar@correo.azc.uam.mx; Martinez-Guerra, R. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico, D.F. C.P. 07360 (Mexico)], E-mail: rguerra@ctrl.cinvestav.mx

    2008-07-15

    This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments.

  17. Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Martinez-Guerra, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments

  18. Optimal decoding and information transmission in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons under metabolic cost constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Kobayashi, Ryota

    2015-10-01

    Information theory quantifies the ultimate limits on reliable information transfer by means of the channel capacity. However, the channel capacity is known to be an asymptotic quantity, assuming unlimited metabolic cost and computational power. We investigate a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal model under the spike-rate coding scheme and address how the metabolic cost and the decoding complexity affects the optimal information transmission. We find that the sub-threshold stimulation regime, although attaining the smallest capacity, allows for the most efficient balance between the information transmission and the metabolic cost. Furthermore, we determine post-synaptic firing rate histograms that are optimal from the information-theoretic point of view, which enables the comparison of our results with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Memristor, Hodgkin–Huxley, and Edge of Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Leon

    2013-01-01

    From a pedagogical point of view, the memristor is defined in this tutorial as any 2-terminal device obeying a state-dependent Ohm’s law. This tutorial also shows that from an experimental point of view, the memristor can be defined as any 2-terminal device that exhibits the fingerprints of ‘pinched’ hysteresis loops in the v–i plane. It also shows that memristors endowed with a continuum of equilibrium states can be used as non-volatile analog memories. This tutorial shows that memristors span a much broader vista of complex phenomena and potential applications in many fields, including neurobiology. In particular, this tutorial presents toy memristors that can mimic the classic habituation and LTP learning phenomena. It also shows that sodium and potassium ion-channel memristors are the key to generating the action potential in the Hodgkin–Huxley equations, and that they are the key to resolving several unresolved anomalies associated with the Hodgkin–Huxley equations. This tutorial ends with an amazing new result derived from the new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling ‘Goldilocks zone’, dubbed the edge of chaos, where complex phenomena, including creativity and intelligence, may emerge. From an information processing perspective, this tutorial shows that synapses are locally-passive memristors, and that neurons are made of locally-active memristors. (tutorial)

  20. Spike trains in Hodgkin-Huxley model and ISIs of acupuncture manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiang; Si Wenjie; Che Yanqiu; Fei Xiangyang

    2008-01-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley equations (HH) are parameterized by a number of parameters and shows a variety of qualitatively different behaviors depending on the parameter values. Under stimulation of an external periodic voltage, the ISIs (interspike intervals) of a HH model are investigated in this work, while the frequency of the voltage is taken as the controlling parameter. As well-known, the science of acupuncture and moxibustion is an important component of Traditional Chinese Medicine with a long history. Although there are a number of different acupuncture manipulations, the method for distinguishing them is rarely investigated. With the idea of ISI, we study the electrical signal time series at the spinal dorsal horn produced by three different acupuncture manipulations in Zusanli point and present an effective way to distinguish them

  1. Spike trains in Hodgkin-Huxley model and ISIs of acupuncture manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiang [School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)], E-mail: jiangwang@tju.edu.cn; Si Wenjie; Che Yanqiu; Fei Xiangyang [School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-05-15

    The Hodgkin-Huxley equations (HH) are parameterized by a number of parameters and shows a variety of qualitatively different behaviors depending on the parameter values. Under stimulation of an external periodic voltage, the ISIs (interspike intervals) of a HH model are investigated in this work, while the frequency of the voltage is taken as the controlling parameter. As well-known, the science of acupuncture and moxibustion is an important component of Traditional Chinese Medicine with a long history. Although there are a number of different acupuncture manipulations, the method for distinguishing them is rarely investigated. With the idea of ISI, we study the electrical signal time series at the spinal dorsal horn produced by three different acupuncture manipulations in Zusanli point and present an effective way to distinguish them.

  2. A numerical scheme for the generalized Burgers–Huxley equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh K. Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical solution of generalized Burgers–Huxley (gBH equation is approximated by using a new scheme: modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM. The scheme is based on differential quadrature method in which the weighting coefficients are obtained by using modified cubic B-splines as a set of basis functions. This scheme reduces the equation into a system of first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE which is solved by adopting SSP-RK43 scheme. Further, it is shown that the proposed scheme is stable. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by four numerical experiments, which confirm that obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies. This scheme is an easy, economical and efficient technique for finding numerical solutions for various kinds of (nonlinear physical models as compared to the earlier schemes.

  3. The ISI distribution of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Peter F; Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of ion-channel noise has an important role in computational neuroscience. In recent years several approximate methods of carrying out this simulation have been published, based on stochastic differential equations, and all giving slightly different results. The obvious, and essential, question is: which method is the most accurate and which is most computationally efficient? Here we make a contribution to the answer. We compare interspike interval histograms from simulated data using four different approximate stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, as well as the exact Markov chain model simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. One of the recent SDE models is the same as the Kurtz approximation first published in 1978. All the models considered give similar ISI histograms over a wide range of deterministic and stochastic input. Three features of these histograms are an initial peak, followed by one or more bumps, and then an exponential tail. We explore how these features depend on deterministic input and on level of channel noise, and explain the results using the stochastic dynamics of the model. We conclude with a rough ranking of the four SDE models with respect to the similarity of their ISI histograms to the histogram of the exact Markov chain model.

  4. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

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    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  5. Active workstation allows office workers to work efficiently while sitting and exercising moderately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Katja; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity active workstation on time and error during simulated office work. The aim of the study was to analyse simultaneous work and exercise for non-sedentary office workers. We monitored oxygen uptake, heart rate, sweating stains area, self-perceived effort, typing test time with typing error count and cognitive performance during 30 min of exercise with no cycling or cycling at 40 and 80 W. Compared baseline, we found increased physiological responses at 40 and 80 W, which corresponds to moderate physical activity (PA). Typing time significantly increased by 7.3% (p = 0.002) in C40W and also by 8.9% (p = 0.011) in C80W. Typing error count and cognitive performance were unchanged. Although moderate intensity exercise performed on cycling workstation during simulated office tasks increases working task execution time with, it has moderate effect size; however, it does not increase the error rate. Participants confirmed that such a working design is suitable for achieving the minimum standards for daily PA during work hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Canards Existence in FitzHugh-Nagumo and Hodgkin-Huxley Neuronal Models

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    Jean-Marc Ginoux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we have proposed a new method for proving the existence of “canard solutions” for three- and four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with only one fast variable which improves the methods used until now. The aim of this work is to extend this method to the case of four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with two slow and two fast variables. This method enables stating a unique generic condition for the existence of “canard solutions” for such four-dimensional singularly perturbed systems which is based on the stability of folded singularities (pseudo singular points in this case of the normalized slow dynamics deduced from a well-known property of linear algebra. This unique generic condition is identical to that provided in previous works. Application of this method to the famous coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo equations and to the Hodgkin-Huxley model enables showing the existence of “canard solutions” in such systems.

  7. Alternative Work Schedules: Many Agencies Do Not Allow Employees the Full Flexibility Permitted by Law. Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    A review was conducted of the extent to which selected federal agencies are allowing employees to use alternative work schedules (AWS) as authorized by the Federal Employees Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules Act. The statute permits, rather than requires, agencies to institute AWS programs. The study surveyed the policies and practices of 59…

  8. Challenging normative orthodoxies in depression: Huxley's Utopia or Dante's Inferno?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Lakeman, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipoppa, Mario; Gutkin, Boris S

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required WM operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and WM in recurrently coupled spiking networks with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in WM models implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. We examine how the correlations affect the ability of the network to perform the task when distractors are present. We show that in a winner-take-all version of the model, where two populations cross-inhibit, correlations make the distractor blocking robust. In a version of the mode where no cross inhibition is present, we show that appropriate modulation of correlation levels is sufficient to also block the distractor access while leaving the relevant memory trace in tact. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  10. Chimera states in a Hodgkin-Huxley model of thermally sensitive neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Tera A.; Lewis, Scott; Bahar, Sonya

    2016-08-01

    Chimera states occur when identically coupled groups of nonlinear oscillators exhibit radically different dynamics, with one group exhibiting synchronized oscillations and the other desynchronized behavior. This dynamical phenomenon has recently been studied in computational models and demonstrated experimentally in mechanical, optical, and chemical systems. The theoretical basis of these states is currently under active investigation. Chimera behavior is of particular relevance in the context of neural synchronization, given the phenomenon of unihemispheric sleep and the recent observation of asymmetric sleep in human patients with sleep apnea. The similarity of neural chimera states to neural "bump" states, which have been suggested as a model for working memory and visual orientation tuning in the cortex, adds to their interest as objects of study. Chimera states have been demonstrated in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of excitable cells and in the Hindmarsh-Rose neural model. Here, we demonstrate chimera states and chimera-like behaviors in a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of thermally sensitive neurons both in a system with Abrams-Strogatz (mean field) coupling and in a system with Kuramoto (distance-dependent) coupling. We map the regions of parameter space for which chimera behavior occurs in each of the two coupling schemes.

  11. Old flying ice-rock body in space allows a glance at its inner working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    I am studying old, cold bodies of rock and ice flying through space, usually far, far away from the Sun. They are even behind the last of the big 8 balls we call our home worlds. (There were 9 balls a few yearsago, but then one of the balls was not considered a ball anymore by some people and he/she had to leave the group.)Because they are so far away from the Sun, they remain dark and very cold for the most part of their life.That is why even most of the very nervous stuff sticks on them ever since. With stuff I mean the little things that the Sun, the big 8 balls, we humans and everything else that is flying around the Sun ismade of. The nervous ones quickly change into something wind like andcan get lost. But the cold on the ice-rock bodies slows this down andthey stick around. This makes those ice-rock bodies interesting tostudy, they did not change too much since they were made.I study news sent back from a computer controlled box flying around oneof those rock-ice things that is now closer to the Sun. When thespace between such a body and the Sun gets smaller, it warms up andsome of the ice changes into wind like things. We find out how muchof what stuff is flying away from that body and at what time.Then I and my friends put those numbers into a big ass computer to findout more on how those rock-ice bodies work. Where does the wind comefrom? Do they all come from the same place or only some? Is it really the Sun's fault? How many cups of ice change into wind each day? Many questions.

  12. Anti-electromagnetic interference analysis of equivalent circuit of ion channel based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, J; Chang, X L; Zhao, M; Man, M H; Wei, M; Yuan, L

    2013-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of circuit integration and working clock frequency in the electronic system, it is increasingly easy for the system to be affected by electromagnetic waves, and electromagnetic susceptibility and vulnerability become more severe. However, living beings in nature have shown extraordinary compatibility, immunity and adaptability to the electromagnetism at the same time. In addition, the ion channel on the neuron cytomembrane is a typical representation of b ioelectrical immunity . So the Hodgkin-Huxley circuit model with one capacitor in parallel with some power supplies and resistors was adopted to simulate the ion channel on the neuron cytomembrane. Through analysis, the circuit model can be used to simulate some electrical characteristics of biological neuron cells, and then acquire a certain level of anti-electromagnetic interference ability. This method will be useful for improving the reliability, compatibility and anti-interference capability of the electronic system in the complicated electromagnetic environment.

  13. [Hardware Implementation of Numerical Simulation Function of Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neurons Action Potential Based on Field Programmable Gate Array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang

    2015-12-01

    Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network.

  14. The "History" of Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Huxley, Spencer and the "End" of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Past as Prediction: Newcomb, Huxley, The Eclipse of Thales, and The Power of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2009-12-01

    The ancient eclipse of Thales was an important, if peculiar, focus of scientific attention in the 19th century. Victorian-era astronomers first used it as data with which to calibrate their lunar theories, but its status became strangely malleable as the century progressed. The American astronomer Simon Newcomb re-examined the eclipse and rejected it as the basis for lunar theory. But strangely, it was the unprecedented accuracy of Newcomb's calculations that led the British biologist T.H. Huxley to declare the eclipse to be the quintessential example of the power of science. Huxley argued that astronomy's ability to create "retrospective prophecy” showed how scientific reasoning was superior to religion (and incidentally, helped support Darwin's theories). Both Newcomb and Huxley declared that prediction (of past and future) was what gave science its persuasive power. The eclipse of Thales's strange journey through Victorian astronomy reveals how these two influential scientists made the case for the social and cultural authority of science.

  16. On non-linear dynamics and an optimal control synthesis of the action potential of membranes (ideal and non-ideal cases) of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarette, Fabio Roberto; Balthazar, Jose Manoel; Rafikov, Marat; Hermini, Helder Anibal

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the plasmatic membrane behavior using an electric circuit developed by Hodgkin and Huxley in 1952 and have dealt with the variation of the amount of time related to the potassium and sodium conductances in the squid axon. They developed differential equations for the propagation of electric signals; the dynamics of the Hodgkin-Huxley model have been extensively studied both from the view point of its their biological implications and as a test bed for numerical methods, which can be applied to more complex models. Recently, an irregular chaotic movement of the action potential of the membrane was observed for a number of techniques of control with the objective to stabilize the variation of this potential. This paper analyzes the non-linear dynamics of the Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model, and we present some modifications in the governing equations of the system in order to make it a non-ideal one (taking into account that the energy source has a limited power supply). We also developed an optimal linear control design for the action potential of membranes. Here, we discuss the conditions that allow the use of control linear feedback for this kind of non-linear system.

  17. Pregnancy as protest in interwar British women's writing: an antecedent alternative to Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Fran

    2016-12-01

    Accounts that take Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) as representative of interwar reproductive dystopia fail to recognise that the novel expresses both an interest and an anxiety about the possibility of new reproductive technologies to transform sex, gender, and the family that were widely shared by writers in different genres and perhaps expressed best by those likely to be most affected: women. This article explores three earlier works-Charlotte Haldane's Man's World (1926), Vera Brittain's Halcyon, or the Future of Monogamy (1929), and Naomi Mitchison's Comments on Birth Control (1930)-in which pregnancy, instead of figuring as illness or debility, becomes a form of resistance to the status quo. These works engage with biomedicine, however, rather than abjuring it. Through a reading of these works, this article argues that the intersection of medical humanities and science fiction (SF) can enrich both: medical humanities can push SF to go beyond the canon, and SF can challenge any characterisation of literature in the medical humanities as purely fantastical by demonstrating how it responds to the hopes and anxieties of a particular time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Channel noise effects on first spike latency of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Brenton; Lindenberg, Katja

    2017-02-01

    While it is widely accepted that information is encoded in neurons via action potentials or spikes, it is far less understood what specific features of spiking contain encoded information. Experimental evidence has suggested that the timing of the first spike may be an energy-efficient coding mechanism that contains more neural information than subsequent spikes. Therefore, the biophysical features of neurons that underlie response latency are of considerable interest. Here we examine the effects of channel noise on the first spike latency of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron receiving random input from many other neurons. Because the principal feature of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron is the stochastic opening and closing of channels, the fluctuations in the number of open channels lead to fluctuations in the membrane voltage and modify the timing of the first spike. Our results show that when a neuron has a larger number of channels, (i) the occurrence of the first spike is delayed and (ii) the variation in the first spike timing is greater. We also show that the mean, median, and interquartile range of first spike latency can be accurately predicted from a simple linear regression by knowing only the number of channels in the neuron and the rate at which presynaptic neurons fire, but the standard deviation (i.e., neuronal jitter) cannot be predicted using only this information. We then compare our results to another commonly used stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model and show that the more commonly used model overstates the first spike latency but can predict the standard deviation of first spike latencies accurately. We end by suggesting a more suitable definition for the neuronal jitter based upon our simulations and comparison of the two models.

  19. Spiking sychronization regulated by noise in three types of Hodgkin—Huxley neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zheng-Zhen; Zeng Shang-You; Tang Wen-Yan; Hu Jin-Lin; Zeng Shao-Wen; Ning Wei-Lian; Qiu Yi; Wu Hui-Si

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study spiking synchronization in three different types of Hodgkin—Huxley neuronal networks, which are the small-world, regular, and random neuronal networks. All the neurons are subjected to subthreshold stimulus and external noise. It is found that in each of all the neuronal networks there is an optimal strength of noise to induce the maximal spiking synchronization. We further demonstrate that in each of the neuronal networks there is a range of synaptic conductance to induce the effect that an optimal strength of noise maximizes the spiking synchronization. Only when the magnitude of the synaptic conductance is moderate, will the effect be considerable. However, if the synaptic conductance is small or large, the effect vanishes. As the connections between neurons increase, the synaptic conductance to maximize the effect decreases. Therefore, we show quantitatively that the noise-induced maximal synchronization in the Hodgkin—Huxley neuronal network is a general effect, regardless of the specific type of neuronal network

  20. Control of bursting synchronization in networks of Hodgkin-Huxley-type neurons with chemical synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, C A S; Viana, R L; Ferrari, F A S; Lopes, S R; Batista, A M; Coninck, J C P

    2013-04-01

    Thermally sensitive neurons present bursting activity for certain temperature ranges, characterized by fast repetitive spiking of action potential followed by a short quiescent period. Synchronization of bursting activity is possible in networks of coupled neurons, and it is sometimes an undesirable feature. Control procedures can suppress totally or partially this collective behavior, with potential applications in deep-brain stimulation techniques. We investigate the control of bursting synchronization in small-world networks of Hodgkin-Huxley-type thermally sensitive neurons with chemical synapses through two different strategies. One is the application of an external time-periodic electrical signal and another consists of a time-delayed feedback signal. We consider the effectiveness of both strategies in terms of protocols of applications suitable to be applied by pacemakers.

  1. Identifying generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation from a numerical solution of Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Georgiev

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic time series in the form of numerical solution (in an appropriate finite time interval of the Hodgkin-Huxley current clamped (HHCC system of four differential equations, well known in the neurophysiology as an exact empirical model of excitation of a giant axon of Loligo, is presented. Then we search for a second-order differential equation of generalized Fitzhugh-Nagumo (GFN type, having as a solution the given single component (action potential of the numerical solution. The given time series is used as a basis for reconstructing orders, powers, and coefficients of the polynomial right-hand sides of GFN equation approximately governing the process of action potential. For this purpose, a new geometrical method for determining phase space dimension of the unknown dynamical system (GFN equation and a specific modification of least squares method for identifying unknown coefficients are developed and applied.

  2. Resonant Activation in a Stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley Model: Interplay between noise and suprathreshold driving effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Evgeniya; Polovinkin, A.V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers an excitable Hodgkin-Huxley system subjected to a strong periodic forcing in the presence of random noise. The influence of the forcing frequency on the response of the system is examined in the realm of suprathreshold amplitudes. Our results confirm that the presence of noise...... a minimum as functions of the forcing frequency. The destructive influence of noise on the interspike interval can also be reduced. With driving signals in a certain frequency range, the system can show stable periodic spiking even for relatively large noise intensities. Outside this frequency range, noise...... of similar intensity destroys the regularity of the spike trains by suppressing the generation of some of the spikes....

  3. Predicting the past: ancient eclipses and Airy, Newcomb, and Huxley on the authority of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    Greek historical accounts of ancient eclipses were an important, if peculiar, focus of scientific attention in the nineteenth century. Victorian-era astronomers tried to correct the classical histories using scientific methods, then used those histories as data with which to calibrate their lunar theories, then rejected the histories as having any relevance at all. The specific dating of these eclipses--apparently a simple exercise in celestial mechanics--became bound up with tensions between scientific and humanistic approaches to the past as well as with wider social debates over the power and authority of science in general. The major figures discussed here, including G. B. Airy, Simon Newcomb, and T. H. Huxley, argued that the critical question was whether science could speak authoritatively about the past. To them, the ability of science to talk about the past indicated its power to talk about the future; it was also the fulcrum of fierce boundary disputes among science, history, and religion.

  4. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jiong; Zhang Hong; Tong Qin-Ye; Chen Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented. (general)

  5. The Energy Coding of a Structural Neural Network Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Fengyun

    2018-01-01

    Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the present study established a fully connected structural neural network to simulate the neural activity and energy consumption of the network by neural energy coding theory. The numerical simulation result showed that the periodicity of the network energy distribution was positively correlated to the number of neurons and coupling strength, but negatively correlated to signal transmitting delay. Moreover, a relationship was established between the energy distribution feature and the synchronous oscillation of the neural network, which showed that when the proportion of negative energy in power consumption curve was high, the synchronous oscillation of the neural network was apparent. In addition, comparison with the simulation result of structural neural network based on the Wang-Zhang biophysical model of neurons showed that both models were essentially consistent.

  6. Synchronization control of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons exposed to ELF electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Zhou Sisi; Deng Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neural network H ∞ control for unidirectional synchronization of modified Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field. The proposed modified HH neurons exhibit periodic and chaotic dynamics in response to sinusoidal electric field stimulation. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive the updated laws of neural network for approximating the nonlinear uncertain functions of the error dynamical system. The H ∞ design technique makes the controller robust to unmodeled dynamics, disturbances and approximate errors. The proposed controller not only ensures closed-loop stability, but also guarantees an H ∞ performance for the synchronization error system. The states of the controlled slave system exponentially synchronize with that of the master one after control. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Deriving Behaviour of Hodgkin Huxley model with fever dynamics: A computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ESKALEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A single neuron can be modeled by the set of differential equations. Hodgkin-Huxley (HH model, the one of the most famous neuron model, can be considered as a dynamical system with four independent variables. Here we studied to reduce the number of differential equation required for conductance based HH model under strong inhibitory noise. Exponential Integrate and Fire (EIF model, one independent variable, is used as a reduced model of HH model by using current-voltage (I-V curve of the original model. The required reduction parameters are determined from this curve. The behaviour of HH model and its reduced EIF (rEIF model are in good agreement in sub-threshold level. Above-threshold behaviour of reduced EIF model and original model compared in terms of threshold voltage under strong inhibitory noise. Our numerical simulations clearly show that sub-threshold behaviour of HH model perfectly reduced to rEIF model.

  8. Delay-enhanced coherence of spiral waves in noisy Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyun; Perc, Matjaz; Duan Zhisheng; Chen Guanrong

    2008-01-01

    We study the spatial dynamics of spiral waves in noisy Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal ensembles evoked by different information transmission delays and network topologies. In classical settings of coherence resonance the intensity of noise is fine-tuned so as to optimize the system's response. Here, we keep the noise intensity constant, and instead, vary the length of information transmission delay amongst coupled neurons. We show that there exists an intermediate transmission delay by which the spiral waves are optimally ordered, hence indicating the existence of delay-enhanced coherence of spatial dynamics in the examined system. Additionally, we examine the robustness of this phenomenon as the diffusive interaction topology changes towards the small-world type, and discover that shortcut links amongst distant neurons hinder the emergence of coherent spiral waves irrespective of transmission delay length. Presented results thus provide insights that could facilitate the understanding of information transmission delay on realistic neuronal networks

  9. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  10. A study of quantum mechanical probabilities in the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, N; Scholkmann, F; Salari, V

    2015-03-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is a powerful model to explain different aspects of spike generation in excitable cells. However, the HH model was proposed in 1952 when the real structure of the ion channel was unknown. It is now common knowledge that in many ion-channel proteins the flow of ions through the pore is governed by a gate, comprising a so-called "selectivity filter" inside the ion channel, which can be controlled by electrical interactions. The selectivity filter (SF) is believed to be responsible for the selection and fast conduction of particular ions across the membrane of an excitable cell. Other (generally larger) parts of the molecule such as the pore-domain gate control the access of ions to the channel protein. In fact, two types of gates are considered here for ion channels: the "external gate", which is the voltage sensitive gate, and the "internal gate" which is the selectivity filter gate (SFG). Some quantum effects are expected in the SFG due to its small dimensions, which may play an important role in the operation of an ion channel. Here, we examine parameters in a generalized model of HH to see whether any parameter affects the spike generation. Our results indicate that the previously suggested semi-quantum-classical equation proposed by Bernroider and Summhammer (BS) agrees strongly with the HH equation under different conditions and may even provide a better explanation in some cases. We conclude that the BS model can refine the classical HH model substantially.

  11. Stochastic resonance on Newman-Watts networks of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with local periodic driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Mahmut [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)], E-mail: mahmutozer2002@yahoo.com; Perc, Matjaz [University of Maribor, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Physics, Koroska cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Uzuntarla, Muhammet [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-03-02

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on Newman-Watts small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with a tunable intensity of intrinsic noise via voltage-gated ion channels embedded in neuronal membranes. Importantly thereby, the subthreshold periodic driving is introduced to a single neuron of the network, thus acting as a pacemaker trying to impose its rhythm on the whole ensemble. We show that there exists an optimal intensity of intrinsic ion channel noise by which the outreach of the pacemaker extends optimally across the whole network. This stochastic resonance phenomenon can be further amplified via fine-tuning of the small-world network structure, and depends significantly also on the coupling strength among neurons and the driving frequency of the pacemaker. In particular, we demonstrate that the noise-induced transmission of weak localized rhythmic activity peaks when the pacemaker frequency matches the intrinsic frequency of subthreshold oscillations. The implications of our findings for weak signal detection and information propagation across neural networks are discussed.

  12. Theoretical analysis of transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation with Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation (TMAS is a novel stimulation technology in which an ultrasonic wave within a magnetostatic field generates an electric current in an area of interest in the brain to modulate neuronal activities. As a key part of the neural network, neurons transmit information in the nervous system. However, the effect of TMAS on the neuronal firing rhythm remains unknown. To address this problem, we investigated the stimulatory mechanism of TMAS on neurons with a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The simulation results indicate that the magnetostatic field intensity and ultrasonic power can affect the amplitude and interspike interval of neuronal action potential under continuous wave ultrasound. The simulation results also show that the ultrasonic power, duty cycle and repetition frequency can alter the firing rhythm of neural action potential under pulsed ultrasound. This study can help to reveal and explain the biological mechanism of TMAS and to provide a theoretical basis for TMAS in the treatment or rehabilitation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Biophysical synaptic dynamics in an analog VLSI network of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Theodore; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2009-01-01

    We study synaptic dynamics in a biophysical network of four coupled spiking neurons implemented in an analog VLSI silicon microchip. The four neurons implement a generalized Hodgkin-Huxley model with individually configurable rate-based kinetics of opening and closing of Na+ and K+ ion channels. The twelve synapses implement a rate-based first-order kinetic model of neurotransmitter and receptor dynamics, accounting for NMDA and non-NMDA type chemical synapses. The implemented models on the chip are fully configurable by 384 parameters accounting for conductances, reversal potentials, and pre/post-synaptic voltage-dependence of the channel kinetics. We describe the models and present experimental results from the chip characterizing single neuron dynamics, single synapse dynamics, and multi-neuron network dynamics showing phase-locking behavior as a function of synaptic coupling strength. The 3mm x 3mm microchip consumes 1.29 mW power making it promising for applications including neuromorphic modeling and neural prostheses.

  14. Spiking Regularity and Coherence in Complex Hodgkin–Huxley Neuron Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Qiang, Sun; Ping, Xie; Wei, Li; Peng-Ye, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of the strength of coupling between neurons on the spiking regularity and coherence in a complex network with randomly connected Hodgkin–Huxley neurons driven by colored noise. It is found that for the given topology realization and colored noise correlation time, there exists an optimal strength of coupling, at which the spiking regularity of the network reaches the best level. Moreover, when the temporal regularity reaches the best level, the spatial coherence of the system has already increased to a relatively high level. In addition, for the given number of neurons and noise correlation time, the values of average regularity and spatial coherence at the optimal strength of coupling are nearly independent of the topology realization. Furthermore, there exists an optimal value of colored noise correlation time at which the spiking regularity can reach its best level. These results may be helpful for understanding of the real neuron world. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Spiral Wave in Small-World Networks of Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Zhang Cairong; Yang Lijian; Wu Ying

    2010-01-01

    The effect of small-world connection and noise on the formation and transition of spiral wave in the networks of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons are investigated in detail. Some interesting results are found in our numerical studies. i) The quiescent neurons are activated to propagate electric signal to others by generating and developing spiral wave from spiral seed in small area. ii) A statistical factor is defined to describe the collective properties and phase transition induced by the topology of networks and noise. iii) Stable rotating spiral wave can be generated and keeps robust when the rewiring probability is below certain threshold, otherwise, spiral wave can not be developed from the spiral seed and spiral wave breakup occurs for a stable rotating spiral wave. iv) Gaussian white noise is introduced on the membrane of neurons to study the noise-induced phase transition on spiral wave in small-world networks of neurons. It is confirmed that Gaussian white noise plays active role in supporting and developing spiral wave in the networks of neurons, and appearance of smaller factor of synchronization indicates high possibility to induce spiral wave. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. The phenomenology of the psychotic break and Huxley's trip: substance use and the onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Barnaby; Sass, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    While considerable research attention has been devoted to the causal relationship between substance use and psychosis, the phenomenology of the association between the two has largely been ignored. This is a significant shortcoming, because it blinds researchers to the possibility that there may be elements of the subjective experience of substance use and psychosis that contribute to their apparent relationship in empirical studies. The current paper examines the phenomenology of the onset of psychosis and the phenomenology of substance intoxication through consideration of two texts: Sass's account of the phenomenology of psychosis onset and Huxley's account of the experience of hallucinogenic intoxication. Sass's account of psychosis onset includes four components: Unreality, Fragmentation, Mere Being, and Apophany. The analysis reveals significant parallels - and also some differences - between this account and the phenomenology of substance intoxication. We discuss the implications of this for the causal relationship between psychosis and substance use and suggest several ways of understanding the overlapping phenomenologies. This includes the suggestion of a shared factor, perhaps best described as psychotic-like experience, which seems to involve a breakdown of the sign-referent relationship and relationship with the common-sense, practical world. However, in the onset of psychosis, this breakdown is primarily experienced as a sense of alienation from self and world, whereas in the hallucinogenic state a sense of mystical union and revelation seems predominant. Further research may extend this analysis by looking at experiences with other drugs, particularly cannabis, and by examining the phenomenology of psychotic disorder beyond the first episode. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Hybrid B-Spline Collocation Method for Solving the Generalized Burgers-Fisher and Burgers-Huxley Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Wasim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce a new numerical technique for solving nonlinear generalized Burgers-Fisher and Burgers-Huxley equations using hybrid B-spline collocation method. This technique is based on usual finite difference scheme and Crank-Nicolson method which are used to discretize the time derivative and spatial derivatives, respectively. Furthermore, hybrid B-spline function is utilized as interpolating functions in spatial dimension. The scheme is verified unconditionally stable using the Von Neumann (Fourier method. Several test problems are considered to check the accuracy of the proposed scheme. The numerical results are in good agreement with known exact solutions and the existing schemes in literature.

  18. Complex myograph allows the examination of complex muscle contractions for the assessment of muscle force, shortening, velocity, and work in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhschulte Hainer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devices used for in vivo examination of muscle contractions assess only pure force contractions and the so-called isokinetic contractions. In isokinetic experiments, the extremity and its muscle are artificially moved with constant velocity by the measuring device, while a tetanic contraction is induced in the muscle, either by electrical stimulation or by maximal voluntary activation. With these systems, experiments cannot be performed at pre-defined, constant muscle length, single contractions cannot be evaluated individually and the separate examination of the isometric and the isotonic components of single contractions is not possible. Methods The myograph presented in our study has two newly developed technical units, i.e. a. a counterforce unit which can load the muscle with an adjustable, but constant force and b. a length-adjusting unit which allows for both the stretching and the contraction length to be infinitely adjustable independently of one another. The two units support the examination of complex types of contraction and store the counterforce and length-adjusting settings, so that these conditions may be accurately reapplied in later sessions. Results The measurement examples presented show that the muscle can be brought to every possible pre-stretching length and that single isotonic or complex isometric-isotonic contractions may be performed at every length. The applied forces act during different phases of contraction, resulting into different pre- and after-loads that can be kept constant – uninfluenced by the contraction. Maximal values for force, shortening, velocity and work may be obtained for individual muscles. This offers the possibility to obtain information on the muscle status and to monitor its changes under non-invasive measurement conditions. Conclusion With the Complex Myograph, the whole spectrum of a muscle's mechanical characteristics may be assessed.

  19. Phase-locking and chaos in a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron exposed to sinusoidal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yanqiu; Wang Jiang; Si Wenjie; Fei Xiangyang

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal firing patterns are related to the information processing in neural system. This paper investigates the response characteristics of a silent Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the stimulation of externally-applied sinusoidal electric field. The neuron exhibits both p:q phase-locked (i.e. a periodic oscillation defined as p action potentials generated by q cycle stimulations) and chaotic behaviors, depending on the values of stimulus frequencies and amplitudes. In one-parameter space, a rich bifurcation structure including period-adding without chaos and phase-locking alternated with chaos suggests frequency discrimination of the neuronal firing patterns. Furthermore, by mapping out Arnold tongues, we partition the amplitude-frequency parameter space in terms of the qualitative behaviors of the neuron. Thus the neuron's information (firing patterns) encodes the stimulus information (amplitude and frequency), and vice versa

  20. Energy consumption in Hodgkin–Huxley type fast spiking neuron model exposed to an external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Usha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the change in metabolic energy required to maintain the signalling activity of neurons in the presence of an external electric field. We have analysed the Hodgkin–Huxley type conductance based fast spiking neuron model as electrical circuit by changing the frequency and amplitude of the applied electric field. The study has shown that, the presence of electric field increases the membrane potential, electrical energy supply and metabolic energy consumption. As the amplitude of applied electric field increases by keeping a constant frequency, the membrane potential increases and consequently the electrical energy supply and metabolic energy consumption increases. On increasing the frequency of the applied field, the peak value of membrane potential after depolarization gradually decreases as a result electrical energy supply decreases which results in a lower rate of hydrolysis of ATP molecules.

  1. Saddle Slow Manifolds and Canard Orbits in [Formula: see text] and Application to the Full Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Cris R; Krauskopf, Bernd; Osinga, Hinke M

    2018-04-19

    Many physiological phenomena have the property that some variables evolve much faster than others. For example, neuron models typically involve observable differences in time scales. The Hodgkin-Huxley model is well known for explaining the ionic mechanism that generates the action potential in the squid giant axon. Rubin and Wechselberger (Biol. Cybern. 97:5-32, 2007) nondimensionalized this model and obtained a singularly perturbed system with two fast, two slow variables, and an explicit time-scale ratio ε. The dynamics of this system are complex and feature periodic orbits with a series of action potentials separated by small-amplitude oscillations (SAOs); also referred to as mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs). The slow dynamics of this system are organized by two-dimensional locally invariant manifolds called slow manifolds which can be either attracting or of saddle type.In this paper, we introduce a general approach for computing two-dimensional saddle slow manifolds and their stable and unstable fast manifolds. We also develop a technique for detecting and continuing associated canard orbits, which arise from the interaction between attracting and saddle slow manifolds, and provide a mechanism for the organization of SAOs in [Formula: see text]. We first test our approach with an extended four-dimensional normal form of a folded node. Our results demonstrate that our computations give reliable approximations of slow manifolds and canard orbits of this model. Our computational approach is then utilized to investigate the role of saddle slow manifolds and associated canard orbits of the full Hodgkin-Huxley model in organizing MMOs and determining the firing rates of action potentials. For ε sufficiently large, canard orbits are arranged in pairs of twin canard orbits with the same number of SAOs. We illustrate how twin canard orbits partition the attracting slow manifold into a number of ribbons that play the role of sectors of rotations. The upshot is that we

  2. Nature works best when allowed to run its course. The experience of midwives promoting normal births in a home birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Ingvild; Hoston, Mari A; Kolshus, Nora J; Larsen, Christel E G

    2017-07-01

    to gain a deeper understanding of how midwives promote a normal birth in a home birth setting in Norway. a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine midwives working in a home birth setting in different areas in Norway. The transcribed interviews were analysed with the help of systematic text condensation. the analysis generated two main themes: «The midwife's fundamental beliefs» and «Working in line with one's ideology». The midwives had a fundamental belief that childbirth is a normal event that women are able to manage. It is important that this attitude is transferred to the woman in order for her to believe in her own ability to give birth. The midwives in the study were able to work according to their ideology when promoting a normal birth at home. To avoid disturbing the natural birth process was described as an important factor. Also crucial was to approach the work in a patient manner. Staying at home in a safe environment and establishing a close relationship with the midwife also contributed positively to a normal birth. the midwife's attitude is important when trying to promote a normal birth. Patience was seen as essential to avoid interventions. Being in a safe environment with a familiar midwife provides a good foundation for a normal birth. The attitude of the midwives towards normal childbirth ought to be more emphasised, also in the context of maternity wards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. “Providing a Roof That Allows One to Dream of a Better Life”: A Case Study of Working with Families in Extreme Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tsekoura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a youth organisation working with families in extreme poverty and lack of adequate housing in Chile and Mexico. It initially describes the considerable structural changes that relate to the emergence of the organisation, and then discusses how across context case study research that draws from the interpretivist interactionist tradition was employed. In the main body it presents interventions that aim to provide families with temporary accommodation, social support, education, micro-credit opportunities, and legal support. The paper aims to contribute to a discussion concerning wider insights to be gained from context-specific approaches in working with families. The article highlights the need for policy and practice that approaches families as complex, dynamic and context specific entities that are re-configured through their networks and interpersonal interactions, and are subject to particular plays of power relations. Furthermore, it argues for practice that fosters family agency that is based on recognition of strengths, emotional and cognitive aspects of decision making as well as nurturing of hope.

  4. Numerical simulations of piecewise deterministic Markov processes with an application to the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shaojie; Qian, Min; Qian, Hong; Zhang, Xuejuan

    2016-12-01

    The stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model is one of the best-known examples of piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), in which the electrical potential across a cell membrane, V(t), is coupled with a mesoscopic Markov jump process representing the stochastic opening and closing of ion channels embedded in the membrane. The rates of the channel kinetics, in turn, are voltage-dependent. Due to this interdependence, an accurate and efficient sampling of the time evolution of the hybrid stochastic systems has been challenging. The current exact simulation methods require solving a voltage-dependent hitting time problem for multiple path-dependent intensity functions with random thresholds. This paper proposes a simulation algorithm that approximates an alternative representation of the exact solution by fitting the log-survival function of the inter-jump dwell time, H(t), with a piecewise linear one. The latter uses interpolation points that are chosen according to the time evolution of the H(t), as the numerical solution to the coupled ordinary differential equations of V(t) and H(t). This computational method can be applied to all PDMPs. Pathwise convergence of the approximated sample trajectories to the exact solution is proven, and error estimates are provided. Comparison with a previous algorithm that is based on piecewise constant approximation is also presented.

  5. Dynamical mean-field theory of noisy spiking neuron ensembles: Application to the Hodgkin-Huxley model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A dynamical mean-field approximation (DMA) previously proposed by the present author [H. Hasegawa, Phys. Rev E 67, 041903 (2003)] has been extended to ensembles described by a general noisy spiking neuron model. Ensembles of N-unit neurons, each of which is expressed by coupled K-dimensional differential equations (DEs), are assumed to be subject to spatially correlated white noises. The original KN-dimensional stochastic DEs have been replaced by K(K+2)-dimensional deterministic DEs expressed in terms of means and the second-order moments of local and global variables: the fourth-order contributions are taken into account by the Gaussian decoupling approximation. Our DMA has been applied to an ensemble of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons (K=4), for which effects of the noise, the coupling strength, and the ensemble size on the response to a single-spike input have been investigated. Numerical results calculated by the DMA theory are in good agreement with those obtained by direct simulations, although the former computation is about a thousand times faster than the latter for a typical HH neuron ensemble with N=100

  6. Dynamics from seconds to hours in Hodgkin-Huxley model with time-dependent ion concentrations and buffer reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH model neglects the time-dependence of ion concentrations in spiking dynamics. The dynamics is therefore limited to a time scale of milliseconds, which is determined by the membrane capacitance multiplied by the resistance of the ion channels, and by the gating time constants. We study slow dynamics in an extended HH framework that includes time-dependent ion concentrations, pumps, and buffers. Fluxes across the neuronal membrane change intra- and extracellular ion concentrations, whereby the latter can also change through contact to reservoirs in the surroundings. Ion gain and loss of the system is identified as a bifurcation parameter whose essential importance was not realized in earlier studies. Our systematic study of the bifurcation structure and thus the phase space structure helps to understand activation and inhibition of a new excitability in ion homeostasis which emerges in such extended models. Also modulatory mechanisms that regulate the spiking rate can be explained by bifurcations. The dynamics on three distinct slow times scales is determined by the cell volume-to-surface-area ratio and the membrane permeability (seconds, the buffer time constants (tens of seconds, and the slower backward buffering (minutes to hours. The modulatory dynamics and the newly emerging excitable dynamics corresponds to pathological conditions observed in epileptiform burst activity, and spreading depression in migraine aura and stroke, respectively.

  7. Dynamics from seconds to hours in Hodgkin-Huxley model with time-dependent ion concentrations and buffer reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, Niklas; Dahlem, Markus A

    2014-12-01

    The classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model neglects the time-dependence of ion concentrations in spiking dynamics. The dynamics is therefore limited to a time scale of milliseconds, which is determined by the membrane capacitance multiplied by the resistance of the ion channels, and by the gating time constants. We study slow dynamics in an extended HH framework that includes time-dependent ion concentrations, pumps, and buffers. Fluxes across the neuronal membrane change intra- and extracellular ion concentrations, whereby the latter can also change through contact to reservoirs in the surroundings. Ion gain and loss of the system is identified as a bifurcation parameter whose essential importance was not realized in earlier studies. Our systematic study of the bifurcation structure and thus the phase space structure helps to understand activation and inhibition of a new excitability in ion homeostasis which emerges in such extended models. Also modulatory mechanisms that regulate the spiking rate can be explained by bifurcations. The dynamics on three distinct slow times scales is determined by the cell volume-to-surface-area ratio and the membrane permeability (seconds), the buffer time constants (tens of seconds), and the slower backward buffering (minutes to hours). The modulatory dynamics and the newly emerging excitable dynamics corresponds to pathological conditions observed in epileptiform burst activity, and spreading depression in migraine aura and stroke, respectively.

  8. Optimal size of stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal systems for maximal energy efficiency in coding pulse signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; Liu, Liwei

    2014-03-01

    The generation and conduction of action potentials (APs) represents a fundamental means of communication in the nervous system and is a metabolically expensive process. In this paper, we investigate the energy efficiency of neural systems in transferring pulse signals with APs. By analytically solving a bistable neuron model that mimics the AP generation with a particle crossing the barrier of a double well, we find the optimal number of ion channels that maximizes the energy efficiency of a neuron. We also investigate the energy efficiency of a neuron population in which the input pulse signals are represented with synchronized spikes and read out with a downstream coincidence detector neuron. We find an optimal number of neurons in neuron population, as well as the number of ion channels in each neuron that maximizes the energy efficiency. The energy efficiency also depends on the characters of the input signals, e.g., the pulse strength and the interpulse intervals. These results are confirmed by computer simulation of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model with a detailed description of the ion channel random gating. We argue that the tradeoff between signal transmission reliability and energy cost may influence the size of the neural systems when energy use is constrained.

  9. Effects of channel noise on firing coherence of small-world Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X. J.; Lei, J. Z.; Perc, M.; Lu, Q. S.; Lv, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of channel noise on firing coherence of Watts-Strogatz small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic HH neurons having a fraction of blocked voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels embedded in their neuronal membranes. The intensity of channel noise is determined by the number of non-blocked ion channels, which depends on the fraction of working ion channels and the membrane patch size with the assumption of homogeneous ion channel density. We find that firing coherence of the neuronal network can be either enhanced or reduced depending on the source of channel noise. As shown in this paper, sodium channel noise reduces firing coherence of neuronal networks; in contrast, potassium channel noise enhances it. Furthermore, compared with potassium channel noise, sodium channel noise plays a dominant role in affecting firing coherence of the neuronal network. Moreover, we declare that the observed phenomena are independent of the rewiring probability.

  10. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  11. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance and advance of allowance. 35...

  13. John Dewey em visita ao jardim de Huxley: uma discussão sobre a teoria da evolução e as concepções éticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Morelli Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n2p199 John Dewey escreve um de seus primeiros trabalhos sobre ética em resposta às idéias de Thomas Huxley. Huxley, em seu artigo “Evolution and Ethics” (1894, defendia uma oposição entre os processos naturais e os processos éticos. A ética, segundo ele, é contrária aos princípios que se observa na natureza. Para Dewey, por outro lado, não há dualismo entre as regularidades naturais e as regularidades sociais. Dewey pretende, em seu artigo homônimo ao de Huxley (1898, reconstruir o sentido de noções fundamentais ao pensamento evolutivo como “adaptado”, “luta pela vida” e “seleção natural”. Dando início a uma versão evolucionista da reflexão ética, Dewey supõe a continuidade entre o mundo natural e o mundo dos valores. Suas conclusões indicam não só uma abordagem evolutiva das questões éticas, mas a proposição de valores e condutas que estejam em conformidade com o crescimento e a mudança constante nos ambientes e nas funções adaptativas, tais como se observa no mundo natural.

  14. Impact of Bounded Noise and Rewiring on the Formation and Instability of Spiral Waves in a Small-World Network of Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuangen; Deng, Haiyou; Ma, Chengzhang; Yi, Ming; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Spiral waves are observed in the chemical, physical and biological systems, and the emergence of spiral waves in cardiac tissue is linked to some diseases such as heart ventricular fibrillation and epilepsy; thus it has importance in theoretical studies and potential medical applications. Noise is inevitable in neuronal systems and can change the electrical activities of neuron in different ways. Many previous theoretical studies about the impacts of noise on spiral waves focus an unbounded Gaussian noise and even colored noise. In this paper, the impacts of bounded noise and rewiring of network on the formation and instability of spiral waves are discussed in small-world (SW) network of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons through numerical simulations, and possible statistical analysis will be carried out. Firstly, we present SW network of HH neurons subjected to bounded noise. Then, it is numerically demonstrated that bounded noise with proper intensity σ, amplitude A, or frequency f can facilitate the formation of spiral waves when rewiring probability p is below certain thresholds. In other words, bounded noise-induced resonant behavior can occur in the SW network of neurons. In addition, rewiring probability p always impairs spiral waves, while spiral waves are confirmed to be robust for small p, thus shortcut-induced phase transition of spiral wave with the increase of p is induced. Furthermore, statistical factors of synchronization are calculated to discern the phase transition of spatial pattern, and it is confirmed that larger factor of synchronization is approached with increasing of rewiring probability p, and the stability of spiral wave is destroyed.

  15. A self-organizing state-space-model approach for parameter estimation in hodgkin-huxley-type models of single neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V Vavoulis

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the problem of parameter estimation in biophysical models of neurons and neural networks usually adopt a global search algorithm (for example, an evolutionary algorithm, often in combination with a local search method (such as gradient descent in order to minimize the value of a cost function, which measures the discrepancy between various features of the available experimental data and model output. In this study, we approach the problem of parameter estimation in conductance-based models of single neurons from a different perspective. By adopting a hidden-dynamical-systems formalism, we expressed parameter estimation as an inference problem in these systems, which can then be tackled using a range of well-established statistical inference methods. The particular method we used was Kitagawa's self-organizing state-space model, which was applied on a number of Hodgkin-Huxley-type models using simulated or actual electrophysiological data. We showed that the algorithm can be used to estimate a large number of parameters, including maximal conductances, reversal potentials, kinetics of ionic currents, measurement and intrinsic noise, based on low-dimensional experimental data and sufficiently informative priors in the form of pre-defined constraints imposed on model parameters. The algorithm remained operational even when very noisy experimental data were used. Importantly, by combining the self-organizing state-space model with an adaptive sampling algorithm akin to the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy, we achieved a significant reduction in the variance of parameter estimates. The algorithm did not require the explicit formulation of a cost function and it was straightforward to apply on compartmental models and multiple data sets. Overall, the proposed methodology is particularly suitable for resolving high-dimensional inference problems based on noisy electrophysiological data and, therefore, a

  16. Act No. 89-488 of 10 July 1989 containing provisions concerning agreements relating to insurance allowances for workers deprived of employment, the professional equality of women and men, labour and manpower examiners, foreign workers, and illicit work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this French Act provides the following with respect to equality of opportunity in employment: 1) businesses with fewer than 300 workers may enter into agreements with the state permitting them to receive financial aid to carry out a study of their situation with respect to professional equality of women and men and measures that can be taken to restore equality of opportunity between women and men, such as temporary remedial plans that benefit only women; and 2) employers and workers' organizations are given 2 years to enter into collective bargaining to amend their contracts to remove all provisions that give special benefits to women, other than provisions establishing temporary remedial plans. The Act also strengthens the prohibitions on employing foreigners illegally in the following ways: 1) it provides that no person may directly or through another employ a foreigner without a work permit; 2) it makes it a crime, punishable by imprisonment for 2 months' to 2 years' and/or a fine of 2,000-200,000 francs for anyone other than an artist's agent to receive money, value, or personal property for bringing a foreign worker into France or arranging his or her hiring; 3) it raises the maximum penalty for using fraud or a false statement to obtain a work permit for a foreigner from 1 to 2 years' imprisonment for first offenders and from 3 to 4 years' imprisonment for repeat offenders; and 4) it raises penalties for lodging a foreigner illegally and for seeking from a foreign worker reimbursement for costs associated with bringing the worker to France and hiring him or her, or exacting from the worker a fee upon hiring.

  17. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... prescription skin cream for the ``face, neck, hands, arms, or any area not covered by clothing may come into... the clothing or outergarment due to a second appliance or medication.'' This language will clarify that a second clothing allowance may be paid when a second appliance and/or medication increases the...

  18. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program of special restorative training. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 16136(b); 38 U.S.C. 3034(a), 3104(a)(4... place where his or her services are to be performed; (3) Motivation of the veteran, reservist, or... person's physical condition. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 16136(b); 38 U.S.C. 3034(a), 3104(a)(4), 3241(a), 3323...

  19. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  20. Emission allowances stall in marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Misinformation and public misunderstanding have given emissions trading a bad reputation in the public marketplace, says William F. Malec, executive vice president of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in Knoxville, Tennessee. Media coverage of a May 1992 emissions-allowance trade between TVA and Wisconsin Power and Light open-quotes focused on the agreement's pollution-trading aspects, not its overall potential economic and environmental benefits,close quotes Malec says. Such negative portrayal of TVA's transaction sparked severe public criticism and charges that emissions trading gives utilities the right to pollute. open-quotes The fact is that TVA sought the emissions-trading agreement as a means to reduce overall emissions in the most cost-effective way,close quotes Malec explains. Emissions trading allows a company with emission levels lower than clean-air standards to earn open-quotes credits.close quotes These credits then may be purchased by a company with emission levels that exceed federal standards. Under this arrangement, the environment is protected and companies that buy credits save money because they do not have to purchase expensive emissions-control devices or reduce their production levels. Malec says TVA decided to enter into the emissions-allowance market, not only to cut costs, but also to publicize the existence and benefits of emissions trading. However, TVA's experience proves that open-quotes people will not accept what they do not understand,close quotes concludes Malec, open-quotes especially when complex environmental issues are involved.close quotes

  1. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  2. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  3. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...

  4. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  5. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...

  6. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  7. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  8. 49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  9. 29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  10. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or federally..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  11. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  12. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  13. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  14. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  15. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  16. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...

  17. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...

  18. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...

  19. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. An institution's share of allowable costs may be in cash or in the form of services. The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  20. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular fellowships shall be entitled...) Stipend. (b) Dependency allowances. (c) When authorized in advance, separate allowances for travel. Such...

  1. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel... FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. Payments for stipends, dependency allowances, and the travel allowances...

  2. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  3. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the type of entity incurring the cost as follows: (1) For-profit organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by for-profit organizations and those nonprofit organizations listed in Attachment C to... specifically authorized in the award document. (2) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred...

  4. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  5. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  6. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...

  7. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  8. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  9. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  10. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  11. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...

  12. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in...

  13. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  15. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  16. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  17. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  18. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  19. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  20. The future(s) of emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program

  1. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  2. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  3. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  4. Emission allowances -- Long-term price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Estimated trends in emission allowance (EA) values have been of interest to all those affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 since it became law in 1990. The authors published estimates of the values of EAs in December 1991, and revised their estimate in November 1992. The summary trends of the 1992 estimate is shown here. General estimates such as these are no longer useful. Everyone directly involved in complying with the Act or in buying and selling allowances has developed their own outlook on EA values. Many recent trades have been publicized. The prices from the first auction are also well known. Therefore this article is concerned only with what might happening the long-run. Once Phase 2 compliance is essentially complete and emissions roughly match Emission Allowance allocations of some 9.8 million tons annually, what pressures will there be on prices? What will be the direction of values after Phase 2 is in balance?

  5. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirhart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SO 2 tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry's incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies

  6. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non...

  7. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  8. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  9. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  10. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  11. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  12. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  13. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  14. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part for labor, weatherization materials, and related matters for a renewable energy system, shall not... beginning in calendar year 2010 and the $3,000 average for renewable energy systems will be adjusted... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy...

  15. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...

  16. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  17. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation facility or sheltered workshop; independent instructor; institutional non-farm cooperative: Full...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... rehabilitation program under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 will receive a monthly subsistence allowance at the rates in...

  18. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  19. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... Organizations” and paragraph (b) of this section. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  20. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  1. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A...

  2. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  3. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  4. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...

  5. Super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    A final analysis of J π =0 + ->0 + super-allowed Fermi transitions yields vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 =0.9500±0.0007; vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V us vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V ub vertical bar 2 =0.9999±0.0011 with the operational vector coupling constant G V */(-bar c) 3 =(1.15052±0.00021)x10 -5 GeV -2

  6. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  7. Sulfur dioxide allowances. Trading and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO 2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO 2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO 2 and NO x from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. (author)

  8. What parents say about the allowance: Function of the allowance for parents of different economic incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Lauer Lellis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of giving allowance is used by several parents in different parts of the world and can contribute to the economic education of children. This study aimed to investigate the purposes of the allowance with 32 parents of varying incomes. We used the focus group technique and Alceste software to analyze the data. The results involved two classes related to the process of using the allowance. These classes have covered aspects of the role of socialization and education allowance, serving as an instrument of reward, but sometimes encouraging bad habits in children. The justification of the fathers concerning the amount of money to be given to the children and when to stop giving allowance were also highlighted.   Keywords: allowance; economic socialization; parenting practices.

  9. Bribery vs. extortion: allowing the lesser of two evils

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad Khalil; Jacques Lawarree; Sungho Yun

    2009-01-01

    Rewards to prevent supervisors from accepting bribes create incentives for extortion. This raises the question whether a supervisor who can engage in bribery and extortion can still be useful in providing incentives. By highlighting the role of team work in forging information, we present a notion of soft information that makes supervision valuable. We show that a fear of inducing extortion may make it optimal to allow bribery, but extortion is never tolerated. Even though both increase incen...

  10. 34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES What Conditions Must Be... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs? 656.30 Section 656.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  11. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  12. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [GSA Bulletin FTR 10-04] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy... (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA tables found in 41 CFR Part 301-17...

  13. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... reflection of the actual tax impact on the employee. Therefore, this proposed rule offers the one-year RITA... to estimate the additional income tax liability that you incur as a result of relocation benefits and... Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General...

  14. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Resident away rotations allow adaptive neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Melanie Hayden; Derstine, Pamela; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Grady, M Sean; Burchiel, Kim; Batjer, H Hunt; Popp, A John; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2015-04-01

    Subspecialization of physicians and regional centers concentrate the volume of certain rare cases into fewer hospitals. Consequently, the primary institution of a neurological surgery training program may not have sufficient case volume to meet the current Residency Review Committee case minimum requirements in some areas. To ensure the competency of graduating residents through a comprehensive neurosurgical education, programs may need for residents to travel to outside institutions for exposure to cases that are either less common or more regionally focused. We sought to evaluate off-site rotations to better understand the changing demographics and needs of resident education. This would also allow prospective monitoring of modifications to the neurosurgery training landscape. We completed a survey of neurosurgery program directors and query of data from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to characterize the current use of away rotations in neurosurgical education of residents. We found that 20% of programs have mandatory away rotations, most commonly for exposure to pediatric, functional, peripheral nerve, or trauma cases. Most of these rotations are done during postgraduate year 3 to 6, lasting 1 to 15 months. Twenty-six programs have 2 to 3 participating sites and 41 have 4 to 6 sites distinct from the host program. Programs frequently offset potential financial harm to residents rotating at a distant site by support of housing and transportation costs. As medical systems experience fluctuating treatment paradigms and demographics, over time, more residency programs may adapt to meet the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education case minimum requirements through the implementation of away rotations.

  16. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  17. Expanding the Allowable TRUPACT-II Payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Michel, W.; Lott, S.

    2002-01-01

    The partnership between the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the TRU and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) was rewarded when several long-term projects came to fruition. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) removed some of the conservatism in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) with their approval of Revision 19. The SARP strictly limits the payload constituents to ensure that hydrogen gas and other flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) don't build up to flammable/explosive levels while the transuranic (TRU) waste is sealed in the container during shipment. The CBFO/TMFA development program was based on laboratory experiments with surrogate waste materials, real waste experiments, and theoretical modeling that were used to justify payload expansion. Future work to expand the shipping envelope of the TRUPACT-II focuses on increasing the throughput through the waste certification process and reducing the waste operations costs by removing the need for a repack aging and/or treatment capability or reducing the size of the needed repackaging/treatment capability

  18. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice is effective March 24, 2011. FOR... CFR part 301-17 Appendices A through D. The tables will be published at http://www.gsa.gov...

  19. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ...: The GSA published FTR Amendment 2008-04, in the Federal Register on June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables in Title 41 of the Code of Federal..., 2013. Carolyn Austin-Diggs, Principal Deputy Administrator, Office of Asset and Transportation...

  20. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  1. Is working memory still working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    2001-11-01

    The current state of A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch's (1974) multicomponent working memory model is reviewed. The phonological and visuospatial subsystems have been extensively investigated, leading both to challenges over interpretation of individual phenomena and to more detailed attempts to model the processes underlying the subsystems. Analysis of the controlling central executive has proved more challenging, leading to a proposed clarification in which the executive is assumed to be a limited capacity attentional system, aided by a newly postulated fourth system, the episodic buffer. Current interest focuses most strongly on the link between working memory and long-term memory and on the processes allowing the integration of information from the component subsystems. The model has proved valuable in accounting for data from a wide range of participant groups under a rich array of task conditions. Working memory does still appear to be working.

  2. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  3. Allowing for surface preparation in stress corrosion cracking modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.; Buisine, D.; Gelpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    When a 600 alloy component is significantly deformed during installation, by welding, rolling, bending, its stress corrosion cracking in Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor's primary coolant, is significantly changed by the initial surface treatment. Therefore, the crack initiated time may be reduced by several orders of magnitude for certain surfaces preparations. Allowing for cold working of the surface, for which modelling is proposed, depends less on the degree of cold work then on the depths of the hardened layers. Honing hardens the metal over depths of about one micron for vessel head penetrations, for example, and has little influence on subsequent behaviour after the part deforms. On the other hand, coarser turning treatment produces cold worked layers which can reach several tens of microns and can very significantly reduce the initiation time compared to fine honing. So evaluation after depths of hardening is vital on test pieces for interpreting laboratory results as well as on service components for estimating their service life. Suppression by mechanical or chemical treatment of these layers, after deformation, seems to be the most appropriate solution for reducing over-stressing connected with surface treatment carried out before deformation. (author)

  4. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  5. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  6. [Niacin allowance of students of a sports college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, I M

    1977-01-01

    In 227 students of the Institute for Physical Culture examined in the winter-spring and summer-fall seasons of the year, the passage of N1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) with urine per hour on an empty stomach amounted to 245 +/- 15.9 and 311 +/- 14.6 microgram/hour (the difference according to seasons in significant). These figues point to the dependence of the MNA excretion with uridine on the quantity of the niacin equivalents supplied together with the food. The content of such equivalentsin the rations of students-sprotrsmen (7-9.5 mg per 1000 calories per day) proved insufficient to maintain the MNA passage with urine at a level accepted as a standard allowance of niacin for the organism, i. e. 400-500 microgram/hour. Furthermore, the author shows changes in the niacin allowances of the student's organism, engaged in different kinds of sporting activities and also depending upon the sporting qualification of the examinees the work performed by them, the periods of training, and conditions of their every-day life.

  7. Memories of early work on muscle contraction and regulation in the 1950's and 1960's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxley, Hugh E.

    2008-01-01

    Professor Ebashi's epic work on the biochemistry of the regulation of muscle contraction began in the early 1950's, during the same period that work on the molecular basis of force production in muscle was also beginning. The latter work started in two MRC Research Units in the UK, and was continued jointly by the two workers from those Units who had, independently, gone to MIT to learn the new techniques of electron microscopy and to apply them to muscle. In a somewhat similar fashion, Professor Ebashi also spent one or two years in the USA, continuing his work on the role of calcium in muscle regulation in Lippman's laboratory, before returning to Japan to achieve the great breakthroughs in this work during the 1960's. Hanson and Huxley, after putting forward the overlapping actin and myosin filament arrays model for the striated muscle sarcomere, and subsequently the sliding filament model of muscle contraction (simultaneously with A.F Huxley and R. Niedergerke), returned to the UK to pursue detailed structural studies in separate Research Units, in a mixture of consultation, collaboration, and competition, during the later 1950's and throughout the 1960's. However, the path to enlightenment described here in some detail was somewhat more tortuous than the standard literature perhaps reveals. Nevertheless, by the time of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Muscle Contraction in 1972, the two lines of enquiry on regulation itself, and on the tilting cross-bridge model of force production, had arrived at a good deal of common ground, and indeed the identification of troponin and its periodic distribution along the actin filaments had helped resolve a long-standing puzzle in the interpretation of the low angle X-ray diagram. Since then, an enormous amount of remarkable new work has been necessary to establish troponin regulation and the tilting cross-bridge mechanism in molecular detail, but the work in the 1950's and 1960's has provided a firm and accurate basis

  8. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance transfer...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  10. 40 CFR 73.27 - Special allowance reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special allowance reserve. 73.27 Section 73.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.27 Special allowance reserve. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 73.30 - Allowance tracking system accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance tracking system accounts. 73.30 Section 73.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.30 Allowance tracking system...

  12. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.B. II; Radulski, D.R.; Ellingson, E.G.; Engels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO 2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  13. Ratemaking and accounting for allowances and compliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory treatment of compliance costs and allowances will significantly affect both the utility's CAAA compliance decisions and the cost of compliance. Sections in this chapter include ratemaking treatment of allowances, utility buy-ins, the market test of compliance costs and utility incentive, FERC account classification, measuring the value of allowances, inventory methods for allowances, expense recognition of allowances, regulatory-created assets and liabilities, and application of the FERC proposal. 8 refs., 1 tab

  14. 42 CFR 50.504 - Allowable cost of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable cost of drugs. 50.504 Section 50.504... APPLICABILITY Maximum Allowable Cost for Drugs § 50.504 Allowable cost of drugs. (a) The maximum amount which may be expended from program funds for the acquisition of any drug shall be the lowest of (1) The...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-5 - Corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrosion allowance. 54.25-5 Section 54.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-5 Corrosion allowance. The corrosion allowance...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost (OCT... cost; (ii) Incurred with proper justification and accounting support; (iii) Determined in accordance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and allowable...

  17. 45 CFR 1801.43 - Allowance for books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowance for books. 1801.43 Section 1801.43... HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payments to Finalists and Scholars § 1801.43 Allowance for books. The cost allowance for a Scholar's books is $1000 per year, or such higher amount published on the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  19. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; and (iii) The current realizable market value, determined as of the close of the market on the last... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of allowed net... BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a...

  20. 32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide” to...

  1. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  2. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  3. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  4. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp...

  5. Simulation of FRET dyes allows quantitative comparison against experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Ines; Sinner, Claude; Nettels, Daniel; Stucki-Buchli, Brigitte; Stockmar, Florian; Panek, Pawel T.; Jacob, Christoph R.; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Schuler, Benjamin; Schug, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Fully understanding biomolecular function requires detailed insight into the systems' structural dynamics. Powerful experimental techniques such as single molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) provide access to such dynamic information yet have to be carefully interpreted. Molecular simulations can complement these experiments but typically face limits in accessing slow time scales and large or unstructured systems. Here, we introduce a coarse-grained simulation technique that tackles these challenges. While requiring only few parameters, we maintain full protein flexibility and include all heavy atoms of proteins, linkers, and dyes. We are able to sufficiently reduce computational demands to simulate large or heterogeneous structural dynamics and ensembles on slow time scales found in, e.g., protein folding. The simulations allow for calculating FRET efficiencies which quantitatively agree with experimentally determined values. By providing atomically resolved trajectories, this work supports the planning and microscopic interpretation of experiments. Overall, these results highlight how simulations and experiments can complement each other leading to new insights into biomolecular dynamics and function.

  6. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  7. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  8. 40 CFR 82.10 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class I controlled substances. 82.10 Section 82.10... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.10 Availability of consumption allowances in...

  9. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  10. Slotting allowances to coordinate manufacturers’ retail sales effort

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sand, Jan Yngve

    2007-01-01

    Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Although the main attention towards slotting allowances has been within the grocery industry, slotting allowances have also been applied within e.g. e-commerce and mobile telephony. In these industries we observe that distributors have large market power due to their control of access to customers. We analyse how shifting bargaining power from manufacturers to retailers and the use of slotting allowanc...

  11. Impediments to markets for SO2 emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 imposed tighter limits on allowed emissions from electric utilities. The CAA also introduced an innovative SO 2 market mechanism to help lower the cost of compliance. The annual Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) auctions of emission allowances intended to help usher in the market mechanisms for trading allowances. In that respect, the results have been mixed. A full fledged market for emission allowances has been slow to emerge. Starting with a detailed study of the EPA auctions to date, this paper analyzes and discusses some of the reasons for this slow development

  12. 24 CFR 982.517 - Utility allowance schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities and services paid by energy-conservative households that occupy housing of similar size and type... utility allowance for an individual family, must include the utilities and services that are necessary in...-family detached, and manufactured housing) that are typical in the community. (4) The utility allowance...

  13. 41 CFR 105-71.122 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS 71.12-Post-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.122 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  14. Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Openly? There are 18 countries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their mili- taries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada...clinical and cultural competence for the proper care of transgender patients. Surgical procedures quite similar to those used for gender transition...tries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their militaries: Austra- lia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark

  15. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1) The... addition, the Carrier must: (i) on request, document and make available accounting support for the cost to...

  16. 19 CFR 148.103 - Family grouping of allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family grouping of allowances. 148.103 Section 148... Value § 148.103 Family grouping of allowances. (a) Generally. When members of a family residing in one... household. “Members of a family residing in one household” shall include all persons, regardless of age, who...

  17. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input...

  18. 40 CFR 73.21 - Phase II repowering allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the following table Unit Year 2000 adjusted basic allowances RE Burger 1 1273 RE Burger 2 1245 RE... manner: EC01SE92.082 where: Forfeiture Period = difference (as a portion of a year) between the end of... table in paragraph (a) of this section. (c)(2) The Administrator will reallocate any allowances...

  19. 26 CFR 1.42-10 - Utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-10 Utility allowances. (a) Inclusion of utility allowances in gross rent. If the cost.... (b) Applicable utility allowances—(1) Buildings assisted by the Rural Housing Service. If a building...

  20. 42 CFR 61.37 - Stipends, allowances, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stipends, allowances, and benefits. 61.37 Section..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.37 Stipends, allowances, and benefits. (a) Stipends... employees of the Public Health Service. (c) Benefits. In addition to other benefits provided herein, service...

  1. Forecasting the market for SO2 emission allowances under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Pandola, G.; Lurie, G.; Taxon, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig

  2. Future prices and market for SO2 allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.; Michael, K.; Munro, W.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    The expected price of SO 2 emission allowances is an important issue in energy and integrated resource planning activities. For example, the expected price of SO 2 allowances in needed in order to evaluate alternative strategies for meeting SO 2 provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. In addition, the expected SO 2 allowance price is important to state public utility regulators who must provide guidance on rate-making issues regarding utility compliance plans which involve allowance trading and direct investment of SO 2 control technologies. Last but not the least, the expected SO 2 allowance price is an important determinant of the future market for natural gas and low sulfur coal. The paper develops estimates of SO 2 allowance prices over time by constructing national supply and demand curves for SO 2 reductions. Both the supply and demand for SO 2 reductions are based on an analysis of the sulfur content of fuels burned in 1990 by utilities throughout the United States; and on assumptions about plant retirements, the rate of new capacity growth, the types of new and replacement plants constructed, the costs of SO 2 reduction measures and legislation by midwest states to maintain the use of high sulfur coal to protect local jobs. The paper shows that SO 2 allowance prices will peak around the year 2000 at about $500 per ton, and will eventually fall to zero by about the year 2020. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the price of SO 2 allowances is relatively insensitive to assumptions regarding the availability of natural gas or energy demand growth. However, SO 2 allowance prices tend to be quite sensitive to assumptions regarding regulations which may force early retirement of existing power plants and possible legislation which may reduce CO 2 emissions

  3. 17 CFR 240.17i-7 - Calculations of allowable capital and risk allowances or alternative capital assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Allowance for market risk. The supervised investment bank holding company must compute an allowance for market risk on a consolidated basis for all proprietary positions, including debt instruments, equity instruments, commodity instruments, foreign exchange contracts, and derivative contracts as the aggregate of...

  4. 40 CFR 82.20 - Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of consumption allowances in addition to baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.20 Section 82...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.20 Availability of consumption...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1725-01 - Allowable maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks § 86.1725-01 Allowable maintenance. This section includes text that specifies requirements that... this subpart, with the following additions: (a) Hybrid electric vehicles that use Otto-cycle or diesel...

  6. 50 CFR 86.44 - What are my allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PROGRAM Funding Availability § 86.44 What are my allowable costs? (a) The State may spend grant funds to pay only costs that are necessary and reasonable to accomplish the approved grant objectives. Grant...

  7. The economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This paper shows the economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas. First, an : overview of the truck size and weight policies is explained, with an emphasis on those that affect : Texas. Next, LCV operations in other countries...

  8. 30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a series of outgoing pipelines; (5) Gas Research Institute (GRI) fees. The GRI conducts research... industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees are mandatory in FERC-approved...

  9. Economic rationale for an emission allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption behind the economic model of allowance trading is that managers of firms are better at solving pollution abatement problems than government overseers. This is because firms know more than an environmental regulator about their own operations and because the profit motive, rather than direct government mandate of compliance decisions, may be more effective at minimizing emission control costs. The allowance trading program in the CAAA is designed to provide firms with an incentive to make good choices about how to reduce emissions by allowing the firm to reduce compliance cost and profit from trading. This chapter discusses the benefits of allowance trading and summarizes the economic literature on tradable pollution rights. 17 refs., 2 figs

  10. 14 CFR 1261.109 - Computation of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exchange). There will be no allowance for replacement cost or for appreciation in the value of the property...) Depreciation in value is determined by considering the type of article involved, its cost, its condition when...

  11. The Effect of Allowing Pollution Offsets with Imperfect Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Howard F. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Public policies for pollution control, including climate change policies, sometimes allow polluters in one sector subject to an emissions cap to offset excessive emissions in that sector with pollution abatement in another sector. The government may often find it more costly to verify offset claims than to verify compliance with emissions caps. Concerns about such difficulties in enforcement may lead regulators to restrict the use of offsets. In this paper, we demonstrate that allowing offset...

  12. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  13. Telecommuting: An Altered Work Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    11 Part-Time: Job Sharing. . . .... 12 Compressed Workweek (CWW): 4/40 CWW. ..... 16 Flexible Working Hours : Flexitime ...... 22...manent full time work form that varies in hours, days, or a combination of both. Flexible Working Hours . Flexible working hours is a work schedule where...Ronen & Primps, 1981). Flexible Working Hours : Flexitime Expanded Definition. Flexitime can be further defined as a work concept that allows the maximum

  14. ACCOUNTING FOR GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS ALLOWANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Deac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to analyze the accounting challenges that the implementation of EU Emissions Trading Scheme has risen. On 2 December 2004, IASB has issued an interpretation regarding the accounting of the GHG emissions allowances (IFRIC 3 „Emission Rights”. This interpretation should have been effective for annual periods beginning after 1 March 2005, the first year of the EU Emission Trading Scheme implementation. Less than a year after it was issued, IFRIC has withdrawn IFRIC 3. In December 2007, IASB has started a new project in order to provide guidance on accounting for carbon allowances called Emissions Trading Schemes Project. In the absence of an accounting standard regarding the accounting of these emissions allowances a diversity of accounting practices have been identified. Nowadays, there are three main accounting practices for the recognition of the emissions allowances and the GHG emissions liabilities: IFRIC 3 approach, the government grants approach and the net liability or off balance sheet approach. The accounting treatment of greenhouse gas emissions allowances by Romanian companies resembles the net liability or off balance sheet approach. Finance Ministry Order no. 1118/2012 states that GHG emission certificates should be recognized as fixed assets (if the entity is expecting a profit in the long term or in the category of short term investments (if the entity is expecting a profit in the short term. The accounting of the greenhouse gas emissions allowances described above is applicable mainly to traders of such certificates and not for the installations in the scope of the EU ETS directive, which should recognize GHG emissions off balance sheet, at their nominal value (nil if received for free. The shortfall or excess of allowances will be recognized in the profit or loss as they are bought or sold by the entity (the accounting treatment imposed by Finance Ministry Order no. 3055/2009.

  15. Sea-Level Allowances along the World Coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, R.; Tsitsikas, C.; Reerink, T.; Slangen, A.; de Winter, R.; Muis, S.; Hunter, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Sea level changes as a result of climate change. For projections we take ocean mass changes and volume changes into account. Including gravitational and rotational fingerprints this provide regional sea level changes. Hence we can calculate sea-level rise patterns based on CMIP5 projections. In order to take the variability around the mean state, which follows from the climate models, into account we use the concept of allowances. The allowance indicates the height a coastal structure needs to be increased to maintain the likelihood of sea-level extremes. Here we use a global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels based on a global hydrodynamic model in order to calculate allowances. It is shown that the model compares in most regions favourably with tide gauge records from the GESLA data set. Combining the CMIP5 projections and the global hydrodynamical model we calculate sea-level allowances along the global coastlines and expand the number of points with a factor 50 relative to tide gauge based results. Results show that allowances increase gradually along continental margins with largest values near the equator. In general values are lower at midlatitudes both in Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Increased risk for extremes are typically 103-104 for the majority of the coastline under the RCP8.5 scenario at the end of the century. Finally we will show preliminary results of the effect of changing wave heights based on the coordinated ocean wave project.

  16. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of coordi....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge.......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...

  17. 30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE... NPSL operations are allowable provided that such employees work “full time” on some particular aspect... incidental expenses of the employee and members of his immediate family and transportation of his household...

  18. Real options theory to the pricing of allowances contract to carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Leticia Takahashi; Parente, Virginia; Goldemberg, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a pricing model contract for allowances to emit carbon through Real Options. Emissions allowances are equivalent tons of carbon traded between Annex I countries from companies that have the ability to reduce their emissions beyond what is assigned to it. The surplus of emission reductions produced by these companies may be sold in the emissions market. Thus, this work can contribute to improving the management of contractual risk and enable companies estimated the price at which a contract can be signed. Properly evaluate the contracts that the market environment is a challenge for companies. The historic low of information and randomness in the price of carbon allowances in the spot market suggest extreme caution in its use. (author)

  19. Allowable variance set on left ventricular function parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Li'na; Qi Zhongzhi; Zeng Yu; Ou Xiaohong; Li Lin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of allowable Variance settings on left ventricular function parameter of the arrhythmia patients during gated myocardial perfusion imaging. Method: 42 patients with evident arrhythmia underwent myocardial perfusion SPECT, 3 different allowable variance with 20%, 60%, 100% would be set before acquisition for every patients,and they will be acquired simultaneously. After reconstruction by Astonish, end-diastole volume(EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) would be computed with Quantitative Gated SPECT(QGS). Using SPSS software EDV, ESV, EF values of analysis of variance. Result: there is no statistical difference between three groups. Conclusion: arrhythmia patients undergo Gated myocardial perfusion imaging, Allowable Variance settings on EDV, ESV, EF value does not have a statistical meaning. (authors)

  20. Strategic partitioning of emissions allowances in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)); Rosendahl, Knut Einar (Research Dept., Statistics Norway, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-07-01

    The EU ETS opens up for strategic partitioning of emissions allowances by the Member States. In this paper we examine the potential effects of such strategic behavior on quota prices and abatement costs. We show that although marginal abatement costs in the sectors outside the EU ETS become quite differentiated, the effects on the quota price and total abatement costs are small. More abatement, however, takes place in the old Member States that are importers of allowances, compared to the cost-effective outcome. Single countries can nevertheless significantly affect the outcome of the EU ETS by exploiting their market power

  1. Isospin impurity and super-allowed β transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, H.; Van Giai Nguyen; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin impurity on the super-allowed Fermi β decay using microscopic HF and RPA (or TDA) model taking into account CSB and CIB interactions. It is found that the isospin impurity of N = Z nuclei gives enhancement of the sum rule of Fermi transition probabilities. On the other hand, the super-allowed transitions between odd-odd J = 0 nuclei and even-even J = 0 nuclei are quenched because on the cancellation of the isospin impurity effects of mother and daughter nuclei. An implication of the calculated Fermi transition rate on the unitarity of Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is also discussed. (authors)

  2. On test and maintenance: Optimization of allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Cepin, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment is widely becoming standard method for assessing, maintaining, assuring and improving the nuclear power plant safety. To achieve one of its many potential benefits, the optimization of allowed outage time specified in technical specifications is investigated. Proposed is the risk comparison approach for evaluation of allowed outage time. The risk of shutting the plant down due to failure of certain equipment is compared to the risk of continued plant operation with the specified equipment down. The core damage frequency serves as a risk measure. (author)

  3. 78 FR 67465 - Loan Guaranty: Maximum Allowable Attorney Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... foreclosure attorney fee. This fee recognizes the additional work required to resume the foreclosure action, while also accounting for the expectation that some work from the previous action may be utilized in... for legal fees in connection with the termination of single-family housing loans, including...

  4. 20 CFR 617.21 - Reemployment services and allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... services may include work orientation, basic education, communication skills, child care, and any other... productive work which provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of the job... which utilize their highest skills and that applicants qualified for job openings are appropriately...

  5. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  6. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  7. Is It Safe to Allow Cell Phones in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones were banned from most schools years ago, but after the Columbine High School and 9/11 tragedies, parents started pressuring some school boards and administrators to reverse the bans. On its surface, allowing students to have cell phones under the guise of improved school safety may seem like a "no-brainer" to many board members and…

  8. 48 CFR 243.204-70-6 - Allowable profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... profit allowed reflects— (a) Any reduced cost risk to the contractor for costs incurred during contract performance before negotiation of the final price; (b) The contractor's reduced cost risk for costs incurred during performance of the remainder of the contract; and (c) The extent to which costs have been incurred...

  9. 48 CFR 217.7404-6 - Allowable profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ensure the profit allowed reflects— (a) Any reduced cost risk to the contractor for costs incurred during contract performance before negotiation of the final price; (b) The contractor's reduced cost risk for costs incurred during performance of the remainder of the contract; and (c) The requirements at 215.404...

  10. 30 CFR 206.56 - Transportation allowances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oil has been determined under § 206.52 or § 206.53 of this subpart at a point (e.g., sales point or point of value determination) off the lease, MMS shall allow a deduction for the reasonable, actual... sales type code may not exceed 50 percent of the value of the oil at the point of sale as determined...

  11. Evolution of allowable stresses in shear for lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ethington; William L. Galligan; Henry M. Montrey; Alan D. Freas

    1979-01-01

    This paper surveys research leading to allowable shear stress parallel to grain for lumber. In early flexure tests of lumber, some pieces failed in shear. The estimated shear stress at time of failure was generally lower than shear strength measured on small, clear, straight-grained specimens. This and other engineering observations gave rise to adjustments that...

  12. Allowed unhindered beta connected states in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Ray, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    The beta-connected states in odd-mass as well as even mass rare earth nuclei, where the transition is of allowed unhindered nature, are listed. The tabulation includes 54 cases of such transitions. Validity of Alaga selection rules is examined and the results are used to assign configurations to the involved single particle and two-particle states. (author)

  13. 5 CFR 2610.107 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable fees and expenses. 2610.107 Section 2610.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... factors as may bear on the value of the services provided. (d) The reasonable cost of any study, analysis...

  14. 19 CFR 212.06 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 212.06 Allowable fees and...) If the attorney, agent or expert witness is in private practice, his or her customary fee for similar...

  15. 28 CFR 0.142 - Per diem and travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized to approve travel expenses of newly appointed special agents and the transportation expenses of... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Per diem and travel allowances. 0.142... Authorizations With Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.142 Per diem and travel...

  16. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.503 - Allowable credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable credit. 101-27.503 Section 101-27.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.5...

  18. 34 CFR 389.41 - What are allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education programs— (a) Trainee per diem costs; (b) Trainee travel in connection with a training course; (c... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs? 389.41 Section 389.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  19. 48 CFR 752.7028 - Differential and allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowance) at rates prescribed by the Federal Travel Regulations, as from time to time amended, during the... providing adequate elementary and secondary education for his/her children. The Contractor will be...), Chapter 270, as from time to time amended. (g) Educational travel. Educational travel is travel to and...

  20. Allowable stem nut wear and diagnostic monitoring for MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburne, P.

    1994-01-01

    After a motor-operated valve (MOV) stem nut failure in 1991 that contributed to a forced plant shutdown, the FitzPatrick Plant staff developed criteria to check for excessive stem nut wear in MOVs. Allowable stem nut wear monitoring uses both direct dimensional measurement and diagnostic test data interpretation. The wear allowance is based on the recommended permitted backlash discussed in the Electric Power Research Institute/Nuclear Maintenance Assistance Center Technical Repair Guideline for the Limitorque SMB-000 Motor Actuator. The diagnostic analysis technique measures the time at zero load and compares this with a precalculated allowable zero force time. Excessive zero force time may be the result of other MOV problems, such as a loose stem nut lock nut or excessive free play in the drive sleeve bearing. Stress levels for new or nominal stem nuts and stem nuts with the full wear allowance were compared. Bending and shear stresses at the thread root increase for the maximum wear condition when compared with a open-quotes newclose quotes stem nut. These stresses are directly related to the thread root thickness. For typical MOV loading and common stem threading (with two diameters of thread engagement), the thread stresses are well within acceptable limits for ASTM B584-C86300 (formerly B147-863) manganese bronze (typical stem nut material)

  1. 9 CFR 73.10 - Permitted dips; substances allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted dips; substances allowed. 73.10 Section 73.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... flowers of sulphur or sulphur flour to 100 gallons of water; or a specifically permitted proprietary brand...

  2. 76 FR 14282 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... paid as a subsistence allowance for a full-time institutional program under chapter 31 of title 38...' rehabilitation following injury or disease. To the extent the commenter objects to the payment of money to... under this section. (a) Payment will be made at the rate paid for a full-time institutional program...

  3. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit... the first such 5 years. (2)(i) A unit's control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with...

  4. 9 CFR 52.6 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violation of a law or regulation administered by the Secretary regarding animal disease, or in violation of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 52.6 Section 52.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 9 CFR 55.7 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... owner in violation of a law or regulation administered by the Secretary regarding animal disease, or in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 55.7 Section 55.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 41 CFR 105-72.307 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 105-72.307 Section 105-72.307 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 72-UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER...

  7. Can preapproval jump-start the allowance market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, D.J.; Goffman, J.

    1992-06-01

    With compliance deadlines approaching in three years, utility, environmental and financial planners and their regulators are in the process of grappling with the requirements imposed, and opportunities created, by the acid rain program established under Title 4 of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The novel element of the program - emissions or allowance trading through a nationwide allowance market - presents great challenges for utilities and their regulators. Perhaps the foremost challenge is establishing the allowance market. If state utility commissions subject utilities' compliance strategies to traditional after-the-fact prudence reviews, as tradition would impel them to do, the attendant regulatory risks are likely to push utilities toward more conservative compliance schemes that underuse allowance trading (as the exchange at the head of this article demonstrates). If that happens, the market will fail to develop, and its full potential for environmental benefit at least cost will go unrealized. This, in turn, is likely to strengthen the case for non-market regulatory mechanisms - a vicious circle. In this paper, the authors suggest a way out of this.

  8. 37 CFR 1.311 - Notice of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fee, in which case the issue fee and publication fee (§ 1.211(e)) must both be paid within three... notice of allowance will operate as a request to charge the correct issue fee or any publication fee due... incorrect issue fee or publication fee; or (2) A fee transmittal form (or letter) for payment of issue fee...

  9. Can preapproval jump-start the allowance market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, D.J.; Goffman, J.

    1992-01-01

    With compliance deadlines approaching in three years, utility, environmental and financial planners and their regulators are in the process of grappling with the requirements imposed, and opportunities created, by the acid rain program established under Title 4 of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. The novel element of the program - emissions or allowance trading through a nationwide allowance market - presents great challenges for utilities and their regulators. Perhaps the foremost challenge is establishing the allowance market. If state utility commissions subject utilities' compliance strategies to traditional after-the-fact prudence reviews, as tradition would impel them to do, the attendant regulatory risks are likely to push utilities toward more conservative compliance schemes that underuse allowance trading (as the exchange at the head of this article demonstrates). If that happens, the market will fail to develop, and its full potential for environmental benefit at least cost will go unrealized. This, in turn, is likely to strengthen the case for non-market regulatory mechanisms - a vicious circle. In this paper, the authors suggest a way out of this

  10. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural...

  11. Flexible working motivates all staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    A recent survey has demolished the myth that work-life balance is only of interest to women with children. The survey, commissioned by Lloyds TSB on behalf of the Employers for Work Life Balance organisation, shows that young workers and men are equally interested in flexible working arrangements that allow them to pursue interests outside of work.

  12. Tram works (TCMC)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    In order to allow the final switchover of traffic, as part of the on-going Tram works (TCMC), please note that the traffic lights at Entrance B will be out of service from 7 to 14 February. In order to ensure traffic safety and allow CERN employees to exit the site, a temporary roundabout will be installed during this week. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SE Group

  13. Just do it: action-dependent learning allows sensory prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Novick

    Full Text Available Sensory-motor learning is commonly considered as a mapping process, whereby sensory information is transformed into the motor commands that drive actions. However, this directional mapping, from inputs to outputs, is part of a loop; sensory stimuli cause actions and vice versa. Here, we explore whether actions affect the understanding of the sensory input that they cause. Using a visuo-motor task in humans, we demonstrate two types of learning-related behavioral effects. Stimulus-dependent effects reflect stimulus-response learning, while action-dependent effects reflect a distinct learning component, allowing the brain to predict the forthcoming sensory outcome of actions. Together, the stimulus-dependent and the action-dependent learning components allow the brain to construct a complete internal representation of the sensory-motor loop.

  14. Spent fuel treatment to allow storage in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987 (FY-87), research began at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a treatment material and process to coat fuel rods in commercial spent fuel assemblies to allow the assemblies to be stored in hot (up to 380 0 C) air without oxidation of the fuel. This research was conducted under a research and development fund provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and independently administered by EG and G Idaho, Inc., DOE's prime contractor at the INEL. The objectives of the research were to identify and evaluate possible treatment processes and materials, identify areas of uncertainty, and to recommend the most likely candidate to allow spent fuel dry storage in hot air. The results of the research are described: results were promising and several good candidates were identified, but further research is needed to examine the candidates to the point where comparison is possible

  15. A new approach for primary overloads allowance in ratcheting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic loading must be taken into account in ratchetting design analysis. In LMFBR structures it mainly produces primary overloads, which are characterised by severe magnitudes but a generally low number of occurrences. Other cases of several primary overloads can also observed in pipes during emptying operations for instance. In the RCC-MR design code rule, the maximum primary stress supported by a structure is considered as permanent. No allowance is made for temporary load. Experimental ratchetting tests conducted on different structures with and without overloads clearly point out that temporary overloads lead to less ratchetting effect. A method using the RCC-MR efficiency diagram framework is proposed. A general theoretical approach allows to extend its field of application of various cases of primary loading: constant or null primary loading or overloads. Experimental results are then used to check the validity of this new approach. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  18. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  19. Scientific substantination of maximum allowable concentration of fluopicolide in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelo I.М.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to substantiate fluopicolide maximum allowable concentration in the water of water reservoirs the research was carried out. Methods of study: laboratory hygienic experiment using organoleptic and sanitary-chemical, sanitary-toxicological, sanitary-microbiological and mathematical methods. The results of fluopicolide influence on organoleptic properties of water, sanitary regimen of reservoirs for household purposes were given and its subthreshold concentration in water by sanitary and toxicological hazard index was calculated. The threshold concentration of the substance by the main hazard criteria was established, the maximum allowable concentration in water was substantiated. The studies led to the following conclusions: fluopicolide threshold concentration in water by organoleptic hazard index (limiting criterion – the smell – 0.15 mg/dm3, general sanitary hazard index (limiting criteria – impact on the number of saprophytic microflora, biochemical oxygen demand and nitrification – 0.015 mg/dm3, the maximum noneffective concentration – 0.14 mg/dm3, the maximum allowable concentration - 0.015 mg/dm3.

  20. Allowable Pressure In Soils and Rocks by Seismic Wave Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, S.; Keceli, A.; Oezdemir, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, the historical background is presented for the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The principles of plastic equilibrium used in the classical formulation of the ultimate bearing capacity are reviewed, followed by a discussion about the sources of approximations inherent in the classical theory. Secondly, based on a variety of case histories of site investigations, including extensive bore hole data, laboratory testing and geophysical prospecting, an empirical formulation is proposed for the determination of allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The proposed expression corroborates consistently with the results of the classical theory and is proven to be reliable and safe, also from the view point of maximum allowable settlements. It consists of only two soil parameters, namely, the Institut measured shear wave velocity, and the unit weight. The unit weight may be also determined with sufficient accuracy, by means of another empirical expression, using the P-wave velocity. It is indicated that once the shear and P-wave velocities are measured Institut by an appropriate geophysical survey, the allowable bearing capacity is determined reliably through a single step operation. Such an approach, is considerably cost and time-saving, in practice

  1. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  2. Predicted allowable doses to normal organs for biologically targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; Wheldon, T.E.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1988-01-01

    The authors have used Dale's extension to the ''linear quadratic'' (LQ) model (Dale, 1985) to evaluate ''equivalent doses'' in cases involving exponentially decaying dose rates. This analysis indicates that the dose-rate effect will be a significant determinant of allowable doses to organs such as liver, kidney and lung. These organ tolerance doses constitute independent constraints on the therapeutic intensity of biologically targeted radiotherapy in exactly the same way as for conventional external beam radiotherapy. In the context of marrow rescue they will in all likelihood constitute the dose-limiting side-effects and thus be especially important. (author)

  3. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or open-quotes criticalclose quotes) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration

  4. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail: tachiiri@jamstec.go.jp; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  5. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    numbers, Navier-Stokes flows with large Reynolds numbers, chemical reactor ... It is to observe the layer behavior of the solution for smaller values of ε leading to singular ...... Burger equation, momentum gas equation and heat equation.

  6. 40 CFR 35.940-3 - Costs allowable, if approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-3... the treatment process, or that will be used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such..., 1977, that will be used for storage of treated wastewater in land treatment systems before land...

  7. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  8. Statistical considerations of graphite strength for assessing design allowable stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Mogi, H.; Ioka, I.; Arai, T.; Oku, T.

    1987-01-01

    Several aspects of statistics need to be considered to determine design allowable stresses for graphite structures. These include: 1) Statistical variation of graphite material strength. 2) Uncertainty of calculated stress. 3) Reliability (survival probability) required from operational and safety performance of graphite structures. This paper deals with some statistical considerations of structural graphite for assessing design allowable stress. Firstly, probability distribution functions of tensile and compressive strengths are investigated on experimental Very High Temperature candidated graphites. Normal, logarithmic normal and Weibull distribution functions are compared in terms of coefficient of correlation to measured strength data. This leads to the adaptation of normal distribution function. Then, the relation between factor of safety and fracture probability is discussed on the following items: 1) As the graphite strength is more variable than metalic material's strength, the effect of strength variation to the fracture probability is evaluated. 2) Fracture probability depending on survival probability of 99 ∼ 99.9 (%) with confidence level of 90 ∼ 95 (%) is discussed. 3) As the material properties used in the design analysis are usually the mean values of their variation, the additional effect of these variations on the fracture probability is discussed. Finally, the way to assure the minimum ultimate strength with required survival probability with confidence level is discussed in view of statistical treatment of the strength data from varying sample numbers in a material acceptance test. (author)

  9. Contested change: how Germany came to allow PGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bock von Wülfingen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, German laws protecting the human embryo from the moment of conception were some of the strictest internationally. These laws had previously prevented any manipulation of the embryo, such as in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, and continue to affect stem cell research. In 2011, however, the German parliament voted in favour of allowing PGD in specific cases. While the modification in the law in earlier analysis was interpreted as being in keeping with the usual norms in Germany, this article argues instead that the reasoning behind the partial acceptance of PGD, rather than the legal decision itself, is indicative of a sociocultural change that needs to be accredited. Demonstrating that a significant change occurred, this article analyses the arguments that led to the amendment in law: not only has the identity of the embryo been redefined towards a pragmatic concept but the notions of parenting and pregnancy have also changed. The focus on the mother and the moment of birth has given way to a focus on conception and ‘genetic couplehood’. The professional discourse preceding the decision allowing PGD suggested that the rights of the not-yet-implanted embryo should be negotiated with those of the two parents-to-be, a concept that may be called ‘in-vitro pregnancy’.

  10. Characteristics and allowed behaviors of gay male couples' sexual agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.

  11. Evaluation of allowed outage time using PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) different measures of risk importance can be established. These measures can be used as a basis for further evaluation and determination of allowed outage time for specific components, within safety systems of a nuclear power plant. In order to optimize the allowed outage time (AOT) stipulated in the plant's Technical Specification it is necessary to create a methodology which could incorporate existing PRA data into a quantitative extrapolation. In order to evaluate the plant risk status due to AOT in a quantitative manner, the risk achievement worth is utilized. Risk achievement worth is defined as follows: to measure the worth of a feature, in achieving the present risk, one approach is to remove the feature and then determine how much the risk has increased. Thus, the risk achievement worth is formally defined to be the increase in risk if the feature were assumed not be there or to be failed. Another parameter of interest for this analysis is the shutdown risk increase. The shutdown risk achievement worth must be incorporated into the accident sequence risk achievement worth to arrive at an optimal set of plant specific AOTs

  12. Working alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearle, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Employees may be found working alone in a wide range of occupations. Technological advance, rationalisation and automation mean that more and more frequently. one single person is in charge of several machines, pieces of equipment or different work activities. Employees will be found working alone during work carried out as 'overtime', as part of flexible working hours, on Saturdays, Sundays, Bank Holidays and other statutory leave days, or in situations where their work takes them away from a fixed base (mobile workers). A person may be considered to be 'working alone' whenever it is not possible to offer immediate assistance following an accident or in another critical situation. This article looks at the legal background to lone working and what an employer must do to ensure lone workers are at no greater risk to their health and safety than any other members of the workforce.

  13. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  14. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  15. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Energy List for 2013; Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA). Energielijst 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) is a tax system by means of which the Dutch government supports companies with investments in energy-saving equipment and renewable energy. This brochure explains the assets eligible for EIA and how the scheme works [Dutch] De Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) is een fiscale regeling waarmee de overheid ondersteuning biedt voor bedrijven bij investeringen in energiebesparende bedrijfsmiddelen en duurzame energie. In deze brochure wordt uitgelegd welke bedrijfsmiddelen in aanmerking komen voor EIA en hoe de regeling werkt.

  16. High-Precision Diagnosis of Malfunctioning Apparatus allowed by Serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2010-02-01

    ``An electric brake has a resistance of 376 ohms and operates at 90 volts. If the only supply available is 115 volts, show how the brake can still be made to work.'' The preceding exercise is the theoretical counterpart of a practical problem involving a platform elevator for the physically-challenged. The elevator brake had been inoperable for a considerable period due to an intractable ambiguity, even after two independent technicians working together had established that some components might have been installed improperly. It so happened that the author was on handfootnotetextnote: during a visit to the educational institution concerned. and he suggested an experimental approach for a remedy that could be checked if some standard equipment were provided. Once this item was located, his testing confirmed the viability of the proposed remedy, resulting in a prompt repair and a much-needed return to service. This good outcome was achieved by integrating theory and practice to produce maximum synergy. )

  17. [The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.

  18. OVERSEAS HOUSING ALLOWANCE FOR GUAM: A NEW WAY FORWARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    18 External Reviews by AFAA, NGB, OSI , IR, and Third Party Audits ............................ 18 Internal Reviews...two OCONUS locations exempt from OHA. These discoveries construct a logical case for BAH for Guam. External Reviews by AFAA, NGB, OSI , IR, and Third...of a private rental property company as opposed to a Base Housing Office. This same model can work on Guam should BAH be considered. Expected Impact

  19. The greenhouse gases emissions allowances trading in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisinec, Igor; Marvan, Miroslav; Tuma, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    The energy policy of the State is very important for a state development. The aim of this policy is power energy development, which is essential for improving the quality of life and standards of people's living in every country. Unfortunately, power energy development also has a negative impact; primarily on the environment. Some possible solutions exist for reduction of the power energy negative impacts. This paper deals with reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the Czech Republic according to the Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention climate change. The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The GHG emissions allowances trading as one of the instruments for stabilisation of GHG emissions is described in the paper. (authors)

  20. AICPA allows low-cost options for compiled financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Alan; Luecke, Randall W

    2002-02-01

    The AICPA Accounting and Review Services Committee's (ARSC) SSARS No. 8, Amendment to Statement on Standards for Accounting and Review Services No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements, issued in October 2000, allows financial managers to provide plain-paper, compiled financial statements for the exclusive use of management. Such financial statements were disallowed in 1979 when the AICPA issued SSARS No. 1, Compilation and Review of Financial Statements. With the issuance of SSARS No. 8, financial managers can prepare plain-paper, compiled financial statements when third parties are not expected to rely on the financial statements, management acknowledges such restrictions in writing, and management acknowledges its primary responsibility for the adequacy of the financial statements.

  1. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in certain languages that allow stand-alone vowelless open-class words. One such language is Berber (where t is indeed a word). Berber listeners here detected words affixed to nonsense contexts with or without vowels. Length effects seen in other languages replicated in Berber, but in contrast to prior findings, word detection was not hindered by vowelless contexts. When words can be vowelless, otherwise universal constraints disfavoring vowelless words do not feature in spoken-word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  3. Public pensions, family allowances and endogenous demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    1995-05-01

    "A tax-transfer system deals with redistribution a PAYGmong generations and corrective taxation a PAYGt the same time. Since such a policy is a government's task, we take a normative approach and pose the question: Which tax-transfer system should a government apply to maximize social welfare? The framework we consider allows for endogenous demographic aspects...: first, fertility has a great impact on a PAYG [pay-as-you-go] financed pension insurance; and second, through education human capital is accumulated.... We analyzed the optimal extent of a public pension scheme in the presence of external effects of fertility and education on the net domestic product." Pension schemes in Germany and the United States are compared. excerpt

  4. Diet quality, overweight and daily monetary allowance of Greek adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Maraki, Maria I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Grammatikopoulou, Melpomene; Karathanou, Lenia; Kotsias, Emma; Tsofliou, Fotini; Tsigga, Maria; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G

    2017-07-14

    Objective To investigate cross-correlates of pocket-money on diet quality and weight status of Greek adolescents. Methods A total of 172 adolescents (55.2% boys), aged between 10 and 15 years old were recruited. Body weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) was computed. Weight status was assessed according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria and diet quality was evaluated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) - 2010. Results Adolescents were allowed a mean allowance of €4.63 ± 3.66 daily. Among boys participants, BMI correlated with pocket money (r = 0.311, p ≤ 0.002) and normoweight boys received statistically less money than their overweight peers (p ≤ 0.019). In both sexes, normoweight was more prevalent in the lowest monetary quartiles. Pocket money was not associated with HEI. Among boys, moderate HEI was more prevalent in the third quartile of pocket money, significantly higher compared to all others (p ≤ 0.01 for all). For girls, the prevalence of moderate HEI declined by each ascending pocket money quartile (p ≤ 0.05 for all). Conclusion In our sample, adolescents exhibited high rates of pooled overweight including obesity. The majority of the participants followed a diet of moderate quality. Pocket money was associated with BMI only among boys. As pocket money was not associated with diet quality, it is highly possible that adolescents might choose to spend their money on items other than foods. Our study shows that pocket money should be controlled during adolescence and teenagers should be educated on spending their money on healthier food choices.

  5. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 475-478

  6. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 475-478

  7. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  8. Ruling Allowing Induced Abortion in Colombia: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Orozco, Camilo Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present and examine the ruling on which the Colombian Constitutional Court declared the blanket criminalization of induced abortion to be unconstitutional: ruling C-355/061; all of this based in the understanding I have achieved of the Courts’ reasoning. In the first section I will present the norms that constituted the blanket prohibition of abortion, as well as the likely situation of its practice, both by the time the Constitutional Court took up the analysis of ...

  9. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  10. Investigating ASME allowable loads with finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel; Bezerra, Luciano M.; Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Cruz, Julio R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of nuclear components using finite element analysis (FEA) does not generally fall into the shell type verification adopted by the ASME Code. Consequently, the demonstration that the modes of failure are avoided sometimes is not straightforward. Allowable limits, developed by limit load theory, require the computation of shell membrane and bending stresses. How to calculate these stresses from FEA is not necessarily self-evident. One approach to be considered is to develop recommendations in a case-by-case basis for the most common pressure vessel geometries and loads based on comparison between the results of elastic and plastic FEA. In this paper, FE analyses of common 2D and complex 3D geometries are examined and discussed. It will be clear that in the cases studied, stress separation and categorization are not self-evident and simple tasks to undertake. Certain unclear recommendations of ASME Code can lead the stress analyst to non conservative designs as will be demonstrated in this paper. At the endo of this paper, taking into account comparison between elastic and elastic-plastic FE results from ANSYS some observations, suggestions and conclusions about the degree of conservatism of the ASME recommendations will be addressed. (author)

  11. Photochemical Microscale Electrophoresis Allows Fast Quantification of Biomolecule Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Friederike M; Kieß, Michael; Braun, Dieter

    2016-04-27

    Intricate spatiotemporal patterns emerge when chemical reactions couple to physical transport. We induce electrophoretic transport by a confined photochemical reaction and use it to infer the binding strength of a second, biomolecular binding reaction under physiological conditions. To this end, we use the photoactive compound 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which releases a proton upon 375 nm irradiation. The charged photoproducts locally perturb electroneutrality due to differential diffusion, giving rise to an electric potential Φ in the 100 μV range on the micrometer scale. Electrophoresis of biomolecules in this field is counterbalanced by back-diffusion within seconds. The biomolecule concentration is measured by fluorescence and settles proportionally to exp(-μ/D Φ). Typically, binding alters either the diffusion coefficient D or the electrophoretic mobility μ. Hence, the local biomolecule fluorescence directly reflects the binding state. A fit to the law of mass action reveals the dissociation constant of the binding reaction. We apply this approach to quantify the binding of the aptamer TBA15 to its protein target human-α-thrombin and to probe the hybridization of DNA. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar regime were determined and match both results in literature and in control experiments using microscale thermophoresis. As our approach is all-optical, isothermal and requires only nanoliter volumes at nanomolar concentrations, it will allow for the fast screening of biomolecule binding in low volume multiwell formats.

  12. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  13. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  14. Coherent Multimodal Sensory Information Allows Switching between Gravitoinertial Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Marie; Rousseau, Célia; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; White, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Whether the central nervous system is capable to switch between contexts critically depends on experimental details. Motor control studies regularly adopt robotic devices to perturb the dynamics of a certain task. Other approaches investigate motor control by altering the gravitoinertial context itself as in parabolic flights and human centrifuges. In contrast to conventional robotic experiments, where only the hand is perturbed, these gravitoinertial or immersive settings coherently plunge participants into new environments. However, radically different they are, perfect adaptation of motor responses are commonly reported. In object manipulation tasks, this translates into a good matching of the grasping force or grip force to the destabilizing load force. One possible bias in these protocols is the predictability of the forthcoming dynamics. Here we test whether the successful switching and adaptation processes observed in immersive environments are a consequence of the fact that participants can predict the perturbation schedule. We used a short arm human centrifuge to decouple the effects of space and time on the dynamics of an object manipulation task by adding an unnatural explicit position-dependent force. We created different dynamical contexts by asking 20 participants to move the object at three different paces. These contextual sessions were interleaved such that we could simulate concurrent learning. We assessed adaptation by measuring how grip force was adjusted to this unnatural load force. We found that the motor system can switch between new unusual dynamical contexts, as reported by surprisingly well-adjusted grip forces, and that this capacity is not a mere consequence of the ability to predict the time course of the upcoming dynamics. We posit that a coherent flow of multimodal sensory information born in a homogeneous milieu allows switching between dynamical contexts.

  15. Coherent Multimodal Sensory Information Allows Switching between Gravitoinertial Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Barbiero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the central nervous system is capable to switch between contexts critically depends on experimental details. Motor control studies regularly adopt robotic devices to perturb the dynamics of a certain task. Other approaches investigate motor control by altering the gravitoinertial context itself as in parabolic flights and human centrifuges. In contrast to conventional robotic experiments, where only the hand is perturbed, these gravitoinertial or immersive settings coherently plunge participants into new environments. However, radically different they are, perfect adaptation of motor responses are commonly reported. In object manipulation tasks, this translates into a good matching of the grasping force or grip force to the destabilizing load force. One possible bias in these protocols is the predictability of the forthcoming dynamics. Here we test whether the successful switching and adaptation processes observed in immersive environments are a consequence of the fact that participants can predict the perturbation schedule. We used a short arm human centrifuge to decouple the effects of space and time on the dynamics of an object manipulation task by adding an unnatural explicit position-dependent force. We created different dynamical contexts by asking 20 participants to move the object at three different paces. These contextual sessions were interleaved such that we could simulate concurrent learning. We assessed adaptation by measuring how grip force was adjusted to this unnatural load force. We found that the motor system can switch between new unusual dynamical contexts, as reported by surprisingly well-adjusted grip forces, and that this capacity is not a mere consequence of the ability to predict the time course of the upcoming dynamics. We posit that a coherent flow of multimodal sensory information born in a homogeneous milieu allows switching between dynamical contexts.

  16. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  17. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  18. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  19. Work with Apple's Rhapsody Operating System which Allows Simultaneous UNIX Program Development, UNIX Program Execution, and PC Application Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Don; Riley, Chris; Cremaldi, Lucien; Sanders, David

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, UNIX workstations have provided a very powerful program development environment. However, workstations are more expensive than PCs and Macintoshes and require a system manager for day-to-day tasks such as disk backup, adding users, and setting up print queues. Native commercial software for system maintenance and "PC applications" has been lacking under UNIX. Apple's new Rhapsody operating system puts the current MacOS on a NeXT UNIX foundation and adds an enhanced NeXTS...

  20. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  1. Analysis of super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, D H [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of tile J{pi} = 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} super-allowed Fermi transitions within isospin triplets is limited in the precision of its outcome not by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of the isospin symmetry along the multiplets by the charge-dependence of the forces, both Coulomb and specifically nuclear. Theoretical estimates of the mismatch differ considerably from author to author, their direct application results in clear violation of tile hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and clear inconsistency with unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the previous suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z=O. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for mismatch; (ii) after correction for the full theoretical mismatch; (iii) after correction for case-to-case fluctuations in the theoretical mismatch. These three procedures are individually statistically satisfactory and mutually consistent in their extrapolation to Z = 0 despite the variety of the theoretical mismatches on which, in varying degrees, they are based. The resultant unitarity test for the CKM matrix is IV{sub ud}I{sup 2} + IV{sub us}I{sup 2} + IV{sub ub}I{sup 2} = 1.0003 {+-} 0.0014. The associated value for the operational vector coupling constant is: G{sub v}{sup *} / (hc){sup 3} = (1.15155{+-}0.00064) x 10{sup -5} GeV{sup -2}. If unitarity of the CKM matrix is alternatively assumed one may conclude, from a similar analysis, that the mean charge of the fermionic fields between which beta-decay takes place is Q-bar = 0.172{+-}0.060 and that, at the 90% confidence level, b{sub F} < 2.6 x 10{sup -3} were b{sub F} is the relative effective scalar

  2. Analysis of super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of tile Jπ = 0 + → 0 + super-allowed Fermi transitions within isospin triplets is limited in the precision of its outcome not by the accuracy of the experimental input data nor by the confidence with which the radiative corrections can be applied but by knowledge of the nuclear mismatch: the subversion of the isospin symmetry along the multiplets by the charge-dependence of the forces, both Coulomb and specifically nuclear. Theoretical estimates of the mismatch differ considerably from author to author, their direct application results in clear violation of tile hypothesis of conservation of the vector current and clear inconsistency with unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This paper pursues and elaborates the previous suggestion that, in these unsatisfactory circumstances, the best procedure is to look to the experimental data themselves to determine and eliminate the mismatch by appropriate extrapolation to Z=O. This is done: (i) without any prior correction for mismatch; (ii) after correction for the full theoretical mismatch; (iii) after correction for case-to-case fluctuations in the theoretical mismatch. These three procedures are individually statistically satisfactory and mutually consistent in their extrapolation to Z = 0 despite the variety of the theoretical mismatches on which, in varying degrees, they are based. The resultant unitarity test for the CKM matrix is IV ud I 2 + IV us I 2 + IV ub I 2 = 1.0003 ± 0.0014. The associated value for the operational vector coupling constant is: G v * / (hc) 3 = (1.15155±0.00064) x 10 -5 GeV -2 . If unitarity of the CKM matrix is alternatively assumed one may conclude, from a similar analysis, that the mean charge of the fermionic fields between which beta-decay takes place is Q-bar = 0.172±0.060 and that, at the 90% confidence level, b F -3 were b F is the relative effective scalar coupling constant. Neutron decay is also discussed, with the provisional recommendations: G A * /(hc) 3

  3. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  4. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  5. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  6. Making residency work hour rules work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Do morphometric measurements allow sex discrimination in Mockingbirds (Mimus sp)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, D. V.; Montalti, D.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in birds may be expressed as differences in body size, plumage, color and/or behavior. Many species are monomorphic in color, making sex determination difficult in the field. An example of the latter are mockingbirds, which are passerines of the genus Mimus, endemic to the Americas. In order to distinguish between male and female mockingbirds using external body measurements that are easy to take, the objective of this work was to quantify morphometric differences between sexes in adults of the following species: M. thenca (45 specimens), M. patagonicus (95), M. saturninus (88), M. triurus (152), and M. dorsalis (7). We measured the following variables: culmen length, bill height and width, tarsus length, middle toe length, wing chord and tail length. Measurements were generally larger in males than in females except for bill width in M. saturninus and M. triurus, culmen length in M. thenca and M. dorsalis, and bill height in M. dorsalis. There were significant differences between sexes in wing chord for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus; tail length for M. patagonicus and M. triurus; tarsus length for M. patagonicus; and in middle toe length for M. triurus. No significant differences in measurements were found between sexes for M. thenca. Significant discriminant functions were obtained for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus, with a percentage of correct classification less than 80%. Only a few variables were useful for sex determination in the studied Mimus species, i.e. wing chord, tail length, middle toe length and tarsus length for three, two, one and one species, respectively.

  8. Do morphometric measurements allow sex discrimination in Mockingbirds (Mimus sp)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, D. V.; Montalti, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in birds may be expressed as differences in body size, plumage, color and/or behavior. Many species are monomorphic in color, making sex determination difficult in the field. An example of the latter are mockingbirds, which are passerines of the genus Mimus, endemic to the Americas. In order to distinguish between male and female mockingbirds using external body measurements that are easy to take, the objective of this work was to quantify morphometric differences between sexes in adults of the following species: M. thenca (45 specimens), M. patagonicus (95), M. saturninus (88), M. triurus (152), and M. dorsalis (7). We measured the following variables: culmen length, bill height and width, tarsus length, middle toe length, wing chord and tail length. Measurements were generally larger in males than in females except for bill width in M. saturninus and M. triurus, culmen length in M. thenca and M. dorsalis, and bill height in M. dorsalis. There were significant differences between sexes in wing chord for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus; tail length for M. patagonicus and M. triurus; tarsus length for M. patagonicus; and in middle toe length for M. triurus. No significant differences in measurements were found between sexes for M. thenca. Significant discriminant functions were obtained for M. patagonicus, M. saturninus and M. triurus, with a percentage of correct classification less than 80%. Only a few variables were useful for sex determination in the studied Mimus species, i.e. wing chord, tail length, middle toe length and tarsus length for three, two, one and one species, respectively.

  9. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  10. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  11. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  12. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  13. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  14. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  15. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  16. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  17. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  18. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2009/2010 school year), for whom a dependent child’s allowance is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2009 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the 2009/2010 school year, we will be obliged to stop payment of the dependent child’s allowance as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees service (33-1-017) HR Department - Tel. 72862

  19. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work...

  20. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work is unpleasant and damages instead of builds self-esteem. Family relationships may suffer if both parents want ... with your child, especially if he is very young. You may worry that you will miss some ...

  1. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  2. Supporting clinician educators to achieve “work-work balance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M Maniate

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinician Educators (CE have numerous responsibilities in different professional domains, including clinical, education, research, and administration. Many CEs face tensions trying to manage these often competing professional responsibilities and achieve “work-work balance.” Rich discussions of techniques for work-work balance amongst CEs at a medical education conference inspired the authors to gather, analyze, and summarize these techniques to share with others. In this paper we present the CE’s “Four Ps”; these are practice points that support both the aspiring and established CE to help improve their performance and productivity as CEs, and allow them to approach work-work balance.

  3. Electricity and emission allowance markets from Finnish viewpoint. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, M.

    2006-05-01

    During 1995.2005 the Nordic energy system has experienced two major changes, the opening of the electricity market for competition and emissions trading within the EU. The European Union's emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) that began operating at the beginning of 2005 has weakened the competitiveness of Finnish electricity production and raised electricity prices. Most electricity producers have accumulated large profits thanks to higher prices. The payers have been nearly all electricity users. This report studies the effects of emissions trading on the electricity market and the functionality of the power market. Very little investment has been made in power production capacity in the Nordic countries over the past ten years. Considerable increases have mainly been made in Danish wind power capacity. Simultaneously, the total consumption of electricity and maximum system load have increased more than installed capacity has grown. In the next few years the power and energy balances may be threatened. In previous years, Finland has often been separated as its own market price area on the Nordic power exchange. The formation of price areas has been affected by the limited capacity in transmission interconnectors, network reparation work and the operating method of the Swedish national system operator, Svenska Kraftnaet (transferring domestic bottlenecks to the borders). This study reviews the scale of price differences and the effect on market activities. On the common Nordic electricity market, Finnish coal and peat condensing power capacity is mainly used during poor precipitation years. These plants were once built for base load production. Carbon dioxide emissions trading has further weakened the competitiveness of these plants. The biggest problem for the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool, is regarded to be that market concentration in electricity production is high. Market concentration decreases the investment willingness of existing players as new power

  4. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  5. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Places and Rates at Which Allowances Are Paid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential... Allowances Are Paid This appendix lists the places approved for a cost-of-living allowance and shows the...

  6. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  7. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  8. Work notice

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM

    2005-01-01

    Please note that work to repair the water mains on Route Bloch near Gate C will be carried out between 12 and 30 September 2005. The area between Route Bakker and Gate C will be closed to traffic during this period. You are kindly requested to comply with the road signs in place. Thank you for your understanding. TS-FM Group

  9. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  10. Heart Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sandra R.; Gonzales, Alicia C.

    2017-01-01

    It is not every day that a former student greets a teacher with, "Your course changed my life." The authors are the professor and student of the transformative course. Alicia Gonzales wanted to understand how to work with students to co-construct an environment where persistent problem solving in a technologically rich classroom was the…

  11. Work Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynne

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from a talk by Mrs. Ross at the 23rd annual convention of the American School Food Service Association in Detroit, August 5, 1969. A book on work simplification by Mrs. Ross will be available in June from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. (Editor)

  12. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  13. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight......, height and several potential confounders were self-reported. The association between change in occupational sitting (hours) (categorized as large decrease 2.5 to 7.5 and large increase >7.5) and change in BMI was explored...... by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 43.0% men and 36.1% women had high occupational sitting time (≥25h per week) at baseline. 31.8% men and 27.2% women decreased while 30.0% men and 33.0% women increased occupational sitting. The proportion of obese (BMI≥30) increased almost 3% for both genders...

  14. Works notice

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    We would like to inform you that renovation work on the road lighting equipment will take place on the Meyrin site between 19 October and 18 December 2009. During this period, traffic will be disrupted on the Schrödinger, Perrin and Siegbahn roads, ie from Building 274 to Building 188. We request that you comply with the road signs and thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM Group

  15. Compassionate Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  16. Protecting Government Works: The Copyright Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manz, Paul C; Zelenka, Michael J; Wittig, Raymond S; Smith, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    ...; the alternatives that would permit the Government to own the copyright in government works ; the ability to allow private sector companies to assign coauthored works; and the importance to a federal technology manager of such protection.

  17. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  18. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-12-31

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower`s `Atoms for Peace` announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  19. Lice work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benali, Amira; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2018-01-01

    and Nepalese everyday life and show how these are deployed, contested and reconfigured onsite by volunteer tourism actors. By exploring patterns of absences and presences and using the concept of ontological choreography as an analytical resource, we show how the situated lice work of human and non...... at the orphanage. This post-human approach decenters the volunteer and destabilises the host and guest binary, while adding to our understanding of tourism practices as complex and materially distributed endeavours. We first analyse two configurations of head lice enacted through a Western morality of hygiene...

  20. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: • if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer • if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  1. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service Tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  2. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  3. Exact work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Organized criminals also tried to illegally transfer nuclear material through Austria. Two important questions have to be answered after the material is sized by police authorities: What is the composition of the material and where does it come from? By application of a broad range of analytical techniques, which were developed or refined by our experts, it is possible to measure the exact amount and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in any kind of samples. The criminalistic application is only a byproduct of the large scale work on controlling the peaceful application of nuclear energy, which is done in contract with the IAEA in the context of the 'Network of Analytical Laboratories'

  4. Introducing a checking technician allows pharmacists to spend more time on patient-focused activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Patti; Norris, Pauline; Braund, Rhiannon

    2018-04-01

    Internationally there is an increasing focus on the clinical and cognitive services that pharmacists can provide. Lack of time has been identified as a barrier to pharmacists increasing their clinical activities. Within the pharmacy workplace there are many tasks that can only be performed by a pharmacist. The final accuracy check of a dispensed prescription is currently the sole responsibility of pharmacists in New Zealand. This takes up a significant amount of time during a pharmacist's work day. The introduction of a checking technician role has been suggested to allow pharmacists more time to do more patient focused work. To investigate the amount of time pharmacy staff spend on specific activities and to establish whether the introduction of a checking technician into twelve pilot sites increased the amount of time that the pharmacists could spend on patient focused activities. This study utilised a self-reported work sampling technique in twelve pilot sites, selected from both the hospital and community settings. Work sampling using an electronic device was conducted at two time-points (before the implementation of a Pharmacy Accuracy Checking Technician (PACT) role and when the PACT was in place). Data was collected at 10 min intervals for the period of five days, a working week. Tasks were grouped into patient focused, dispensing and personal activities. The introduction of the PACT into the pilot sites saw a mean increase of 19% in pharmacists' patient focused activities and a mean 20% decrease in dispensing activities. The introduction of a checking technician role into New Zealand pharmacies demonstrated the potential to provide pharmacists with more time to spend on patient focused activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 25 CFR 30.125 - What happens if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... if a State refuses to allow a school access to the State assessment? (a) The Department will work directly with State officials to assist schools in obtaining access to the State's assessment. This can... access to the State's assessment, the Bureau-funded school must submit a waiver for an alternative...

  6. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... containing a Xilinx Spartan II FPGA and was successfully experimentally tested. This approach enables the design and fast hardware implementation of efficient controllers for Distributed Energy Resource (DER) hybrid systems....... of a photovoltaic energy system and a wind power system, which would allow an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by rapid prototyping of the controller into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Initially, the system was simulated using Matlab / Simulink, to create a reference...

  7. EU Emission Allowances and the stock market Evidence from the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes - to our best knowledge - the first econometric analysis on stock market effects of the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Our results suggest that EU Emission Allowance (EUA) price developments matter to the stock performance of electricity firms: EUA price changes and stock returns of the most important European electricity corporations are shown to be positively related. This effect does not work asymmetrically, so that stock markets do not seem to react differently to EUA appreciations in comparison to depreciations. The carbon market effect is shown to be both time- and country-specific: It is particularly strong for the period of EUA market shock in early 2006, and differs with respect to the countries where the electricity corporations analysed are headquartered. Stock market reactions to EUA volatility could not be shown. (author)

  8. Comics – a Method that Allows Boys Deeper Experience of Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kerneza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the acquisition of reading skills girls are more successful than boys. As a method of interpretation comics could allow boys a deeper perception, understanding and evaluation of youth literary texts, and help them to express their literary perception experience. The main research method is case study with a number of linguistic motivations used. After getting acquainted with the comics, the students applied new knowledge to detect textual information embedded in stage directions, and expanded their literary worlds by converting texts into comic form. The research is based on qualitative research methods of literary didactic research. Boys’ deficits were successfully compensated – in some cases they were even more successful than girls, and the mehod of work also suited girls.

  9. Research report on design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The present report is composed of following two main parts. i) review and re-evaluation on test results by FCI Sub-committee studies, performed from 1973 to 1976, ii) review on procedures for determining design allowable values of structural materials for LMFBR components. Re-evaluation works have been made on monotonic tensile properties at elevated temperatures, creep and creep rupture properties, creep-fatigue properties (strain rate and tensile strain hold time effects on strain fatigue properties at elevated temperatures) of Types 316 and 304 stainless steel and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel (base and weld metals) produced in Japan. In the first half of the present report, creep-fatigue test results obtained by FCI Sub-committee studies are subjected to re-evaluation by the present P-FCI Sub-committee. Reviews have been made on testing methods on FCI's-creep-fatigue experiments with other test data of the test materials; high temperature monotonic tensile data, creep and creep rupture data, and origin of the test materials. The data of FCI studies are compared with other reference data obtained by several Japanese laboratories. In the latter half of the present report, procedures including ASME's are reviewed for setting design allowable values for LMFBR components on the basis of high temperature strength properties obtained with materials produced in Japan. A creep rupture data of Japanese steels are issued and examined to make proposal for a design allowable stress of S sub(t) through parameter survey. (author)

  10. Allowable shipment frequencies for the transport of toxic gases near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Heath, D.C.

    1982-10-01

    One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10 - 5 per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehensive tables of conditional probabilities are presented. Maximum allowable ahipping frequencies are then derived. These frequencies could be used as part of a generic, bounding criterion for the screening of toxic hazards safety analyses. Unless a transport survey assures shipping frequencies within 8 km of the plant on the order of or lower than 4/week for rail or 35/week for truck, the contol room should be isolatable and the shipping frequency then determines the degree of isolation needed. The need for isolation implies the need for toxic chemical detection at the air intake.For a self-detection case in which the smell threshold is significantly lower than the incapacitation threshold and the control room is isolatable, the corresponding trequencies are 11/week for rail or 115/week for truck. Self-contained breathing equipment is assumed to be used after 5 minutes

  11. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…

  12. Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu; Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs) claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 allowances per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers > 40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB claim for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being > 40 years of age, and working in the areas of urban sanitation/sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.

  13. A Study on the Allowable Safety Factor of Cut-Slopes for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soo; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the issues of allowable safety factor design criteria for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities is derived through case analysis, a proposed construction work slope design criteria that provides relatively detailed conditions can be applied in case of the dry season and some unclear parts of slope design criteria be modified in case of the rainy season. This safety factor can be further subdivided into two; normal and earthquake factors, a factor of 1.5 is applied for normal conditions and a factor of 1.2 is applied for seismic conditions. This safety factor takes into consideration the effect of ground water and rainfall conditions. However, no criteria for the case of cut-slope in nuclear facilities and its response to seismic conditions is clearly defined, this can cause uncertainty in design. Therefore, this paper investigates the allowable safety factor for cut-slopes in nuclear facilities, reviews conditions of both local and international cut-slope models and finally suggests an alternative method of analysis. It is expected that the new design criteria adequately ensures the stability of the cut-slope to reflect clear conditions for both the supervising and design engineers.

  14. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested

  15. A novel electrical model of nerve and muscle using Pspice

    CERN Document Server

    Peasgood, W; Lam, C K; Armstrong, A G; Wood, W

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a model is developed to simulate the biological processes involved in nerve fibre transmission and subsequent muscle contraction. The model has been based on approximating biological structure and function to electrical circuits and as such was implemented on an electronics simulation software package called Pspice. Models of nerve, the nerve-muscle interface and muscle fibre have been implemented. The time dependent ionic properties of the nerve and muscle membranes have been simulated using the Hodgkin-Huxley equations and for the muscle fibre, the implementation of the Huxley sliding filament theory for muscular contraction. The results show that nerve may be considered as a fractal transmission line and that the amplitude of the nerve membrane depolarization is dependent on the dimensions of the fibre. Additionally, simulation of the nerve-muscle interface allows the fractal nerve model to be connected to the muscle fibre model and it is shown that a two sarcomere molecular simulation can pr...

  16. [Work satisfaction among Spanish nurses working in English hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Madrigal-Torres, Manuel; Velandrino-Nicolás, Antonio; López-Iborra, Lidón

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate work satisfaction among Spanish nurses employed by English hospitals, as well as the influence of several social and work-related variables associated with satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional study. All Spanish nurses (n=360) with a contract with any English hospital in April 2003 were included in the study. The self-administered and validated Font Roja work satisfaction questionnaire was used. The response rate was 78.6%. Overall work satisfaction among Spanish nurses was medium. The dimensions with higher work satisfaction were relationships with colleagues and superiors. The dimensions showing lowest work satisfaction were job satisfaction and professional competence. Statistically significant and positive associations were obtained between level of English, professional grade, shift pattern, working in the intensive care unit or accident and emergency department, time worked in English hospitals and degree of work satisfaction. Employers of Spanish nurses should try to increase job satisfaction and professional competence among these workers. Incentivation and professional promotion systems might help achieve this aim. Employers could also try to improve Spanish nurses' English level before contracts are signed and pay special attention to their needs during the first working year. Spanish nurses job satisfaction would also increase if they were allowed to choose their working shift and the unit or ward where they are going to work.

  17. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-10 - When depreciation deduction is allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When depreciation deduction is allowable. 1.167... Corporations § 1.167(a)-10 When depreciation deduction is allowable. (a) A taxpayer should deduct the proper depreciation allowance each year and may not increase his depreciation allowances in later years by reason of...

  18. Working while incapable to work? Changing concepts of permitted work in the UK disability benefit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Gulland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on the borderland between "work" and "not work" in UK disability benefit systems. People who claim disability benefits often have to prove that they are "incapable of work" in order to qualify. The idea of incapacity for work requires an understanding of the meaning of the term "work," a concept which has a common sense simplicity but which is much more difficult to define in practice. UK disability benefit systems have developed the notion of "permitted work" to allow people to do small amounts of paid work while retaining entitlement to benefit. This concept of "permitted work" has its roots in the early twentieth century when claimants were sometimes entitled to disability benefits if any work that they did was considered to be sufficiently trivial to not count as "work." Policy on this changed over time, with particular developments after the Second World War, as rehabilitation and therapy became the key focus of permitted work rules. Current developments in UK social security policy treat almost everyone as a potential worker, changing the way in which permitted work operates. This article uses archive material on appeals against refusals of benefit, policy documents and case law to consider the social meanings of these moving boundaries of permitted work. Disability benefits are not value neutral: they are measures of social control which divide benefit claimants into those who are required to participate in the labour market and those who are exempted from this requirement.

  19. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  20. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  1. REGULATING THE FLOW OF TRANSPORT WITH ALLOWANCE FOR THE INTERVAL OF MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аndrew Hul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We show that the regulation of traffic is especially important under conditions of infrastructure. The aim was to show that the objectives of traffic light regulation is to minimize and, where possible, exceptions meetings conflicting streams of vehicles. The authors show that the applied aspects of optimization of traffic lights is to eliminate mash situation and ensure the safety of all road users. Methods: The method used in the comparison is to select the best technical solution, feasibility to test mathematical tools and engineering for the practical implementation of the proposed technical solution. Results: The results of the study is repeated then that shows the organization of the preconditions for the introduction of traffic light regulation based on the calculation cycle of the traffic light object. It is proposed to cycle more than 120 seconds, as if waiting longer allowing drivers can count signal lights faulty and start moving to the blocking signal. The main tasks of traffic light regulation is to minimize and, where possible, exceptions meetings conflicting streams of vehicles and eliminate mash situation and ensure the safety of all participants. An important part of the work on the introduction of traffic light regulation is the calculation cycle of the traffic light object. For reasons of safety, cycle time of more than 120 is considered unacceptable, since the longer waiting signal allowing drivers can count faulty lights and start moving to the prohibitive signal. Discussion: In conclusion, the article revealed that the divergent forms of regulation of the intersection can also be used for general stress on public roads. The methods of testing for the road tion type.

  2. Tinbergen's work: Change and continuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kol (Jacob); P. de Wolff

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides an overview of Tinbergen's economic writings, comprising well over 900 publications. Six broad areas have been distinguished to allow for the classification and discussion of Tinbergen's economic work. These six areas embody the change in Tinbergen's areas of

  3. Poverty reduction in Bangladesh: A qualitative analysis of the "Allowance Scheme for Widowed and Husband-deserted Distressed Women"

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K.M. Kabirul

    2007-01-01

    Mastergradsoppgave i "Comparative social work" - Høgskolen i Bodø, 2007 While Bangladesh has been persistently trying to overcome the poverty regime, yet most of the distressed widowed, divorced and husband-deserted women are struggling hard to subsist due to impoverished economic condition. The Government of Bangladesh has given due attention in the recent past to empower these disadvantaged groups of people. The “Allowance Scheme for Widowed and Husband-deserted Distressed Wo...

  4. Frequency tuning allows flow direction control in microfluidic networks with passive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahil; Lutz, Barry

    2017-05-02

    Frequency tuning has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional pumping techniques in microfluidics. Oscillating (AC) flow driven through a passive valve can be rectified to create steady (DC) flow, and tuning the excitation frequency to the characteristic (resonance) frequency of the underlying microfluidic network allows control of flow magnitude using simple hardware, such as an on-chip piezo buzzer. In this paper, we report that frequency tuning can also be used to control the direction (forward or backward) of the rectified DC flow in a single device. Initially, we observed that certain devices provided DC flow in the "forward" direction expected from previous work with a similar valve geometry, and the maximum DC flow occurred at the same frequency as a prominent peak in the AC flow magnitude, as expected. However, devices of a slightly different geometry provided the DC flow in the opposite direction and at a frequency well below the peak AC flow. Using an equivalent electrical circuit model, we found that the "forward" DC flow occurred at the series resonance frequency (with large AC flow peak), while the "backward" DC flow occurred at a less obvious parallel resonance (a valley in AC flow magnitude). We also observed that the DC flow occurred only when there was a measurable differential in the AC flow magnitude across the valve, and the DC flow direction was from the channel with large AC flow magnitude to that with small AC flow magnitude. Using these observations and the AC flow predictions from the equivalent circuit model, we designed a device with an AC flowrate frequency profile that was expected to allow the DC flow in opposite directions at two distinct frequencies. The fabricated device showed the expected flow reversal at the expected frequencies. This approach expands the flow control toolkit to include both magnitude and direction control in frequency-tuned microfluidic pumps. The work also raises interesting questions about the

  5. Summary and overview of the allowance program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument, an emission allowance, that electric power producers will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system will be integrated into an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. The way state public utility commissions and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission respond to utility compliance actions will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and the cost of compliance to ratepayers. This chapter summarizes the CAAA, presenting dates for the implementation of the allowance system rule, and discusses conservation and renewable energy bonus allowances, EPA allowance sales and auctions, allowance pooling, exempt power facilities, election by additional resources, nitrogen oxides control, compliance planning third-party ownership, allowance property rights, and an example of utility compliance options with allowances. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  6. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5340 - How do I determine the allowable HAP loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the allowable HAP... Requirements § 63.5340 How do I determine the allowable HAP loss? (a) By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the allowable HAP loss in pounds from your leather finishing operation for the previous month. (b...

  8. 18 CFR 2.25 - Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. 2.25 Section 2.25 Conservation of Power... § 2.25 Ratemaking treatment of the cost of emissions allowances in coordination transactions. (a... Commission provides for recovery of variable costs on an incremental basis, the Commission will allow...

  9. 41 CFR 301-74.7 - What is the conference lodging allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lodging allowance? 301-74.7 Section 301-74.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities § 301-74.7 What is the conference lodging allowance? The conference lodging...

  10. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  11. 41 CFR 102-85.95 - Who pays for the TI allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who pays for the TI allowance? 102-85.95 Section 102-85.95 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Tenant Improvement Allowance § 102-85.95 Who pays for the TI allowance? The customer agency...

  12. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 96.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a...

  13. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 97.253 Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances. (a)(1) After a compliance account is...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4141 Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations. (a) By November 17, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to...

  15. 26 CFR 1.912-1 - Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances... Exclusion of certain cost-of-living allowances. (a) Amounts received by Government civilian personnel stationed outside the continental United States as cost-of-living allowances in accordance with regulations...

  16. Coupling Metallic Nanostructures to Thermally Responsive Polymers Allows the Development of Intelligent Responsive Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rubén Morones-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of porous membranes capable of controlling flow or changing their permeability to specific chemical entities, in response to small changes in environmental stimuli, is an area of appealing research, since these membranes present a wide variety of applications. The synthesis of these membranes has been mainly approached through grafting of environmentally responsive polymers to the surface walls of polymeric porous membranes. This synergizes the chemical stability and mechanical strength of the polymer membrane with the fast response times of the bonded polymer chains. Therefore, different composite membranes capable of changing their effective pore size with environmental triggers have been developed. A recent interest has been the development of porous membranes responsive to light, since these can achieve rapid, remote, noninvasive, and localized flow control. This work describes the synthesis pathway to construct intelligent optothermally responsive membranes. The method followed involved the grafting of optothermally responsive polymer-metal nanoparticle nanocomposites to polycarbonate track-etched porous membranes (PCTEPMs. The nanoparticles coupled to the polymer grafts serve as the optothermal energy converters to achieve optical switching of the pores. The results of the paper show that grafting of the polymer and in situ synthesis of the metallic particles can be easily achieved. In addition, the composite membranes allow fast and reversible switching of the pores using both light and heat permitting control of fluid flow.

  17. An impact assessment of electricity and emission allowances pricing in optimised expansion planning of power sector portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios I.; Rentizelas, Athanasios A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The impact of electricity and CO 2 allowance pricing in power sector is researched. → A stochastic programming approach without recourse is used for the optimisation. → Higher electricity prices may be proportionally beneficial for the power system. → The CO 2 allowance prices may be inversely proportionate with the expected yields. → High CO 2 allowance prices are inhibitors for conventional technology projects. -- Abstract: The present work concerns a systematic investigation of power sector portfolios through discrete scenarios of electricity and CO 2 allowance prices. The analysis is performed for different prices, from regulated to completely deregulated markets, thus representing different electricity market policies. The modelling approach is based on a stochastic programming algorithm without recourse, used for the optimisation of power sector economics under multiple uncertainties. A sequential quadratic programming routine is applied for the entire investigation period whilst the time-dependent objective function is subject to various social and production constraints, usually confronted in power sectors. The analysis indicated the optimal capacity additions that should be annually ordered from each competitive technology in order to substantially improve both the economy and the sustainability of the system. It is confirmed that higher electricity prices lead to higher financial yields of power production, irrespective of the CO 2 allowance price level. Moreover, by following the proposed licensing planning, a medium-term reduction of CO 2 emissions per MW h by 30% might be possible. Interestingly, the combination of electricity prices subsidisation with high CO 2 allowance prices may provide favourable conditions for investors willing to engage on renewable energy markets.

  18. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  19. What works in auditory working memory? A neural oscillations perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsch, Anna; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is a limited resource: brains can only maintain small amounts of sensory input (memory load) over a brief period of time (memory decay). The dynamics of slow neural oscillations as recorded using magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) provide a window into the neural mechanics of these limitations. Especially oscillations in the alpha range (8-13Hz) are a sensitive marker for memory load. Moreover, according to current models, the resultant working memory load is determined by the relative noise in the neural representation of maintained information. The auditory domain allows memory researchers to apply and test the concept of noise quite literally: Employing degraded stimulus acoustics increases memory load and, at the same time, allows assessing the cognitive resources required to process speech in noise in an ecologically valid and clinically relevant way. The present review first summarizes recent findings on neural oscillations, especially alpha power, and how they reflect memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. The focus is specifically on memory load resulting from acoustic degradation. These findings are then contrasted with contextual factors that benefit neural as well as behavioral markers of memory performance, by reducing representational noise. We end on discussing the functional role of alpha power in auditory working memory and suggest extensions of the current methodological toolkit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  1. A comprehensive hybridization model allows whole HERV transcriptome profiling using high density microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérémie; Pérot, Philippe; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Mugnier, Nathalie; Mommert, Marine; Tabone, Olivier; Textoris, Julien; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, François

    2017-04-08

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have received much attention for their implications in the etiology of many human diseases and their profound effect on evolution. Notably, recent studies have highlighted associations between HERVs expression and cancers (Yu et al., Int J Mol Med 32, 2013), autoimmunity (Balada et al., Int Rev Immunol 29:351-370, 2010) and neurological (Christensen, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:326-335, 2010) conditions. Their repetitive nature makes their study particularly challenging, where expression studies have largely focused on individual loci (De Parseval et al., J Virol 77:10414-10422, 2003) or general trends within families (Forsman et al., J Virol Methods 129:16-30, 2005; Seifarth et al., J Virol 79:341-352, 2005; Pichon et al., Nucleic Acids Res 34:e46, 2006). To refine our understanding of HERVs activity, we introduce here a new microarray, HERV-V3. This work was made possible by the careful detection and annotation of genomic HERV/MaLR sequences as well as the development of a new hybridization model, allowing the optimization of probe performances and the control of cross-reactions. RESULTS: HERV-V3 offers an almost complete coverage of HERVs and their ancestors (mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons, MaLRs) at the locus level along with four other repertoires (active LINE-1 elements, lncRNA, a selection of 1559 human genes and common infectious viruses). We demonstrate that HERV-V3 analytical performances are comparable with commercial Affymetrix arrays, and that for a selection of tissue/pathological specific loci, the patterns of expression measured on HERV-V3 is consistent with those reported in the literature. Given its large HERVs/MaLRs coverage and additional repertoires, HERV-V3 opens the door to multiple applications such as enhancers and alternative promoters identification, biomarkers identification as well as the characterization of genes and HERVs/MaLRs modulation caused by viral infection.

  2. Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Stavrakis, Stavros; Quake, Stephen R.

    2010-02-01

    Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was first demonstrated at near-absolute zero temperatures (1.8 K), the field has since advanced to include room-temperature observations, largely owing to the use of objective lenses with high numerical aperture, brighter fluorophores and more sensitive detectors. This has opened the door for many chemical and biological systems to be studied at native temperatures at the single-molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. However, it is difficult to study systems and phenomena at temperatures above 37 °C, because the index-matching fluids used with high-numerical-aperture objective lenses can conduct heat from the sample to the lens, and sustained exposure to high temperatures can cause the lens to fail. Here, we report that TiO2 colloids with diameters of 2 µm and a high refractive index can act as lenses that are capable of single-molecule imaging at 70 °C when placed in immediate proximity to an emitting molecule. The optical system is completed by a low-numerical-aperture optic that can have a long working distance and an air interface, which allows the sample to be independently heated. Colloidal lenses were used for parallel imaging of surface-immobilized single fluorophores and for real-time single-molecule measurements of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes at 70 °C. Fluorophores in close proximity to TiO2 also showed a 40% increase in photostability due to a reduction of the excited-state lifetime.

  3. Dynamic Changes in Yeast Phosphatase Families Allow for Specialization in Phosphate and Thiamine Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, John V; Iosue, Christine L; Shaik, Noor F; Selhorst, Kathleen; He, Bin Z; Wykoff, Dennis D

    2018-05-10

    Convergent evolution is often due to selective pressures generating a similar phenotype. We observe relatively recent duplications in a spectrum of Saccharomycetaceae yeast species resulting in multiple phosphatases that are regulated by different nutrient conditions - thiamine and phosphate starvation. This specialization is both transcriptional and at the level of phosphatase substrate specificity. In Candida glabrata , loss of the ancestral phosphatase family was compensated by the co-option of a different histidine phosphatase family with three paralogs. Using RNA-seq and functional assays, we identify one of these paralogs, CgPMU3 , as a thiamine phosphatase. We further determine that the 81% identical paralog CgPMU2 does not encode thiamine phosphatase activity; however, both are capable of cleaving the phosphatase substrate, 1-napthyl-phosphate. We functionally demonstrate that members of this family evolved novel enzymatic functions for phosphate and thiamine starvation, and are regulated transcriptionally by either nutrient condition, and observe similar trends in other yeast species. This independent, parallel evolution involving two different families of histidine phosphatases suggests that there were likely similar selective pressures on multiple yeast species to recycle thiamine and phosphate. In this work, we focused on duplication and specialization, but there is also repeated loss of phosphatases, indicating that the expansion and contraction of the phosphatase family is dynamic in many Ascomycetes. The dynamic evolution of the phosphatase gene families is perhaps just one example of how gene duplication, co-option, and transcriptional and functional specialization together allow species to adapt to their environment with existing genetic resources. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  4. Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Linda; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2012-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful and widely employed approach to studies in the field of psychology and in the social and biomedical sciences. The contributions of this paper are several-fold. First we seek to bring the developments in mediation analysis for non linear models within the counterfactual framework to the psychology audience in an accessible format and compare the sorts of inferences about mediation that are possible in the presence of exposure-mediator interaction when using a counterfactual versus the standard statistical approach. Second, the work by VanderWeele and Vansteelandt (2009, 2010) is extended here to allow for dichotomous mediators and count outcomes. Third, we provide SAS and SPSS macros to implement all of these mediation analysis techniques automatically and we compare the types of inferences about mediation that are allowed by a variety of software macros. PMID:23379553

  5. Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Linda; Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2013-06-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful and widely employed approach to studies in the field of psychology and in the social and biomedical sciences. The contributions of this article are several-fold. First we seek to bring the developments in mediation analysis for nonlinear models within the counterfactual framework to the psychology audience in an accessible format and compare the sorts of inferences about mediation that are possible in the presence of exposure-mediator interaction when using a counterfactual versus the standard statistical approach. Second, the work by VanderWeele and Vansteelandt (2009, 2010) is extended here to allow for dichotomous mediators and count outcomes. Third, we provide SAS and SPSS macros to implement all of these mediation analysis techniques automatically, and we compare the types of inferences about mediation that are allowed by a variety of software macros. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sickness allowance histories among disability retirees due to mental disorders: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Blomgren, Jenni; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to describe sickness allowance histories before disability retirement due to mental disorders and to examine whether receiving sickness allowance due to mental disorders and somatic conditions predicts future disability retirement. Pre-retirement sickness allowance histories were traced backwards for 7 years among Finnish residents aged 25-64 years who had retired due to mental disorders in 2011 (n=5.544). For each retiree, five sex- and age-matched controls were drawn from the non-retired population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk for disability retirement by sickness allowance history and to control for the effects of educational level, social class, marital status and the urbanisation level of the municipality. The proportion of sickness allowance recipients increased steadily during the years preceding disability retirement, and was highest among those who retired due to bipolar disorders or depression. Those who had received sickness allowance due to mental disorders 6-7 years earlier had 6.5 times higher risk and those with sickness allowance 1-2 years earlier 11.7 times higher risk for disability retirement. Sickness allowance due to somatic conditions increased the risk for disability retirement 1.6-1.9 times. Sickness allowance most strongly predicted retirement due to bipolar disorders and depression. Adjustment for covariates had little effect. Those who retired due to mental disorders more often had sickness allowance due to both mental disorders and somatic conditions, but in particular sickness allowance due to mental disorders predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. Work in a virtual plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1996-01-01

    An EDF graphic simulator is based on a three dimensional image built by an optical radar in an EDF PWR power plant. The resulting virtual plant has improved accuracy thanks to radar millimeter range spatial resolution. These performances allow realistic and reliable training of reactor operators, in particular for work in virtual reality. The simulation gives accurate data on the possibility of introducing a tool in a particular place. EDF work resulted in COMPROMIS computer code which optimizes their maintenance. (D.L.). 7 refs., 6 figs

  8. 34 CFR 690.10 - Administrative cost allowance to participating schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative cost allowance to participating schools. 690.10 Section 690.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... General Definitions § 690.10 Administrative cost allowance to participating schools. (a) Subject to...

  9. 26 CFR 1.611-1 - Allowance of deduction for depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allowance of deduction for depletion. 1.611-1... depletion. (a) Depletion of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber—(1) In general... mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion. In...

  10. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.19 Section 82.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled... Ineos Fluor Americas HCFC-22 2,546,305 Kivlan & Company HCFC-22 2,081,018 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2...

  11. 40 CFR 82.17 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.17 Section 82.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.17 Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled... 1,759,681 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2,383,835 Solvay Solexis HCFC-142b 6,541,764 [ 74 FR 66446, Dec...

  12. 19 CFR 151.23 - Allowance for moisture in raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. 151.23...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.23 Allowance for moisture in raw sugar. Inasmuch as the absorption of sea water or moisture...

  13. Emission allowances and mitigation costs of China and India resulting from different effort-sharing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Weitzel, Matthias; den Elzen, Michel G.J.; Hof, Andries F.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Peterson, Sonja; Narita, Daiju

    2012-01-01

    To meet ambitious global climate targets, mitigation effort in China and India is necessary. This paper presents an analysis of the scientific literature on how effort-sharing approaches affect emission allowances and abatement costs of China and India. We find that reductions for both China and India differ greatly in time, across- and within approaches and between concentration stabilisation targets. For China, allocated emission allowances in 2020 are substantially below baseline projections. Moreover, they may be below 2005 emission levels, particularly for low concentration targets (below 490 ppm CO 2 -eq). Effort-sharing approaches based on allocating reduction targets lead to relatively lower reductions for China than approaches that are based on allocating emission allowances. For 2050, emission allowances for China are 50–80% below 2005 levels for low concentration targets with minor differences between approaches. Still, mitigation costs of China (including emissions trading) remain mostly below global average. According to literature, Chinese emission allowances peak before 2025–2030 for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances show high increases compared to 2005 levels. If emission trading is allowed, financial revenues from selling credits might compensate mitigation costs in most approaches, even for low concentration targets. India’s emission allowances peak around 2030–2040 for all concentration targets.

  14. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  15. 12 CFR 621.5 - Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and chargeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Develop, adopt, and consistently apply policies... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for the allowance for loan losses... ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.5 Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and...

  16. 19 CFR 18.6 - Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.6 Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance. (a) When there has been a short shipment and the short-shipped...

  17. 20 CFR 670.630 - Are student allowances subject to Federal Payroll Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Payroll Taxes? 670.630 Section 670.630 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... student allowances subject to Federal Payroll Taxes? Yes, Job Corps student allowances are subject to Federal payroll tax withholding and social security taxes. Job Corps students are considered to be Federal...

  18. 49 CFR 192.619 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic pipelines. 192.619 Section 192.619 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Operations § 192.619 Maximum allowable operating pressure: Steel or plastic pipelines. (a) No person may operate a segment of steel or plastic pipeline at a pressure that exceeds a maximum allowable operating...

  19. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation? 302-2.3 Section 302-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  20. 41 CFR 301-1.3 - Who is eligible for TDY allowances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for TDY allowances? 301-1.3 Section 301-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-APPLICABILITY § 301-1.3 Who is eligible for TDY...

  1. 26 CFR 1.873-1 - Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.873-1 Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals. (a) General provisions—(1) Allocation of deductions. In...

  2. 77 FR 71741 - Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 240 Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and Services AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The... and the continuing need for its Guides for Advertising Allowances and Other Merchandising Payments and...

  3. 42 CFR 413.144 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully depreciated or partially depreciated assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully... SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Capital-Related Costs § 413.144 Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation on fully depreciated or partially depreciated assets. (a) Principle. Depreciation on assets being used by a...

  4. 40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General. The Administrator will allocate allowances from the Conservation and...

  5. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands unless...

  6. Material variability and repetitive member factors for the allowable properties of engineered wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; David E. Kretschmann

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that repetitive member allowable property adjustments should be larger for high-variability materials than for low-variability materials. We report analytic calculations and simulations that suggest that the order of such adjustments should be reversed, that is, given the manner in which allowable properties are currently calculated, as the...

  7. 20 CFR 209.14 - Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. 209.14 Section 209.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... separation allowances subject to tier II taxation. For any employee who is paid a separation payment, the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.853-1 - Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. 1....853-1 Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. (a) In general. Under section 853, a regulated... paid by it pursuant to any income tax convention, as either a credit (under section 901) or as a...

  9. 40 CFR 73.90 - Allowance allocations for small diesel refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refineries. 73.90 Section 73.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Small Diesel Refineries § 73.90 Allowance allocations... application for certification, submitted to the address in § 73.13 of this chapter, shall include the...

  10. Allowing for the effect of external forces in the protection of nuclear power stations. Protecting EDF's nuclear power stations from earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betbeder-Matibet, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the method adopted to determine the seismic level to be allowed for on a given site. One goes on to summarise the general rules applied to protect nuclear power stations against earthquakes and traces the pattern of studies carried out to determine the stresses to which plants can be subjected. Finally, one examines the consequences which allowing for earthquakes have on the design of engineering work and equipment [fr

  11. Balancing Machine Work, Comfort Work, and Sentimental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Ie; Hansen, Magnus; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and attention. We investigate ambulance care in three of Denmark’s five healthcare regions, which staff ambulances with emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and physicians. Using the concept of illness trajectory we analyse how the ambulance crews balance machine work, which involves continuously...... monitoring the equipment, comfort work, which is actions taken to relieve the pain or discomfort of the patient, and sentimental work, which is care for the patient’s physical and mental well-being, often verbal in nature. The analysis shows that comfort and sentimental work often takes priority over machine...... work, but also that this has negative consequences. Equipment for use in ambulances should aim at supporting the ambulance crews in competently and dynamically balancing the different types of work and should, consequently, avoid binding the crew’s attention for unbroken periods of time....

  12. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has carried out a questionnaire-based survey on working conditions throughout the European Union, covering all Member States. Previous surveys were carried out in 1991 and...

  13. Insights from the analyses of risk-informed extension of diesel generator allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many U.S. nuclear plants have applied and received approval for the risk-informed extension of the Allowed Outage Time (AOT) for Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). These risk-informed applications need to meet the regulatory guidance on the risk criteria. This paper discusses in detail insights derived from the risk-informed analyses performed to support these applications. The risk criteria on ΔCDF/ΔLERF evaluate the increase in average risk by extending the AOT for EDGs, induced primarily by an increase in EDG maintenance unavailability due to the introduction of additional EDG preventive maintenance. By performing this preventive maintenance work on-line, the outage duration can be shortened. With proper refinement of the risk model, most plants can meet the ΔCDF/ΔLERF criteria for extending the EDGAOT from, for example, 3 days to 14 days. The key areas for model enhancements to meet these criteria include offsite/onsite power recovery, LERF modeling, etc. The most important LERF model enhancements consist of refinement of the penetrations included in the containment isolation model for the consideration of a large release, and taking credit for operator vessel depressurization during the time period between core damage and vessel failure. A recent study showed that although the frequency of loss of offsite power (LOSP) has decreased, the duration of offsite power recovery has actually increased. However, many of the events used to derive this conclusion may not be applicable to PRAs. One approach develops the offsite power non-recovery factor by first screening the LOSP events for applicability to the plant being analyzed, power operation, and LOSP initiating event, then using the remaining events data for the derivation based on the fraction of events with recovery duration longer than the time window allowed. The risk criteria on ICCDP/ICLERP examine the increase in risk from the average CDF/LERF, based on the increased maintenance

  14. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... program activities or through arrangement with employers. Work experience shall be under actual working... other facilities, as well as clothing and living allowances) shall be no less than the federal minimum wage rate set forth in section (6)(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) for up to 25 hours a...

  15. Playing the Fertility Game at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Miller, Amalia Rebecca; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-01-01

    . Allowing for heterogeneous effects by worker type, we find that positive effects dominate across worker types defined by age or education. Negative effects dominate within age groups and among low-education types. Policy simulations show that these estimated effects make the distribution of where women...... work an important consideration, beyond simply if they work, in predicting population fertility....

  16. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  17. New ways of working and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudewijns, C.; Gerards, R.; de Grip, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates whether New Ways of Working (NWW) are related to employee work engagement in the Netherlands. We test our hypotheses using a sample of 656 employees from 14 industry sectors and 12 occupational fields. Our study reveals that three facets of NWW positively affect work

  18. Work-family conflicts and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence; David, Emily M

    2009-08-01

    Prior research indicates that work-family conflict interferes with family far more than it interferes with work. Conservation of resources provides a possible explanation: when shifting resources from family is no longer sufficient to maintain satisfactory work performance, then workers must acquire additional resources or reduce investments in work. One source of such additional resources could be high performance peers in the work group. The performance of workers with resource-rich peers may be less adversely affected by work-family conflict. In this study, 136 employees of a wholesale distribution firm (61% women, 62% minority) working in groups of 7 to 11 in manual labor and low-level administrative jobs rated their own work-to-family conflict. Their supervisors rated workers' performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that work-to-family conflict increasingly adversely affected job performance as work group performance decreased. Hence, work group performance may be an important moderator of the effects of work-family conflict.

  19. Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sue Campbell

    2001-01-01

    For 179 workers with family responsibilities, flexibility of work was associated with job satisfaction and family well-being, flexible work schedules were not. Supportive supervision was associated only with increased employee citizenship and did not increase work-family balance of those at risk. Family-friendly culture did not appear to benefit…

  20. A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions

  1. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 73 'Reforming the EU ETS, Act I: pushing back the allowance auction timetable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: On July 25 2012, the European Commission presented its first reform to re-calibrate the supply of allowances in EU ETS, via two proposals aimed at amending the ETS Directive and reviewing the auction regulations, in order to alter the auctioning timetable during the period between 2013 and 2020, with no legal risk. The aim is to withdraw a certain amount of the allowances auctioned in 2013, 2014 and 2015, in order to reintroduce that amount after 2018

  3. A novel validation algorithm allows for automated cell tracking and the extraction of biologically meaningful parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Rapoport

    Full Text Available Automated microscopy is currently the only method to non-invasively and label-free observe complex multi-cellular processes, such as cell migration, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Extracting biological information from a time-series of micrographs requires each cell to be recognized and followed through sequential microscopic snapshots. Although recent attempts to automatize this process resulted in ever improving cell detection rates, manual identification of identical cells is still the most reliable technique. However, its tedious and subjective nature prevented tracking from becoming a standardized tool for the investigation of cell cultures. Here, we present a novel method to accomplish automated cell tracking with a reliability comparable to manual tracking. Previously, automated cell tracking could not rival the reliability of manual tracking because, in contrast to the human way of solving this task, none of the algorithms had an independent quality control mechanism; they missed validation. Thus, instead of trying to improve the cell detection or tracking rates, we proceeded from the idea to automatically inspect the tracking results and accept only those of high trustworthiness, while rejecting all other results. This validation algorithm works independently of the quality of cell detection and tracking through a systematic search for tracking errors. It is based only on very general assumptions about the spatiotemporal contiguity of cell paths. While traditional tracking often aims to yield genealogic information about single cells, the natural outcome of a validated cell tracking algorithm turns out to be a set of complete, but often unconnected cell paths, i.e. records of cells from mitosis to mitosis. This is a consequence of the fact that the validation algorithm takes complete paths as the unit of rejection/acceptance. The resulting set of complete paths can be used to automatically extract important biological parameters

  4. Short-run allocation of emissions allowances and long-term goals for climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Wråke, Markus; Sterner, Thomas; Fischer, Carolyn; Burtraw, Dallas

    We use economic analysis to evaluate grandfathering, auctioning, and benchmarking approaches for allocation of emissions allowances and then discuss practical experience from European and American schemes. In principle, auctions are superior from the viewpoints of efficiency, fairness, transparency,

  5. 34 CFR 682.302 - Payment of special allowance on FFEL loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which special allowance is claimed under paragraph (f)(2)of this section, describes the role of such... section— (1) A tax-exempt obligation is an obligation the income of which is exempt from taxation under...

  6. Space allowance of young goats during transportation to slaughter = Beladingsdichtheid tijdens het wegtransport van jonge geiten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research was performed during long distance road transportations of young goats (6-8 weeks). Effects of three space allowances on physiological responses (blood parameters, heart rate and body temperature) were measured.

  7. On Obtaining Design Allowables for Adhesives Used in the Bonded-Composite Repair of Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalkley, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A technique is documented, along with its experimental validation, for obtaining engineering-standard design allowables for structural adhesives used in the bonded/composite repair of aircraft structure...

  8. 46 CFR 167.60-15 - Manning and persons allowed to be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certificates of Inspection § 167.60-15 Manning and persons allowed to be carried. The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, shall specify in the Certificate of Inspection the...

  9. 77 FR 37909 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Relocation Allowances; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... are to allow for open transparency, an exchange of ideas, and provide agency flexibility. DATES: The... the category they would like to address, your name, company name or organization (if applicable...

  10. 18 CFR 367.4320 - Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction-Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Income Statement Chart of Accounts Service Company Operating Income § 367.4320 Account 432, Allowance for borrowed funds used during construction—Credit. This...

  11. Manufacturer Allowances and Retailer Pass-Through Rates in a Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Yong Kim; Richard Staelin

    1999-01-01

    A commonly held belief has grocery and mass merchandise retailers gaining power relative to the upstream consumer package goods manufacturers. One of the major justifications for this belief is that manufacturers are now giving retailers more side payments such as trade allowances, slotting allowances, etc. However, a number of researchers have shown that these concessions have not translated into increased profit for the retailer relative to the manufacturer. This paper explores, via an anal...

  12. Recommendations for erosion-corrosion allowance for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.; Brehm, W.F.; Larrick, A.P.; Divine, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility carbon steel tanks will contain mixer pumps that circulate the waste. On the basis of flow characteristics of the system and data from the literature, an erosion allowance of 0.075 mm/y (3 mil/year) was recommended for the tank bottoms, in addition to the 0.025 mm/y (1 mil/year) general corrosion allowance

  13. Structure functions of the deuteron with allowance for meson exchange currents within QCD-VMD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The deuteron structure functions A(q 2 ), B(q 2 ) and tensor polarization T 20 (q 2 ) are studied within the QCD-VMD model. It is shown that the calculation of the structure functions with allowance for meson exchange currents does not allow us to improve the agreement with experiment at large transfer momenta where probably other degrees of freedom are to be taken into account. 24 refs.; 6 figs

  14. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Tugcu; Mehmet Toygar; Ender Senol; I. Ozgur Can; Mukerrem Safali

    2007-01-01

    Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the S...

  15. [Ageing and work: technical standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, G; Riva, M A; Meroni, R; Cesana, G C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, studies on the relationship between ageing and work have attracted growing interest due to the increased probability among workers of developing major health problems as a consequence of ageing of the working population. Negative outcomes for health are possible when an age-related imbalance appears between physical workload and physical work capacity. Interventions based on workload reductions should help to keep workers on the job for as long as allowed by law. Reference masses by age and sex are suggested by the technical standards of the ISO 11228 series, which are also quoted by Italian law D.Lgs. 81/2008, and EN 1005 series, which recommend limits valid also for manual material handling, and pushing and pulling. Decreasing low back pain prevalence or recurrence, in an ageing population with high prevalence of back disorders, could be more effective than many other approaches to enhance workers' quality of life and consequently maintain and improve workers' performance.

  16. The response of the Beijing carbon emissions allowance price (BJC) to macroeconomic and energy price indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.

  17. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  18. Estimating sea-level allowances for Atlantic Canada under conditions of uncertain sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Greenan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the methodology of computing sea-level rise allowances for Atlantic Canada in the 21st century under conditions of uncertain sea-level rise. The sea-level rise allowances are defined as the amount by which an asset needs to be raised in order to maintain the same likelihood of future flooding events as that site has experienced in the recent past. The allowances are determined by combination of the statistics of present tides and storm surges (storm tides and the regional projections of sea-level rise and associated uncertainty. Tide-gauge data for nine sites from the Canadian Atlantic coast are used to derive the scale parameters of present sea-level extremes using the Gumbel distribution function. The allowances in the 21st century, with respect to the year 1990, were computed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A1FI emission scenario. For Atlantic Canada, the allowances are regionally variable and, for the period 1990–2050, range between –13 and 38 cm while, for the period 1990–2100, they range between 7 and 108 cm. The negative allowances in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence region are caused by land uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA.

  19. Stochastic Differential Equation Models for the Price of European CO2 Emissions Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugan Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the stochastic nature of emissions allowances is crucial for risk management in emissions trading markets. In this study, we discuss the emissions allowances spot price within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Powernext and European Climate Exchange. To compare the fitness of five stochastic differential equations (SDEs to the European Union allowances spot price, we apply regression theory to obtain the point and interval estimations for the parameters of the SDEs. An empirical evaluation demonstrates that the mean reverting square root process (MRSRP has the best fitness of five SDEs to forecast the spot price. To reduce the degree of smog, we develop a new trading scheme in which firms have to hand many more allowances to the government when they emit one unit of air pollution on heavy pollution days, versus one allowance on clean days. Thus, we set up the SDE MRSRP model with Markovian switching to analyse the evolution of the spot price in such a scheme. The analysis shows that the allowances spot price will not jump too much in the new scheme. The findings of this study could contribute to developing a new type of emissions trading.

  20. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20-44 in Finland during the period 1992-2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further birth more quickly, and (iii) whether the risk to proceed to a subsequent birth is related to educational level. The results show that women using the allowance have a higher risk of having a second and a third birth than women not using it. The risk of having a second birth is higher than that of having a third birth. Also, women using the allowance get their subsequent child sooner than women not using the allowance. No large educational differences in the effect of allowance use are found for second or third births.

  1. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  2. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  3. Parametric Method to Define Area of Allowable Configurations while Changing Position of Restricted Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, F. N.; Nefedov, D. I.; Rogoza, Yu A.; Zinchenko, Yu V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the findings related to the development of the module for automatic collision detection of the manipulator with restricted zones for virtual motion modeling. It proposes the parametric method for specifying the area of allowable joint configurations. The authors study the cases when restricted zones are specified using the horizontal plane or front-projection planes. The joint coordinate space is specified by rectangular axes in the direction of which the angles defining the displacements in turning pairs are laid off. The authors present the results of modeling which enabled to develop a parametric method for specifying a set of cross-sections defining the shape and position of allowable configurations in different positions of a restricted zone. All joint points that define allowable configurations refer to the indicated sections. The area of allowable configurations is specified analytically by using several kinematic surfaces that limit it. A geometric analysis is developed based on the use of the area of allowable configurations characterizing the position of the manipulator and reported restricted zones. The paper presents numerical calculations related to virtual simulation of the manipulator path performed by the mobile robot Varan when using the developed algorithm and restricted zones. The obtained analytical dependencies allow us to define the area of allowable configurations, which is a knowledge pool to ensure the intelligent control of the manipulator path in a predefined environment. The use of the obtained region to synthesize a joint trajectory makes it possible to correct the manipulator path to foresee and eliminate deadlocks when synthesizing motions along the velocity vector.

  4. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  5. Using benchmarking for the primary allocation of EU allowances. An application to the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Cremer, C.

    2007-07-01

    Basing allocation of allowances for existing installations under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on specific emission values (benchmarks) rather than on historic emissions may have several advantages. Benchmarking may recognize early ac-tion, provide higher incentives for replacing old installations and result in fewer distortions in case of updating, facilitate EU-wide harmonization of allocation rules or allow for simplified and more efficient closure rules. Applying an optimization model for the German power sector, we analyze the distributional effects of vari-ous allocation regimes across and within different generation technologies. Re-sults illustrate that regimes with a single uniform benchmark for all fuels or with a single benchmark for coal- and lignite-fired plants imply substantial distributional effects. In particular, lignite- and old coal-fired plants would be made worse off. Under a regime with fuel-specific benchmarks for gas, coal, and lignite 50 % of the gas-fired plants and 4 % of the lignite and coal-fired plants would face an allow-ance deficit of at least 10 %, while primarily modern lignite-fired plants would benefit. Capping the surplus and shortage of allowances would further moderate the distributional effects, but may tarnish incentives for efficiency improvements and recognition of early action. (orig.)

  6. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  7. Forecasting the Allocation Ratio of Carbon Emission Allowance Currency for 2020 and 2030 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Zeng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries and scholars have used various strategies to improve and optimize the allocation ratios for carbon emission allowances. This issue is more urgent for China due to the uneven development across the country. This paper proposes a new method that divides low-carbon economy development processes into two separate periods: from 2020 to 2029 and from 2030 to 2050. These two periods have unique requirements and emissions reduction potential; therefore, they must involve different allocation methods, so that reduction behaviors do not stall the development of regional low-carbon economies. During the first period, a more deterministic economic development approach for the carbon emission allowance allocation ratio should be used. During the second period, more adaptive and optimized policy guidance should be employed. We developed a low-carbon economy index evaluation system using the entropy weight method to measure information filtering levels. We conducted vector autoregressive correlation tests, consulted 60 experts for the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, and we conducted max-min standardized data processing tests. This article presents first- and second-period carbon emission allowance models in combination with a low-carbon economy index evaluation system. Finally, we forecast reasonable carbon emission allowance allocation ratios for China for the periods starting in 2020 and 2030. A good allocation ratio for the carbon emission allowance can help boost China’s economic development and help the country reach its energy conservation and emissions reduction goals.

  8. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  9. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  10. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  11. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  12. Work organisation, technology and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Sloten, G. van

    2002-01-01

    The personal computer, computer networks and the Internet have brought the Union into the Information Age. These technological changes have inevitably led to changes in the work environment and the quality of working conditions. For the third time, the European Foundation for the Improvement of

  13. Making Work-Based Learning Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Americans seeking employment often face a conundrum: relevant work experience is a prerequisite for many jobs, but it is difficult to gain the required experience without being in the workplace. Work-based learning--activities that occur in workplaces through which youth and adults gain the knowledge, skills, and experience needed for entry or…

  14. Real options theory to the pricing of allowances contract to carbon emission; Teoria de opcoes reais para a precificacao de contrato de permissoes de emissao de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Leticia Takahashi; Parente, Virginia; Goldemberg, Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a pricing model contract for allowances to emit carbon through Real Options. Emissions allowances are equivalent tons of carbon traded between Annex I countries from companies that have the ability to reduce their emissions beyond what is assigned to it. The surplus of emission reductions produced by these companies may be sold in the emissions market. Thus, this work can contribute to improving the management of contractual risk and enable companies estimated the price at which a contract can be signed. Properly evaluate the contracts that the market environment is a challenge for companies. The historic low of information and randomness in the price of carbon allowances in the spot market suggest extreme caution in its use. (author)

  15. Measurement of the super-allowed branching ratio of $^{22}$Mg

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the super-allowed branching ratio and the half-life of $^{22}$Mg, one of the least-well-measured $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$ transitions of the 14 nuclei used to determine V$_{ud}$ and to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We propose measurements which should allow to significantly improve the precision on the super-allowed branching ratio employing a precisely efficiency calibrated germanium detector and on the half-life. As no method exists to greatly improve (e.g. an order of magnitude) on previous results, the branching ratio and the half-life have to be measured several times with independent methods and in independent experiments.

  16. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Allowance Prices, Trade Flows, Competitiveness Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, G.; Peterson, S.

    2004-03-01

    The upcoming European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is one of the more controversial climate policy instruments. Predictions about its likely impact and its performance can at present only be made to a certain degree. As long as the National Allocations Plans are not finally settled the overall supply of allowances is not determined. In this paper we will identify key features and key impacts of the EU ETS by scanning the range of likely allocation plans using the simulation model DART. The analysis of the simulation results highlights a number of interesting details in terms of allowance trade flows between member countries, of allowance prices, and in terms of the role of the accession countries in the ETS

  17. Optimization of the allowed levels of radioactive contamination on a virtual market of polluted provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.Yi.

    1997-01-01

    The goal is to optimize the allowed levels of 137 Cs contamination of food products according to the ALARA principle. The model creates a virtual market of contaminated daily portions of various products, their contamination being distributed log normally with the same parameters as in real products. The consumer requests portions and wasters contaminated until one obtains 365 acceptable portions of every product per year. The cost of wastering is high at a low allowed level. The floating price of irradiation depends on the yearly consumption of 137 Cs and is stated very high when the last value approaches the dose limit (risk aversive function). Varying allowed levels, it is possible to minimize the cost of wastering and total cost of wastering and irradiation. The iterative algorithm is proposed

  18. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for meson exchange currents. Retardation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.; Sus'kov, S.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    The electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for retardation effects in meson exchange currents (MEC) has been investigated depending on vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. It is shown that the retardation effects should be taken into account in MEC at large transfer momenta (t>12 fm -2 ). It is found for the differential cross section that the contribution of MEC is strongly dependent on the vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. The role of p-meson contribution in MEC with allowance for retardation effects has been investigated. It is shown that the inclusion of retardation effects leads to the decrease of the p-meson influence at large transfer momenta. The radial dependence of the matrix elements with allowance for retardation effects has been studied. It was shown that the inclusion of meson exchange currents is essentially important in the range of r=1-1.5 fm when t -2 . 34 refs.; 12 figs

  19. Tendances Carbone no. 83 'Reduction in free allowances for phase 3 of the EU ETS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, Emilie; Sartor, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: In early September, the European Commission decided on the amount of free allowances attributed to industrial installations for phase 3 of the EU ETS, thus completing a process begun in 2009. This decision followed the examination of Member State proposals and their National Implementation Measures (NIM) with regard to two principal criteria: their compatibility with harmonized allocation rules and their consistency with benchmark values. The allocation proposals of all States were all approved with the exception of the allocation of 20 installations which are to be revised. In line with the ETS Directive, a correction factor was then applied so that these allocations do not exceed the maximum amount of free allocation allowed

  20. Auction design for the allocation of carbon emission allowances: uniform or discriminatory price?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; wei, yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Only four states used auction in Phase Ⅰ (2005-2007) of the European Union Emission Trading System, of which four used a uniform-price sealed auction format. Here we discuss whether the auction should adopt a uniform-price or discriminatory-price format using an agent-based carbon allowances...... auction model established for the purpose. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) when carbon allowances are relatively scarce, the government should use a discriminatory-price auction; when carbon allowances are relatively abundant, the government should use a uniform-price auction. (2) Uncertainty......) The uniform-price auction is relatively insensitive to market structure. However, a monopoly market is more likely to develop under the discriminatory-price auction format. The results of the model have some policy implications for designing carbon market mechanisms in the future....

  1. A Springloaded Metal-Ligand Mesocate Allows Access to Trapped Intermediates of Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Paul M; Holloway, Lauren R; Lyon, Yana; Onishi, Nicole C; Beran, Gregory J O; Julian, Ryan R; Hooley, Richard J

    2018-04-02

    A strained, "springloaded" Fe 2 L 3 iminopyridine mesocate shows highly variable reactivity upon postassembly reaction with competitive diamines. The strained assembly is reactive toward transimination in minutes at ambient temperature and allows observation of kinetically trapped intermediates in the self-assembly pathway. When diamines are used that can only form less favored cage products upon full equilibration, trapped ML 3 fragments with pendant, "hanging" NH 2 groups are selectively formed instead. Slight variations in diamine structure have large effects on the product outcome: less rigid diamines convert the mesocate to more favored self-assembled cage complexes under mild conditions and allow observation of heterocomplex intermediates in the displacement pathway. The mesocate allows control of equilibrium processes and direction of product outcomes via small, iterative changes in added subcomponent structure and provides a method of accessing metal-ligand cage structures not normally observed in multicomponent Fe-iminopyridine self-assembly.

  2. Analyzing electric utility NO{sub x} emission allowance trading strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selker, F.

    2005-04-01

    This article presented a computer model designed to help power producers negotiate the nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) emission allowance (EA) market. Created in 1999, the EA market poses a serious constraint to utilities and has the potential to substantially increase total power productions costs and to force plant shutdowns if emissions exceed limits. The market was created in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, with the goal of effectively reducing the cost of summer ozone levels. Over 450 sources in the Northeast regions receive an allocation of NO{sub x} allowances to cover their NO{sub x} emissions during the May to September period. Various uncertainties created by the market were examined, including late summer heat waves and nuclear outages, both of which could boost emissions during times when offsets are difficult to initiate. Weather, planning and plant outages were also discussed. Supply shortages were considered along with issues concerning the model's ability to assess options and uncertainties. The feasibility of the emissions allowance acting as a viable buffer was also evaluated. It was noted that the net cost of buying and selling allowances during the NO{sub x} season varied with inventory levels. A hypothetical analysis of a NO{sub x} inventory was presented. It was suggested that purchasing options to buy allowances offered another hedge against NO{sub x} EA shortages and noncompliance. It was concluded that the model allowed users to explore the cost and risk tradeoffs of various combinations. 5 figs.

  3. Regional allocation of CO2 emissions allowance over provinces in China by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Xian; Wei, Yi-Ming; Yu, Shiwei

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation efforts of China are increasingly important for meeting global climate target since the rapid economic growth of China has led to an increasing share in the world's total CO 2 emissions. This paper sets out to explore the approach for realizing China's national mitigation targets submitted to the UNFCCC as part of the Copenhagen Accord; that is, to reduce the intensity of CO 2 emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020, as well as reducing the energy intensity and increasing the share of non-fossil fuel consumption, through regional allocation of emission allowance over China's provinces. Since the realization of China's mitigation target essentially represents a total amount emission allowance allocation problem, an improved zero sum gains data envelopment analysis optimization model, which could deal with the constant total amount resources allocation, is proposed in this study. By utilizing this model and based on several scenarios of China's economic growth, CO 2 emissions, and energy consumption, a new efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level for China by 2020 is proposed. The allocation results indicate that different provinces have to shoulder different mitigation burdens in terms of emission intensity reduction, energy intensity reduction, and share of non-fossil fuels increase. - Highlights: ► We explore the approach to realize national CO 2 emissions reduction target of China by 2020. ► The CO 2 emissions allowance is allocated over China's 30 administrative regions. ► Several scenarios of China's regional economy, emission, energy consumption are given. ► The zero sum gains data envelopment analysis model is applied in emission allowance allocation. ► An efficient emission allowance allocation scheme on provincial level is proposed

  4. Public Interest vs. Interest Groups: Allowance Allocation in the EU Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels; Oberndorfer, Ulrich (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    We assess the political-economy determinants of allowance allocation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). A common-agency model suggests that the government considers the preferences of sectoral interest groups when allocating emissions permits, so that industries with a more powerful lobby face a lower regulatory burden. An empirical analysis of the first trading phase of the EU ETS corroborates our theoretical prediction, but also reveals that the political-economy determinants of permit allocation are more complex. Employing instrumental-variable estimation technique, we find that large carbon emitters that were represented by powerful interest groups received higher levels of emissions allowances

  5. Allowable spent LWR fuel storage temperatures in inert gases, nitrogen, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.R.; Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Thomas, L.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Barnhart, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spent fuel in inert dry storage is now a reality in the US; recommended maximum temperature-time conditions are specified in an IBM PC-compatible code. However, spent fuel cannot yet be stored in air because the data and theory needed for predicting allowable temperatures are still being developed. Tests to determine the behavior of spent UO 2 fragments and breached rod specimens in air are providing data that will be used to determine the temperatures that can be allowed for fuel stored in air. 13 refs., 5 figs

  6. Mechanisms of dust grain charging in plasma with allowance for electron emission processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol’kov, S. I.; Savin, V. N., E-mail: moped@onego.ru [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The process of dust grain charging is described with allowance for secondary, ion-induced, photoelectric, and thermal electron emission from the grain surface. The roughness of the grain surface is taken into account. An intermediate charging regime involving ion–atom collisions and electron ionization in the perturbed plasma region is analyzed using the moment equations and Poisson’s equation. A calculation method is proposed that allows one to take into account the influence of all the above effects and determine the radius of the plasma region perturbed by the dust grain.

  7. Photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugates allow sensitive and multiplexed protein analysis in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasti, Sarit S; Liong, Monty; Peterson, Vanessa M; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-11-14

    DNA barcoding is an attractive technology, as it allows sensitive and multiplexed target analysis. However, DNA barcoding of cellular proteins remains challenging, primarily because barcode amplification and readout techniques are often incompatible with the cellular microenvironment. Here we describe the development and validation of a photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugate method for rapid, quantitative, and multiplexed detection of proteins in single live cells. Following target binding, this method allows DNA barcodes to be photoreleased in solution, enabling easy isolation, amplification, and readout. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of protein biomarkers in a variety of cancer cells.

  8. Child Home Care Allowance: Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pajunen, Anni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I study the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 19-44 in Finland. I use register data from the Finnish Census Panel (FCP) on 254 465 women who had a second or third child during 1993 to 2007. I apply discrete-time event-history analysis to examine whether women using the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of three have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing – ...

  9. Child Home Care Allowance and the Transition to Second- and Third-Order Births in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Erlandsson, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Using register data from the Finnish Census Panel, this paper studies the relationship between the use of the child home care allowance and second and third births among women aged 20?44 in Finland during the period 1992?2007. Discrete-time event-history analysis is applied to examine (i) whether women taking up the child home care allowance while their previous child was under the age of 3 have a higher risk to proceed to subsequent childbearing, (ii) whether these women proceed to a further...

  10. The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This analysis, co-authored by the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies (IGLSS) and UCLA’s Williams Project on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on New Hampshire’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $500,000 each year for the State. This net impact will be the result of savings in expenditures on state means-teste...

  11. The Impact of Washington's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth; Lau, Holning S.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on Washington’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $3.9 million to $5.7 million each year for the State. This net impact will result from savings in expenditures on state means-tested public benefits programs and from an increase in sales tax revenue from weddings and wedding-related tourism.

  12. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  13. Banking behavior under uncertainty: Evidence from the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier; Sevi, Benoit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine portfolio management of emission allowances in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program, to determine whether utilities have a real motive to bank when risk increases. We test a theoretical model linking the motivation of the firm to accumulate permits in order to prepare itself to face a risky situation in the future. Empirical estimation using data for years 2001 to 2004 provides evidence of a relationship between banking behavior and uncertainty the utility is facing with. (authors)

  14. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  15. Desert Pathfinder at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) project celebrates the inauguration of its outstanding 12-m telescope, located on the 5100m high Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert (Chile). The APEX telescope, designed to work at sub-millimetre wavelengths, in the 0.2 to 1.5 mm range, passed successfully its Science Verification phase in July, and since then is performing regular science observations. This new front-line facility provides access to the "Cold Universe" with unprecedented sensitivity and image quality. After months of careful efforts to set up the telescope to work at the best possible technical level, those involved in the project are looking with satisfaction at the fruit of their labour: APEX is not only fully operational, it has already provided important scientific results. "The superb sensitivity of our detectors together with the excellence of the site allow fantastic observations that would not be possible with any other telescope in the world," said Karl Menten, Director of the group for Millimeter and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy at the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) and Principal Investigator of the APEX project. ESO PR Photo 30/05 ESO PR Photo 30/05 Sub-Millimetre Image of a Stellar Cradle [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 627 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1254 pix - 503k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1539 x 2413 pix - 1.3M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 30/05 is an image of the giant molecular cloud G327 taken with APEX. More than 5000 spectra were taken in the J=3-2 line of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), one of the best tracers of molecular clouds, in which star formation takes place. The bright peak in the north of the cloud is an evolved star forming region, where the gas is heated by a cluster of new stars. The most interesting region in the image is totally inconspicuous in CO: the G327 hot core, as seen in methanol contours. It is a truly exceptional source, and is one of the richest sources of emission from complex organic molecules in the

  16. Boundary work of dentists in everyday work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    The Swedish policy objectives in dental care provision - to meet public demands for dental care and to increase the cost-effectiveness of the service - require dentists to work in teams with dental hygienists and dental nurses. This study focused on the role of dentists in the distribution of work tasks within teams in one Swedish Public Dental Service organisation. Dental clinics were viewed as micro-political arenas in which dentists attempt to demarcate professional boundaries in response to teamwork. Semi-structured interviews, observations and documents were used. The interviewed individuals were seven dentists employed at two clinics, the managers of each clinic and the general manager. The dentists were interviewed to investigate how they defend or blur professional boundaries. They were also observed at work. The clinic managers and the general manager were interviewed to identify their expectations of dentists concerning work division. The documents comprised organisational plans and annual reports. Dentists demarcated professional boundaries by utilising various power resources: treatment responsibility, specialist knowledge, discretion, and avoidance of work considered to be low status work. The dentists also contributed to blurred boundaries between themselves and the other dental professionals by discussing patient treatment, giving and receiving advice, and assisting the others in skill development. Although dentists' boundary work could obstruct implementation of policy objectives, dentists' behaviour contributed to effective collaboration within the teams. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. U.S.: proposed federal legislation to allow condom distribution and HIV testing in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Anna

    2007-05-01

    Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) is reintroducing legislation in the U.S. House of Representatives that would require federal correctional facilities to allow community organizations to distribute condoms and provide voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and STDs for inmates. The bill has been referred to the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security.

  18. Experimental comparison of impact of auction format on carbon allowance market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    auction and English clock auction) with heterogeneous bidders (coal power plants and gas power plants) from four perspectives (carbon price, auction efficiency, demand withholding and fluctuations in power supplies). Possibilities of collusion among bidders and impacts of allowance banking and penalty...

  19. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  20. 42 CFR 413.134 - Depreciation: Allowance for depreciation based on asset costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the owner of record is established by reference to the hospital's or SNF's recorded historical cost of... normal economic and technological changes; climatic and other local conditions; and the provider's policy... the purchase price for the purpose of determining allowable historical cost. (9) Net book value. The...

  1. 42 CFR 413.98 - Purchase discounts and allowances, and refunds of expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial management income. However, modern accounting theory holds that income is not derived from a... credit allowed on account of an overcollection. (c) Normal accounting treatment—Reduction of costs. All... are not income. If they are received in the same accounting period in which the purchases were made or...

  2. Improving the attractiveness of CDM projects through allowing and incorporating options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, David G.; Ballouz, Joseph J.; Balatbat, Maria C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward a proposal that, within Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, investors be allowed to benefit from options; this will require a CDM rule change. Through the presence of options, the downside risk resulting from low carbon prices and/or low achieved emission reductions on projects can be limited, while any upside resulting from high carbon prices and/or high achieved emission reductions can be taken advantage of. It is demonstrated that the presence of options improves the financial attractiveness of CDM projects, and this is at no detriment to any stakeholder. The flow-on from the proposal is that more CDM projects should be realisable if options are available, and this in turn will lead to reduced global emissions and improved sustainability. The proposal is supported by the necessary theory and is demonstrated on two registered CDM projects, one on hydropower and one on wind power. - Highlights: • The paper proposes that options be allowed within CDM projects. • Introducing options will require a CDM rule change. • Options improve the financial attractiveness of CDM projects. • Allowing options comes at no cost or detriment to any party. • Allowing options is a win–win situation to both society and the project proponent.

  3. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner... cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the hearing by: (1) e-mail... considering ways to quickly identify diseases and other serious medical conditions that obviously meet the...

  4. 34 CFR 658.40 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 658.40 Section 658.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE...

  5. 34 CFR 660.40 - What are the limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the limitations on allowable costs? 660.40 Section 660.40 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM What Conditions...

  6. A fluorescent probe which allows highly specific thiol labeling at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas W.; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Hansen, Rosa E.

    2012-01-01

    and properties of a thiol-specific reagent, fluorescent cyclic activated disulfide (FCAD), which includes the fluorescein moiety as fluorophore and utilizes a variation of thiol-disulfide exchange chemistry. The leaving-group character of FCAD makes it reactive at pH 3, allowing modification at low pH, limiting...

  7. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  8. 46 CFR 131.915 - Persons allowed in pilothouse and on navigational bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons allowed in pilothouse and on navigational bridge. 131.915 Section 131.915 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE... bridge. No person may be in the pilothouse while the vessel is under way, unless connected with the...

  9. Vulnerabilities of Bluetooth Data Channel that Allow Intruders to Wiretrap User’s Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Minin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the cryptography attack on Bluetooth handsfree headset. The authors describe the situation when hackers could eavesdrop mobile phones talks if a person is using the Bluetooth headset. The vulnerability in the authentication process allows hackers to crack PIN code and to decipher the packets transmitted between the headset and the mobile phone.

  10. FINAL REMINDER EXTENSION/SUPPRESSION OF ALLOWANCE FOR A DEPENDENT CHILD AGED 18 AND ABOVE

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 or above (or reaching 18 during the 2001/2002 school year) who have not yet provided a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE must do so as soon as possible. If we have not received this certificate by December 11, 2001 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from September 1, 2001.

  11. 76 FR 13111 - Compassionate Allowances for Autoimmune Disease, Office of the Commissioner; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    [email protected] ; or Mail to Jamillah Jackson, Deputy Director, Office of Compassionate Allowances and....gov . You may also mail inquiries about this hearing to Jamillah Jackson, Deputy Director, Office of... Security--Disability Insurance; 96.006, Supplemental Security Income.) Dated: March 3, 2011. Michael J...

  12. 38 CFR 3.552 - Adjustment of allowance for aid and attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attendance allowance will be continued where the pensionable disability is blindness (visual acuity 5/200 or... except as to disabilities specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (See paragraph (k) of this... continued during hospitalization where the disability is paraplegia involving paralysis of both lower...

  13. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  14. Effect of space allowance and flooring on the behavior of pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, S G; Øyrehagen, O; Bøe, K E

    2017-05-01

    Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group. All groups were exposed to each treatment for 7 d. The ewes were video recorded for 24 h at the end of each treatment period and general activity, lying position in the pen, and social lying position were scored every 15 min. Displacements and aggressive interactions were scored continuously from 1030 to 1430 h. Mean lying time ( flooring had no significant effect on general activity. Ewes in the straw bedding treatment spent more time lying in the middle of the pen than ewes on expanded metal ( flooring. Hence, recommended space allowance for pregnant ewes should not be lower than 1.50 m/ewe.

  15. Personal Carbon Allowances with Focus on the Energy Systems in the UK and Denmark (in Russian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamentals of Personal Carbon Allowances (PCAs)and analyzes its merits and problems.The UK and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional set-up are quite different between the two countries. It is concluded that PCA...

  16. 76 FR 48863 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances--Standard Mileage Rate for Moving Purposes AGENCY: Office... agencies will reimburse an employee for using a privately owned vehicle for relocation on a worldwide basis...), Office of Travel, Transportation and Asset Management (MT), General Services Administration at (202) 208...

  17. 76 FR 43236 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... public meeting. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA) is revising the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) in an effort to streamline travel policies, increase travel efficiency and effectiveness...

  18. 76 FR 46216 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...; Sequence 5] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR): Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances: Notice of Public... and the general public in an effort to streamline travel policies, incorporated travel efficiency and.... Flynn, Deputy Director, Office of Travel, Transportation & Asset Management. [FR Doc. 2011-19482 Filed 8...

  19. 41 CFR 302-1.1 - Who is eligible for relocation expense allowances under this chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service to an agency as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5721; (d) An employee performing travel in accordance... to the same or different Government agency. (f) A student trainee assigned to any position upon... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 1-GENERAL RULES Applicability...

  20. 50 CFR 29.1 - May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May we allow economic uses on national wildlife refuges? 29.1 Section 29.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules...