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Sample records for husk anacardium occidentale

  1. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Keywords; Anacardium occidentale, aqueous extract, gastric acid secretion, rats, intragastric. *Address for correspondence: . esajibola@yahoo.com. Revised version accepted: March 2010. INTRODUCTION. The plant, Anacardium occidentale. L belongs to the. Family; Anacardiaceae. It is popularly called cashew. Extracts ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale L. is a tree native to Brazil, which is rich in phenolic lipids. Nowadays, the cashew bark (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) has received great attention in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its economy, abundance and important chemical compounds. Net of cashew nut shell is classified according to the ...

  3. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Microorganisms that cause losses are proving to be resistant to most known antibiotics, thereby encouraging the search for naturally occurring antibiotics. This study aimed to perform a phytochemical and bacterial study of ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of Anacardium occidentale. L. The samples were submitted for ...

  4. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Química Nova. 30(2):374-381. Gonçalves GMS, Gobbo J (2012). Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium. Occidentale Extract and Cosmetic Formulation Development. Braz. Arc. Biol. Technol. 55(6): 843-850. Matos FJA (1997). Introdução à fitoquímica experimental. UFC Edições. pp. 44-46. Melo AFM, Santos EJV, Souza LFC, ...

  5. Pirolisis Kulit Biji Jambu Mete (Anacardium Occidentale L.) dengan Katalis Ni-Ag/Zeolit

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Eva Noer; Suyati, Linda; Nuryanto, Rahmad

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan pirolisis kulit biji jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale L.) dengan katalis Ni-Ag/zeolit untuk mendapatkan produk cair hasil pirolisis dan membandingkannya dengan produk cair pirolisis dengan katalis Ni/zeolit.. Pirolisis dilakukan dengan variasi temperatur 200, 250, 300, 350, dan 400°C. Produk yang berupa gas dikondensasikan pada pendingin es-garam kemudian dianalisis dengan GC-MS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin tinggi temperatur pirolisis semakin banyak massa produk cai...

  6. Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using dried Anacardium occidentale leaf and its catalytic and thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  8. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2012-11-01

    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  9. Inhibition effect of cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium Occidentale L. on biofilm formation of Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizni Amaliah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm is communities of microorganisms attached to solid surface and enclosed in extracellular matrix that protected microorganisms from antibacterial agents and host defense. One of bacteria might have a role in initial colonization of biofilm formation is Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis. Previous studies showed that cashew stem bark extract (Anacardium occidentale L. can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus strains. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition effect of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. stem bark ethanol extract on biofilm formation of S. sanguinis. Methods: Streptococcus sanguinis grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI + 2% sucrose medium by using microplate polystyrene 96 wells. The samples were divided into 3 groups, 5% polyethyleneglycol (PEG as negative control, cashew stem bark extract (concentration 3.125 mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ml, 9.375 mg/ml, and 12.5 mg/ml, and 0.12% chlorhexidine (as positive control. Biofilm was stained by 1% crystal violet. Afterwards, optical density (OD of samples were measured by microplate reader λ 595 nm. The data of biofilm formation inhibition percentage were analyzed by one way ANOVA and then continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD test. Results: The result of one way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences in inhibition of S. sanguinis biofilm formation (p<0.05. LSD test showed that concentration extract 3.125 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Reciprocally, concentration 6.25 mg/ml had significant difference with concentration 9.375 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: Cashew stem bark extract was able to inhibit biofilm formation of S. sanguinis.Latar belakang: Biofilm merupakan sekumpulan mikroorganisme yang melekat pada permukaan solid dan diselubungi oleh matriks ekstraseluler yang melindungi mikroorganisme dari bahan-bahan antibakteri dan sel-sel pertahanan tubuh. Salah satu bakteri yang

  10. Diagnose laboratorial dos frutos e folhas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia llza Ferreira Jorge

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. espécie nativa do continente centro e sul-americano, é planta amplamente utilizada, empregada na alimentação humana e animal, bem como na medicina popular. Neste trabalho objetivamos o reconhecimento das principais características diagnósticas das folhas e dos receptáculos carnosos. Detalhes como o tipo de cutícula, paredes celulares, anexos epidérmicos e inclusões celulares são destacados nas descrições e nas figuras. As folhas encerram flavonóides, saponinas,compostos fenólicos e óleo essencial.

  11. Anacardium occidentale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La multiplication végétative des plants d'anacardiers est la seule alternative pour le moment au Bénin qui permet d'obtenir des plantations homogènes à productivité élevée. Cette recherche conduite sur le site de l'URPA/BA à Parakou vise à améliorer le taux de réussite du greffage chez l'anacardier en pépinière dans le.

  12. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S.; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from 60 Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from 60 Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The analysis

  13. Interaction of gamma radiation on the functionality of the molluscicidal extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR) . Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Edvane Borges da [Centro Academico de Vitoria. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Amorim, Elba Lucia C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu J.S., E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana Maria Mendonca de Albuquerque; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata that is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, through molluscicides has been an alternative against schistosomiasis. Many studies have been developed to obtain molluscicide products, from plants. Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew), a plant rich in phenolic compounds shows molluscicidal activity in earlier assays. However there is an interest of enhancing the action of bioactive substances in order to use it in small concentrations, reducing costs in their utilization. This study were conducted using ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale, before and after exposure to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co, checking their secondary metabolites, their biological activity against Biomphalaria glabrata and environmental toxicity. The extracts of A. occidentale were obtained by cold maceration in 70% ethanol, filtered, dried and divided into two experimental groups: control (0 kGy) and irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. The quantification of metabolites was performed in six replicates for the determination of total phenols by Folin-Ciocalteau method and tannins, the precipitation of casein. Tests for biological control of embryos and adults of B. glabrata snails and assessment of environmental toxicity (using Artemia salina larvae) were performed in triplicate, following a period of 24 hours of exposure to extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/L and its respective controls. Data were expressed as percentages of means and standard deviations. The results showed that the gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co resulted in leaf extracts, increased levels of total phenols and tannins, which enhanced the lethality for embryos and adults of B. glabrata. There was a reduction of the toxicity of leaf extracts after irradiation in the Artemia salina. Since in extracts of bark, gamma radiation did not alter the levels of total phenols and tannins, however, it was noted potentiation of lethality of adult snails of B. glabrata. The

  14. Anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory constituents of leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awakan, Oluwakemi Josephine; Malomo, Sylvia Omonirume; Adejare, Abdullahi Adeyinka; Igunnu, Adedoyin; Atolani, Olubunmi; Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2018-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale L. leaf is useful in the treatment of inflammation and asthma, but the bioactive constituents responsible for these activities have not been characterized. Therefore, this study was aimed at identifying the bioactive constituent(s) of A. occidentale ethanolic leaf extract (AOEL) and its solvent-soluble portions, and evaluating their effects on histamine-induced paw edema and bronchoconstriction. The bronchodilatory effect was determined by measuring the percentage protection provided by plant extracts in the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction model in guinea pigs. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts on histamine-induced paw edema in rats was determined by measuring the increase in paw diameter, after which the percent edema inhibition was calculated. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the bioactive constituents. Column chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used respectively to isolate and characterize the constituents. The bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated bioactive constituent were evaluated. Histamine induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pigs and edema in the rat paw. AOEL, hexane-soluble portion of AOEL, ethyl acetate-soluble portion of AOEL, and chloroform-soluble portion of AOEL significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities (P 9-octadecenamide) was identified as the most abundant compound in the extracts and was isolated. Oleamide significantly increased bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities by 32.97% and 98.41%, respectively (P < 0.05). These results indicate that oleamide is one of the bioactive constituents responsible for the bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory activity of A. occidentale leaf, and can therefore be employed in the management of bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Estimates of genetic correlations and correlated responses to selection in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Manoel Pedroza de Azevedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimates variances and genetic and phenotypic correlations for five traits in 27 progenies of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale L.. Data were obtained from a trial conducted in 1992 at Pacajus, Ceará, experimental station of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical. The characters studied were plant height (PH, North-South and East-West canopy spreads (NSS, EWS, and primary and secondary branch numbers (PBN, SBN. All genetic and phenotypic correlations presented positive and significant values. Selection to increase or decrease the average of any one of the five characteristics of cashew plants in the progenies studied affected the average of the others. The 16-month-old canopy spread can be predicted from NSS or EWS since correlations between them were high. Correlations between PH and SBN were low, indicating that there is a good possibility of obtaining smaller plants without causing drastic reductions in SBN. PH and SBN showed, respectively, the lowest and highest genetic variance estimates relative to the corresponding population means.Neste trabalho são estimadas variâncias, correlações genéticas e fenotípicas e respostas correlacionadas, envolvendo cinco caracteres em 27 progênies de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Os dados foram obtidos em Pacajus-CE, num ensaio conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em l992. Os caracteres estudados foram altura de planta (PH, envergaduras norte-sul (NSS e leste-oeste (EWS e número de ramos primários (PBN e secundários (SBN. Todas as correlacões genéticas e fenotípicas obtidas foram positivas e significativas. A seleção para aumentar ou reduzir a média de qualquer um dos cinco caracteres estudados nas progênies de cajueiro afetou indiretamente a média dos outros quatro caracteres. A envergadura da copa aos 16 meses pode ser representada por NSS ou EWS, tendo em vista que a correlação entre elas foi elevada. As correlações envolvendo PH

  16. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn. terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

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    H. Harsini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn. contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and K+ leakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 106 standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the K+ metal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050 ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ at S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.   ABSTRAK Aktivitas

  17. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  18. Morfologia e distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

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    Claudia Scareli-Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galhas são estruturas que exibem associações específicas entre o indutor e a planta hospedeira, onde são evidenciadas modificações morfológicas, anatômicas e químicas dos tecidos vegetais. Objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a distribuição de galhas foliares de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae. Foram coletadas 294 folhas, da porção apical dos ramos, de indivíduos localizados na Universidade Federal do Tocantins - Campus Araguaína, TO. Foram realizadas análises morfológicas utilizando microscópio estereoscópico, paquímetro e bibliografia específica. Determinou-se o número de galhas no limbo foliar seguida da análise de regressão linear entre o número de galhas por limbo e o seu comprimento. Foram observadas galhas do tipo cônico atravessando a lâmina foliar, glabras, de coloração verde quando jovens e vermelho alaranjadas quando maduras, com distribuição isolada/agrupada e aderência total; internamente apresentou um lóculo e uma larva do indutor (Cecidomyiidae. A distribuição das galhas no limbo apresentou diferenças significativas (p<0,001, em ordem decrescente foi observado maior número de galhas entre as nervuras (57,1%, sobre a nervura secundária (35,7%, na margem (6,3% e na nervura central (1,2%; a análise de regressão linear apresentou fracamente positiva (r2= 0,03; coeficiente de Pearson= 0,2025, o que sugere que a oviposição está associada, em parte, com o tamanho do limbo e que outras variáveis podem ser determinantes. Estes são os primeiros registros de galhas em A. occidentale no estado do Tocantins.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A Veena

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses. Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica in oral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethashri Anand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew and Mangifera indica (mango have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC, and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05 produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone---iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001 suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001 compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care.

  1. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Ronaldo C.; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of 60 Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and χ 2 . Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  2. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

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    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  4. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao antioxidante de extratos brutos de folhas de Anacardium occidentale Linn.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC{sub 50} of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  5. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  6. Evaluación térmica y perfil de ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas del merey, Anacardium occidentale L. | Thermal evaluation and fatty acid profile of cashew tree, Anacardium occidentale L. seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ordaz González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil from seeds of Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew nut was obtained by Soxhlet solvent extraction using hexane with a 26% yield. Concentrations of this oil lower than 1000 μg·mL-1 were innocuous in the lethality bioassay against Artemia salina. Analysis of Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC of this oil exhibited a wide melting range (Tonset = -22.60ºC, Tpico = -12.27ºC, which could be associated with the content of unsaturated fatty acids (76.24%. The oil showed thermal stability between 20 and 100ºC. The GC-MS analysis allowed to identify oleic (C18:1, ω-9, 51.3% and linoleic (C18:2, ω-6, 24.88% acids as major constituents.

  7. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol dari buah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen

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    AKHMAD MUSTOFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mustofa A, Suranto. 2010. Aktivitas Zymomonas mobilis pada produk etanol daribuah semu jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale dengan variasi sumber nitrogen. Bioteknologi 7: 1-9. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui kemampuan Zymomonas mobilis dalam memproduksi etanol melalui proses fermentasi batch (selama 24, 48 dan 72 jam, menggunakan sumber karbon sari buah jambu mete (varietas merah, hijau dan kuning dan sumber nitrogen berupa urea, ammonium sulfat, ekstrak kecambah kacang hijau dan ekstrak kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa varietas buah jambu mete hijau dengan sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat dan lama fermentasi 24 jam memberikan hasil etanol yang paling optimal. Pada perlakuan tersebut diperoleh nilai pH 5,87, kadar gula reduksi 7,64 g/100 mL (tingkat konsumsi 48,44%, jumlah bakteri 8,0x107 (µ = 0,154 dan etanol sebesar 33,02 g/L (Ye = 90,19%.

  8. Fenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e constituintes químicos de extratos de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Chaves

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata o isolamento e identificação do palmitato, oleato e linoleato de sitosterila, sitosterol, estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-galactopiranosídeo do sitosterol, 3-O-β-Dgalactopiranosídeo do estigmasterol, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo do sitosterol e uma mistura de ácidos anacárdicos (monoeno e dieno do extrato etanólico de cascas do caule de Anacardium occidentale L., Anacardiaceae, bem como do sitosterol, estigmasterol, lupeol, β-amirina, catequina e epicatequina do extrato etanólico do tegumento da castanha de caju in natura. Os extratos EtOH da casca e do tegumento foram avaliados quanto ao conteúdo de fenóis totais e atividade antioxidante. O extrato etanólico das cascas do caule apresentou maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e percentual de atividade antioxidante.

  9. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  10. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Extracts and Fractions of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., Cajui (Anacardium microcarpum, and Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense C.: A Systematic Review

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    Anderson Baptista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accentuated increase in the use of medicinal plants by the population to treat diseases makes it necessary to carry out pharmacological studies in order to contribute to the scientific knowledge and clarify the mechanisms involved in the main compounds present in these plants. Due to the difficulty of combating antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, plants become a low-cost and effective alternative. The stem, fruit, and leaves of plants are used to measure antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity and to combat the oxidative degradation of free radicals produced in the presence of xenobiotics. A systematic review is a powerful tool that incorporates the variability among the studies, providing an overall estimate of the use of plant extracts as antioxidants and antimicrobial activities. In view of the controversies in the literature regarding the use of compounds from plants or the isolation and purification of the main substances for the prevention of bacterial various therapeutic actions, the aim of this was to present a systematic review on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, cajui (Anacardium microcarpum, and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. The following databases were analyzed: PubMed/Medline, Virtual Health Library (LILACS and SciELO, and Science Direct. Out of 425 articles, 33 articles have been used in this study, which were also represented in the Prisma Statement. In vitro antioxidant tests were conducted in 28 studies using different methodologies. Most of the tests involving the studied species demonstrated positive antioxidant potential and antimicrobial properties. The results provide important data and perspectives into the use of natural products that can contribute to the treatment of various diseases.

  12. Avaliaçao do efeito do extrato de casca de cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale L. Sobre A infecção por Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis

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    Flávio França

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma avaliação do efeito terapêutico do extrato hidroalcólico da casca de Anacardium occidentale L sobre a Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis. No modelo in vitro o extrato vegetal mostrou-se ativo contra promastigotas do parasita, contrastando com o modelo in vivo, onde não se observou qualquer atividade curativa.

  13. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: APLICAÇÃO DA GOMA DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale EM NANOTECNOLOGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    celia cunha e silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale, da família Anacardiaceae, é uma planta originária do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, com arquitetura de copa tortuosa e de diferentes portes, bastante cultivada no Brasil, principalmente no Nordeste. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção, com busca de precedência e apresentar uma visão geral do estado atual de desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico relacionado à aplicação da goma do cajueiro na nonotecnologia, baseado no número de patentes depositadas e de artigos publicados. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes (Europen Patent Office - EPO, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual (World Intellectual Organization - WIPO, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes (United States Patent and Trademark Office - USPTO e no Banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil – INPI, bem como na base de periódicos, Web of Science. O Brasil detém o maior número de artigos científicos envolvendo a Anacardium ocidentale, enquanto o Japão se sobressai na proteção desta pesquisa. Foi observado que das patentes depositadas nas referidas bases, mais da metade foram depositadas no período de 2000 a 2012, demostrando um aumento nas pesquisas relacionadas com o cajueiro nos últimos 12 anos, e que a maior parte das patentes possuem código de classificaçao de patente A61K e A61P que estão relacionadas a necessidades humanas.

  14. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  15. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of 60 Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  16. Phenols and tannins contents of Anacardium occidentale Linn and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (GERAR/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Edvane Borges da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti de; Peixoto Sobrinho, Tadeu, E-mail: elba@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn (cajueiro) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan (angico) are very know as a source of phenolic compounds, mainly tannins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of phenols and tannins contents of crude extracts were measured after irradiation of barks and leaves of each plant source, using a source of {sup 60}Co. The crude extracts were divided into control group and three groups which were separately after exposition to gamma radiation, in doses of 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy. From each group, the total phenols were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, while the contents of tannins were assessed using precipitation of the casein technique. For all doses, the total phenol and tannin percentages from 'cajueiro' barks presented no significant statistical alteration. However, for the leaves of 'cajueiro', their chemical composite levels significantly changed with the radiation absorbed dose. On the other hand, the gamma irradiation did not cause alterations in total phenols and tannins content of extracts from 'angico'. (author)

  17. Clinical effect of a mouthwash containing Anacardium occidentale Linn. on plaque and gingivitis control: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; Cavalcante, Dhiogo Gonçalves; Filho, José Eduardo Girão; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; da Silva Pereira, Sérgio Luís

    2016-01-01

    Plaque-associated gingivitis is a prevalent disease and research in its treatment using herbal agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range or chemotherapeutic treatment options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing 10% Anacardium occidentale (AO) Linn., a typical plant commonly found in the Northeast Region of Brazil, on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in comparison to a gold-standard chemotherapeutic agent. Thirty normosystemic adult volunteers of both genders, who had a minimum of twenty natural teeth, aging between 18 and 32 years, were enrolled in this crossover, controlled, examiner-blind clinical study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: 10% AO Linn. (n = 10); 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX, n = 10); or placebo (PB, n = 10). All volunteers were instructed to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice two times a day (12/12 h) and to rinse for 1 min with one of the mouthwashes (AO, CLX, or PB) 30 min after tooth brushing for 1 month. Plaque index (PLI) and gingival bleeding index (BLI) were recorded on days 0 and 30. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05) were performed to evaluate statistical differences among groups. There was a significant reduction (P gingivitis at day 30 just in CLX ([PLI = 0.47 ± 0.16; -30%]; [BLI = 0.15 ± 0.09; -55.8%]) and AO ([PLI = 0.49 ± 0.21; -31%]; [BLI = 0.13 ± 0.10; -56.6%]) groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (P > 0.05). Mouthwash containing 10% AO was effective as an antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that 0.12% CLX.

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B.; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of 60 Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO 3 ) and negative (H 2 O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  19. Anacardium occidentale L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... Crop Processing and Utilization Division, Cocoa Research Institute of ... tropical countries of the world from its centre of origin in South and Central America ... has acceptable organoleptic properties for human consumption [8].

  20. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  1. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil Anacardic acid content in cashew apples from Annacardium microcarpum and eight clones of Anacardium occidentale from Northeastern Brazil

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentaram os maiores teores de ácido anacárdico. Pedúnculos da espécie Anacardium microcarpum e pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce, clones END 189 e 183, Embrapa 50 e 51 e CCP 09 não diferiram significativamente dos pedúnculos procedentes do clone controle, CCP 076. Pedúnculos do clone CCP 1001 apresentaram os menores teores de ácido anacárdico. As análises físico-químicas e sensoriais confirmaram evidências de que os clones CCP 09 e 1001 não são apropriados para o consumo in natura.Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound present in cashew apple and in some medicinal plants, is being associated to some specific biological effects. The purpose of this work was to determine anacardic acid content in peduncles of A. microcarpum and eight clones of A. occidentale from Northeastern Brazil, evaluating some physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of these peduncles. Cashew apples from BRS 189 clone of early cashew tree presented the highest values of anacardic acid. Cashew apples from A. microcarpum and END 189, END 183, Embrapa 50, Embrapa 51 e CCP 09 clones of early cashew tree did not differ from control CCP 076 clone. Cashew apples from CCP 1001 clone presented the minor values of anacardic acid. Physical-chemical and sensory analyses showed evidence that CCP 09 and CCP 1001 clone are not appropriate to fresh consuption.

  2. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112 Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1112

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    Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novos fármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raça definida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (ASTResearch on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainly tannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form. However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  3. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

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    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  4. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  5. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, I.M.S.; Zampa, M.F.; Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos; Eaton, P.; Zucolotto, V.

    2012-01-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: ► This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. ► LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. ► Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. ► Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. ► These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  6. Removal of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) from water using modified residues of Anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gustavo Ferreira; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Schwantes, Daniel; Rodríguez, Esperanza Álvarez; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Dragunski, Douglas; Conradi Junior, Élio

    2018-06-01

    The pollution of water has been one of the greatest problems faced by the modern society, due to industrialization and urban growth. Rivers, lakes and seas have been continually suffering from the rising concentration of various pollutants, especially toxic elements. This study aimed to evaluate the use of cashew nut shell ( Anacardium occidentale) (CNS), after chemical modification with H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH, as an new and renewable adsorbent material, for the removal of metals Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+ in aqueous medium. The adsorbents were characterized by its chemical constitution, structure, infrared spectroscopy, morphology, by means of scanning electron microscopy, determination of the point of zero charge, thermogravimetrical analysis and porosimetry assessments. Tests were conducted to determine the optimal conditions (pH vs. adsorbent mass) for adsorption, by means of multivariate analysis using a central composite design. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated by models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion, while adsorption isotherms were linearized by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The effect of initial concentration, temperature and desorption was also performed. The adsorbents exhibited irregular, spongy and heterogeneous structure. FTIR analysis confirms the presence of hydroxyl, aliphatic, phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, which are favorable adsorption characteristics. The pHPZC of adsorbent is 4.35, 2.50 e 6.92, respectively, for CNS H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH. The optimum adsorption conditions were as follows: pH 5.0; relation of adsorbent mass/volume of water: 4 g L-1; 40 min of contact time for reaching the equilibration. Results suggest the predominance of chemisorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+. Most of biosorbents exhibited good fit by Langmuir and Freundlich, suggesting the occurrence of adsorption on mono- and multilayers. The adsorbents of cashew nut shell exhibited high removal efficiency of Cd, Pb

  7. Study of rheological behavior of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. and mango (Mangifera indica, l. pulpsEstudo do comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, l., acerola (Malpighia emarginata, d.c. e manga (Mangifera indica, l.

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    Evânia Altina Teixeira de Figueiredo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the fruit tropical pulps rheological behavior have a great importance for the consumers and food process industries. In this work it was studied the rheological behavior of the cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, L., mango (Mangifera indica, L and acerola (Malpighia emarginata, DC single strength, frozen and pasteurized pulps. The experimental measurements were carried out in concentric cylinder rheometer and the experimental data were fitted to models of Ostwald-de-Waelle and Bingham. There were evaluated chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. In this work, in order to adjust the rheological parameters, the model that presented the best description was the Ostwald-de-Waelle for the mango and acerola pulps, and Bingham for cashew apple pulp. The samples presented non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic character. The chemical and physicochemical analysis showed the nutritional value of the studied fruits. The microbiological results presented satisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in pulps processing.O conhecimento do comportamento reológico das polpas de frutas tropicais é muito importante para os consumidores e para a indústria de alimentos. Neste trabalho se estudou o comportamento reológico de polpas de caju (Anacardium occidentale, L., manga (Mangifera indica, L e acerola (Malpighia emarginata, D.C. integrais, pasteurizadas e congeladas. As medidas experimentais foram realizadas em reômetro rotacional de cilindros concêntricos e os dados experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos de Ostwald-de-Waelle e Bingham. Também foram avaliados os parâmetros químicos, físico-químicos e microbiológicos. No estudo, para o ajuste dos parâmetros reológicos, o modelo que apresentou maior ajuste foi o de Ostwald-de-Waelle para as polpas de acerola e manga e Bingham para a polpa de caju. As amostras apresentaram comportamento não-newtoniano e caráter pseudoplástico. As caracterizações químicas e f

  8. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

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    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of cashew by-product (Anacardium occidentale L. on the ammoniac nitrogen concentrations (N-NH3, pH and vollatile fatty acids concentrations (VFA of the ruminal fluid, in sheep that received diets containing the cited by-product. Twenty male, entire sheep had been distributed in four treatments with different levels of cashew by-product inclusion (zero; 19%; 38%; 52% in a randomized block design, in a split-plot project, having in the parcels the diets and the sub-parcels the times of collection (zero, two, five, eight hours after-feeding with five replications. PH was remained inside of the normal standards cited by same literature in the raised cashew by-product inclusions. Diets with zero and 52% had gotten the biggest concentrations of N-NH3. The molar ratio of the AGV in the ruminal liquid in the diets with cashew by-product was typical of rich diets in voluminous. The relation acetate: propionate was not affected by the inclusion of the cashew by-product. The inclusion of the cashew by-product in up to 19 % of the dietary total presented better resulted in that it says respect to the parameters analyzed in this work.

    KEY WORDS: Ammoniac nitrogen, Ovis aries, pH, parameters ruminate, ruminants, volatile fatty acids.

    El estudio apunto evaluar la inclusión del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale en la concentración de nitrogeno amoniacal (N-NH3, el pH y las concentraciones de los acidos grasos vollatiles (AGV en el liquido ruminal de ovinos ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

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    Lília Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na elaboração de produtos funcionais. Este trabalho apresenta um mapeamento tecnológico sobre as potencialidades do caju referentes às tecnologias de compostos bioativos baseado na evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes. Para a realização desta pesquisa, utilizou-se a base de dados Derwent Innovations Index. Mesmo sem apresentar geografia nem clima favoráveis para a produção de caju, o Japão liderou os rankings apresentados neste estudo, com 14 pedidos quando realizada a pesquisa pela palavra-chave Anacardium occidentale e 04, quando usado o termo cashew apple. A Universidade Federal do Maranhão é o destaque brasileiro, com dois depósitos relacionados à área farmacêutica. O único protocolo nacional referente a compostos bioativos extraídos a partir do caju foi depositado pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais em 2009 e ressalta um método laboratorial para análises de taninos extraídos de bebidas como o suco de caju. Os resultados demonstram uma área promissora para o desenvolvimento de patentes brasileiras relacionadas ao caju e seus compostos bioativos, hoje atualmente explorados por países não produtores desta fruta.

  9. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DA AMÊNDOA DA CASTANHA DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale L. CRUA E TOSTADA

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    M.L.P. MELO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a caracterização físico-química da amêndoa da castanha de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. crua e tostada, identificando-se as alterações provocadas pelo processo de tostagem. As amêndoas da castanha de caju crua e tostada apresentaram pH próximos à neutralidade. A composição centesimal da amêndoa crua apresentou os seguintes teores: umidade - 5,05 %, cinzas - 2,40 %, proteínas - 22,11 %, lipídios - 46,28 %, açúcares totais - 7,93 % e amido - 16,07 %. Para a amêndoa tostada os resultados foram: umidade - 1,18 %, cinzas - 2,43 %, proteínas - 21,76 %, lipídios - 48,35 %, açúcares totais - 8,23 % e amido - 17,30 %. A comparação destes resultados foi significativamente diferente nos níveis de lipídios, açúcares totais e amido, possivelmente em conseqüência da perda de água durante o processo de tostagem, pois quando estes foram comparados na base seca, os resultados passaram a não ter diferenças estatísticas.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of the raw and toasted cashew nuts, identifying the changes that took place during the toasting process. The raw and toasted cashew nut showed pH near neutrality. The chemical composition of the raw cashew nut showed the following values: moisture - 5,05 %; ash - 2,40 %; protein - 22,11 %; lipids - 46,28 %; total sugar - 7,93 % and starch - 16,07 %. The toasted nut results were: moisture - 1,18 %; ash - 2,43 %; protein - 21,76 %; lipids - 48,35 %; total sugar - 8,23 % and starch - 17,30 %. The comparison of these values were significantly different for the levels of lipids, total sugars and starch, possibly due to the loss of water, during the toasting process, since when they were compared on dry matter basis, the results did not present differences.

  10. O polissacarídeo do Anacardium occidentale L. na fase inflamatória do processo cicatricial de lesões cutâneas

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    Schirato Giuliana Viegas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do polissacarídeo de Anacardium occidentale L. (POLICAJU foi avaliado na fase inflamatória do processo cicatricial em camundongos (Mus musculus Swiss (n=90, organizados de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo I (NaCl 150mM, Grupo II (ácido ascórbico 75mg ml-1 e Grupo III (emulsão contendo POLICAJU 150mg ml-1 preparado em ácido ascórbico 75mg ml-1. As lesões cutâneas foram realizadas assepticamente na região torácica dorsal e cada ferida foi tratada em dose única (200ml imediatamente após a cirurgia. As feridas foram avaliadas diariamente sob o ponto de vista clínico e histopatológico até o 6degrees dia de pós-operatório (PO. No 5degrees dia PO, observou-se um menor percentual de edema e hiperemia no Grupo III em relação aos grupos controle, ao passo que os valores de área da ferida e do percentual de contração não foram estatisticamente significativos. A avaliação histopatológica do grupo tratado com POLICAJU demonstrou a presença de tecido de granulação fibrovascular no 6degrees dia PO, enquanto os grupos controle apresentavam tecido de granulação com padrão vascular. O tratamento proposto propiciou sinais flogísticos menos acentuados (edema e hiperemia durante o período inflamatório, compatível com o processo de reparação mais avançado do ponto de vista histopatológico, sugerindo a possível utilização clínica da emulsão contendo POLICAJU.

  11. Propriedades antioxidantes em subproduto do pedúnculo de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.: efeito sobre a lipoperoxidação e o perfil de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ratos Antioxidant properties in cashew apple byproduct (Anacardium occidentale L.: effect on lipoperoxidation and on the polyunsaturated fatty acids profile in rats

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    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O caju (Anacardium occidentale L. apresenta substâncias fenólicas, as quais são atribuídas propriedades antioxidantes. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho objetivou verificar a capacidade antioxidante em subproduto, ou seja, no bagaço do pedúnculo do caju. O potencial antioxidante do extrato hidroalcoólico (EHAlc do bagaço do pedúnculo de caju foi avaliado em sistema de varredura do radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH• e em ensaio in vivo. No sistema DPPH, o extrato demonstrou atividade antioxidante de cerca de 95% em sua maior concentração (1000 µg/mL. Para o estudo in vivo, foram utilizados ratos Wistar administrando oralmente EHAlc (200 e 400 mg/kg de peso corpóreo por 30 dias e analisados os tecidos plasmático, hepático e cerebral. Não houve alterações na peroxidação lipídica no plasma e no fígado dos animais tratados comparados ao grupo controle. Contudo, foi observada redução da lipoperoxidação no cérebro dos grupos tratados. Além do mais, neste tecido, os animais tratados apresentaram maior quantidade de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (AGPI, destacando-se o ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA. Estes resultados indicam que o EHAlc contém antioxidantes naturais efetivos e que podem contribuir na redução da lipoperoxidação e preservação dos AGPICL no tecido cerebral de ratos, dando indícios da capacidade antioxidante do bagaço do pedúnculo de caju CCP-76.The cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. contains phenolic compounds usually related with antioxidant properties. Then, the aim of this study was to investigate its antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the cashew apple pulp (EHAlc. was assessed for the scavenging of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH by in vitro method and by an in vivo essay. For this essay a 30-day oral (gavage, EHAlc. 200 and 400 mg/kg study was conducted in Wistar male rats, evaluating hepatic, plasma and brain tissues. In

  12. Bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. during the ripening of early dwarf cashew clones Compostos bioativos e atividade antioxidante total de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. durante o amadurecimento de clones de cajueiro anão-precoce

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    Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, tropical fruit consumption has increased due to a higher knowledge of its nutritional and therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of cashew apples from different early dwarf clones during their ripening. The clones analyzed included: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 and BRS 265 in seven ripening stages. They were analyzed for vitamin C, total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, yellow flavonoids and polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity. Clone BRS 265 ripe cashew apple presented the highest vitamin C content (279.37 mg x 100 g-1. The ripe BRS 189 cashew apple is colored bright red, and its total anthocyanin content was the highest (21.16 mg x 100 g-1. The yellow flavonoids content was higher for ripe CCP 76 and BRS 189 cashew apples with 56.32 and 50.75 mg x 100 g-1, respectively. The highest levels of extrable polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were observed in CCP 09 in the first five ripening stages. The antioxidant activity of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. is mainly attributed to polyphenol content (r = 0.90; p Ultimamente, o consumo de frutas tropicais tem aumentado em razão de um maior conhecimento de seu valor nutricional e terapêutico. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial antioxidante de pedúnculos de cajus de diferentes clones de cajueiro anão precoce, durante o seu amadurecimento. Os clones analisados foram: CCP 76, CCP 09, BRS 189 e BRS 265, em sete estádios de amadurecimento. Foram analisados para a vitamina C total, antocianinas, carotenóides totais, flavonóides amarelos, teor de polifenóis e capacidade antioxidante total. O clone BRS 265 maduro obteve o maior teor de vitamina C (279,37 mg x 100 g-1. O pedúnculo maduro BRS 189, apresentou o maior conteúdo de antocianinas totais (21,16 mg x 100 g-1. O conteúdo de flavonóides amarelos foi maior para os clones CCP 76 e BRS 189 maduros, com 56,32 e 50,75 mg x 100 g-1, respectivamente. Os maiores teores

  13. Influence of gamma radiation on the levels of polyphenols and lethality of ethanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., against Biomphalaria glabrata; Influencia da radiacao gama na acao moluscicida de extratos de cajueiro em Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.H.F.; Silva, E.B., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Melo, A.M.M.A.; Lima, C.S.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Amorim, E.L.C.; Peixoto Sobrinho, T.J.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2013-08-15

    Plant materials rich in phenolic compounds, such as Anacardium occidentale Linn., Have been used as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in Biomphalaria glabrata control programs, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Studies show that ionizing radiation can influence the content of phenolic compounds and thus their biological actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in polyphenol composition of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of A. occidentale and evaluate the toxicity of these extracts to embryos and adults of B. glabrata. To achieve this goal this, the extracts were irradiated at 10 kGy, the controls being maintained from 0 kGy and positive (CaCO{sub 3}) and negative (H{sub 2}O). We quantified the total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteau and tannins by precipitation of casein. Extracts were used at a concentration of 100 mg/L. The results showed that the radiation caused the changes to the leaves, the percentage of polyphenols and tannins, and the percentage of lethality in embryos and adults Biomphalaria glabrata, these percentages being: 13 ± 5 (0 kGy) and 27 ± 2.5 (10 kGy), and 36.67 ± 5.77 (0 kGy), and 56.67 ± 5.77 (10 kGy), respectively. Gamma radiation caused significant changes in the levels of polyphenols in the extracts of leaves of Anacardium ocidentale Linn., translated by the increased toxicity of this extract against embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. This indicates that gamma radiation can be used as an agent potentiating the toxicity of plant extracts on the alternate use of these materials as molluscicides. (author)

  14. Caracterização anatômica e histoquímica de raízes e folhas de plântulas de Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Lopes Ernesto Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae é uma espécie típica do Cerrado do Brasil Central e possui valor socioeconômico. Objetivou-se caracterizar anatômica e histoquimicamente as raízes e folhas desta espécie em diferentes estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Para a caracterização anatômica, as amostras foram fixadas em FAA50, incluídas em parafina e submetidas aos procedimentos usuais para microscopia de campo claro. Foram realizados testes histoquímicos para detecção de lipídios totais, taninos, lignina, amido e terpenoides com grupo carbonila nas folhas, bem como teste para amido nas raízes em cortes frescos. A raiz apresenta epiderme unisseriada, floema com canais secretores e xilema tetrarco. Aos cinco dias após a germinação, a planta apresenta regiões com crescimento secundário e possui região medular na raiz, com função de armazenamento de grãos de amido. As folhas exibem epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas glandulares, cutícula espessa e estômatos paracíticos, em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, e a nervura central apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais com canais secretores associados ao floema. A caracterização histoquímica da folha evidenciou lipídios totais e compostos fenólicos, entre eles taninos e lignina, em diferentes tecidos da folha. A plântula apresenta características que demonstram sua adaptação ao ambiente Cerrado, como cutícula espessa, mesofilo dorsiventral, crescimento secundário e presença de tricomas, mesmo sendo cultivada em condições de viveiro.

  15. Antihyperglycemic and renal protective activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats had been shown to be associated with functional and/or morphological changes in the kidney. Therefore, in the present investigation, we carried out studies on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats chronically treated with Anacardium occidentale on the functional and ...

  16. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3 *Department of. Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Email: bionyananyo@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant,. Anacardium occidentale L. (Family ...

  17. Climate change and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    217 RESULTS ... change effect on cashew productivity and to identify the adaptation ... Keywords: Adaptation strategies, Benin, cashew tree, climate change, ..... in the medium production area (Northwest) ... 75.9. 96.3. 89.7. 74.3. Widower. 24.1. 3.7. 7.7. 24.3. Origine. Native. 100 ..... a state of leaves plasmolysis unfavorable to.

  18. Morphological characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... prices on the market. The genetic ... apple length, apple nut ratio, nut weight, kernel weight, out turn percent and flower sex ratio accounted for most of ..... Horticulture. National horticulture development strategy for Malawi, a.

  19. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these ... which penetrate very deep into the soil profile and lateral roots that sometimes ... The importance of cytological information to crop improvement ..... Tree nuts production, processing and products,. Vol.

  1. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations ...

  2. Pharmacological properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rai Pablo Sousa de Aguiar

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... according to the method of production of: (1) net of the shell of natural cashew nut (60-65% anacardic ... it available in the market as pharmaceutical products. Thus .... now seen as having anti-cancer properties, arrest the cell ..... nanomaterials. ... Characterization of phenolic compounds in jocote (Spondias.

  3. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    has led to the seeking of new antibiotics that are effective and opens paths for the ... to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves and stem peels of .... radiation intensity and production of phenol compounds such as ...

  4. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Anacardium occidentale is a local medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, constipation,pain and inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant parts were assessed for anti- inflammatory and antibacterial activities using experimental animal model and agar disc ...

  5. In vitro regeneration of hybrid plantlets of cashew (Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos from immature nuts of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were cultured in vitro to regenerate improved hybrid plantlets. Explants (embryo) were excised from developing F1 hybrid immature nuts derived from diallel cross and harvested at 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-weeks after pollination (WAPo) for in vitro culture.

  6. Larvicidal effects of leaf, bark and nutshell of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and nutshell of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) were evaluated on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Three concentrations of 10/100ml, 20/100ml and 30/100ml each of leaf, bark and nutshell were prepared in three replicates.

  7. Anthelmintic efficacy of cashew (Anarcadium occidentale L.) on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... The use of plants for the treatment of human and animal diseases continues to rise although there are few studies providing proof of these effects. Among them is the Anacardium occidentale L., popularly known as cashew. In vitro egg hatch and larval development and viability assays was conducted to.

  8. Powders and extracts of syzygium aromaticum and anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitophilus oryzae est une peste majeure des grains de sorgho (Sorghum bicor L.) en stockage au Nigeria. Ainsi une étude a été réalisée pour évaluer les effets entomocides de Syzygium aromaticum et Anacardium occidentale à une temperature ambiante de 28±2 ºC et une humidité relative de 75±5%. Les poudres étaient ...

  9. antidiabetic activity of anacardium occidentale in alloxan – diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ethanolic extract led to fractions that displayed diverse hypoglycemic effects at doses of 34.0,. 200.0 and 300.0 mg/kg body ... plates. TLC bands were visualized under UV lamps at 254 and 366 nm or with vanilin spray reagent. Plant Material.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, ecology, among others. Among the structures found in plants, the leaves are most organs analyzed. This study aimed to analyze morphological features of the leaves of the cashew tree, which is a plant of great commercial importance in Brazil. In this work we observed sinuous epidermal cells in the adaxial and abaxial, characterize their stomata in paracytic surrounded subsidiaries cells. On the abaxial surface the presence of glandular trichomes was observed; and cross-sectional analysis showed a single-layered epidermis with compact mesophyll and several layers of parenchyma cells. Keywords: leaf anatomy; cashew tree; optical microscopy.

  11. Application of tissue culture to cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary of the previous works on the in vitro culture of cashew is highlighted with emphasis on the critical factors that influence the explants response and plantlet regeneration. The recalcitrant nature of cashew has been attributed to the limited success recorded so far in the in vitro culture of the crop and abnormal ...

  12. (Anacardium occidentale L.) kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(31), pp. .... amount of NaOH used in the titration to bring the reaction mixture to. pH of 9.5 under the ..... Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge. Adebajo LO ...

  13. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  14. The effects of gamma irradiation on cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Barrida, A.C.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Aurigue, F.B.; Marbella, L.J.; Rama, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    A study on the effects of gamma radiation on cashew and mangosteen was conducted. In cashew seeds exposed to gamma radiation with dose raging from 100 to 400 Gy, the highest percentage emergence of 80% was obtained in the control and 100 Gy. Percent emergence decreased from 200-400 Gy. Seeds irradiated with 400 Gy gave the lowest percentage of only 10%, 4 weeks after sowing, Slight increase in emergence was observed at low dose of 5 and 10 Gy gamma rays over that of the control in mangosteen. However, at doses 20 and 30 Gy, percent emergence decreased. No shoot emergence was noted at 40 Gy, 7 weeks after sowing. In both cashew and mangosteen, gamma irradiation caused a decreased in seedling height and increased frequency of induced morphological changes (leaf abnormalities, stem bifurcation, reduction in internode length and changes in chlorophyll pattern). Differences in response of cashew and mangosteen to gamma radiation were attributed to species and dosage of radiation used. Based on the foregoing results, gamma radiation is an effective mutagenic agent in inducing morphological as well as genetic changes in both tree crop species. In the micropropagation of mangosteen using the in-vitro culture system, the best treatment for callus induction was MS basal medium and MS with 2 mg/1 BA; for root formation, the best treatment combination was 4 mg/ 1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA; and for plantlet regeneration, the optium treatment was MS with 6 mg/1 BA + 6 mg/1 NAA. (Author)

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and storage on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Régia Marques de; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Arthur, Valter; Oliveira, Anderson Giovani Cândico; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Walder, Júlio Marcos Melges

    2009-01-01

    The non-efficiency or absence of techniques for adequate handling, transport, and storage of cashew stalks associated with a high level of perishability, generates high economic loss in the commercialization of these fruits, hence the development of conservation methods becomes a necessity in order to enhance the profitability. Cashew apples from precocious dwarf cashew tree were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 kGy and stored during nine days under refrigeration at 4 ºC for evaluation of the quality stability during storage. Chemical analyses were performed to verify changes in reducing sugars, Brix, vitamin C, and pH. Alterations in the firmness and color were also observed. The levels of vitamin C decreased as a function of storage as well as a function of the radiation doses employed. The firmness of the fruits was influenced by both the radiation doses and storage time, increasing during storage and decreasing as the radiation doses increased. Irradiation was shown to be efficient in the prolongation of the shelf-life of cashew stalks. (author) [pt

  16. Volatile profile of cashews (Anacardium occidentale L.) from different geographical origins during roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of Indian, Vietnamese, and Brazilian cashews, both raw and during roasting by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. The optimum roasting times based on color measurements were also determined. Raw cashews were oil roasted for 3 to 9 min at 143 °C and color and volatiles measured. An excellent correlation, following a pseudo 1st-order reaction, was found between L* value and roasting time; darkness increases as roasting time increases. The optimum roasting time was 6, 8, and 9 min for Vietnamese, Indian, and Brazilian cashews, respectively. Raw cashews had lower concentrations of volatiles than roasted cashews. Most volatiles significantly increased in concentration during roasting of Brazilian, Indian, and Vietnamese cashews. Only a few volatiles significantly decreased during roasting. Ethanol and 1-heptene significantly decreased during roasting in Brazilian cashews and toluene decreased in Vietnamese cashews. Brazilian cashews had significantly higher levels of most volatiles than Indian and Vietnamese cashews. Most volatile levels in Indian and Vietnamese cashews were not significantly different. Of the volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, including methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and acetaldehyde, were at the highest concentration in roasted cashews. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of most of the volatiles in cashews from the 3 countries. There was also degradation of sugars to form furan-type compounds and oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as hexanal. The volatile profile during roasting of cashews can be used to determine the best roasting time for each type of cashew. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ for the cashews from the 3 geographical locations. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell: liquid products characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Renata Andrade; Figueiredo, Flavio Augusto Bueno; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Sanchez, Elisabete Maria Saraiva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Combustion Lab.]. E-mails: flavioa@fem.unicamp.br; renataaf@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; bete@fem.unicamp.br; Arauzo, Jesus; Sanchez, Jose Luis; Gonzalo, Alberto [University of Zaragoza (Spain). Aragon Institute of Engineering Research. Thermo-chemical Processes Group (GPT)]. E-mails: qtarauzo@unizar.es; jlsance@unizar.es; agonca@unizar.es

    2008-07-01

    The environment contamination with effluents generated in the biomass pyrolysis process has been waking up the scientific community's interest and concern in a larger number of countries, that are adopting measures to quantify and reduce the generated effluents. The pyrolysis and gasification are processes that can serve as alternative for the recovery of energy in the biomass usage. Considering that Brazil is one of the greatest world producers of biomass, the theme of the biomass usage in the generation of energy has been largely discussed. By the processes of pyrolysis and gasification, depending on the biomass type, the same can be transformed in fuel (liquid, char and gases in different proportions). However, the gases have a level of impurity that should be controlled to use it in a motor or turbine. The main impurities that should be controlled are tars, chars, ashes and nitrogenated compounds. The biomass used in this work is the cashew nut shell, from the Northeast of Brazil. In northeast there are industries that process the cashew nut which can use the cashew nut main reject (shell) as fuel, avoiding landfill sanitary deposit. By thermal conversion of the biomass in the pyrolysis and gasification process, it was quantified the production of solids (char), liquids (tar) and gases. It was evaluated the influences of the final temperature (800, 900 and 1000 deg C) and the use of N{sub 2} in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N{sub 2} and vapor of water in the gasification case, in the amounts of char, tar and gas. The exhausted gas passes through a tar (liquid) condensation system, which consists of two glass condenser vessels cooled with a mixture of ice and water and an electrostatic precipitator. The liquid fractions are extracted with isopropanol and the sample is analyzed for CG-MS and CG-FID for the identification and quantification of the present compositions. Around 50 different composed have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of them being present on very low concentrations. In order to facilitate the evolution study of the liquid composition fraction with the temperature, the compounds detected have been grouped according to their chemical nature. In this work, the classification of the compositions will be used proposed by Sanchez et al. (COBEM, 2007). It is observed that in the pyrolysis and gasification processes the liquid fraction production increases with the decrease of the temperature. The liquid fraction collected in the two processes presents predominance of oxygenated compounds. (author)

  18. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  19. Fermentasi Etanol Sari Buah Semu Jambu Mete (Anacardium occidentale L. oleh Zymomonas mobilis dengan Penambahan Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cashew present in abundant amount in Indonesia but they had not muchbeen exploited. This research was to study ethanol fermentation from cashew juice by Zymomonas mobilis using urea as nitrogen source. The aims of this research was to know the best urea concentration and optimum fermentation duration to produce the highest content of ethanol in ethanol fermentation from cashew juice by Z. mobilis. The urea concentration in media was prepared 0%; 0.2% and 0.4%. The media cashew juice + urea (100 mL was inoculated with 1 mL Z. mobilis 2x108 cell/mL. Initial pH, reducing sugar, amount of microorganism and concentration of ethanol was calculated everyday during 3 days. It could be concluded that 0.2% of urea produced the highest content of ethanol that was an amount 40.51%, followed by urea 0% was 30.59% and urea 0.4% was 25.63%. The optimum fermentation duration to produce the highest content of ethanol was 2 days.

  20. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  1. Redução de vitamina C em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. industrializado e cajuína Vitamin C degradation in industrialized cashew juice (Anacardium occidentale L. and in cajuina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eráclito Silva Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C degradation was evaluated in industrialized cashew juice of high pulp content and in cajuina by the method of Tillmans during eleven days of storage after the opening of the flask. For recently opened juices, vitamin C was found in the concentration range of 112 to 170 mg for 100 g of juice. The degradation of vitamin C in industrialized cashew juices changes when different additives are used. All of the cajuinas presented a vitamin C content below that specified on the label.

  2. Recuperação e concentração de componentes do aroma de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. por pervaporação Recovery of aroma compounds of cashew apple fruit (Anacardium occidentale L. by pervaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André von Randow de Assis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A pervaporação é um processo de separação por membranas, no qual misturas líquidas são fracionadas devido à sua vaporização parcial através de uma membrana densa de permeabilidade seletiva. Este processo pode ser utilizado na recuperação e concentração de componentes de aromas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pervaporação para obtenção de um extrato natural de aroma de caju, que poderá ser utilizado como aditivo na indústria de alimentos. Polpa de caju foi a matéria-prima utilizada no trabalho. O processo de pervaporação foi conduzido a 25 e 35 °C em membranas de polidimetilsiloxano. Foram recolhidas amostras do suco de caju, no início e ao final do processo, e do permeado para a caracterização do perfil aromático através de CG-EM. O processo de pervaporação apresentou um alto fluxo de permeado para o suco de caju, 0,11 e 0,17 kg.hm-2 a 25 e 35 °C, respectivamente. Os cromatogramas revelaram um grande aumento no número de picos nas amostras de permeado em relação aos cromatogramas das amostras do suco de caju original, sendo que cerca de 50% dos componentes identificados no permeado apresentaram um acréscimo em suas áreas em relação aos do suco original, indicando a potencialidade deste processo para a concentração do aroma de caju.Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which components from liquid mixtures are fractionated due to their partial vaporisation through a dense selective membrane. This process can be used to recover aroma compounds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the pervaporation to obtain a natural aroma extract from cashew apple fruit, which can be used as an additive in the food industry. Cashew pulp was used as raw material. Pervaporation was carried out at 25 and 35 °C using polymethylsiloxane membranes. Samples of the cashew juice in the beginning and at the end of the pervaporation and from the permeate were picked to characterise the aromatic profile by GC-MS. The pervaporation of the cashew juice presented a high permeate flux, 0.11 kgh-1m-2 and 0.17 kg.hm-2, at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. The chromatograms showed an increase in the number of compounds in the permeate samples when compared to the chromatograms of the cashew juice. By comparing the peak areas, it could be observed that almost 50% of the identified components in the permeate samples presented an increase in the peak area, showing the potentiality of this process to the concentration of the aroma of cashew apple juice.

  3. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  4. CASHEW PULP MEALS (Anacardium occidentale L. FOR GROWING PIG: NUTRIENT METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE PSEUDOFRUTO DO CAJUEIRO (Anacardium occidentale L. PARA SUÍNOS EM CRESCIMENTO: METABOLISMO DE NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Atta Farias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available These researches was planned to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of nutrient and nitrogen balance of the cashew pulp for growing pigs, as well as to evaluate the performance of these animals fed with different levels of inclusion of this by-product in the diets. The physiological aspects of the animal and economic viability of the diets was evaluated. In the metabolism assay, four pigs were fed with a standard ration and others four received a test ration, with 30% of substitution of the standard ration for the cashew pulp. In the performance assay, forty animals were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the experimental rations with the levels 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of inclusion of the cashew pulp. The values obtained for the digestibility and metabolizability coefficients of the protein and energy of the cashew pulp meals were 12.30% and 11.38%; 23.43% and 21.91%, respectively. The digestible and metabolizability energy of cashew pulp meals is 1.123 and 1.051 kcal/kg. The cashew pulp meals can be included in diets until the level of 20% of the ration, and this inclusion of the by-product increases the financial yield of the production.KEY WORDS: Alternative feed, nitrogen balance, temperature, weight gain. A pesquisa destinou-se a avaliar a digestibilidade, o metabolismo de nutrientes e o balanço de nitrogênio do pseudofruto do cajueiro para suínos em crescimento, bem como o desempenho desses animais alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão desse subproduto nas dietas. Avaliaram-se ainda os aspectos fisiológicos dos animais e a viabilidade econômica das dietas testadas. No ensaio de metabolismo, quatro leitões foram alimentados com uma ração referência e outros quatro com uma dieta-teste, que apresentou 30% de substituição da ração referência pelo farelo do pseudofruto do cajueiro. No ensaio de desempenho utilizaram-se quarenta animais, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com os níveis de 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20% de inclusão do pseudofruto do cajueiro. Os valores dos coeficientes de digestibilidade e dos metabolismos da proteína e da energia do pseudofruto do cajueiro obtidos foram 12,30 e 11,38%; 23,43 e 21,91%, respectivamente, sendo encontrados valores de 1.123 kcal/kg e 1.051 kcal/kg para energias digestível e metabolizável. O pseudofruto do cajueiro pode ser incluído nas dietas de suínos em crescimento até o nível de 20% da ração, e sua inclusão na forma de farelo melhora o rendimento financeiro da produção.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimento alternativo, balanço de nitrogênio, ganho de peso, temperatura.

  5. Cinética e caracterização físico-química do fermentado do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Kinetic and physico-chemical characterization of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. Torres Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cashew apple wine has the purpose of minimizing the wastage in the Brazilian cashew production. Knowing that the cashew apple fermentation produces a good cashew wine, a study of alcoholic fermentation kinetics of the cashew apple and the physico-chemical characterization of the product were made. The cashew wine was produced in an stirred batch reactor. The results of the physico-chemical analysis of volatiles, residual sugars, total acidity and pH of cashew wine showed that their concentrations were within the standard limits established by the Brazilian legislation for fruit wines.

  6. Processo de secagem da goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) e suas propriedades tecnolÃgicas.

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Melo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    PaÃses tropicais, como o Brasil, sÃo depositÃrios de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarÃdeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda nÃo explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicaÃÃes industriais. A goma de cajueiro pode ser citada como um desses polissacarÃdeos. Algumas pesquisas reportam a possibilidade do uso da goma de cajueiro em vÃrios setores e por sua semelhanÃa estrutural com a goma arÃbica, tem sido sugerida como substituta. Sendo assim, este projeto se propÃe a ...

  7. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ARMAZENAMENTO DE FARINHAS OBTIDAS A PARTIR DO RESÍDUO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio Belmino dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o terceiro maior produtor de frutas, com uma produção que superou 44 milhões de toneladas no ano de 2007, e com a indiscutível necessidade do aumento da produção de frutas e ampliar as exportações, torna-se imprescindível reduzir as perdas que ocorrem em toda cadeia produtiva. Além do desperdício, existe a crescente preocupação com o descarte, uma vez que pode levar a problemas ambientais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo produzir farinhas a partir de resíduos de caju por secagem em secador de circulação de ar forçado. A secagem foi realizada nas temperaturas de 50°C e 60°C. Foram avaliadas as alterações físico-químicas das farinhas após a secagem. Foi analisada a estabilidade das farinhas no armazenamento. O teor de umidade das farinhas atendeu os padrões exigidos pela legislação vigente. Verificou-se teor inicial de Vitamina C de 50,3mg/100g na farinha produzida pela secagem na temperatura de 50°C e de 47,7mg/100g em 60°C. No fim do armazenamento o teor de Vitamina C foi de 20,5mg/100g na farinha produzida pela secagem na temperatura de 50°C e de 15,1mg/100g em 60°C. As farinhas mostraram características, como o teor de Vitamina C, adequadas para o aproveitamento, portanto, para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos.

  8. Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Annacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant with several biological properties. Phytochemical screening of its leaf and stem bark was reported to be rich in alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and saponins. Many plant extract with these phytochemicals are reputed for their antifertility activities. This study was ...

  9. L'implication Des Puissances Occidentales Dans Les Processus De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'implication Des Puissances Occidentales Dans Les Processus De Démocratisation En Afrique: Analyse Des Actions Américaine Et Française Au Cameroun (1989-1997). Martin Dieudonné Ebolo. Abstract. No Abstract African Journal of Political Science Vol.4(2) 1999: 46-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  10. Yogurt produced with cajuí (Anacardium othonianum Rizz

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    Camila Martins Fonseca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt added with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cajuí pulp (Anacardium othonianum Rizz were characterized. Acidity, pH, protein, dry matter, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and quantification of lactic acid bacteria were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Identification of volatiles compounds and sensory tests of preference, acceptance and consumption intention were performed on the first day of shelf-life. Preferred formulations are those that contain smaller proportions of pulp (5% which coincide with lower acidity. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 of the amount of pulp added and storage time on dry matter, lactic acid bacteria count, firmness, consistency and cohesiveness. Acidity and pH were significantly influenced (P <0.05 by the amount of pulp added and storage time. Protein levels were significantly lower (P <0.05 with the increase in the quantity of pulp added. Volatiles compounds in cajuí yogurt include ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate, ethanol, hexanal, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl butanoate. There are technological potential in the production of yoghurt with cajuí with addition of 5% in proportion to the total volume of yogurt produced.

  11. Redução de vitamina C em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.) industrializado e cajuína

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Eráclito Silva; Silva,Elidiane Gomes Da; Moita Neto,José Machado; Moita,Graziella Ciaramella

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin C degradation was evaluated in industrialized cashew juice of high pulp content and in cajuina by the method of Tillmans during eleven days of storage after the opening of the flask. For recently opened juices, vitamin C was found in the concentration range of 112 to 170 mg for 100 g of juice. The degradation of vitamin C in industrialized cashew juices changes when different additives are used. All of the cajuinas presented a vitamin C content below that specified on the label.

  12. Desenvolvimento de nÃctares mistos à base de caju (Anacardium occidentale L) e aÃaà (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    OpenAIRE

    Analia Maria Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    O setor que vem crescendo nos Ãltimos anos à o de bebidas. Em todos os paÃses os levantamentos estatÃsticos revelam nÃmeros crescentes de consumo, tanto per capita quanto global. Esses valores sÃo mais expressivos quando se refere a bebidas obtidas de frutas, pelo fato das mesmas se constituÃrem fontes importantes de vitaminas e minerais para a dieta humana, alÃm de seus atrativos sabores. O Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, por exemplo, sÃo regiÃes privilegiadas neste particular. Portanto, pode-se...

  13. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  14. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho,Soraya de Oliveira; Maia,Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Rodrigues,Sueli; Rabelo,Maria Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e trata...

  15. ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA APLICADA À TECNOLOGIA DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS EM PRODUTOS ALIMENTÍCIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Barretto, Lília; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Moreira, Jane; Silva, Gabriel; Brito, Leidiane

    2014-01-01

    O agronegócio mundial do caju movimenta cerca de 2,4 bilhões de dólares por ano. No Brasil, a região Nordeste responde por mais de 95% da produção, com divisas na ordem de 220 milhões de dólares anuais. Apesar da importância desta atividade agroindustrial, observa-se que o seu potencial econômico permanece pouco explorado, principalmente com relação ao aproveitamento do pedúnculo. Além de rico em nutrientes, o caju é uma importante fonte de compostos bioativos, os quais podem ser usados na el...

  16. OBTENÇÃO DE BEBIDA A PARTIR DE SUCO DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale, L. E EXTRATO DE GUARANÁ (Paullinia cupana sorbilis Mart. Ducke

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    SOARES LILIANA COSTA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do extrato de semente de guaraná com 0,96% de cafeína, foram testadas várias formulações para obtenção de uma bebida, utilizando-se de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado, caramelo, aromatizantes artificiais de caju e guaraná e acidulante, tendo também como variável os diversos graus de doçura (ºBrix. As melhores formulações foram selecionadas de acordo com os resultados da avaliação sensorial, onde se utilizou o teste de ordenação. A formulação selecionada foi processada e envasada em embalagens de vidro. Para determinar a aceitabilidade, o produto final foi submetido a análises físico-químicas e sensoriais.

  17. Influência do porta-enxerto no comportamento fisiológico de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. submetidas a estresses

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    Matos Nilson Nogueira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de mudas enxertadas uniformiza o crescimento de plantas e antecipa o início da produção. Os porta-enxertos regulam aspectos, como taxa fotossintética e relações hídricas das mudas, e distúrbios sobre os mesmos afetam o vigor geral das mudas. Este trabalho objetivou comparar os níveis de resistência dos porta-enxertos CCP06 e CCP09, e das mudas enxertadas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09, submetidas a estresses hídrico e salino, através de algumas características bioquímicas e biofísicas. A comparação entre as mudas CCP76/06 e CCP76/09 mostrou comportamentos diferentes. As mudas CCP76/6 reproduziram o comportamento de abertura estomática do porta-enxerto CCP06, que foi mais resistente aos efeitos dos estresses hídrico e salino do que o CCP09. Portanto, deve ter propiciado uma melhor adaptação ao enxerto CCP76/06 sob aqueles tipos de estresse. Alguns mecanismos de controle do porta-enxerto na absorção de íons e trocas gasosas são também discutidos.

  18. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anacardium occidentale L.) Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 13 (2005) - Articles Application of tissue culture to cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) breeding: An appraisal. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. Semi-preparative HPLC preparation and HPTLC quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone as marker in Semecarpus anacardium and its polyherbal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S G; Arimboor, Ranjith; Rangan, Meena; Madhavan, Soumya N; Arumughan, C

    2008-11-04

    Application of modern scientific knowledge coupled with sensitive analytical technique is important for the quality evaluation and standardization of polyherbal formulations. Semecarpus anacardium, an important medicinal plant with wide medicinal properties, is frequently used in a large number of traditional herbal preparations. Tetrahydroamentoflavone (THA), a major bioactive biflavonoid was selected as a chemical marker of S. anacardium and RP-semi-preparative HPLC conditions were optimized for the isolation of tetrahydroamentoflavone. HPTLC analytical method was developed for the fingerprinting of S. anacardium flavonoids and quantification of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision and accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-DAD method. The methods were demonstrated for the chemical fingerprinting of S. anacardium plant parts and some commercial polyherbal formulations and the amount of tetrahydroamentoflavone was quantified. HPTLC analysis showed that S. anacardium seed contained approximately 10 g kg(-1) of tetrahydroamentoflavone. The methods were able to identify and quantify tetrahydroamentoflavone from complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker-based standardization of polyherbal formulations, containing S. anacardium.

  1. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  2. Adsorptive property of rice husk for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Yi Facheng

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption experiments were researched by using the rice husk powder as the adsorbent to remove the U(VI) from aqueous solution. The affecting factors on the U(VI) removal rate such as rice husk particle size, pH, initial concentration, adsorption time, temperature and dosage of adsorbent were evaluated, kinetics and adsorption isotherm law were analyzed, and mechanisms for U(VI) removal were discussed by SEM, FT-IR and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that U(VI) removal rate increases with the decrease of the size of adsorbent, and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order mode, and the relation coefficient is 1. The process of adsorption also fits to Freundlich isotherm (R 2 =0.995 4). The adsorption of uranium on rice husk changes the surface form of rice husk. Hydroxyl, carboxylic, P-O and Si-O are the main functional groups in the reaction with U(VI). The adsorption mechanism is mixture adsorption, including the physical and chemical adsorption. (authors)

  3. Isolation and characterization of an anticancer catechol compound from Semecarpus anacardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Raveedran; Melnick, Steven J; Wnuk, Stanislaw F; Rapp, Magdalena; Escalon, Enrique; Ramachandran, Cheppail

    2009-04-21

    The fruits and seeds of Semecarpus anacardium are used widely for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases in the Ayurvedic and Sidda systems of medicine in India. The principal aim of this investigation was to isolate and characterize the anticancer compound from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium nut. The bioactivity-tailored isolation and detailed chemical characterization were used to identify the active compound. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest as well as synergism between the identified anticancer compound and doxorubicin in human tumor cell lines were analyzed. GC/MS, IR, proton NMR, carbon NMR and collisionally induced dissociation (CID) spectra analysis showed that the isolated active compound is 3-(8'(Z),11'(Z)-pentadecadienyl) catechol (SA-3C). SA-3C is cytotoxic to tumor cell lines with IC(50) values lower than doxorubicin and even multidrug resistant tumor cell lines were equally sensitive to SA-3C. SA-3C induced apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and showed synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin. The cell cycle arrest induced by SA-3C at S- and G(2)/M-phases correlated with inhibition of checkpoint kinases. SA-3C isolated from the kernel of Semecarpus anacardium can be developed as an important anticancer agent for single agent and/or multiagent cancer therapy.

  4. Avaliação da metodologia microbiológica para determinação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato em suco de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of a microbiological method for the determination of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Oliveira Sancho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o suco de caju seja bastante consumido no Brasil e muitos estudos sobre seu valor nutricional tenham sido publicados, a literatura não reporta estudos sobre a determinação de folatos nesse suco. Várias técnicas analíticas podem ser utilizadas visando à detecção da referida vitamina. Optou-se por utilizar o ensaio microbiológico oficial de determinação de folatos em alimentos, utilizando-se Lactobacillus casei como microrganismo de teste. Foram testados a utilização de ultrassom e tratamento enzimático como fases preparatórias, a fim de determinar qual a melhor metodologia a ser empregada. Foram comparados também o uso de padrões de ácido fólico e folato. Os resultados mostraram que o emprego de enzima é indicado como fase preparatória na determinação desta vitamina em suco de caju. A utilização de ultrassom não interferiu, significativamente, nos resultados encontrados, sendo seu emprego dispensável. Os teores de folato encontrados no suco de caju integral in natura indicam que o consumo de uma porção de 200 mL do suco equivale à ingestão de aproximadamente 500 µg de folato, valor superior à ingestão diária recomendada para adultos.Although cashew apple juice has been highly consumed in Brazil and several studies on its nutritional value have been published, no studies on the determination of folate contents in this juice were found in the literature. Several analytic techniques can be employed for the folate determination in foods. In this study, the microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei was employed. Enzyme treatment and ultrasound waves were tested as pretreatment. The use of standards of folic acid and folate were also evaluated. The results showed that the enzyme treatment cannot be replaced by ultrasound treatment. The consumption of 200 mL of in natura cashew apple juice corresponds to a folate intake of 500 µg, which is higher than the recommended daily intake for adults.

  5. Análise técnica e econômica do cultivo do cajueiro-anão (Anacardium occidentale L. na regional de Jales-SP Technical and economical analysis of the cultivation of the dwarf cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L. In the region of Jales-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cintra de Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar os custos de produção e lucratividade do caju in natura na Regional de Jales, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram levantados junto a produtores, a partir da aplicação de questionário e da elaboração de planilhas, para caracterizar todo o processo produtivo e realizar análise econômica. A produção de fruta para mesa exige um sistema de cultivo mais intensivo, principalmente no controle de pragas e doenças; por sua vez, eleva o custo de produção que, via de regra, é compensada pelos preços alcançados. Os custos de produção são altos, mas o que deve ser destacada é a participação relativa das embalagens que pode chegar a um terço do custo operacional efetivo, seguido pelos custos pós-colheita. Os indicadores de lucratividade mostram que a produção de caju é rentável nesta região, e o índice de lucratividade foi de 46,50%.It was aimed to estimate the production costs and profitability of the cashew in natura in the Region of Jales, northwest of the State of São Paulo. The data were collected with producers through questionnaire application and elaboration of spreadsheets, to characterize the whole productive process and to accomplish economical analysis. The fruit production for table demands a system of more intensive cultivation mainly in the control of curses and diseases, as a result, the cost of the production which is increased is later compensated by the best reached prices. The costs of the production are high, but what should be outstanding is the relative participation of the packings that can arrive a third of the effective operational cost. The profitability indicators show that the cashew production is profitable in this area, the lucrativeness index was 46,50%.

  6. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes em subprodutos do pseudofruto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Naturally Contained in By-products of the Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a capacidade antioxidante do bagaço e do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC do pedúnculo de caju, tendo em vista o seu aproveitamento. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos aquoso (EAq e alcoólico (EAlc e das frações de ácidos fenólicos livres (AFL e esterificadas (solúvel AFS e insolúvel AFI desses subprodutos do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76 foi avaliado em sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, pelo teste de varredura de radical livre [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hidrazil (DPPH•] e de Rancimat. Além do mais, o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos foram determinados usando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocateau e por cromatografia gasosa, respectivamente. O EAq e a fração AFL dos subprodutos apresentaram o maior conteúdo de fenólicos. As frações de ácidos fenólicos exibiram expressiva atividade antioxidante, superior aos extratos estudados nos sistemas beta-caroteno e DPPH. Entretanto no teste Rancimat, os extratos apresentaram maior proteção à oxidação em relação às frações e ao BHT. Nas frações foram identificados os ácidos gálico, ferúlico, caféico, protocatecuico, quínico, cinâmico, gentíssico, p-cumárico e salicílico, os quais lhes conferem o potencial antioxidante. Estes resultados caracterizaram in vitro o potencial antioxidante do bagaço e do EBC do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76.This study aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of cashew apple pulp and raw concentrated extract. The antioxidant potential of aqueous (EAq and alcoholic (EAlc extracts and of free phenolic acids (FPA and esterified (soluble - SPA and insoluble - IPA fractions of the by-products of the cashew apple clone CCP-76 were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate system by the free radical [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•] scavenging assay and the Rancimat test. In addition, the total phenolic content and phenolic acid profile were determined using Folin-Ciocateau reagent and gas chromatography, respectively. The EAq and the FPA fraction of the by-products showed the highest phenolic content. The phenolic acid fractions generally displayed stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts tested with the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH systems. However, in the Rancimat test, the extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the fractions and BHT. Nine phenolic acids (gallic, ferulic, caffeic, protocatechuic, quinic, cinnamic, gentisic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, which give the fractions their antioxidant potential, were identified and quantified (both free and esterified forms. These results characterized the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the pulp and raw concentrated extract of the cashew apple clone CCP-76.

  7. Estabilidade microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. processados por métodos combinados Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial stability of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. processed by combined methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Campos Mesquita

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (28ºC foram avaliados quanto à tendência a mudanças físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais. Os resultados confirmam que os tipos de obstáculos usados (redução da Aw, tratamento térmico brando, redução do pH, adição de ácido ascórbico, benzoato de sódio a 1000ppm e SO2 a 600 e 900ppm e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica do produto durante a armazenagem à temperatura ambiente por 120 dias, bem como uma boa aceitação sensorial.Cashew apples processed by combined methods were stored at room temperature (28ºC in order to evaluate the tendency for chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes during 120 days of storage. Results confirmed that the obstacles used (reduction of water activity, mild heat treatment, pH reduction, ascorbic acid addition, 1000ppm sodium benzoate, 600 and 900ppm of SO2 and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and sensorial acceptance of the product during storage stability at room temperature for 120 days.

  8. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  9. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  10. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  11. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  12. Bioethanol production from coconut husk fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Márcio Santos Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Population growth and the increasing search for healthy foods have led to a major consumption of coconut water and, hence, to an environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of green coconut husks. This lignocellulosic biomass has deserved attention of researchers concerning the seeking of new usages, as, for example, in renewable fuels production technologies. This study examines the potential of green coconut husk fibers as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. The coconut fibers were pretreated through an alkaline method, hydrolyzed enzymatically and submitted to ethanol fermentation with commercial yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite the significant loss of cellulose (4.42% in relation to the fiber and 17.9% concerning the original cellulose content, the alkaline pretreatment promoted an efficient solubilization of lignin (80%, turning the coconut fibers into a feasible raw material for 2G ethanol production studies. Enzymatic hydrolysis converted 87% of the sugars and the ethanolic fermentation consumed 81% of the substrate in the hydrolyzate, leading to a sugar to ethanol convertion efficiency of 59.6%. These results points out that green coconut husks are a promising alternative to the production of renewable energy.

  13. Production of Nanocellulose from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Rezanezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanocellulose was produced from rice husk, as a lignocellulosic waste of rice. Initially, purified cellulose was produced with chemo-mechanical and soda-anthraquinone (soda/AQ pulping and bleaching. The purified cellulose was then sonicated for 15 min using an ultrasonic processor, resulted in nanocellulose. The nanocellulose obtained by sonification has been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Diameter of nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 30-40 nm and that of produced by soda-AQ pulping method were 10-20 nm. The nanocellulose crystallinity for chemical method obtained 60% and for that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method was 66%. The degradation onset temperature for nanocellulose from rice husk by chemical method was 165°C and that of produced with soda-AQ pulping method were 188°c. The thermal behaviors of nanocellulose and purified cellulose were almost the same, suggesting the ultrasonic treatment had minor effect on the thermal decomposition of the nanocellulose.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  15. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate extended-release tablets of diclofenac sodium based on ispaghula husk. Methods: Tablets with varying proportions of diclofenac sodium and ispaghula husk were formulated by wet granulation technique at a fixed compression force of 10 kN. The formulated tablets were evaluated for ...

  16. Pozzolanicity and Some Engineering Properties of Rice Husk Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is an agro-waste material. It is found locally in abundance in Nigeria and many other parts of the world. Rice Husks pose environmental nuisance in developing countries. Efforts have been made to convert the material to economic usage. RHA is a form of pozzolan, a potential cementitious material.

  17. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs.

  18. Effect of Neem Seed Husk Ash on Concrete Strength Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neem Seed Husk is a by-product obtained during industrial processing of Neem Seed to extract oil and produce fertilizer. Laboratory tests on Neem seed husk ash (NSHA) mixed with cement were conducted to find its effect on concrete strength and workability. Tests including slump test, compressive strength test, concrete ...

  19. rice husk as filler rice husk as filler in the production of bricks using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    block [1].The effect of palm fruit fibre in clay bricks was also investigated by Akinyele and Abdulraheem,. [2], they observed ... the Rice Husk ash at 8% improves the compressive ... that 5% mix of the material acts as a filler in concrete because ...

  20. Amorphous silica from rice husk at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.J.; Feroze, N.; Tajwar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Rice husk is being used as a source of energy in many heat generating system because of its high calorific value and its availability in many rice producing areas. Rice husk contains approximately 20% silica which is presented in hydrated form. This hydrated silica can be retrieved as amorphous silica under controlled thermal conditions. Uncontrolled burning of rice husk produces crystalline silica which is not reactive silica but can be used as filler in many applications. Amorphous silica is reactive silica which has better market value due to its reactive nature in process industry. The present study deals with the production of amorphous silica at various temperatures from rice husk. Various ashes were prepared in tube furnace by changing the burning temperatures for fixed time intervals and analyzed by XRD. It has been observed that for two hours calculation's of rice husk renders mostly amorphous silica at 650 degree C where as at higher temperatures crystalline silica was obtained. (author)

  1. Anaerobic degradation of coconut husk leachate using UASB-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neena, C; Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2007-07-01

    Reffing of coconut husk, the majorprocess in quality coir fibre extraction, causes serious pollution with brackish water lagoons of Kerala. An attempt is made to treat the coconut husk leachate by using a laboratory scale UASB-reactor The experiment was conducted with loading of leachate from 1 kg of fresh coconut husk. The anaerobic treatment was done continuously The parameters like VFA, pH, COD and polyphenols were analysed regularly during the evaluation of the reactor performance. The polyphenol, VFA and COD were diminished gradually with time. The pH of the reactor during the study was found to be in the range of 6-8. The biogas production was increased with loading and about 82% of the total COD/kg husk could be converted to biogas. The maximum polyphenol loading in the reactor was reached to about 298.51 mg/l of husk.

  2. High Purity Silica Production from Rice Husk Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaminn Lwin; April Nwayy Nwayy Htett

    2010-12-01

    In this research, two types of raw material source, rice husk and rice husk ash, were used. Among the rice husk samples, taungpyan sample was chosen because it contains the maximum silica content and treated with (1,3,5) wt% sulphuric acid (96% concentration) and citric acid (99% concentration). These acid treated taungpyan samples and nonacid treated taungpyan sample were burned at 900C for 30 min. For rice husk ash samples, ash samples from fluidized combustor, fluidized gasifier and brick factory were collected. All of the rice husk ash samples were purified by alkaline extraction method with (2-3) N NaOH solution and followed by acid precipitation method with 5 N H2SO4 solution. According to the analysis and characterization, acid treated taungpyan sample (5 wt% citric acid) with the highest silica content (99.906 wt% and crystallization form) was obtained.

  3. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  4. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mandavgane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as aconcrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc.Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitatedfrom the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica containedin RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The resultsshowed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size.Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usuallycontains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon alreadypresent in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  5. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Shelke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as a concrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc. Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitated from the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica contained in RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The results showed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size. Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usually contains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon already present in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  6. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  7. Reactivity studies of rice husk combustion using TGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.F.; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Mahdi, F.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity of rice husks combustion is systematically studied the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The kinetic parameters are determined from the Arrhenius plots based on the data of weight loss over temperature at different combustion heating rates. The results of proximate analysis (the moisture, volatile matters, fixed carbon, and ash contents) are also presented in this paper. The effects of process conditions on the self-ignition phenomenon of rice husk combustion are quantified. Finally, these results and compared with results for coal combustion. This research is part of the work to determine the optimal process conditions of rice husk combustion for energy production. (Author)

  8. Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk: Part 2: Coconut husk morphology, composition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Putten, van der J.C.; Anayron, C.; Josol, F.; Peralta, A.

    2006-01-01

    For production of compression moulded boards from whole coconut husk the auto-adhesive properties are derived from the intrinsic high lignin content. Since the properties of manufactured boards for a large part will depend on the input husk material these properties are studied here. Husks of

  9. Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... The industrial use of this plant generates large amounts of husk fiber as ... high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade and purchased from ..... Peng Z, Hayasaka Y, Iland PG, Sefton M, Hoj P, Waters EJ (2001).

  10. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    start and improve combustion, three types of fuel namely; cocoa husk, palm bunches and palm nut cake was ... Cameroon is one of the main coffee producing countries. Its annual .... American santosrican chemical society symposium series,.

  11. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of rice husk surface modified with maleated polypropylene and silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B.-D.; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Kwang Ho; Singh, A.P.; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Y.S.

    2004-01-01

    Rice husks were subjected to dry-grinding and steam-explosion to reduce their sizes. Subsequently, the surface of rice husk particles was modified using two different coupling agents, maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS, A-1100) to induce chemical reactions between the husk surface and the coupling agents used. The modified surface properties of rice husk were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry grinding, a simple method of fracturing husk, provided particulate segments, while steam explosion separated husk into fibrous components. When treated with MAPP, the O/C ratio of the husk surface decreased for both dry ground and steam-exploded husk. The γ-APS treatment resulted in an increase in the Si/O ratio for dry ground husk surface while this ratio decreased for steam-exploded husk particles. These results indicated that both coupling agents might be linked to the husk surface through chemical reactions. FT-IR results also supported the occurrence of ester and ether bonds after treatment of husks with MAPP and γ-APS. The present work suggested that the method of preparing rice husk particles had a great impact on their surface properties, and would therefore affect the interfacial adhesion in rice husk-thermoplastic composites

  13. Afrique occidentale et centrale — De nouveaux défis relevés avec ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 janv. 2011 ... Ainsi, les éleveurs de l'Afrique occidentale et centrale doivent composer avec un certain nombre de changements écologiques et sociaux, tels que la vente de pâturages à des agriculteurs. La privatisation de superficies qui étaient jusque-là réservées à la vaine pâture occasionne souvent des problèmes ...

  14. Transformer l'agriculture en Afrique centrale et occidentale grâce à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2017 ... La productivité agricole en Afrique centrale et occidentale demeure faible, mais il existe un solide potentiel de recherche pour améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition dans la région. La mise en place d'une production agricole durable est essentielle à des stratégies efficaces pour une croissance ...

  15. MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE MODIFIED RICE HUSK FILLED PVC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Navin Chand; Bhajan Das Jhod

    2008-01-01

    Unmodified and modified rice husk powder filled PVC composites were prepared having different amounts of rice husk powder. Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these composites were determined. The tensile strength of rice husk powder PVC composites having 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 weight percent of rice husk powder was found to be 33.9, 19.4, 18.1, 14.6, and 9.5 MPa, respectively. Adding of maleic anhydride- modified rice husk powder improved the tensile strength of rice husk powder...

  16. Toxicidade do extrato aquoso das folhas de Anacardium humile para Bemisia tuberculata Toxicity of aqueous extract of Anacardium humile leaves on Bemisia tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nézio Nery de Andrade Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; no entanto, não há produtos registrados para seu controle. Produtos vegetais podem constituir em alternativa viável de controle de insetos e, por sua fotodegradabilidade, diminuir os riscos ao ambiente e ao homem. Objetivou-se, por meio deste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do extrato aquoso do "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae, nas concentrações de 2,0; 0,8; 0,4 e 0,05%, sobre a biologia de B. tuberculata, bem como identificar a classe de metabólitos secundários presentes no referido extrato. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob temperatura de 26±4°C. O extrato aquoso de A. humile causou aumento da duração da fase larval e mortalidade significativamente superior à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile provoca mortalidade em ninfas de B. tuberculata e alongamento da fase das ninfas sobreviventes. O extrato aquoso de folhas de A. humile apresenta taninos, açúcares redutores e saponinas, e o seu índice de espuma (Índice Afrosimétrico é de 1250.The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923 (Hem.: Aleyrodidae is the main pest of cassava crops in Mato Grosso do Sul state, however there are no products registered for its control. Plant products may represent a viable alternative for insect pest control and, due to their photo-degradability, they may reduce risks to the environment and to man. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of "cajuzinho-do-cerrado" Anacardium humile St Hill (Anacardeaceae aqueous leaf extract on the biology of B. tuberculata at the concentrations 2.0; 0.8; 0.4; 0.05%, as well as to identify the class of secondary metabolites present in the referred extract. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at a temperature of 26±4°C. The

  17. removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution using rice husks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    extraction (Rohaizer et al. 2013). ... activated carbon, zeolites, clays and mesoporous silicas ... Extraction of Silica from Rice Husks Ash. Rice husks ... for 16 hours after which the solid materials .... liquid phase and adsorbed phase, based on.

  18. analytical method to determine the potential of using rice husk for off

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    electricity and heat from rice husk were analysed using sets of thermo-chemical and ... Keywords: rice husk ash, renewable energy, heat generation, CHP, gasifier-gas turbine CHP. 1. ... boiler to complete the Rankine cycle on which the.

  19. Potential of rice husks for antimony removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Nasir; Ahmad, Shujaat; Toheed, Aqidat; Ahmed, Jamil

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of rice husks for antimony ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of appropriate electrolyte, equilibration time, hydrogen ions, amount of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, effect of diverse ions and temperature. The best conditions in which this material can be used as adsorbent have been explored. The radiotracer technique was employed to determine the distribution of antimony ( 122 Sb) using a batch method. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol L -1 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 1.0 g of adsorbent for 1.92x10 -5 mol L -1 antimony concentration in 10 min equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all the acids. The adsorption data follow the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 1.92x10 -5 to 2.05x10 -4 mol L -1 antimony concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants i.e., 1/n=0.82±0.05 and K=4.61±0.07 m mol g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. The uptake of antimony increases with the rise in temperature (299-323 K). Thermodynamic quantities i.e., ΔG 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔH 0 have also been calculated for the system. The sorption process was found to be endothermic

  20. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Barón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  1. Partenariat entre l'Afrique occidentale et l'Afrique centrale pour la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des taux élevés de décès maternels et de grossesses précoces persistent en Afrique occidentale et centrale. Les efforts de recherche et de programmation ne parviennent pas à réduire ces taux de façon durable. Le défi consiste à relier les données sur les interventions en santé utiles avec les données sur l'exécution ...

  2. LA COMPARAISON DE LA MUSIQUE TURQUE ET OCCIDENTALE EN MATIERE DE GAMME, RYTHME ET TONALITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Kolukirik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir fini mon Doctorat en musique à l’université d’Ankara en Turquie, j’ai travaillé en tant que Maitre de conférences à l’université de Nevşehir. J’ai alors été contacté par le Conservatoire Claude Debussy, situé dans le 17eme arrondissement de Paris, afin d’effectuer une recherche comparative sur le Jazz et la musique folklorique Turque. Dans ce contexte j'ai participé aux cours de jazz de Philippe Poussard avec mon instrument authentique turc nommé "bağlama". Avec ce dernier nous avons joué des chansons folkloriques Turques, et j'ai ressenti que lui et ses étudiants ont été impressionnés par la musique que nous avons jouée ensemble, enimprovisant. Nous avons ensuite discuté de différents sujets à propos des musiques Turque et Occidentale. J'ai alors constaté que les étudiants de ce conservatoire n'ont aucune connaissance sur la musique Turque en générale. J'ai alors décidé d’effectuer une analyse théorique sur les questions fondamentales de la musique Occidentale etde la musique Turque. Je pense qu'il est important de donner des informations sur la théorie de la musique dans les établissements scolaires occidentaux. Ceci est important pour la communication entre les deux cultures musicales. En rédigeant mon article j'ai utilisé la méthode d'analyse de documents. J'ai aussi utilisé mes expériences personnelles acquises au Conservatoire pour faire un travail de comparaison appliquée. J'ai constaté qu'en termes de gamme, rythme et tonalité il y avait beaucoup de différences mais également des similitudes dans la musique Turque et Occidentale. L'objectif de cet article est de comparer les théories musicales Turque et Occidentale c’est à dire étudier leurs aspects similaires et différents en terme de gamme, rythme et de tonalité.

  3. Assessment of functional traits in the assemblage of endophytic fungi of anacardium othonianum rizzini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, P. S.; Senabio, J. A.; Soares, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain symbiotic relationships with microorganisms as a strategy to withstand adversities. From this exchange, organisms receive photoassimilates and provide benefits to the plant. Anacardium othonianum Rizzini, locally known as caju-de-arvore-do-cerrado (tree cashew of the cerrado), is a tree species of the family Anacardiaceae nativeto the Midwest region of Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic fungal community, its functional traits and its association with the roots of A. othonianum. The roots of A. othonianum were fragmented (1 cm) and inoculated in medium for the isolation of endophytic microorganisms. The molecular identification of the isolates was performed through the partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The endophytic isolates were tested for the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization through the colorimetric method. The root fragments were cleared, stained and examined under a microscope. Structures characteristic of endomycorrhizal and endophytic microorganisms were found on the slides analyzed. A total of 67 fungal strains were isolated and identified in 12 species: Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, Periconia macrospinosa, Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, Penicillium kloeckeri, Eupenicillium shearii, Phomopsis asparagi, Penicillium pinophilum, Agaricomycetes sp., Diaporthe sp., Cladosporium cladosporioide sand Paecilomyces lilacinus. All the genera found have been reported in the literature as endophytic species. It can be concluded that A. othonianum maintains associations with endomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Twelve endophytic strains were isolated from A. othonianum Rizzini, seven of which have potential for phosphate solubilization and IAA synthesis. (author)

  4. Radiographic image analysis of Anacardium othonianum Rizz (anacardiaceae achenes subjected to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Abadia da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the internal morphology and seed quality of native species are essential for successful conservation programs. Our aim was to verify the efficiency of X-ray imagery in evaluating cashew-tree-of-the-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz. achene viability after desiccation. The achenes were collected at 12% water content (w.b. and dried in silica gel until they reached 10, 8, 6, and 4% (w.b.. The fruit morphology and the quality of the seeds were evaluated by X-ray test together with vigor, electrical conductivity and emergence tests. Achenes with different water contents were exposed to an X-ray machine at 18 kV for 11 s and were thereafter submitted to emergence tests. The images were analyzed, and the achenes were classified based on internal morphology as completely full, malformed, or empty. These results were compared to those from the emergence tests. The statistical design was a complete randomized factorial (5 x 3. Desiccation to 4% (w.b. did not damage or modify the internal structures. X-ray was efficient in evaluating the internal morphology and detecting achene quality, making it possible to remove empty and abnormal fruit and form vigorous seed lots, reducing the cost of storage and bedding plant production for this native species.

  5. Phase identification of SiO/sub/2 in rice husk ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Hussain, K.; Shah, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor grade silicon is generally used in the manufacture of highly efficient solar cells. In this paper, we describe rice husk ash (RHA) as a viable raw material for obtaining silica. Rice husk contains about 15 percent silica. Rice husk ash is prepared by first burning rice husk in air at a temperature of 300 degree centigrade and then firing it in alumina crucibles in a muffle furnace upto 1200 degree centigrade. Rice husk ash is then ground into fine powder and its X-ray diffraction pattern is obtained in order to studies its structure at various temperatures of preparation. (author/A.B)

  6. Influência do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico na formação de raízes do alporque de cajueiro Anão Precoce (Anacardium Occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Célio Guedes Almeida

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O cajueiro é uma planta geralmente propagada por semente. Sua multiplicação vegetativa ainda não é comercialmente viável. Neste estudo os efeitos do estiolamento e do ácido indolebutírico (AIB na formação de raízes do alporque da planta de caju foram investigados. O estiolamento foi realizado 30 dias antes do início do processo de alporquia. Por ocasião do anelamento do ramo, o AIB foi aplicado. Após 30 dias da realização da alporquia, os ramos já enraizados foram removidos da planta progenitora. Em seguida foram colocados em saco plástico na casa de vegetação sob condições de irrigação intermitente. Os resultados sugeriram um prévio estiolamento do ramo antes do processo de alporquia e uma aplicação de AIB, por ocasião do anelamento para, garantir a sobrevivência do alporque após o desmame.The Cashew tree is usually propagated by seed since vegetative multiplication has not been fully satisfactory. In this work the effects of etiolation and AIB on air layered branches of the cashew tree were studied. Previous to airlayering procedure, the branches were etiolated during 30 days. The AIB was applied when the bark of the stem was cut. After 30 days the layers were removed from the parent plant at which roots stage were observed through the transparent bag. The rooted layers were planted in polyethylene bags and placed in a greenhouse under an intermitent-mist water spray condition. The results show that the previous etiolation and application of AIB to the exposed wound were beneficial to increase rooting and survival of cashew air layers.

  7. Goma de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale: Avaliação das modificações químicas e físicas por extrusão termoplástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelita C. S. Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Países tropicais, como o Brasil, são depositários de uma grande variedade de fontes de polissacarídeos vegetais conhecidos e outros ainda não explorados que possuem grande potencial em aplicações industriais. Alguns estudos reportam a possibilidade de aplicação industrial da goma exsudada do cajueiro em substituição à goma arábica devido à semelhança estrutural e química. Neste estudo propôs-se caracterizar comparativamente algumas propriedades destas duas gomas, antes e após dois tratamentos de extrusão termoplástica. Nos resultados de composição centesimal as amostras de goma de cajueiro in natura e processadas destacaram-se pelo alto teor de fibra solúvel. Por outro lado, apresentaram menor teor de minerais que a goma arábica. Por meio da análise de viscosidade rápida, foi observado que este parâmetro aumentou nas amostras de goma arábica processadas, enquanto nas amostras processadas de goma de cajueiro houve redução. Nos resultados da análise de difração de raios X predominou-se a conformação amorfa das cadeias poliméricas de ambas as amostras. A partir dos parâmetros avaliados, a goma de cajueiro poderia ser indicada como substituta da goma arábica.

  8. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    -MS/MS). The average water content and the cashew nuts count were respectively 8.6% and 172 nuts/kg in NG and 8.7% and 174 nuts/kg in SS. Significant differences between villages in both zones were found for both water content and nuts count. In disinfected samples, strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were...... contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC...

  9. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Vels College of Pharmacy, Pallavaram, Chennai, India, 2Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, ... Keywords: Ispaghula husk, Extended release tablet, Diclofenac sodium, Release kinetics. .... release, i.e., Qt vs t, log (Q0-Qt) vs t and Qt vs .... Wallis TE, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, CBS.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk charcoal bio briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Salsabila, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rice husk is the outermost part of the rice seed which is a hard layer and a waste material from rice milling. Rice husk includes biomass that can be exploited for various requirements such as industrial raw materials as well as energy sources or fuel but only a small group of people use it. This research is conducted utilizing the rice husk as an alternative fuel by making it as a charcoal briquette. To make the treatment easy, firstly the rice husk biomass was converted into charcoal powder by carbonization method using two kinds of furnace which have different heating behavior. The best carbonization results are obtained from the furnace, which has a constant temperature heating behavior. The process of making briquettes is prepared by adding tapioca starch of 6% concentration by weight as charcoal adhesive and then printed with the aid of pressing tools using loads at 1,000 kg/cm2. The resulting briquette has a calorific value about 3.126 cal/g, mass density is 0.86 g/cm3 and compressive strength is about 2.02 kg/cm2, so that the bio-briquette of charcoal produced can be used as alternative energy to replace the fossil fuel for domestic or household purposes.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  12. Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, ...

  13. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find ... eliminating the need for air-conditioning and are warm during the cold ... The mix properties were used in producing soil bricks of ...

  14. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  15. Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract from Cocos nucifera L. Davi Oliveira e Silva, Gabriel Rocha Martins, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Daniela Sales Alviano, Rodrigo Pires Nascimento, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan, Celuta Sales Alviano ...

  16. RICE-HUSK ASH-CARBIDE-WASTE STABILIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a ... of 5.7 % and resistance to loss in strength of 84.1 %, hence the recommendation of the mixture for use as sub-base material in flexible pavement construction.

  17. Removal of arsenic from drinking water using rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Rice husk adsorption column method has proved to be a promising solution for arsenic (As) removal over the other conventional methods. The present work investigates the potential of raw rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of arsenic [As(V)] from drinking water. Effects of various operating parameters such as diameter of column, bed height, flow rate, initial arsenic feed concentration and particle size were investigated using continuous fixed bed column to check the removal efficiency of arsenic. This method shows maximum removal of As, i.e., 90.7 % under the following conditions: rice husk amount 42.5 g; 7 mL/min flow rate in 5 cm diameter column at the bed height of 28 cm for 15 ppb inlet feed concentration. Removal efficiency was increased from 83.4 to 90.7 % by reducing the particle size from 1.18 mm to 710 µm for 15 ppb concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were employed to discuss the adsorption behavior. The effect of different operating parameters on the column adsorption was determined using breakthrough curves. In the present study, three kinetic models Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson were applied to find out the saturated concentration, fixed bed adsorption capacity and time required for 50 % adsorbate breakthrough, respectively. At the end, solidification was done for disposal of rice husk.

  18. Comparative utilization of biodegraded and undegraded rice husk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible improvement in the nutritional composition of rice husk (RH) was attempted through Solid State Fermentation with the use of the fungus, Trichoderma viridii. A comparative utilization of the fermented RH (FRH), raw RH and a control diet was studied using parameters like performance and nutrient utilization ...

  19. Compressive Strength Of Rice Husk Ash-Cement Sandcrete Blocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing demand for alternative, low-cost building material in developing countries. The effect of partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of hollow sandcrete block was investigated through laboratory experimental procedures. The specific gravity, initial ...

  20. Binderless board and moulded products produced from whole coconut husks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high strength - high density board materials from whole coconut husks, without the addition of chemical binders. The board material has been shown to exhibit excellent properties, which are comparable with or even superior to commercial

  1. EFFECT OF REPLACING COCOA HUSK FOR WHEAT BRAN ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass yield, serum metabolites and economy of production of cockerels were studied for 12 weeks to determine the effect of replacing wheat bran with cocoa husk at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Results of eviscerated yield were statistically different (P<0.05). Highest eviscerated yield of 70.52% was obtained from 25% ...

  2. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation on cocoa pod husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a major agro-industrial residue in Ghana with a potential value as a low-cost unconventional feedstuff for livestock. However, its effective use is limited by poor nutrient composition, mainly due to its high lignocellulose or fibre and also low protein levels. White–rot fungi such as Pleurotus species ...

  3. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature. This generates multiple harmful ecological effects. The downward trend of coffee prices and the rise in the cost of manure has urged coffee farmers to better exploit the by-products of coffee transformation.

  4. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  5. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  6. Coffee husk waste for fermentation production of mosquitocidal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Abidha, S

    2011-12-01

    Coffee husk waste (CHW) discarded as bio-organic waste, from coffee industries, is rich in carbohydrates. The current study emphasizes the management of solid waste from agro-industrial residues for the production of biopesticides (Bacillus sphaericus, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis), to control disease transmitting mosquito vectors. An experimental culture medium was prepared by extracting the filtrates from coffee husk. A conventional culture medium (NYSM) also was prepared. The studies revealed that the quantity of mosquitocidal toxins produced from CHW is at par with NYSM. The bacteria produced in these media, were bioassayed against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti) and it was found that the toxic effect was statistically comparable. Cost-effective analysis have revealed that, production of biopesticides from CHW is highly economical. Therefore, the utilization of CHW provides dual benefits of effective utilization of environmental waste and efficient production of mosquitocidal toxins.

  7. Encapsulation of phase change materials using rice-husk-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondora, Wayne; Doudin, Khalid; Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Xiao, Bo; Ding, Yulong; Bridgwater, Tony; Yuan, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice-husk-char particles are successfully used in the encapsulation of phase change materials. • Carbon-based phase change microcapsules aim at using the high thermal conductivity of carbon materials. • Carbon from biomass can be used in low and intermediate heat harvest and storage. • Carbon in biomass is captured and to be used in improving energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper explored a new approach to prepare phase change microcapsules using carbon-based particles via Pickering emulsions for energy storage applications. Rice-husk-char, a by-product in biofuel production, containing 53.58 wt% of carbon was used as a model carbon-based material to encapsulate hexadecane. As a model phase change material, hexadecane was emulsified in aqueous suspensions of rice-husk-char nanoparticles. Water soluble polymers poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) were used to fix the rice-husk-char nanoparticles on the emulsion droplets through layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the structural stability of the microcapsules. The microcapsules formed are composed of a thin shell encompassing a large core consisting of hexadecane. Thermal gravimetrical and differential scanning calorimeter analyses showed the phase change enthalpy of 80.9 kJ kg"−"1 or 120.0 MJ m"−"3. Design criteria of phase change microcapsules and preparation considerations were discussed in terms of desired applications. This work demonstrated possible utilisations of biomass-originated carbon-based material for thermal energy recovery and storage applications, which can be a new route of carbon capture and utilisation.

  8. Adsorption Behavior of Trinitrotoluene by Rice Husk Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Trinitrotoluene could be adsorbed by many materials. The adsorption properties of Trinitrotoluene were studied in this paper by Rice husk carbon (RHC). The influence factors of pH value of Trinitrotoluene wastewater, adsorbent dosage and the ratio of dilution to wastewater were examined. The results of TG–DTA analysis showed that the main temperature ranges of thermal decomposition for the RHC was 324-467°C. The study indicates that RHC can be used in wastewater to removal Trinitrotoluene.

  9. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite

    OpenAIRE

    Musa ALHASSAN; Alhaji Mohammed MUSTAPHA

    2007-01-01

    Laterite soil collected from Maikunkele area of Minna, classified as an A-7-6 on AASHTO classification, was stabilized with 2-8% cement by weight of the dry soil. Using British Standard Light (BSL) compaction energy, the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on the soil was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) tests. Results obtained, indicate a general decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and increase in Op...

  10. Characteristics of silica rice husk ash from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, R.; Iriani, Y.; Nurosyid, F.; Fasquelle, D.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the countries in the world as the most abundant rice producer. Many researchers have demonstrated that the highest composition in the rice husk ash (RHA) is silica. Some of the advantages in utilizing silica as the raw material is the manufacture of ceramics, zeolite synthesis, fabrication of glass, electronic insulator materials, and as a catalyst. The amount of silica from rice husk ash is different for each region. Therefore, the study of silica from RHA is still promising, especially rice organic fertilizers. In this study, the rice came from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia. Rice husk was dried under the solar radiation. Then the rice husk was heated in two steps: the first step at a temperature of 300°C and the second step at a temperature of 1200°C with a holding time at 2 h and 1 h, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature of the second step was varied at 1400 °C and 1600 °C. This heating process produced RHA. The content of RHA was observed on the EDAX spectrums while the morphology was observed from SEM images. The crystal structure of RHA was determined from XRD spectrums. The EDAX spectrums showed that RHA composition was dominated by elements Si and O for all the heating temperature. SEM images showed an agglomeration towards larger domains as heating temperatures increase. Analysis of XRD spectra is polycrystalline silica formed with the significant crystal orientation at 101, 102 and 200. The intensity of 101 increases significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the crystal growth in the direction of 101 is preferred.

  11. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of rice husk for fuel upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerawattananonda, N.; Kongkaew, N.; Patumsawad, S.

    2018-01-01

    The biomass is popularly used as renewable energy. In Thailand rice is the most consume agricultural products. Agricultural residues from rice husk can be an energy resource. However, alkali and alkali earth materials (AAEMs) in biomass ash are the causes of corrosion and erosion problem in the heat exchanger equipment, while the acidity of ash affects the slagging agglomeration problem. Reduction of alkali and alkali earth materials can minimize the problem. In order to challenge the reduction of alkali and alkali earth materials in biomass ash, hydrothermal carbonization process was selected. Thai rice husk was used as sample to compare the result of treatment. The rice husk was heated under the condition of different temperature ranged from 180°C to 250°C, at operate pressure ranges from 12 bar to 42 bar with residence holding reaction time 1 hour. The results of proximate analysis show that the percentage by mass of fixed carbon are increased 2 times, but volatile matter is decreased by 40% and ash content is decreased by 11% due to the increment of temperature. Meanwhile, the X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis results show the decreasing of alkali and alkali earth materials are reduced.

  13. Microwave-induced torrefaction of rice husk and sugarcane residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.J.; Huang, Y.F.; Chiueh, P.T.; Kuan, W.H.; Lo, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized microwave irradiation to induce torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) of rice husk and sugarcane residues by varying different parameters, including microwave power level, processing time, water content, and particle size of biomass. Proper microwave power levels are suggested to be set between 250 and 300 W for the torrefaction of these two agricultural residues. With proper processing time, the caloric value can increase 26% for rice husk and 57% for sugarcane residue. Compared to dry rice husk, both maximum reaction temperature and mass reduction ratio increased with higher water content (not over 10%). Moreover, the particle size of biomass needs not to be very small. The mass reduction ratios were 65 wt.%, 69 wt.%, and 72 wt.%, when the sizes were 50/100 mesh, 100/200 mesh, and >200 mesh, respectively. Microwave-induced torrefaction reduces more oxygen/carbon ratio of biomass in comparison with traditional torrefaction. Microwave-induced torrefaction is considered as an efficient and promising technology with great potential. -- Highlights: ► Microwave-induced torrefaction is promising compared to conventional methods. ► Neither high microwave power nor small particle size is needed. ► High energy yield can be met under mild microwave power. ► Caloric value can increase up to about 60%.

  14. Porous silica from rice husk ash for tundish lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.M.Z; Ewais, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Type of materials as well as its compressive strength and degree of porosity are the determinal parameters for deciding the suitability of its usage as lining for tundish in continuous casting of steel. Silica is one of the materials suitable for such application. High porosity degree with high compressive strength of its compacts is special demands for increasing its efficiency. The suitability of producing porous silica compacts from the combustion of rice husk ash (RHA) appropriate for this application is the objective of the present work. Experimental design technique was used to evaluate the effect of different parameters (i.e. firing temperature, time and compaction pressure) controlling both porosity degree and compressive strength of rice husk ash compacts. The results revealed that while the porosity degree of the compacts decreased with increasing the entire studied parameters, its compressive strength exhibits another trend especially at lower soaking time. At lower soaking time, increasing firing temperature leads to a slight decrease in the compressive strength and then increased thereafter. Porous silica compacts having 30% porosity and > 25 kg/cm/sup 2/ compressive strength suitable for tundish lining could obtain from the combustion of rice husk ash compacts. (author)

  15. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on the...

  16. Contributo di dati di gravità nella valutazione del vulcanismo CAMP in Africa Nord-Occidentale

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Julius

    2015-01-01

    2013/2014 La domanda alla base di questa ricerca è stata se il metodo della gravimetria satellitare possa essere utilizzato per seguire le unità geologiche anche in luoghi difficilmente accessibili. L’obiettivo di questa ricerca è di verificare se le missioni satellitari di nuova generazione permettano di identificare la più grande delle province ignee della Terra (Bertrand et al., 2013), nota come CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) in Africa nord-occidentale. Oltre alle motivazioni...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1964-01-13

    ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. L. BY THOMAS M. VARGHESE AND Y. P. S. PUNDIR. (School of Plant Morphology, Meerut College, Meerut). Received January 13, 1964. (Communicated by Prof. V. Puri, F.A.Sc.) INTRODUCTION. Anacardium occidentale L., a native of Brazil, is one of the economically important species of ...

  18. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  19. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Characteristics of Kiwira Coal Waste with Rice Husk Blends for Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatus Kazawadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eminent depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution are the key forces driving the implementation cofiring of fossil fuels and biomass. Cogasification as a technology is known to have advantages of low cost, high energy recovery, and environmental friendliness. The performance/efficiency of this energy recovery process substantially depends on thermal properties of the fuel. This paper presents experimental study of thermal behavior of Kiwira coal waste/rice husks blends. Compositions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% weight percentage rice husk were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer at the heating rate of 10 K/min to 1273 K. Specifically, degradation rate, conversion rate, and kinetic parameters have been studied. Thermal stability of coal waste was found to be higher than that of rice husks. In addition, thermal stability of coal waste/rice husk blend was found to decrease with an increase of rice husks. In contrast, both the degradation and devolatilization rates increased with the amount of rice husk. On the other hand, the activation energy dramatically reduced from 131 kJ/mol at 0% rice husks to 75 kJ/mol at 100% rice husks. The reduction of activation energy is advantageous as it can be used to design efficient performance and cost effective cogasification process.

  20. Effect of utilizing unground and ground normal and black rice husk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of utilizing different processings of normal rice husk ash (RHA) and black rice husk ash (BRHA) on the mechanical and durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC). Mechanical and durability properties of HSC were evaluated on concrete mixes containing ...

  1. Rice husk ash with high carbon content proves favourable for soil stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, P.V.; van der Star, WRL; van Paassen, L.A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rice husk ash is a promising pozzolanic material produced from rice husk burning and has significant potential a sustainable replacement for cement in construction and ground improvement applications. In this study the effect of burning conditions on the ash reactivity and its potential for soil

  2. the suitability of lime rice husk ash cement as construction material

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. ... It was therefore concluded that high percentage contents of silica, ... the Lime Rice Husk Ash cement when used as a construction material would depend ... thermal treatment of the silica in the husk .... test specimen in their moulds were stored in a.

  3. Use of Agro-Residues (Rice Husk) in Removal of some Radioisotopes from their Waste Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Removal of some radioisotopes namely ( 152 + 154 )Eu and 60 Co from radioactive waste solutions by natural rice husk (NRh) and modified rice husk with different concentrations of citric acid (MCA) had been investigated. The obtained results indicated that the modification of rice husk using citric acid generated large population of surface acid sites and improved the adsorption characteristics of adsorbent. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy and surface area were carried out for both non-modified and modified rice husk samples. The influences of ph, contact time and initial metal ion concentration on sorption had been reported. Pseudo first-order and intra particle diffusion models were used to analyze the sorption rate data. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess the maximum sorption capacity of both studied radionuclides on rice husk and modified rice husk. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The tested models fit the data reasonably well in terms of regression coefficients. The maximum sorption capacity of modified rice husk was found to be greater than that of rice husk for both ions.

  4. Effects of rice husk ash and termite hill types on the physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This waste can be recycled through inclusion as stabilizer in brick making, thereby eliminating the hazard posed to the environment. This paper examined the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) on the two termite clay soils in brick making. The two termite clay soils obtained from red and gray anthills were stabilized with rice husk ...

  5. Effect of rice husk Biochar (RHB) on some of chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biochemical effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) obtained from pyrolysis of rice husk under limited oxygen conditions for three hours at temperature of 500 °C. Then, the effect of addition of 2 and 4% biochar to acidic soil was studied. The samples were stored in greenhouse ...

  6. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  7. Immobilization of cellulose producing cells (sporotrichum cellulophilum) using irradiated rice husk as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lina, M.R.; Tamada, M.; Kumakura, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of irradiated rice husk as a substrate on cellulase production of free and immobilized cells of S. cellulophium was carried out. Radiation pretreatment of rice husk was done using electron beam accelerator (Dynamitron IEA 3000-25,2), with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 MGy. The substrate used in cellulase production of free and immobilized cells were cellulose powder as a standard, and 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk. Concentrations of cellulose powder for free and immobilized cells were 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8% (w/v). Irradiated rice husk concentrations for free cells were 3, 6, 9, 15, and 24% (w/v), whereas for immobilized cells were 3, 6, and 9% (w/v). Results showed that glucose concentration in 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk was the highest of all irradiated and unirradiated rice husks. The GPA (glucose production activity) values used of free immobilized cells of S. cellulophium in medium containing 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk were about 50% lower than in cellulose powder medium. Cellulase solution resulted by immobilized cells, either in cellulose powder or in irradiated rice husk media, were clear and did not contain mycelium. (authors). 7 refs, 7 figs

  8. Rice Husk as Filler in the Production of Bricks Using Gboko Clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers and rice millers normally burn the rice husk (RH)as fuel in milling which leads to air pollution. This study looked at ways of converting the husk into materials for the construction industry. Chemical composition of RH and Gboko clay soil were investigated using X-ray diffraction test. Four grades (75, 150, 300, 425 ...

  9. Synthesis of SiC from rice husk in a plasma reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    air pollution and ash disposal has proven to be an unsatis- factory solution. Fortunately, rice husk contains the nece- ssary carbon and silica, intimately dispersed, to provide a nearly ideal source material for production of SiC, an industrially important ceramic material. Rice husk was first used by Cutler (1973) as a starting ...

  10. Effect of rice husk Biochar (RHB) on some of chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biochemical effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) obtained from pyrolysis of rice husk under limited oxygen conditions for three hours at temperature of 500 °C. Then, the effect of addition of 2 .... (pH = 7) and potassium non-binder with nitric acid a normal boiling water.

  11. Partial Placement of Maize with Cocoa Husks Meals in Layers Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial replacement value of cocoa husk meals for maize in laying hen diets were assessed under an on-farm condition, Urea-treated and untreated cocoa husk meals were each incorporated into the farmer's layer mash (FLM) to replace 25% of the maize portion. FLM contained 40% maize. Six groups of 15 laying hens ...

  12. THE COMPRESSIVE AND FLEXURAL STRENGTHS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE USING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD NOR ATAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the compressive and flexural strengths of self-compacting concrete incorporating raw rice husk ash, individually and in combination with other types of mineral additives, as partial cement replacement. The additives paired with raw rice husk ash were fine limestone powder, pulverized fuel ash and silica fumes. The mix design was based on the rational method where solid constituents were fixed while water and superplasticizer contents were adjusted to produce optimum viscosity and flowability. All mixes were designed to achieve SF1 class slump-flow with conformity criteria ≥ 520 mm and ≤ 700 mm. Test results show that 15% replacement of cement using raw rice husk ash produced grade 40 concrete. It was also revealed that 30% and 45% cement replacements using raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and raw rice husk ash combined with limestone powder and silica fume respectively, produced comparable compressive strength to normal concrete and improved flexural strengths.

  13. Phytocompounds and modulatory effects of Anacardium microcarpum (cajui on antibiotic drugs used in clinical infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa-Filho VM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Valter M Barbosa-Filho,1,2 Emily P Waczuk,2 Nadghia F Leite,3 Irwin RA Menezes,1 José GM da Costa,1 Sírleis R Lacerda,1 Isaac A Adedara,2 Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho,4 Thais Posser,5 Jean P Kamdem2,6 1Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; 3Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS, 4Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA, Crato, CE, Brazil; 5Campus São Gabriel, Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil; 6Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básica da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, and methanolic fraction (MF from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results: Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 µg/mL. However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 µg/mL significantly modulated

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  15. Nanostructured silicon nitride from wheat and rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Wollmershauser, J. A.; Feng, C. R. [Materials Science and Component Technology Directorate, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Nanoparticles, submicron-diameter tubes, and rods of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat and rice husks at temperatures at and above 1300 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The whole pattern Rietveld analysis of the observed diffraction data from treatments at 1300 °C showed the formation of only hexagonal α-phase of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with an R-factor of 1%, whereas samples treated at 1400 °C and above showed both α- and β-phases with an R-factor of 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of tubes, rods, and nanoparticles of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In a two-step process, where pure SiC was produced first from rice or wheat husk in an argon atmosphere and subsequently treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1450 °C, a nanostructured composite material having α- and β-phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} combined with cubic phase of SiC was formed. The thermodynamics of the formation of silicon nitride is discussed in terms of the solid state reaction between organic matter (silica content), which is inherently present in the wheat and rice husks, with the nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere. Nanostructures of silicon nitride formed by a single direct reaction or their composites with SiC formed in a two-step process of agricultural byproducts provide an uncomplicated sustainable synthesis route for silicon nitride used in mechanical, biotechnology, and electro-optic nanotechnology applications.

  16. Rice Husk Ash (RHA): radon remediations and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Beena; Sharma, Jyoti; Kant, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Rice Husk Ash has been used to obstruct the diffusion of radon through building materials and it has been reported that the substitution of 20-30% rice husk ash with cement leads to lower radon diffusion and exhalation rates with higher compressive strength as compared to control concrete. It can also be used to treat dyes. The waste water containing dyes is very difficult to treat, since the dyes are recalcitrant organic molecules, resistant to aerobic digestion, and are stable to light, heat and oxidising agents. Light is one of the components which aquatic organisms require for their development and any deficit caused by coloured effluent leads to an imbalance of the ecosystem. Because of increasingly stringent restrictions on the organic content of industrial effluents, it is necessary and important to eliminate dyes from wastewater before it is discharged. In the present work, thermodynamic study of adsorption of Amaranth dye on to steam activated pigmented carbon prepared from rice husk (Oryza sativa) was investigated. The adsorbent was investigated under variable system parameters, such as initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dose and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium studied both by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Linearity of the Langmuir isotherm plots indicate the chemical nature of the interactions while the linear Freundlich isotherms point to non specific and energetically non - uniform nature of the adsorption sites. The values of Langmuir monolayer capacity (q m ) are between 0.9 and 1.0 mg/g. The results obtained indicate a potential use of SAPRHC for removing dyes like Amaranth dye from water. (author)

  17. Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang, E-mail: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400–800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<−5 dB and −10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for −5 dB and −10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400–800 for EM absorption is 1.5–2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between −28.9 and −68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7–13 GHz for RL<−5 dB and 3.2–6.2 GHz for RL<−10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400–800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers. - Highlights: • RN400–800 samples are potential light-weight electromagnetic absorbers. • Carbon and SiC are considered as dominating contributions for the dielectric loss. • Magnesiumothermic reduction extends the EM wave absorption potential of RHN.

  18. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  19. Xylitol production from rice husk using candida guilliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba C Marcela; Velez U Tatiana; Arias Z, Mario; Arrazola P, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    In this study was used rice husk, previously hydrolyzed with diluted sulfuric acid at 121 Celsius degrade C and 15 psig, with a residence time 60 min. The initial concentration of substrate, inoculum, and relationship between media volume/flask volume and their combined effects were studied on the production of xylitol. The initial concentrations of 80 g/l xylose and 5 g/l inoculum led the best xylitol production (45.2 g/l), productivity (0.23 g/loH) and yield (0.57 g/g).

  20. Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state cultivation (SSC was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husk and spent-ground as substrates for the production of edible mushroom Flammulina under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. The strain of F. velutipes LPB 01 was adapted for a coffee husk extract medium. Best results were obtained with 25% spawn rate, though there was not much difference when lower spawn rates (10-20% were used. Ideal moisture content for mycelial growth was 60% and 55% for coffee husk and spent-ground, respectively. With coffee husk as substrate, first fructification occurred after 25 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 56% with two flushes after 40 days. With spent-ground as substrate, first fructification occurred 21 days after inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 78% in 40 days. There was decrease in the caffeine and tannins contents (10.2 and 20.4%, respectively in coffee husk after 40 days. In coffee spent-ground, the tannin contents decreased by 28% after 40 days. These decrease was attributed to the degradation of caffeine or tannins by the culture because these were not adsorbed in the fungal mycelia. Results showed the feasibility of using coffee husk and coffee spent-ground as substrate without any nutritional supplementation for cultivation of edible fungus in SSC. Spent ground appeared better than coffee husk.

  1. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  2. Solid State production of manganese peroxidases using arecanut husk as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Rajan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The lignocellulosic biomass from arecanut husk (Areca catechu Linnaeus was evaluated as a new substrate for cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sp for solid state fermentation of manganese peroxidase (MnP. Arecanut had a moisture content of 79.84 % for ripe nut husk whereas green nut husk had 68.39 % moisture and a pH of 5.0, 3.0 and 7.0 for raw, ripe and dry husk. Reducing sugar content was 14.31, 19.21 and 1.77(mg/g of husk for raw, ripe and dry nut husk, respectively. Non reducing sugar was 1.04(mg/g of husk for raw and 0.68 (mg/g of husk for dry husk. Solid state fermentation carried out at different pH showed optimum enzyme production at pH 6.0 (52.60 IU/g for P.chrysosporium and pH 5.0 (44.08 IU/g for Phanerochaete sp. Optimum temperature was 30 ± 2º C for both the organisms. Lower concentration of MnSO4 (0.1 mM MnSO4 induced maximum enzyme production in P.chrysosporium whereas Phanerochaete sp. required 1 mM MnSO4 for induction. Absence of carbon and nitrogen stimulated enzyme production in P.chrysosporium while Phanerochaete sp. needed nitrogen. Enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography.

  3. Ultrastructural characterization of rice husk submitted to different pretreatments to optimize its fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhoneux, B de; Gerlache, L; Clemente, A; Roda-Santos, M L; Menaia, J A.G.; Fernandes, T H

    1988-01-01

    Silica distribution in rice husk was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Silica appeared as a solid structure in the outer epidermis and as a dispersed system inside the husk. Pretreatments (steam autoclaving, water autoclaving, alkaline leaching, gamma irradiation, and ultra sound) were applied in order to achieve an improvement in rice husk digestibility. Alkaline leaching removed a significant part of the silica structure, therefore allowing a larger area of exposure of the cell wall polymers to the degrading enzymes. Among the pretreatments, alkaline leaching appeared to be the most useful, while others seemed not to be very successful in attaining the desired effect.

  4. Production of technical silicon and silicon carbide from rice-husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are studied physical and chemical properties of silicon-carbonic raw material – rice-husk, thermophysical characteristics of the process of rice-husk pyrolysis in nonreactive and oxidizing environment; structure and phase composition of products of the rice-husk pyrolysis in interval of temperatures 150 – 850 °С and high temperature pyrolysis in interval of temperatures 900 – 1 500 °С. There are defined the silicon-carbon production conditions, which meet the requirements applicable to charging materials at production of technical silicon and silicon carbide.

  5. Use or rice husk ash an addition in mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. Isabel

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of a 400-litre capacity pilot furnace, in which 40 Kg of rice husk is submitted to controlled combustion, an ash (RHA is obtained for use as an addition, the physicochemical properties of which form the focal point of this work. Results will also be presented for the combustion power of the husk ≃ 4000 kcal/kg, being greater than half the value for normal bituminous coals. Conglomerates have been obtained by mixing RHA with different proportions of lime and portland cement, and their properties are studied with regard to both mortars and concretes. The ultimate aim of the work is to demonstrate how rice husk (world production of which is estimated at 500.106 m3 per annum may be feasibly applied as an addition, without forgetting its excellent properties as a fuel, which makes it particularly suitable for developing countries with a shortage of cement and energy resources.

    Mediante la utilización de un horno-piloto de unos 400 litros de capacidad, en el que se realiza la combustión controlada de unos 40 kg de cáscara de arroz, se consigue una ceniza (RHA, sobre cuyas propiedades físico-químicas se centra el trabajo, para su empleo como adición. Se presentan igualmente resultados sobre el poder de combustión de la cascara ≃ 4.000 kcal/kg, superior a la mitad del valor de los carbones bituminosos normales. Mediante mezclas de RHA con distintas proporciones de cal o de cemento portland, se han conseguido conglomerantes cuyas propiedades se estudian, tanto sobre morteros, como sobre hormigones. El objetivo último del trabajo es mostrar la factible aplicabilidad de la cascara de arroz (cuya "producción" mundial se estima en 500.106 m3 anuales como adición, sin olvidar sus excelentes cualidades como combustible lo que hace especialmente idónea en países en vías de desarrollo, deficitarios en cemento y recursos energéticos.

  6. The utilization of alkali-treated melon husk by broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, S S; Amalime, A C; Akadiri, K C

    2002-09-01

    The effects of alkali treatment on chemical constituents of melon husk (MH) and performance characteristics of broilers fed alkali-treated MH (ATMH) diets were investigated. The chemical analysis showed that alkali treatment increased the ash content of MH (from 15.70% to 16.86%) and reduced the crude fibre content (from 29.00% to 14.00%). Result of feed intake was superior on 30% alkali diet with a value of 100.14 g/bird/day. Body weight gain decreased with increase in the level of ATMH in the diet. Highest dressing percentage of 66.33% and best meat/bone ratio of 2.57 were obtained on 10% and 20% alkali diets, respectively. Dietary treatments had significant effect (P poultry carcases and chicken meat with favourable shelf life.

  7. Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Cement Stabilized Laterite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa ALHASSAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Laterite soil collected from Maikunkele area of Minna, classified as an A-7-6 on AASHTO classification, was stabilized with 2-8% cement by weight of the dry soil. Using British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy, the effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA on the soil was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California Bearing Ratio (CBR and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS tests. Results obtained, indicate a general decrease in Maximum Dry Density (MDD and increase in Optimum Moisture Content (OMC, all with increase in RHA Content (2-8% at specified cement contents. There was also a tremendous improvement in the CBR and UCS with increase in the RHA content at specified cement contents to their peak values at between 4-6% RHA. The UCS values also improved with curing age. This indicates the potentials of using 4-6% RHA admixed with less cement contents for laterite soil stabilization.

  8. Effect of utilizing unground and ground normal and black rice husk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SYAMSUL BAHRI

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Keywords. Rice husk ash; high-strength concrete; grinding; particle size; durability; low-cost material. .... which may be subjected to some minor contamination from soil ground. ...... oil fuel ash and rice husk–bark ash. Constr.

  9. Nanotubes, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanorods of silicon carbide from the wheat husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Feng, J.; Qadri, S. N.; Caldwell, J. D. [Materials Science and Component Technology Directorate, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods of SiC were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat husks at temperatures in excess of 1450 °C. From the analysis based on x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, it has been found that the processed samples of wheat husk consisted of 2H and 3C polytypes of SiC exhibiting the nanostructure shapes. These nanostructures of silicon carbide formed from wheat husks are of technological importance for designing advance composites, applications in biotechnology, and electro-optics. The thermodynamics of the formation of SiC is discussed in terms of the rapid solid state reaction between hydrocarbons and silica on the molecular scale, which is inherently present in the wheat husks.

  10. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  11. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1998-12-31

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  12. Characterization of amorphous silica obtained from KMnO/sub 4/ treated rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Rice husk (RH) is available in large quantities in many rice producing areas of Pakistan. The use of rice husk as a fuel in heat generating systems adds to environmental pollution. Rice husk contains approximately 20 % silica which exists in hydrated form. This silica can be retrieved as amorphous silica under proper oxidizing conditions. In present study rice husk was treated with various dosages of potassium permanganate before subjecting to thermal treatment. Potassium permanganate acts as oxidizing agent during combustion process. Various ash samples were prepared by varying the potassium permanganate concentrations and the burning temperatures over long periods. Ash produced was characterized by XRD, FTIR and other analytical methods. It has been observed that low dosages of KMnO/sub 4/ favors the formation of amorphous silica along with low carbon contents. (author)

  13. Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Biochar Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk biochar was utilized to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE and to prepare biochar/plastic composites (BPC by the extrusion method. Morphologies, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The SEM (scanning electron microscope showed that HDPE was embedded into the holes of the rice husk biochar. The DSC (differential scanning calorimeter showed that biochar could reduce the crystallization rate and the higher the content of rice husk biochar, the slower the crystallization rate. Significantly, the bending and tensile strength of BPC could reach 53.7 and 20 MPa, far beyond WPC (wood plastic composites. With the increase of filler content, BPC were still stronger than WPC, although the impact strength of BPC and WPC all showed a general decline in the trend. The strong interaction was achieved by the utilization of rice husk biochar to reinforce HDPE.

  14. the potential use of fonio husk ash as a pozzolana in concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... up to a temperature of 6000C and converted into ash. The ... weather. Keywords: Keywords: Fonio, Husk Ash, Compressive Strength, Cement, Concrete, Pozzolana. ..... [14] Holmer S. Jnr and Moises F. “Pozzolanic Behavior of.

  15. Effect of rice husk ash on some geotechnical properties of lateritic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Keywords: Rice Husk Ash (RHA), Lateritic soil, Sub-grade, Maximum Dry ... stabilizing agent (cement or lime) included ... soil and then with distilled water. The clay mineral identification was done using ... California Bearing Ratio (CBR). 22.05.

  16. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  17. luminium alloy - rice husk ash composites production and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Mohammed USMAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to produce and analyse the properties of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash composites. Rice husk ash (RHA with high silica content of up to 97.095% was used for the study with the RHA varied from 0vol% – 30vol% at intervals of 5vol% in the aluminium alloy as reinforcement. The density and some mechanical properties of the composites including tensile strength, impact strength, hardness and fatigue strength were investigated. The results showed that the density of the composite decreases with the percentage increase of reinforcement from 2840.242 kgm-3 for the control sample to 2402.899 kgm-3 for 30vol% RHA. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS varies from 164.374 MNm-2 at 0% RHA to 176.837 MNm-2 with maximum value at 10% RHA, impact strength values varies from 84.020kJm-2 at 0% RHA to 155.244 kJm-2 with maximum value at 10% RHA, hardness value varies from 70.467 RHV at 0% RHA to 109.367 RHV with maximum value at 25% RHA and fatigue strength varies from 0.224x106 cycles to 2.582x106 cycles with maximum cycle at 20% RHA. The results of analysis of variance showed that there are significant differences among the means of each property of the composites at different levels of replacement of the ash addition (P<0.05. It was concluded that the produced composites could be used to make engineering components such as automobile body parts, piston and block engine etc.

  18. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hamidul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducted with different coir dust and rice husk blends (i.e. coir dust and rice husk ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. Briquetting operation was performed using a die-screw press type briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their density, compressive strength, calorific value, burning rate and water vaporizing capacity and it was found that mixing ratio had a significant effect on the physical, mechanical and combustion properties of the coir dust-rice husk briquettes. Density, compressive strength and calorific value and water vaporizing capacity were increased with increasing mixing ratio while burning rate was decreased. Coir dust-rice husk briquettes with mixing ratio of 20:80 had higher density (1.413 g/cm3, compressive strength (218.4 N/cm2, calorific value (4879 kcal/kg, water vaporizing capacity (0.853 l/kg and low burning rate (0.783 kg/hour followed by the mixing ratio 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 0:100. The results indicate that coir dust and rice husk blend briquettes were found to have better overall handling characteristics over rice husk briquette. However, production of briquettes from coir dust and rice husk at mixing ratio of 50:50 was found to be more suitable for commercial application in terms of cost effectiveness.

  19. Effects of coffee husk as floor covering on the behavior of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Teles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the influence of coffee husks as floor covering on the aspects of animal welfare such as behavioral characteristics, body surface temperature, and salivary cortisol levels of stabled boars. Sixteen boars were housed in individual stalls; eight were maintained in a conventional system with a concrete floor and eight were maintained on a concrete floor lined with coffee husks. The experimental period was 60 days. All animals were filmed two days prior to the start of the experiment, on both the 7th and 60th days after exposure to coffee husks, and finally two days after the removal of the material. During this period, the number of times that the animals ate, drank, stood, sat, lay down, and dug was recorded. Furthermore, both body surface temperature and salivary cortisol levels were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The use of coffee husks did not influence body surface temperature. Salivary cortisol levels increased during the experimental period only in the animals maintained on coffee husks. In the morning, the coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals sat and increased the number of times that they lay down. In the afternoon, the use of coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals stood, sat, or dug and increased the number of times that the animals lay down. Although coffee husks do not change the behavior of the animals in an expressive way, they should not be used as floor covering for boars.

  20. HOMO VIATOR – O DIMENSIUNE FUNDAMENTALĂ A SPIRITUALITĂŢII OCCIDENTALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana CIOCOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul de faţă reflectă modificările fundamentale care s-au produs în mentalitatea occidentală contemporană prin intermediul conceptului de călător (homo viator. Noţiunea de călător este tratată în sens culturologic larg drept  desco­peritor de lumi necunoscute, explorator, navigator sau aventurier al oricărui tip de cunoaştere, care reprezintă trăsătura fundamentală a omului occidental. Prototipul absolut al acestui model cultural îl reprezintă Ulise, eroul din Odiseea lui Homer. Conceptul de „călătorie” oferă, astfel, o viziune transversală asupra evoluţiei literaturii occidentale, al cărei centru iradiant – tensiunea cunoaşterii – a problematizat cele mai variate forme de călătorie şi de călător. Istoria romanului occidental este urmărit dea lungul secolelor şi a epocilor literare pentru a observa cum s-a modificat percepţia călătoriei, iar odată cu ea, şi spiritualitatea occidentală. Viziunea contemporană asupra călătoriei este analizată în baza romanului lui Michel Houellebecq „Harta şi teritoriul” (2010. HOMO VIATOR – A FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSION  OF WESTERN SPIRITUALITYThe article reflects the changes produced in the western contemporary mentality through the concept of the traveler (homo viator. The notion of traveler is approached in wide cultural meaning as a discoverer of unknown worlds, explorer, navigator or adventurer of every type of knowing, that represents the fundamental feature of the occidental man. The absolute prototype of this cultural model is represented by Ulysses, the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. The concept of “travel” offers thus a transverse vision upon the evolution of the occidental literature whose irradiant centre – the tension of knowing – discussed the problems of the most varied forms of travel and traveler. The history of the western novel is followed over centuries and literary epochs in order to observe which way the perception of travel

  1. Energy potential from rice husk through direct combustion and fast pyrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Isabel; Navia, Rodrigo; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2017-01-01

    Rapid population growth and consumption of goods and services imply that demand for energy and resources increases continuously. Energy consumption linked to non-renewable resources contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and enhances resource depletion. In this context, the use of agricultural solid residues such as rice husk, coffee husk, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse, among others, has been widely studied as an alternative energy source in order to decrease the use of fossil fuels. However, rice husk is among those agricultural residues that are least used to obtain energy in developing countries. Approximately 134 million tonnes of rice husk are produced annually in the world, of which over 90% are burned in open air or discharged into rivers and oceans in order to dispose of them. This review examines the energetic potential of agricultural residues, focused on rice husk. The review describes direct combustion and fast pyrolysis technologies to transform rice husk into energy considering its physical and chemical properties. In addition, a review of existing studies analyzing these technologies from an environmental life cycle thinking perspective, contributing to their sustainable use, is performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARISON OF PRETREATMENT STRATEGIES FOR CONVERSION OF COCONUT HUSK FIBER TO FERMENTABLE SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Y. Ding,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, coconut husk was employed as biomass feedstock for production of bioethanol, due to its abundance in Malaysia. Due to the complex structures of coconut husk, a pretreatment process is crucial in extracting fermentable sugars from the embedded cellulose matrix for subsequent ethanol fermentation process. The ground coconut husk was subjected to three different pretreatment processes inclusive of thermal, chemical, and microwave-assisted-alkaline techniques, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process. The composition profile of coconut husk was significantly altered upon the microwave-assisted-alkaline treatment as compared to the untreated sample, with the cellulose content increasing from 18-21% to 38-39% while lignin content decreased from 46-53% to 31-33%. Among the pretreatment methods applied, enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk pretreated by microwave-assisted-alkaline method recorded the highest yield of fermentable sugars, 0.279 g sugar/g substrate. SEM imaging showed the obvious and significant disruption of coconut husks’ structure after microwave-assisted-alkaline pretreatment. In conclusion, by employing suitable pretreatment technique in treating the lignocellulosic materials of coconut husk, the extracted fermentable sugar is a potential substrate for bioethanol production.

  3. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  4. Utilization of rice husk ash to enhance radon resistant potential of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Yadav, Mani Kant; Chauhan, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The radiological and health implication posed by radon and their decay products are well known. The soil containing varying amount of radionuclides is the primary source of indoor radon. The indoor radon level depends upon its entrance through the pores of the ground and floor. Thus it is necessary to restrict the radon from soil to enter indoors by application of materials with low radon diffusion coefficient. The method used for radon shielding purpose in present study utilizes the rice husk ash for substitution with cement to achieve low diffusion coefficient. The study describes the method to optimize the condition of preparation of rice husk ash using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The rice husk substitution with cement was optimized by compressive and porosity test of concrete cubes. The diffusion coefficient through concrete modified by rice husk ash was carried out by scintillation radon monitor and specially design radon diffusion chamber. The radon exhalation rates from concrete carried out using active technique decreasing radon emanation from concrete with increase of rice husk ash. The result of present study suggest substitution of 20-30% rice husk ash with cement to achieve lower radon diffusion and exhalation rates with higher compressive strength as compared to control concrete. (author)

  5. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively, but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively. The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from cacao pod husk were of 70% ethanol, with an extraction time of 90 min, and 1 as the number of extractions. A concentration of 10% by volume of 10% lead acetate solution was the best selection for purification of the crude extracts containing theobromine from cacao pod husk. Under these optimal conditions, theobromine content obtained from cacao pod husk was 6.79 mg/100 g dry weight. The finding from this study is a valuable contribution for obtaining theobromine from an abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable source for potential application in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pehuen cellulosic husk and its pehuen-starch based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Carrasco, C; Bouza, R

    2012-11-06

    Pehuen cellulosic husk was characterized and employed as reinforcement for composite materials. In this research, thermoplastic pehuen starch (TPS) and TPS/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites, reinforced with 5 and 10% of pehuen husk, were prepared by melt-blending. Comparative samples of pehuen TPS and TPS/PLA/PVA blend were also studied. Physical, thermal, structural and mechanical properties of composites were evaluated. Pehuen husk mainly consists of cellulose (50 wt%), hemicellulose (30 wt%) and lignin (14 wt%). In respect to lipids, this husk has only a 0.6 wt%. Its surface is smooth and damage-free and it is decomposed above 325 °C. The incorporation of pehuen husk improved considerably the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the studied composites, mainly in TPS composites. Their thermal stability enhances since biofiber hinders the "out-diffusion" of volatile molecules from the polymer matrix, while mechanical properties could raise due to the natural affinity between husk and starch in the pehuen seed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO 3 and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 ± 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 ± 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  8. Effect of rice husk ash addition on CO2 capture behavior of calcium-based sorbent during calcium looping cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingjie; Zhao, Changsui; Ren, Qiangqiang; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Huichao; Chen, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Rice husk ash/CaO was proposed as a CO 2 sorbent which was prepared by rice husk ash and CaO hydration together. The CO 2 capture behavior of rice husk ash/CaO sorbent was investigated in a twin fixed bed reactor system, and its apparent morphology, pore structure characteristics and phase variation during cyclic carbonation/calcination reactions were examined by SEM-EDX, N 2 adsorption and XRD, respectively. The optimum preparation conditions for rice husk ash/CaO sorbent are hydration temperature of 75 C, hydration time of 8 h, and mole ratio of SiO 2 in rice husk ash to CaO of 1.0. The cyclic carbonation performances of rice husk ash/CaO at these preparation conditions were compared with those of hydrated CaO and original CaO. The temperature at 660 C-710 C is beneficial to CO 2 absorption of rice husk ash/CaO, and it exhibits higher carbonation conversions than hydrated CaO and original CaO during multiple cycles at the same reaction conditions. Rice husk ash/CaO possesses better anti-sintering behavior than the other sorbents. Rice husk ash exhibits better effect on improving cyclic carbonation conversion of CaO than pure SiO 2 and diatomite. Rice husk ash/CaO maintains higher surface area and more abundant pores after calcination during the multiple cycles; however, the other sorbents show a sharp decay at the same reaction conditions. Ca 2 SiO 4 found by XRD detection after calcination of rice husk ash/CaO is possibly a key factor in determining the cyclic CO 2 capture behavior of rice husk ash/CaO. (author)

  9. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  10. Impact of coal and rice husk ash on the quality and chemistry of cement clinker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.; Kanwal, S.; Rahim, U.; Sheikh, N.; Shahzad, K.

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of rice husk as an alternative fuel for coal is of interest due to its availability in huge quantities in Pakistan and also because its combustion is environmental pollution friendly as it generates much less SOX due to its much lower sulphur content (0.1-0.3%) compared to sulphur content in coals, particularly indeginous coals ranging from 0.6-14.8%. The purpose of present study was to examine the impact of co-firing of rice husk and coal on the quality of cement clinker so as to substitute expensive imported coal with the abundantly available cheaper rice husk to reduce the cost of production of the cement. For this investigation raw feed mix (mixture of limestone, clay, bauxite and laterite in predetermined proportions) used for cement manufacture was mixed with predetermined varying proportions of coal ash and rice husk ash and placed inside a muffle furnace at 1200 degree C - 1500 degree C i-e the temperatures prevailing in the industrial cement kilns, for various periods of time to obtain cement clinker. The quality and chemistry of cement clinker thus produced in the laboratory was experimentally studied to ensure the quality of cement clinker that would be obtained by co-firing of rice husk and coal in different proportions in industrial cement kilns as the coal ash and rice husk ash produced during combustion will get mixed with cement clinker in industrial kilns. The results indicated that there was decrease in the Lime Saturation Factor, Free Lime and Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) content and increase in the Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) content by increasing the rice husk ash and decreasing the coal ash proportion in the clinker. (author)

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Polyphenols in Macroporous Resin Pretreated Pomegranate Husk Extract by HPLC-QTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Rahima; Mansur, Sanawar; Lai, Haizhong; Ubul, Ablikim; Sun, Guangying; Huang, Guozheng; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk is a traditional herbal medicine abundant in phenolic compounds and plays some roles in the treatment of oxidative stress, bacterial and viral infection, diabetes mellitus, and acute and chronic inflammation. Identification and determination of polyphenols in macroporous resin pretreated pomegranate husk extract by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS). The total polyphenols of pomegranate husk were prepared by ethanol extraction followed by pretreatment with HPD-300 macroporous resin. The polyphenolic compounds were qualitatively analysed by HPLC-QTOF-MS in negative electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode at different collision energy (CE) values. A total of 50 polyphenols were detected in the extract of pomegranate husk, including 35 hydrolysable tannins and 15 flavonoids with distinct retention time, fragmentation behaviours and characteristics, and the accurate mass-to-charge ratios at low, moderate and high CE values. Of these, we identified nine compounds for the first time in the pomegranate husk, including hexahydroxydiphenoyl-valoneoyl-glucoside (HHDP-valoneyl-glucoside), galloyl-O-punicalin, rutin, hyperoside, quercimeritrin, kaempferol-7-O-rhahmano-glucoside, luteolin-3'-O-arabinoside, luteolin-3'-O-glucoside, and luteolin-4'-O-glucoside. To validate the specificity and accuracy of mass spectrometry in the detection of polyphenols, as compared to the fragmentation pathways of granatin B in detail, including the HHDP-valoneyl- glucoside was first identified from pomegranate husk. The study provides evidence for the quality control and development of novel drugs based on polyphenols from the pomegranate husk. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Characterisation of Pomegranate-Husk Polyphenols and Semi-Preparative Fractionation of Punicalagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zárate, Pedro; Wong-Paz, Jorge E; Michel, Mariela; Buenrostro-Figueroa, Juan; Díaz, Hugo R; Ascacio, Juan A; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate-husk is the main by-product generated from the pomegranate industry. It is a potential source of compounds highly appreciated by different costumers. Punicalagin is the main compound present in pomegranate-husk. To characterise the pomegranate-husk total polyphenols by HPLC-ESI-MS and to establish a method for the recovery of punicalagin using a medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) system. The characterisation of total pomegranate-husk polyphenols was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, 200 mg of pomegranate-husk polyphenols were fractionated by MPLC. The isolated punicalagin was characterised by HPLC-MS and was tested as standard reagent for the measurement of its scavenging capacity reducing DPPH and ABTS radicals. Twenty peaks were identified by analytical HPLC-MS analysis from the pomegranate-husk polyphenols. The main compounds were the punicalagin anomers, punicalin and ellagic acid. The MPLC method allowed three fractions to be obtained. In fraction three 39.40 ± 8.06 mg of punicalagin anomers (purity > 97.9%) were recovered. The scavenging capacity of punicalagin showed an IC 50 of 109.53 and 151.50 μg/mL for DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. The MPLC system was an excellent tool for the separation of the main ellagitannins from pomegranate husk and for the isolation of punicalagin anomers. Fraction three was rich in high purity punicalagin anomers. The IC 50 was obtained for DPPH and ABTS radicals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  14. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  15. UtilizaÃÃo da casca da castanha de caju Anarcadium occidentale L. como biossorvente de metais

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ferreira Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho propÃe avaliar o uso da casca da castanha de caju (Anarcadium occidentale L.) â CCC â como adsorvente natural na remoÃÃo dos Ãons metÃlicos Cd2+, Pb2+ Cr3+, Cu2+ e Zn2+ de meio aquoso, como alternativa ao carvÃo ativado e demais tratamentos. As castanhas de caju foram coletadas em CurionÃpolis, no estado do ParÃ, sendo o experimento realizado no LaboratÃrio de QuÃmica Ambiental e Instrumental da UNIOESTE - Marechal CÃndido Rondon, ParanÃ. ApÃs a extraÃÃo do lÃquido da casca da c...

  16. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  17. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A M

    2013-01-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc

  18. Effect of olive waste (Husk on behavior of cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Alkheder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is a famous country in terms of olive trees agriculture that resulted in a mass production of olive oil products. The huge amounts of olive waste (husk that resulted from olives processing to produce olive oil represent an environmental challenge in the country. The idea in this paper comes to use olive waste as a partial replacement for Portland cement in cement paste to conserve the environment, reduce cement consumption and increase cost efficiency. The wastes were burned properly in an oven and maintained for 6 h until it was fully transformed into ashes. Then, the oven was turned off and ashes were allowed to cool. After cooling, the material passed sieve #200 were used. The sieved ashes were used in the cement mix as a partial cement replacement for making the mortar and cement paste. Normal consistency and setting time were determined as well as soundness, compressive strength. Results indicated that normal consistency of the cement pastes containing different percentage of olive waste is somehow lower than that of the ordinary cement paste and slightly decreases with increasing the percentage. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of hardened blended cement paste containing different percentages of olive waste slightly decrease with olive waste content at 3, 7, and 28 days.

  19. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G.; Sousa, A. M. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  20. Durability of conventional concretes containing black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2011-01-01

    In this study, black rice husk ash (BRHA) from a rice mill in Thailand was ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of conventional concretes with high water-binder ratios was investigated including drying shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, depth of carbonation, and weight loss of concretes exposed to hydrochloric (HCl) and sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) acid attacks. Two different replacement percentages of cement by BRHA, 20% and 40%, and three different water-binder ratios (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) were used. The ratios of paste volume to void content of the compacted aggregate (γ) were 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the drying shrinkage and depth of carbonation reaction of concretes increased. However, the BRHA provides a positive effect on the autogenous shrinkage and weight loss of concretes exposed to hydrochloric and sulfuric acid attacks. In addition, the resistance to acid attack was directly varied with the (SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3) + Fe(2)O(3))/CaO ratio. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material and also improve the durability of concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  2. Antimalarial Activity of Cocos nucifera Husk Fibre: Further Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimalarial and toxicity potentials of husk fibre extracts of five Nigerian varieties of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in vitro. The only active extract fraction, West African Tall (WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction, was then evaluated for its phytochemical constituents, antimalarial and toxicity potentials at varying doses (31.25–500 mg/kg body weight using various organ function indices. The results revealed that WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction (WATEAEF contained alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids and was active against Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain maintained in continuous culture, with a selectivity index of 30.3. The same extract fraction was active in vivo against Plasmodium berghei NK65, causing more than 50% reduction in parasitaemia on days 4 and 6 after inoculation at various doses administered. WATEAEF did not significantly alter (P>0.05 function indices of the liver and cardiovascular system at all doses administered but significantly increased (P<0.05 plasma creatinine concentration at 250 and 500 mg/Kg body weight compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that WATEAEF possesses antimalarial activity and may not adversely affect normal liver function nor predispose subjects to cardiovascular diseases but may impair normal kidney function at higher doses. Further studies are underway to isolate the active principles.

  3. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  4. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks and microalgal biomass after thermal hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Miranda; Baeta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; de Aquino, Sergio Francisco; Perez-Elvira, Sara Isabel

    2018-04-01

    Residual coffee husks after seed processing may be better profited if bioconverted into energy through anaerobic digestion. This process may be improved by implementing a pretreatment step and by co-digesting the coffee husks with a more liquid biomass. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks with microalgal biomass. For this, both substrates were pretreated separately and in a mixture for attaining 15% of total solids (TS), which was demonstrated to be the minimum solid content for pretreatment of coffee husks. The results showed that the anaerobic co-digestion presented a synergistic effect, leading to 17% higher methane yield compared to the theoretical value of both substrates biodegraded separately. Furthermore, thermal hydrolysis pretreatment increased coffee husks anaerobic biodegradability. For co-digestion trials, the highest values were reached for pretreatment at 120 °C for 60 min, which led to 196 mLCH 4 /gVS and maximum methane production rate of 0.38 d -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clay stabilization by using gypsum and paddy husk ash with reference to UCT and CBR value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesyanto; Iskandar, R.; Hastuty, I. P.; Dianty, W. O.

    2018-02-01

    Clays that have low shear strength need to be stabilized in order to meet the technical requirements to serve as a subgrade material. One of the usual soil stabilization methods is by adding chemicals such as Portland cement, lime, and bitumen. The clay stabilization research was done by adding gypsum and paddy husk ash. The research goals were to find out the value of engineering properties of clay due to the addition of 2% gypsum and 2% - 15% paddy husk ash. The soil was classified as Clay - Low Plasticity (CL) based on USCS and was classified as A-7-6 (10) based on AASHTO classification system. The UCT value of original soil was 1.41 kg/cm2. While the CBR soaked and unsoaked values of original soil were 4.41% and 6.23% respectively. The research results showed the addition of paddy husk ash decreased the value of unconfined compressive strength as well as CBR. The stabilized soil by 2% gypsum and 0% paddy husk ash gave maximum UCT value of 1.67 kg/cm2, while the maximum value of CBR were found 6.71% for CBR soaked and 8.00% for CBR unsoaked. The addition of paddy husk ash did not alter the soil classification according to AASHTO or USCS, even degrade the engineering properties of original soil.

  7. Thermoelectric properties and nanostructures of materials prepared from rice husk ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukird, S.; Tipparach, U.; Kasian, P. [Ubon Ratchathani Univ., Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand). Dept. of Physics; Limsuwan, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Thailand produces large amounts of agricultural residues such as rice husk and coconut shells. Rice husk is considered to be a potential source for solar grade silicon. Studies have shown that reasonably pure polycrystalline silicon can be prepared from rice husk white ash by a metallothermic reduction process. This paper reported on a study that investigated the thermoelectric properties of ceramic material prepared by mixing silica from rice husk ash and carbon obtained from coconut shell charcoal. The thermoelectric properties of the materials were examined along with their microstructures. The materials were made from burning rice husk ash and coconut shell at different temperatures and then doped with metal oxides. Pellets were heated at temperature of 700 degrees C for 1-3 hours. The voltage on both sides of the pellets was observed. The electromotive force was found when different temperatures were applied on both sides of the pellet specimens. The Seebeck coefficient was then calculated. The results showed that these materials can be used as thermoelectric devices. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) were used to investigate the source of materials and the products on the substrates. The images of SEM and EDX showed nanostructures of materials such as nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles of the products and sources. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)], E-mail: rajeevjain54@yahoo.co.in; Shrivastava, Meenakshi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011 (India)

    2008-10-30

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}. The negative values of {delta}G{sup o} indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of {delta}H{sup o} shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of {delta}H{sup o} indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent.

  9. Physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husks in different atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Wang

    Full Text Available This paper explores the physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk combustion in air and in argon. The SEM results show that the outer epidermis of combusted RHIR (rice husk in air is well organized with features that include papillae shapes and full, straight, high ridges. The inner epidermis of the RHIR has long rectangular furrow tissues. The results also show that the outer epidermis of pyrolyzed RHR (rice husk in argon has ridges that are not as straight as for the RHIR and the top of the papillae have small holes. The inner surface of the RHR looks a some cracked. XPS analysis shows that the surfaces of RHIR and RHR contain carbon, oxygen, and silicon. The carbon was found to be in the elemental graphite form, the oxygen in the −2 oxidation state, and the silicon in the Si4+ form as SiO2. The DSC graphs have “camel peaks”, showing that an increase in rate of heating leads to an increase in the exothermic peaks. Calculations show that, initially, increased temperature leads to increased activation energy for pyrolysis, but as the temperature continues to increase, the activation energy decreases again. The frequency factor follows the same trend. In analysis of carbon content, rice husk volatile carbon content is the largest, it is about 33.94%, especially 700 °C, the carbon content of volatile minimum is about 0.33%. Keywords: Rice husk, Microstructure, Thermal analysis, Thermal properties, XPS

  10. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; W. M. Hasif. A. A., K.; Taib, H.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO2). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO2) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO2) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO2). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO2 was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO2 was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO2 purity was detected in SS-SiO2 followed by C-RHSiO2 and A-RHSiO2 with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO2) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm-1) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO2 at the wavelength of 620 cm-1. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO2 and C-RH SiO2 showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  11. Adsorptive studies of hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000 from an aqueous phase on to coconut-husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Shrivastava, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    This contribution presents result pertaining to the adsorptive removal of water-soluble hazardous dye Tropaeoline 000, on to a low cost adsorbent-coconut-husk and its efficiency in the dye colour sorption was compared with activated carbon (AC). The results obtained from the batch experiments revealed the ability of the coconut-husk to remove the Tropaeoline 000 dye. The adsorption of dye was carried out at different pH, temperatures, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate (initial dye concentration) and particle size. The adsorption studies revealed that the ongoing adsorption validates both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm at temperatures 30, 40 and 50 deg. The adsorption isotherm data was also employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o . The negative values of ΔG o indicate that the dye adsorption process is a spontaneous in nature. The positive value of ΔH o shows the endothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk system whereas negative value of ΔH o indicates that the exothermic nature of AC/coconut-husk. The adsorption was found to undergo via a pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics and the results revealed that coconut-husk, an agricultural waste, proved to be an excellent low cost adsorbent

  12. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved

    OpenAIRE

    Forss, J?rgen; Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Welander, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% de...

  13. Effect of cocoa pod husk filler loading on tensile properties of cocoa pod husk/polylactic acid green biocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Haron, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the years, cocoa-pod husk (CPH) generation significantly increased due to the growing global demand of chocolate products, since cocoa bean is the main ingredient for chocolate production. Proper utilization of CPH as natural filler for reinforcement of polymer composites provides economic advantages as well as environmental solutions for CPH waste disposal problems. In this study, CPH filled PLA composite films were developed using solution casting method. The effect of CPH loading on the tensile properties of CPH/PLA composite films were investigated. The obtained results manifested that increasing CPH loading from 0% to 10 % significantly increased tensile strength of CPH/PLA composite. However, further addition of CPH loading up to 15 % decreased the tensile strength of film samples. As CPH loading increased from 0% to 15%, tensile modulus of CPH/PLA composite films also increased from 1.5MPa to 10.4MPa, whereas their elongation at break reduced from 190% to 90%. These findings points out CPH as a potential natural filler for reinforcing thermoplastic polymer composites.

  14. Effect of Rice Husk Surface Modification by LENR the on Mechanical Properties of NR/ HDPE Reinforced Rice Husk Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmadini Syafri; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of rice husk (RH) with alkali pre-treatment (NaOH solution 5 % w/ v) was carried out at the initial state to investigate the effect of surface treatment of fibre on the surface interaction between fibre and rubber. Further modification of RH surfaces after alkali treatment was using Liquid Epoxidized Natural Rubber (LENR) coating at three concentrations, 5 %, 10 %, and 20 % wt LENR solution in toluene. Interfacial morphology and chemical reactions between RH fibre and rubber were analyzed by FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was found that 10 % wt LENR solution gave the optimum interaction between fibre and rubber. Matrix and composite blends derived from 60 % natural rubber (NR), 40 % high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with RH fibre were prepared using an internal mixer (Brabender Plasticoder). Result showed that pre-treatment of RH treated with 5 % NaOH followed by treatment with 10 % LENR solution given the maximum interaction between fibre and matrix that gave rise to better mechanical properties of the composites. (author)

  15. Using cultural-historical activity theory to analyze social service practices evolving from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects catalyzed innovation in the practices of providing social services that could yield useful insights both within and outside of Norway if analyzed in these two ways: (a) retrospective analysis of the development of individual HUSK projects in light of their cultural-historical contexts, and (b) comparative analysis of the efforts to advance multi-sector collaboration in some of the HUSK projects. Such analyses require a practice-based research approach that takes into account culture and history. In this article the author explains how cultural-historical activity theory provides such an approach, illustrated via several HUSK cases. The author suggests five questions for future analyses of the HUSK projects and argues that insights gleaned from such analyses could contribute significantly to research on-and the provision of-social services.

  16. Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase by adsorption-crosslinking onto corn husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraliyah, A.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-04-01

    Corn husk is one of the agricutural waste that has not been used optimally. corn husk waste allows to be used as immobilized support for biocatalyst because it is easy to obtain, available abundant, renewable and easy to decompose. This research was conducted in two phases, namely the adsorption of enzyme immobilization on the support, followed by cross- linking between the enzyme and support through the addition of glutaraldehyde. The optimum conditions for cross-linked adsorption immobilization using support of corn husk were achieved at concentrations of 0,75 mg / ml at 4 hour reaction time. The biggest unit activity value is obtained at 2,37 U / g support through 0.5% glutaraldehyde addition.

  17. Cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks and their application in hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jean Paulo de; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Lima, Karina Oliveira; Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello El; Rosa, Gabriela Silveira da; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-04-15

    The commercial cellulose fibers and cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks were analyzed by chemical composition, morphology, functional groups, crystallinity and thermal properties. The cellulose fibers from rice and oat husks were used to produce hydrogels with poly (vinyl alcohol). The fibers presented different structural, crystallinity, and thermal properties, depending on the cellulose source. The hydrogel from rice cellulose fibers had a network structure with a similar agglomeration sponge, with more homogeneous pores compared to the hydrogel from oat cellulose fibers. The hydrogels prepared from the cellulose extracted from rice and oat husks showed water absorption capacity of 141.6-392.1% and high opacity. The highest water absorption capacity and maximum stress the compression were presented by rice cellulose hydrogel at 25°C. These results show that the use of agro-industrial residues is promising for the biomaterial field, especially in the preparation of hydrogels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of demineralization on the physiochemical structure and thermal degradation of acid treated indigenous rice husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Umair

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy generation from biomass presents some serious problems like slagging, fouling and corrosion of boilers. To address these problems, demineralization of biomass is performed using different leaching agents. This study is focused on determining the influence of leaching agents and leaching time on the physiochemical structure of rice husk during demineralization. Dilute (5% wt solutions of HCl and H2SO4 were used for the demineralization of rice husk separately with leaching time of 15, 60 and 120 minutes. It is shown that H2SO4 exhibited higher removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM comparatively as depicted by the 34.2% decrease in ash content along with an increase of 7.10% in the heating value. The acid has been seen to induce more notable changes in physiochemical structure as depicted by the FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs. The thermal degradation behavior of the demineralized rice husk has also been reported.

  19. Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawali Abdul Matin Hashfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effort to obtain alternative energy is still interesting subject to be studied, especially production of biogas from agriculture waste. This paper was an overview of the latest development of biogas researches from rice husk waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD. The main obstacle of biogas production from rice husk waste was the lignin content which is very difficult degraded by microbes. Various pretreatments have been conducted, either physically, chemically as well as biologically. The SSAD method was an attractive option because of the low water content of rice husk waste. The biogas yield by SSAD method gave more attractive result compared to Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD method. Various studies were still conducted in batch mode laboratory scale and also has not found optimum operating conditions. Research on a larger scale such as bench and pilot scale with continuous systems will be an increase trend in the future research.

  20. Evaluation of untreated coffee husks as potential biosorbents for treatment of dye contaminated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Leandro S.; Franca, Adriana S.; Alves, Thiago M.; Rocha, Sonia D.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to propose an alternative use for coffee husks (CH), a coffee processing residue, as untreated sorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of solution temperature, pH, biosorbent dosage and contact time on MB removal were investigated. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The biosorption kinetics was determined by fitting first and second-order kinetic models to the experimental data, with the second-order model providing the best description of MB adsorption onto coffee husks. pH variations did not present a significant effect on MB removal. Evaluation of thermodynamics parameters indicated that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic. The experimental data obtained in the present study demonstrated coffee husks to be suitable candidates for use as biosorbents in the removal of cationic dyes

  1. Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    An effort to obtain alternative energy is still interesting subject to be studied, especially production of biogas from agriculture waste. This paper was an overview of the latest development of biogas researches from rice husk waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD). The main obstacle of biogas production from rice husk waste was the lignin content which is very difficult degraded by microbes. Various pretreatments have been conducted, either physically, chemically as well as biologically. The SSAD method was an attractive option because of the low water content of rice husk waste. The biogas yield by SSAD method gave more attractive result compared to Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD) method. Various studies were still conducted in batch mode laboratory scale and also has not found optimum operating conditions. Research on a larger scale such as bench and pilot scale with continuous systems will be an increase trend in the future research.

  2. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the properties of rice-husk-filled-PP composites: effect of maleated PP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Leal Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a by-product of rice milling process that usually finds inadequate final disposal (burning, land filling. Thermoplastics composites filled with rice husk flour are materials that offer an alternative for using this agricultural resource viewing the production of low dense materials with some specific properties. In this work composites of polypropylene (PP and rice husk flour (RHF were prepared by melt extrusion. Maleic anhydride-modified PP (MAPP was added as a coupling agent. It was verified that tensile strength decreased with filler loading. The presence of MAPP improved this property showing a strong dependence on the MAPP/RHF ratio (MAPP/RHF = 0.03 produced the best results. The density of the composites slightly increased with filler and coupling agent in comparison to pure PP. The presence of MAPP diminished more than 20% water uptake in highly-loaded composites.

  4. UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK AS RAW MATERIAL IN SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research about synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 from rice husk has been done. Silica (SiO2 was extracted from rice husk by refluxing with 3M hydrochloric solution at 80 °C for 3 h. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried and calcined at 650 °C for 6 h lead the rough powder of rice husk silica with light brown in color. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR spectroscopy method. Rice husk silica was dissolved into the sodium hydroxide solution leading to the solution of sodium silicate, and used as silica source for the synthesis of MCM-41. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal process to the mixture prepared from 29 g of distilled water, 8.67 g of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB, 9.31 g of sodium silicate solution, and amount mL of 1 M H2SO4. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven for 36 h. The solid phase was filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcination at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined crystals were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption methods. In order to investigate the effect of silica source, the same procedure was carried out by using pure sodium silicate as silica source. It was concluded that silica extracted from rice husk can be used as raw materials in the synthesis of MCM-41, there is no significant difference in crystallinity and pore properties when was compared to material produced from commercial sodium silicate.

  5. The sorption of lead(II) ions on rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiya, Tarun Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ashim Kumar; Mandal, Sailendranath; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2009-04-30

    Present study deals with the adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution on rice husk ash. Rice husk is a by-product generally obtained from rice mill. Rice husk ash is a solid obtained after burning of rice husk. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature. Optimum conditions for Pb(II) removal were found to be pH 5, adsorbent dosage 5 g/L of solution and equilibrium time 1h. Adsorption of Pb(II) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The effective diffusion coefficient is of the order of 10(-10)m(2)/s. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorption capacity (q(max)) of rice husk ash for Pb(II) ions in terms of monolayer adsorption was 91.74 mg/g. The change of entropy (DeltaS(0)) and enthalpy (Delta H(0)) were estimated at 0.132 kJ/(mol K) and 28.923 kJ/mol respectively. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (Delta G(0)) indicates feasible and spontaneous adsorption of Pb(II) on rice husk ash. The value of the adsorption energy (E), calculated using Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, was 9.901 kJ/mol and it indicated that the adsorption process was chemical in nature. Application study was also carried out to find the suitability of the process in waste water treatment operation.

  6. A preliminary study on the reduction of limonite ore by using rice husk as a reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksum, Ahmad; Husein, Michael Kelvin E.; Permana, Sulaksana; Rustandi, Andi; Wahyuadi Soedarsono, Johny

    2018-03-01

    The abundant of rice husk in Indonesia has encouraged researchers to study the feasibility of rice husk for substituting material that is more expensive or dangerous. In previous study, silica with a purity of 99.9% has been obtained from rice husk with calcinations process. Nevertheless, the gases resulting from the process were not used and left useless. Therefore, in this study, those gases derived from rice husk calcinations process were used as reducing agents during the ferronickel (Fe-Ni) production through a direct reduction process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of rice husk in the pellets on the increase of nickel content in the limonite reduction process. The limonite ore were crushed to the size of less than 150 mesh using disc-mill, and then were mixed with rice husk powder (10, 20, 30 in wt % mass) before being pelletized using bentonite as a binder. The resulted pellets were roasted at 500°C for 60 minutes and then quenched in water media. After drying process, the reduction process of 40g pellets was conducted at 1000°C for 90 minutes with 20g rice husk in furnace. The effects of additional rice husk on the direct reduction of limonite ore pellets were qualitatively analyzed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and quantitatively by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Both analysis results showed that the reduction process followed the reaction scheme: Fe2O3→Fe3O4→FeO and NiO phase was detected in the sample with 20% rice husk addition. The optimum concentration of Ni 1.23% was obtained for 20% rice husk addition.

  7. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d

  8. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Abdulwahab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MHA by weight of laterite. The lateritic soil-MHA mixture was later admixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% cut-back bitumen solution by weight of laterite. Both the natural lateritic soil, lateritic and MHA, and the blend of Soil, MHA and Bitumen were first subjected to physical and chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Scanning Electromagnetic Machine (SEM to determine their engineering properties followed by the performance test on bricks cast with varying quantities of the additives. A total of one hundred and ninety two (192 cubes were tested for moisture absorption, erodability and compressive strength tests. The result of the test showed that MHA and Bitumen acted as pozzolana in performance test on the soil blocks. Up to 30% MHA – laterite and 20% MHA admixed with 8% laterite were found to give optimum compressive strength of 10.8N/mm2 and 10.9N/mm2 for the bricks produced. The result also showed that about 50% MHA blended with 14% Bitumen solution ensured water tight bricks. Thus the use of MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block construction without comprising its strength.

  9. Improving the Bond Strength of Rice Husk Ash Concrete by Incorporating Polymer: A New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bangwar, Daddan Khan; Ali Soomro, Mohsin; Ali Laghari, Nasir; Ali Soomro, Mukhtiar; Ali Buriro, Ahsan

    2018-01-01

    This paper gives an insight of how to improve the bond strength of cement in which concrete is replaced with rice husk ash. A concrete mix was prepared and was used in different types of mixes i.e. Control Mix, 10% cement substituted concrete with rice husk ash and polymer modified concrete by incorporation different dosages of polymer in the 10% cement substituted concrete. A bar of 12mm diameter, 300mm in length was placed in the center of the cylindrical specimens for pull out test. It was...

  10. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianinsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw...

  11. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Ristianingsih; Hero Islami; Muhammad Sarwani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract- Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v) and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for no...

  12. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Wigg, Marcia D; Miranda, Mônica M F S; Rodrigues, Hugo M; Tostes, João B F; Rozental, Sonia; da Silva, Antonio J R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2002-12-01

    The decoction of Cocos nucifera L. husk fiber has been used in northeastern Brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. Water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1-ACVr). All fractions were inactive against the fungi Candida albicans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cryptococcus neoformans. Catechin and epicatechin together with condensed tannins (B-type procyanidins) were demonstrated to be the components of the water extract.

  13. Mechanical performance of porous concrete pavement containing nano black rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. Y. Mohd; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Rosli, H. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on the performance of nano black rice husk ash on the porous concrete pavement properties. The performance of the porous concrete pavement mixtures was investigated based on their compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength. The results indicated that using nano material from black rice husk ash improved the mechanical properties of porous concrete pavement. In addition, the result of compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength was increased with increasing in curing age. Finally, porous concrete pavement with 10% replacement levels exhibited an excellent performance with good strength compared to others.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF OXALIC ACID PRODUCED FROM RICE HUSK AND PADDY

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. Oghome; K.O.Amanze; C.I.O.Kamalu; A.C Nkwocha; S.O.Opebiyi

    2012-01-01

    In this research work, comparative analysis of Oxalic acid produced from Rice husk and Paddy was carried out in order to ascertain which waste sample produced a better yield. Nitric acid oxidation of carbohydrates was the method adopted in the production. The variable ratios of HNO3:H2SO4 used were 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50. The variable ratio of 60:40 gave the maximum yield and at a maximum temperature of 75oC. Rice husk sample gave a percentage yield of 53.2, 64.4, 81.0, and 53.3 at te...

  15. Carotenoid content of husk tomato under the influence of growth regulators and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, R.P.; Raghava, Nisha

    1990-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to study the effect of growth regulators and gamma rays on carotenoid content in husk tomato (Physalis peruviana L. and P. angulata L.). Results indicated that carotenoid content (in fruits) increased in all the treatments (except 200 and 500 ppm coumarin in case of P. peruviana and 100, 200 and 500 ppm coumarin in case of P. angulata). It is concluded that low doses of gamma rays may show stimulatory effect on carotenoid content in fruits of husk tomato. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  16. Pyrenean pastoralists’observations of environmental change: An exploratory study in los Valles Occidentales of Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Giménez, María E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of environmental change by local resource users may be an important source of information about past and current environmental conditions to complement scientific studies and monitoring. In this exploratory, qualitative study, we documented observations of environmental change made by 27 stockmen in the two westernmost valleys of the Central Western Pyrenees of Spain. Pastoralists reported changes in weather, corresponding declines in the flow of mountain springs, and an increase in shrub and tree cover in the mountains. Explanations for the increase in woody plant cover differed in the two valleys; however, the majority of stockmen from both villages believed that the lack of human presence in the mountains contributes to shrub encroachment. Stockmen’s observations of environmental change suggest additional research needs regarding climate and vegetation change in the Pyrenees, and highlight the potential contributions of Pyrenean pastoralists’ local knowledge to environmental monitoring, research and management.Las observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por usuarios locales pueden ser una importante fuente de información sobre las características medioambientales del pasado y del presente para complementar los estudios científicos y el monitoreo. En este estudio cualitativo documentamos observaciones sobre el cambio medioambiental realizadas por 27 ganaderos en los dos valles más occidentales de los Pirineos centro occidentales españoles. Resumen cambios climáticos relativos a la disminución del caudal de las fuentes de montaña y al aumento de la cubierta vegetal de matorrales y arbolado en las montañas. Las explicaciones sobre el aumento de arbolado difieren en los dos valles; sin embargo la mayoría de los ganaderos de ambos pueblos pensaban que la falta de presencia humana en las montañas contribuye a la invasión del matorral. Las observaciones de los ganaderos sobre los cambios medioambientales

  17. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  18. Sustainable energy development of bio briquettes based on rice husk blended materials: an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.

    2018-05-01

    Rice husk as an abundant waste of biomass up to 21 million tons/year, it is unfortunate if it is not utilized. By converting it into bio briquettes, the value of rice husk bio briquettes in some studies before obtaining a relatively low value of 3,221-3,350 cal/g. The purpose of this research is to increase the calorific value of rice husk bio briquettes by mixing with coconut shell charcoal or corncob charcoal at various composition ratios of 50:50 and 80:20, to reach the optimal value that the industrial sector needed. Carbonization process was carried out at a temperature of 250-350 °C for 1.5 hours. From the results of the proximate analysis test using selected carbonization temperature at 300 °C, it can be seen that the best briquette value is made by mixing rice husk and coconut shell charcoal at composition ratio of 50:50, resulting 47.92% fixed carbon, 8.52% moisture content, 23.40% volatile matter and 20.16% ash content. The highest calorific value of 4,886 cal/g at ratio composition of 50:50, is slightly higher than the East Kalimantan coal standard of 4,828 cal/g. Hence, this bio briquettes are suitable for small scale industry application and household community use.

  19. Combination of Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Free Lime (CaO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost all admixtures used in concrete construction in Nigeria are imported. In this study, various proportions of free Lime (CaO), Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were mixed and the setting times of various mix proportions were determined and compared with that of only OPC.

  20. Utilisation of rice husk ash for improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies generally showed improvement in the geotechnical properties of soils, either modified or stabilised with the ash, thus indicating the potentials of using this agricultural waste for improvement of geotechnical properties of ... Keywords: Black cotton soil, Deficient soil, Laterite, Rice husk ash, Soil improvement ...

  1. Sorption of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solution unto Modified Rice Husk: Isotherms Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Dada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the sorption potential of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent was carried out. The rice husk was modified with orthophosphoric acid and was used for adsorption of lead (II ions (Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Physicochemical properties of the modified rice husk were determined. Equilibrium sorption data were confirmed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. On the basis of adsorption isotherm graphs, R2 values were determined to be 0.995, 0.916, and 0.797 for Langmuir, Temkin, and Freundlich isotherms, respectively, indicating that the data fitted well into the adsorption isotherms, but Langmuir isotherm is a better model. The maximum monolayer coverage from Langmuir studies, Qmax=138.89 mg/g, Langmuir isotherm constant, KL=0.699 L/mg, and the separation factor, RL=1.41×10−2 at 100 mg/L of lead(II ions indicating that the sorption process, was favourable. The suitability of modified rice husk as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution and its potential for pollution control is established.

  2. Production process for high density high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are typically growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The husk is abundantly available as cheap residue from coconut production in many areas, which is known to yield the coarse coir fibre. In this project a simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high

  3. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index “p” was less than “1” in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth.

  4. Bio-softening of mature coconut husk for facile coir recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, D S; Pradeep, S; Jayapriya, J; Subramanian, S

    2007-06-01

    Bio-softening of the mature coconut husk using Basidiomyceteous fungi was attempted to recover the soft and whiter fibers. The process was faster and more efficient in degrading lignin and toxic phenolics. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus eryngii and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora were found to degrade lignin efficiently without any appreciable loss of cellulose, yielding good quality fiber ideal for dyeing.

  5. Soil nutrient enhancement by rice husk in smallholder farms of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil fertility management is one of the most cherished natural resource that requires being safeguard at all cost. An adequate and better solution to combat soil constraint arising from nutrient depletion has been developed; a low external input technology, amending soils with an organic base fertilizer (rice husk) as it is high ...

  6. effect of carbide waste on the properties of rice husk ash concrete.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Carbide Waste, Rice Husk Ash, Cement, Concrete and Rigid Pavement. INTRODUCTION .... and alumina components of the RHA, this ... Chemical analysis of CW, ... Kaduna, using X-ray analyzer together with. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). ... determine the compressive strength at each level.

  7. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha; Surif, Salmijah; Ahmad, Wan Azlina

    2007-01-01

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L -1 of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min -1 . The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment

  8. Studies on the Effect of Rice Husk Ash as Cement Admixture * M.U ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Studies on the Effect of Rice Husk Ash as Cement Admixture. *. 1. M.U Dabai,. 1 ... production of durable concrete and at the same time it is a ... indigenous and waste, materials in concrete. One .... (4.08%). The Iron oxide may be from laterite.

  9. Isolation, characterization and investigation of Plantago ovata husk polysaccharide as superdisintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal; Varkhade, Chhaya

    2014-08-01

    Psyllium husk (Plantago ovata, Family: Plantaginaceae) contains a high proportion of hemicellulose, composed of a xylan backbone linked with arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid units (arabinoxylans). Polysaccharide was isolated from Psyllium husk using solvent precipitation method. The isolated polysaccharide was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The rheological behavior of polysaccharide (1% w/v in water) was studied using Brookfield viscometer. Polysaccharide derived from the husk of P. ovata was investigated as superdisintegrant in the fast dissolving tablets. Valsartan, an antihypertensive drug, was selected as a model drug. The tablets of Valsartan were prepared separately using different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5% w/w) of isolated Plantago ovata (P. ovata) husk polysaccharide (Natural) and crospovidone as a synthetic superdisintegrant by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various pre-compression and post-compression parameters. The drug excipient interactions were characterized by FTIR studies. The formulation F4 containing7.5% polysaccharide showed rapid wetting time and disintegration time as compared to formulation prepared using synthetic superdisintegrant at the same concentration level. Hence batch F4 was considered as optimized formulation. The stability studies were performed on formulation F4. The disintegration time and in vitro drug release of the optimized formulation was compared with the marketed formulation (Conventional tablets). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of Zn(II) and Pb (II) ions Using Rice Husk in Food Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The removal of mentioned heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions was studied by batch ... The binding process was strongly affected by pH and the optimum. pH for Zn2+ and .... on the rice husks are protonated and positively-charged, their.

  11. Analytical method to determine the potential of using rice husk for off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four power plants were considered: boiler steam turbine combination labelled ... Plant C and gasifier - Internal Combustion engine combination labelled Plant D. ... Keywords: rice husk ash, renewable energy, heat generation, CHP, gasifier - gas turbine CHP. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. palm kernel husk ash (pkha) as an admixture (accelerator) in concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.W. Otunyo. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. ... The main contribution of this technical paper is that PKHA can reduce the set- ting time of .... The palm kernel husks were washed to clean.

  13. A Study of the Anechoic Performance of Rice Husk-Based, Geometrically Tapered, Hollow Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although solid, geometrically tapered microwave absorbers are preferred due to their better performance, they are bulky and must have a thickness on the order of λ or more. The goal of this study was to design lightweight absorbers that can reduce the electromagnetic reflections to less than −10 dB. We used a very simple approach; two waste materials, that is, rice husks and tire dust in powder form, were used to fabricate two independent samples. We measured and used their dielectric properties to determine and compare the propagation constants and quarter-wave thickness. The quarter-wave thickness for the tire dust was 3 mm less than that of the rice husk material, but we preferred the rice-husk material. This preference was based on the fact that our goal was to achieve minimum backward reflections, and the rice-husk material, with its low dielectric constant, high loss factor, large attenuation per unit length, and ease of fabrication, provided a better opportunity to achieve that goal. The performance of the absorbers was found to be better (lower than −20 dB, and comparison of the results proved that the hollow design with 58% less weight was a good alternative to the use of solid absorbers.

  14. Magnetically modified peanut husks as an effective sorbent of heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozumová, L.; Životský, O.; Seidlerová, J.; Motyka, O.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 549-555 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cadmium * Ions sorption * Lead * Magnetic modification * Peanut husks * Waste water Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  15. Potential of Rice Husk and Cassava Peel as Carriers for Bio-fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of carrier is a vital factor in determining microbial load and shelf life of biofertilizers. Rice husk and cassava peels are abundant and practically of no economic value in many developing countries and thus satisfy two important requirements of biofertilizer-carrier materials. This study evaluated other properties ...

  16. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Surif, Salmijah [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Wan Azlina [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)], E-mail: azlina@kimia.fs.utm.my

    2007-09-05

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L{sup -1} of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min{sup -1}. The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment.

  17. Further Studies on the Utilization of Cocoa Husk in Ruminant Rations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect on body weight changes of sheep and goats and digestibility of maintenance rations in which cocoa husk constituted, 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% of the basal ration respectively were studied. These rations were fed to wethers and castrated goats (castrates) in two separate but concurrent digestibility trials. There was ...

  18. Replacement value of cocoa husk meal as a substitute for maize in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty crossbred weaner (Newzealand x Chinchilla) of six weeks of age were used to determine the effects of replacing maize with graded levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of cocoa husk meal (CHM) on the performance of rabbits in a completely randomized design for an eight week period. Feed intake increased ...

  19. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  20. Performance And Egg Quality Of Hens Fed Cocoa Husk Based Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lowman Brown hens, 37 - week - old, were used to study the effect of dietary inclusion of 10 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize on hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed ...

  1. The Potential of Coffee Husk and Pulp as an Alternative Source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia enormous amounts of coffee husk and pulp are generated anually from coffee processing industries. However, they have been poorly utilized or left to decompose or otherwise dumped in the environment. Therefore, this research was conducted at Teppi and Limu coffee farms in Ethiopia to produce briquettes ...

  2. Utilization of graded levels of corn cobs and cowpea husk on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corncob (CC) and cowpea husk (CH) are by – products of maize and cowpea production respectively. They can be used as alternative feed resources for ruminants especially during the dry season. A 70d study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and CH based diets on performance of WAD rams. Sixteen ewes ...

  3. Studies on removal of NH4+-N from aqueous solution by using the activated carbons derived from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Kairan; Fu, Hao; Zhang, Jinghui; Lv, Xiaoshu; Tang, Jie; Xu, Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution caused by ammonia nitrogen has attracted a great attention as its toxicity affects both the environment and human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from rice husk. The physico-chemical properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the NH 4 + -N adsorption on the rice husk derived carbons was dependent on adsorbent dosage and solution pH. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of NH 4 + -N by rice husk carbon were also investigated, and good correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) adsorption isotherm model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. Calculated by D-R model, the adsorption course of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon was favored chemical ion-exchange mechanism. Moreover, the activated carbon adsorbed NH 4 + -N was highly fertilizer conservation especially for the nitrogen element. It was proposed that the amount of removed NH 4 + -N from aqueous solutions would increase evidently treated by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method. -- Highlights: ► The dosage of rice husk carbon and pH affected the removal of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution. ► D-R model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. ► The removing of NH 4 + -N would be risen by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method.

  4. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  5. Salmonella spp. e antibiotico-resistenza in Mammiferi e Uccelli selvatici in Italia nord-occidentale dal 2002 al 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Salmonella è un importante agente patogeno responsabile di zoonosi di notevole rilevanza economica. In Europa la salmonellosi è la seconda infezione trasmessa per via alimentare, in Italia il microrganismo continua ad essere la causa più frequente di infezione alimentare. In Europa sono in atto molti piani di sorveglianza di Salmonella in animali da allevamento, tuttavia il monitoraggio del microrganismo in animali selvatici è effettuato solo occasionalmente. Lo studio ha avuto l'obiettivo di indagare la presenza di Salmonella in animali selvatici e i ceppi antibiotico-resistenti. Nel periodo 2002-2010, 2.713 animali selvatici (Canidi, Mustelidi, Uccelli, Roditori e Ungulati, provenienti da aree dell'Italia nord-occidentale, sono stati testati per Salmonella mediante metodo microbiologico colturale seguito da tipizzazione sierologica e biochimica. Di questi, 117 (63 Canidi, 25 Mustelidi, 24 Uccelli, 5 Ungulati sono risultati positivi per Salmonella (4,3%. Sono stati isolati 130 ceppi appartenenti a diversi sierotipi e Salmonella Typhimurium è risultato quello più rappresentato. La sensibilità agli antibiotici è stata testata su 88 ceppi con test di disco-diffusione. La maggior parte dei ceppi analizzati (97,7% si sono mostrati intermedi (I o resistenti (R ad almeno una classe di antibiotici. I più alti valori sono stati osservati per la classe delle tetracicline. La presenza di sierotipi di Salmonella antibiotico-resistenti e responsabili di zoonosi è stata riscontrata in diverse specie di animali selvatici.

  6. Perlas y piel de azabache. El negro en las pesquerías de las Indias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not very long after the Discovery, the pearls from the West Indies competed with those from the Orient for the full regalia of the ladies of the gentry, or that of the most revered virgins, while raising the curiosity of the best known chroniclers and creating an excruciating tax system. Considering the legislation passed for the benefit of Indians, those were to a large extent replaced in the “pearl fisheries” by black slaves submitted by the covetousness of their masters and the interests of the Crown to horrendous living and working conditions which most of the time relentlessly led them to death.

    Poco después del Descubrimiento, las perlas de las Indias occidentales rivalizaron con las de Oriente para el adorno de las damas de la alta sociedad o de las Vírgenes más veneradas, suscitando la curiosidad científica de los cronistas más conocidos y una exigente legislación fiscal. Debido a las leyes emitidas a favor de los indios, éstos se sustituyeron en gran parte, en las pesquerías de perlas, por esclavos negros sometidos —por la codicia de los amos y el interés de la Corona— a despiadadas condiciones de vida y de trabajo que desembocaban las más veces en una muerte inexorable.

  7. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Sahal, Dinkar

    2017-12-01

    Zea mays L. (Poacae) husk decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria. To assess the antimalarial and antiplasmodial potentials of the husk extract and fractions on malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. The ethanol husk extract and fractions (187-748 mg/kg, p.o.) of Zea mays were investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei using rodent (mice) malaria models and in vitro activity against chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the SRBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activities against HeLa and HEKS cells were also carried out. The GCMS analysis of the most active fraction was carried out. The husk extract (187-748 mg/kg, p.o.) with LD 50 of 1874.83 mg/kg was found to exert significant (p antimalarial activity against P. berghei infection in suppressive, prophylactive and curative tests. The crude extract and fractions also exerted prominent activity against both chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of P. falciparum with the ethyl acetate fraction exerting the highest activity with IC 50 values of 9.31 ± 0.46 μg/mL (Pf 3D7) and 3.69 ± 0.66 μg/mL (Pf INDO). The crude extract and fractions were not cytotoxic to the two cell lines tested with IC 50 values of >100 μg/mL against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. These results suggest that the husk extract/fractions of Zea mays possesses antimalarial and antiplasmodial activities and these justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections.

  8. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; Hasif, W. M. K. A. A.; Taib, H., E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO{sub 2}). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO{sub 2}) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO{sub 2}) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO{sub 2}). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO{sub 2} was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO{sub 2} was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO{sub 2} purity was detected in SS-SiO{sub 2} followed by C-RHSiO{sub 2} and A-RHSiO{sub 2} with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO{sub 2}) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm{sup −1}) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO{sub 2} at the wavelength of 620 cm{sup −1}. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO{sub 2} and C-RH SiO{sub 2} showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  9. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the metals varied.

  10. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  11. Research Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 4, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm parameters of male Wistar rats treated with Anacardium occidentale L. leaf extract · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. O.O. Obembe, A.O. Ige, 83-89 ...

  12. Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew Anacardium occidentale (L) on seedlings emergence and height under treatment with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Gidan-Waya, Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

  13. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  14. A study on flexural and water absorption of surface modified rice husk flour/E-glass/polypropylene hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassiah, K.; Sin, T. W.; Ismail, M. Z.

    2016-10-01

    This work is to study the effects of rice husk (RH)/E-Glass (EG)/polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites in terms of flexural and water absorption properties. The tests conducted are the flexural test and also the water absorption test using two types of water: distilled and sea water. The hybrid composites are prepared with various ratios of fibre weight fractions and the rice husk is treated using 2% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to improve interaction and adhesion between the non-polar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibres. It was found that the content of rice husk/E-Glass fillers affected the structural integrity and flexural properties of hybrid composites. In addition, a higher ratio of rice husk contributes to higher water absorption in the hybrid composites.

  15. Use of hyghly reactive rice husk ash in the production of cement matrix reinforced with Green coconut fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, C.L.; Savastano, H. Jr; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan; Santos, S. F.; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of partial replacement of Portland cement by rice husk ash (RHA) to enable the use of green coconut husk fiber as reinforcement for cementitious matrix. The use of highly reactive pozzolanic ash contributes for decreasing the alkaline attack on the vegetable fiber, originated from waste materials. The slurry dewatering technique was used for dispersion of the raw materials in aqueous solution, followed by vacuum drainage of water and pressing for the product...

  16. Efficacy from Different Extractions for Chemical Profile and Biological Activities of Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a by-product produced abundantly in rice production but it has low commercial value and causes environmental pollution. This study was conducted to examine different extracting solvents and conditions to optimize the efficacy of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, and chemical components in rice husk. By the use of distilled water at 100 °C, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract was potent in both total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and DPPH scavenging activity. The treatment of either ethyl acetate (100 °C, 1 h, combined with MeOH 100%, showed the highest percent of lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI (86%, meaning that the strongest antioxidant activity was by the β-carotene bleaching method. The treatment of distilled water at room temperature possessed the strongest antioxidant activity in the assay of the reducing power. The use of dried samples at 100 °C for 2 h, combined with methanol (MeOH 10%, provided the most potent antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Proteus mirabilis. The results suggested that the EtOAc extract from rice husk could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. In general, the use of temperature 100 °C for 2 h, combined with either EtOAc or 10% MeOH, can optimize chemical components and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities in rice husk. Principal constituents putatively identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS revealed the presence of momilactones A and B (MA and MB, respectively, phenols, phenolic acids, and long-chain fatty acids, although yields of these compounds varied among extracts. The bioactive MA and MB were found in most of the extracts, except distilled water and MeOH ≤ 50%, at any temperature. Findings of this study provided optimal conditions for future production at an industrial scale for rice husk to exploit its potent biological properties. It

  17. Enhancing Nitrogen Availability, Ammonium Adsorption-Desorption, and Soil pH Buffering Capacity using Composted Paddy Husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, O.; Ahmed, O. H.; Abdul Majid, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Form of nitrogen present in soils is one of the factors that affect nitrogen loss. Nitrate is mobile in soils because it does not absorb on soil colloids, thus, causing it to be leached by rainfall to deeper soil layers or into the ground water. On the other hand, temporary retention and timely release of ammonium in soils regulate nitrogen availability for crops. In this study, composted paddy husk was used in studies of soil leaching, buffering capacity, and ammonium adsorption and desorption to determine the: (i) availability of exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, and total nitrogen in an acid soil after leaching the soil for 30 days, (ii) soil buffering capacity, and (iii) ability of the composted paddy husk to adsorb and desorb ammonium from urea. Leaching of ammonium and nitrate were lower in all treatments with urea and composted paddy husk compared with urea alone. Higher retention of soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, and total nitrogen of the soils with composted paddy husk were due to the high buffering capacity and cation exchange capacity of the amendment to adsorb ammonium thus, improving nitrogen availability through temporary retention on the exchange sites of the humic acids of the composted paddy husk. Nitrogen availability can be enhanced if urea is amended with composted paddy husk.

  18. Phenol Biodegradation by Free and Immobilized Candida tropicalis RETL-Crl on Coconut Husk and Loofah Packed in Biofilter Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shazryenna, D; Ruzanna, R; Jessica, M S; Piakong, M T

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and its derivatives are environmental pollutant commonly found in many industrial effluents. It is toxic in nature and causes various health hazards. However, they are poorly removed in conventional biological processes due to their toxicity. Immobilization of microbial cells has received increasing interest in the field of waste treatment and creates opportunities in a wide range of sectors including environmental pollution control. Live cells of phenol-degrading yeast, Candida tropicalis RETL-Crl, were immobilized on coconut husk and loofah by adsorption. The immobolized particle was packed into biofilter column which used for continuous treatment of a phenol with initial phenol concentration of 3mM. Both loofah and coconut husk have similar phenol biodegradation rate of 0.0188 gL −1 h −1 within 15 hours to achieve a phenol removal efficiency of 100%. However loofah have lower biomass concentration of 4.22 gL −1 compared to biomass concentration on coconut husk, 4.39 gL −1 . Coconut husk contain higher biomass concentration which makes it better support material than loofah. Fibrous matrices such as loofah and coconut husk provide adequate supporting surfaces for cell adsorption, due to their high specific surface area. Therefore, coconut husk and loofah being an agricultural waste product have the potential to be used as low-cost adsorbent and support matrix for microbial culture immobilization for the removal of organic pollutant from wastewater. (paper)

  19. Innovations et métallurgies en Méditerranée occidentale (XIIIe–XVe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verna, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a definition of technical innovation in the Middle Ages and it’s relationship to industry, this paper explores it’s characteristics in the fi eld of iron and silver (silver-bearing lead and copper metallurgy from the 13th to the 15th centuries in the western Mediterranean area. The exploration opens with a synthesis of the circulation of iron and steel products, with special care taken over the definition of their respective qualities, in particular the distinction between iron and steel; the exploration continues with an introduction to specific technical territories related to industrial “districts”, which allows the author to present the study of the circulation of technical knowledge. The paper concludes with a study of notables (Catalan in particular as rural entrepreneurs who invested in the technical innovation of their time.[fr] Après avoir défi ni l’innovation technique au Moyen Âge et ses rapports à l’industrie, cet article en étudie les caractéristiques dans les domaines de la métallurgie du fer et de l’argent (plomb et cuivre argentifères du XIIIe au XVe siècle, en Méditerranée occidentale. Cet examen s’ouvre par un tableau de la circulation des produits sidérurgiques, attentif à la définition de leurs qualités respectives, en particulier à la distinction fer-acier; il se poursuit par la présentation des territoires techniques spécifiques associés à des districts industriels, ce qui permet à l’auteur d’aborder l’étude des circulations des savoirs techniques. L’article se conclut par une étude des notables (en particulier catalans, entrepreneurs ruraux, qui ont investi dans l’innovation technique.

  20. Husk to caryopsis adhesion in barley is influenced by pre- and post-anthesis temperatures through changes in a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, M; Shepherd, T; Mitchell, S; Topp, C F E; Hoad, S P

    2017-10-23

    At ripeness, the outer husk of "covered" barley grains firmly adheres to the underlying caryopsis. A cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis is required for husk adhesion, however the quality of adhesion varies significantly among cultivars which produce the cementing layer, resulting in the economically important malting defect, grain skinning. The composition of the cementing layer, and grain organ development have been hypothesised to influence the quality of husk adhesion. Plants of Hordeum vulgare 'Concerto' were grown at different temperatures pre- and post-anthesis to effect changes in the development of the husk, caryopsis and cuticular cementing layer, to determine how these variables influence the quality of husk-to-caryopsis adhesion. Warm conditions pre-anthesis decreased the quality of husk adhesion, and consequently increased the incidence of grain skinning. Cool post-anthesis conditions further decreased the quality of husk adhesion. The composition of the cementing layer, rather than its structure, differed with respect to husk adhesion quality. This cementing layer was produced at the late milk stage, occurring between nine and 29 days post-anthesis, conditional on the temperature-dependent growth rate. The compounds octadecanol, tritriacontane, campesterol and β-sitosterol were most abundant in caryopses with high-quality husk adhesion. The differences in adhesion quality were not due to incompatible husk and caryopsis dimensions affecting organ contact. This study shows that husk-to-caryopsis adhesion is dependent on cementing layer composition, and implies that this composition is regulated by temperature before, and during grain development. Understanding this regulation will be key to improving husk-to-caryopsis adhesion.

  1. SARDULUS SACERENSIS CASALE & MARCIA, NUOVA SPECIE IPOGEA DI COLEOTTERI ISTERIDI DELLA SARDEGNA NORD-OCCIDENTALE E SUA MORFOLOGIA LARVALE (Coleoptera, Histeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sardulus sacerensis Casale & Marcia, nuova specie di Histeridae ipogei della Grotta di Lu Gardu (Sassari, Sardegna nord-occidentale è descritta e comparata con le due specie note in precedenza della Sardegna centro-orientale, S. spelaeus Patrizi, 1955, e S. incrassatus Magrini & Fancello, 2005. Le caratteristiche morfologiche esternee i genitali maschili delle tre specie sono raffigurati. Inoltre, è fornita per la prima volta la descrizione della morfologia larvale di una specie di questo genere. S. spelaeus, specie nota fino ad ora di due grotte in territorio di Dorgali, è segnalata di una terza località: la Grotta di Istirzili o Stirzili, nel territorio di Baunei.

  2. Use of Rice Husk-Bark Ash in Producing Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrerng Rukzon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of blend of Portland cement with rice husk-bark ash in producing self-compacting concrete (SCC. CT was partially replaced with ground rice husk-bark ash (GRHBA at the dosage levels of 0%–40% by weight of binder. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride penetration, and corrosion of SCC were determined. Test results reveal that the resistance to chloride penetration of concrete improves substantially with partial replacement of CT with a blend of GRHBA and the improvement increases with an increase in the replacement level. The corrosion resistances of SCC were better than the CT concrete. In addition, test results indicated that the reduction in porosity was associated with the increase in compressive strength. The porosity is a significant factor as it affects directly the durability of the SCC. This work is suggested that the GHRBA is effective for producing SCC with 30% of GHRBA replacement level.

  3. Improving the Bond Strength of Rice Husk Ash Concrete by Incorporating Polymer: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bangwar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight of how to improve the bond strength of cement in which concrete is replaced with rice husk ash. A concrete mix was prepared and was used in different types of mixes i.e. Control Mix, 10% cement substituted concrete with rice husk ash and polymer modified concrete by incorporation different dosages of polymer in the 10% cement substituted concrete. A bar of 12mm diameter, 300mm in length was placed in the center of the cylindrical specimens for pull out test. It was observed that the bond strength between concrete and steel decreases with the replacement of cement with ash, conversely the bond strength improves with the addition of polymer dosages.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate from rice husk: eco-friendly condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana M; Ali, Abdul A; Hazarika, Manash P

    2014-11-04

    Cellulose acetate was synthesized from rice husk by using a simple, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free method. Cellulose was isolated from rice husk (RH) using standard pretreatment method with dilute alkaline and acid solutions and bleaching with 2% H2O2. Cellulose acetate (CA) was synthesized successfully with the yield of 66% in presence of acetic anhydride and iodine as a catalyst in eco-friendly solvent-free conditions. The reaction parameters were standardized at 80 °C for 300 min and the optimum results were taken for further study. The extent of acetylation was evaluated from % yield and the degree of substitution (DS), which was determined by (1)H NMR and titrimetrically. The synthesized products were characterized with the help modern analytical techniques like FT-IR, (1)H NMR, XRD, etc. and the thermal behavior was evaluated by TGA and DSC thermograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-combustion of risk husk with coal in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, A.K.; Alias, A.B.; Savory, R.M.; Cliffe, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes agricultural residue waste. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from agricultural residues (rice husk) was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and CO emissions were studied and compared with those for pure coal combustion. Biomass waste with up to 70% mass fraction can be co-combusted in a fluidized bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 20% depending upon excess air levels. CO levels fluctuated between 200-700 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of rice husk with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers. (Author)

  6. Adsorption of Safranin-T from wastewater using waste materials- activated carbon and activated rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Mittal, Alok; Jain, Rajeev; Mathur, Megha; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2006-11-01

    Textile effluents are major industrial polluters because of high color content, about 15% unfixed dyes and salts. The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste materials activated carbon and activated rice husk-as adsorbents. The method was employed for the removal of Safranin-T and the influence of various factors such as adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, particle size, temperature, contact time, and pH was studied. The adsorption of the dye over both the adsorbents was found to follow Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Based on these models, different useful thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for both the adsorption processes. The adsorption of Safranin-T over activated carbon and activated rice husks follows first-order kinetics and the rate constants for the adsorption processes decrease with increase in temperature.

  7. Purification of Industrial Phosphoric Acid using Silica Produced from Rice Husk (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.; Awwad, N.S.; El-Khalafawy, A.; Daifullah, A.A.M.; El-Reefy, S.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, silica was extracted from rice husk (RH) by different techniques and used for removal of some heavy metals from industrial phosphoric acid. The data obtained, showed that removal of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) is efficient when the silica used is obtained by acidic treatment, while the removal of Fe(III) and Zn(II) is efficient when the silica used was obtained by alkaline treatment of RH. On the other hand, if silica used is obtained from rice husk ash (RHA) it was found more efficient for the removal of Mn. In all cases, the concentration of silica has been characterized by UV-Spectrophotometry. FTIR, SEM and EDX were used for predication of sorption mechanism

  8. Accumulation and distribution of elements in rice (seed, brand layer, husk) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Various rice samples (seed, brand layer, husk) from Vietnam were analyzed for Se, Hg, Cr, Ni, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co by neutron activation analysis. The concentration values found (seed) were as follows: Se 0.04-0.07 ppm, Hg 0.02-0.07 ppm, Cr 2.13-8.65 ppm, Ni 1.56-4.95 ppm, Sc 0.02-0.06 ppm, Rb 0.84-2.71 ppm, Fe 26.31-96.07 ppm, Zn 10.65-27.39 ppm and Co 0.02-0.15 ppm. The values were reported in ppm (dry weight). Statistical analysis showed that the content of elements varies in different parts of rice; the content of Rb, Fe, Ni, Cr of husk was significantly higher than in seed and brand layer. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Coffee husk composting: an investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-03-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pchicken diets with garlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  11. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  12. Study of the Mechanical and Morphology Properties of Recycled HDPE Composite Using Rice Husk Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Tong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WPCs are being used in a large number of applications in the automotive, construction, electronic, and aerospace industries. There are an increasing number of research studies and developments in WPC technology involving rice husk as fillers. This study investigated the effects of different compositions of rice husk (RH filler on the mechanical and morphological properties of recycled HDPE (rHDPE composite. The composites were prepared with five different loading contents of RH fibers (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% using the twin screw extrusion method. Maleic acid polyethylene (MAPE was added as a coupling agent. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties improved with increasing RH loading. However, the impact strength of the composites decreased as the RH loading increased. SEM micrographs revealed good interfacial bonding between the fiber and polymer matrix.

  13. Coffee husk composting: An investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  14. Enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk through Pseudomonas aeruginosa AP 029/GLVIIA rhamnolipid preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cynthia Kérzia Costa; de Oliveira Campos, Alan; de Araújo Padilha, Carlos Eduardo; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; do Nascimento, Ruthinéia Jéssica Alves; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Everaldo Silvino

    2017-08-01

    This work investigated the influence of chemical (Triton X-100) and biological surfactant preparation (rhamnolipids) in coconut husk hydrolysis that was subjected to pretreatment with acid-alkali or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. The natural and pretreated biomass was characterized using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory protocol analysis as well as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that in terms of the total reducing sugars, there was no significant difference between the hydrolysis using Triton X-100 and rhamnolipids, regardless of the pretreatment. A cellulosic conversion value as high as 33.0% was obtained in experiments with rhamnolipids. The coconut husk was observed to be a potential biomass that could produce second generation ethanol, and the rhamnolipid preparation can be used to support for the enzymatic hydrolysis, enhancing the advantage of cellulose conversion into glucose over chemical surfactants because it is an environmentally friendly approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Rice Husk Ash in Low - Cost Sandcrete Block Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ABDULLAHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of some commercial sandcrete blocks in Minna, Nigeria was investigated. Rice Husk Ash (RHA was prepared using Charcoal from burning firewood. Preliminary analysis of the Constituent materials of the ordinary Portland Cement (OPC / Rice Husk Ash (RHA hollow sandcrete blocks were conducted to confirm their suitability for block making. Physical test of the freshly prepared mix was also carried out. 150mm´450mm hollow sandcrete blocks were cast cured and crushed for 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 percent replacement levels. Test results indicate that most commercial sandcrete blocks in Minna town are below standard. The compressive strength of the OPC/RHA sandcrete blocks increases with age at curing and decreases as the percentage of RHA content increases. The study arrived at an optimum replacement level of 20%

  16. Adsorption of arsenate from aqueous solution by rice husk-based adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Taimur; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Rice husk-based adsorbent (RHBA) was prepared by burning rice husk in a muffle furnace at 400°C for 4 h and adsorption of arsenate by the RHBA from aqueous solution was examined. Batch adsorption test showed that extent of arsenate adsorption depended on contact time and pH. Equilibrium adsorption was attained in 60 min, with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7. Equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich isotherm model. Freundlich constants K f and 1/n were 3.62 and 2, respectively. The RHBA is effective in the adsorption of arsenate from water and is a potentially suitable filter medium for removing arsenate from groundwater at wells or in households.

  17. Coffee husk associated with firewood as fuel for indirect heating of drying air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the performance analysis of a furnace, burning coffee husk associated with firewood to heat the drying air passing through a heat exchanger. For the analysis the temperature variation, the combustion quality, the heat losses and the furnace thermal efficiency were all monitored. Results showed that the furnace average efficiency was 58.3% and the heat losses in the exhaust were 24.3%. The presence of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases (average 2982.8 ppm) had proven incomplete combustion, and suggesting that the combustion gases can not be used to directly drying of foods. Despite of indirect heating, the presented thermal efficiency indicates that the burning of coffee husks is one economic alternative for air heating in grain drying or in other agricultural processes. (author)

  18. Probiotic activity of lignocellulosic enzyme as bioactivator for rice husk degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Al-Arif, Anam; Warsito, Sunaryo Hadi

    2017-02-01

    The utilization of lignocellulosic enzyme will increase nutritional value of rice husk. Cellulase consists of C1 (β-1, 4-glucan cellobiohydrolase or exo-β-1,4glucanase), Cc (endo-β-1,4-glucanase) and component and cellobiose (β-glucocidase). Hemicellulase enzyme consists of endo-β-1,4-xilanase, β-xilosidase, α-L arabinofuranosidase, α-D-glukuronidaseand asetil xilan esterase. This research aimed to study the activity of lignocellulosic enzyme, produced by cows in their rumen, which can be used as a bioactivator in rice husk degradation. This research resulted G6 and G7 bacteria, producing xylanase and cellulase with the activity of 0.004 U mL-1 and 0.021 U mL-1; 0.003 ( U mL-1) and 0.026 (U mL-1) respectively.

  19. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianingsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw materials, low cost operations and not use sulfur compounds. Dry raw materials are mixed with NaOH and digesting using autoclave (100°C, 1 atm for 60 minutes. NaOH concentration optimum used in the pulping process a combination rice husk and empty fruit bunches (1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 and then cooled for 30 minutes. Pulp is bleached with NaClO 5.25% (v / v, then formed and dried as paper. The lowest pulp yield obtained in a ratio of 2: 1 is 27.6%. Based on the observation of SEM known the fiber of rice husk and empty fruit bunches is 5.88 to 9.8 μm and 8.82 to 14.71 μm, while based on XRD observations, chemical treatment can improve the characteristic of peak intensity on paper combination. The highest advances of peak intensity in the 1:3 ratio is 71.28% (cellulose I dan 83.33% (cellulose II.

  20. THE PAPER CHARACTERISTICS FROM COMBINATION OF RICE HUSKS AND EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianinsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk and empty fruit bunches are agricultural and plantation wastes which have fiber cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be converted to pulp and paper. This research aims to study the effect of NaOH concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/v and raw material composition to pulp yield and to study characteristics of the paper combination of rice husk and empty fruit bunches using soda process based on SEM and XRD analysis. This research using soda process because it is suitable for non-wood raw materials, low cost operations and not use sulfur compounds. Dry raw materials are mixed with NaOH and digesting using autoclave (100°C, 1 atm for 60 minutes. NaOH concentration optimum used in the pulping process a combination rice husk and empty fruit bunches (1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 and then cooled for 30 minutes. Pulp is bleached with NaClO 5.25% (v / v, then formed and dried as paper. The lowest pulp yield obtained in a ratio of 2: 1 is 27.6%. Based on the observation of SEM known the fiber of rice husk and empty fruit bunches is 5.88 to 9.8 μm and 8.82 to 14.71 μm, while based on XRD observations, chemical treatment can improve the characteristic of peak intensity on paper combination. The highest advances of peak intensity in the 1:3 ratio is 71.28% (cellulose I dan 83.33% (cellulose II.

  1. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Remazol Black B dye sorption by cocoa pod husk waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ton Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of the activated carbons from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste by physical activation was carried out for the removal of Remazol Black B (RBB) reactive dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of various process parameters i.e., temperature, initial RBB concentration and contact time on the adsorption capacity of activated carbon were investigated in batch system. Langmuir isotherm showed better fit than Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The kinetic model for RBB adsorption follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. (author)

  2. The use of exhausted olive husks as fuel in the Calabrian bread-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, G. [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Exhausted olive husks are a biomass by-product from the olive oil working cycle that has very interesting energy characteristics. This paper considers the use of this biomass as an alternative to or integrative energy source with conventional fuels in the Calabrian bread baking sector, and it outlines its potential and economic viability. Various energy scenarios are suggested for a Calabrian bakery, by means of a detailed analysis of economic convenience. (author)

  3. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Abstract. The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five. Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight ± s.d. = 41.4 ± 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine ...

  4. A new naphthalenone isolated from the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Pi, Xin-Mei; Yu, Chang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study of green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. led to the isolation of a new naphthalenone, (4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-butoxy-5-hydroxy-naphthalen-1(2H)-one (1), together with 16 known compounds. Compounds 4-6, 13, 14 and 17 were isolated from the genus Juglans for the first time, and their chemotaxonomic significance was also evaluated.

  5. Synthesis and Thermomechanical Properties of Polyurethanes and Biocomposites Derived from Macauba Oil and Coconut Husk Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Quirino, Rafael; Silva, Taynara da; Payne, Amanda; Lopes, Roseany de V. V.; Paterno, Leonardo; Sales, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on a very effective route to produce bio-based polyurethanes (PUs) and composites with high content of renewable carbon sources. The PUs are prepared with polyols synthesized from macauba oil (Acrocomia aculeata) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, at different [NCO]/[OH] molar ratios. Later, biocomposites are prepared with the as-obtained PUs reinforced with coconut husk fibers. The successful synthesis of natural oil-based polyols is ascribed to the hydroxylation and cons...

  6. Some blood indices in finisher broiler chickens fed cocoa pod husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary effects of pre-treated cocoa pod husk (CPH) on some blood indices of 21-day old COBB-500 finisher broiler chicks were evaluated in a 35-day experiment with a completely randomized design. The birds were allotted to seven treatments (diets) having 0-g kg-1, 100- g kg-1, 200-g kg-1 and 300-g kg-1 of either ...

  7. Sorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Obtained from Rice Husks by Treatment with Lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnin Nwe Aye; Aye Aye Maw; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The sorption studies of rice husk char prepared by carbonization and activation with lime, caustic soda and sulphuric acid have been investigated. Prior to impregnation with the lime; on a micro processing scale the pre-carbonization temperature of rice husk were determined by using TG-DTA thermal analysis. The impregnation with chemical was made after carbonization and the impregnated chars were subjected to activation at appropriate temperatures of about 300 C to 500 C depending on the impregnated chars. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared chars were tested by conventional and modern techniques. Sorption capacities with respect to colored dyes were determined for each of the char. These sorption capacities are indicative of the decolorizing nature and the acid or basic nature. The sorption capacities of the prepared chars towards the uptake of metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were also studied and the lime activated char exhibits high adsorptive capacities for all the metals compared to other prepared chars as well as the commercial wood char. The evaluation of the sorption capacities of this chars were made on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir monolayer coverage equations. Thus, based on batch dosage method and breakthrough flow method, the uptake of the metals were found to be in following order for the lime activated rice husk char; Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd. From this investigation, it can be inferred that a rice husk char impregnated with 20% technical grade CaO has the potential effect to be used as an effective metal adsorbent particularly for the uptake of toxic heavy metals in the secondary stage of water treatment processes.

  8. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Rodriguez; Gerardo Gordillo

    2011-01-01

    Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH) per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i) CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii) experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E). The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA), developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equiva...

  9. Performance of rice husk ash produced using a new technology as a mineral admixture in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, M.; Duquette, J.; El Damatty, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates the use of a new technique for the controlled combustion of Egyptian rice husk to mitigate the environmental concerns associated with its uncontrolled burning and provide a supplementary cementing material for the local construction industry. The reactor used provides efficient combustion of rice husk in a short residency time via the suspension of processed particles by jets of a process air stream that is forced though stationary angled blades at high velocity. Investigations on the rice husk ash (RHA) thus produced included oxide analysis, X-ray diffraction, carbon content, grindability, water demand, pozzolanic activity index, surface area, and particle size distribution measurements. In addition, concrete mixtures incorporating various proportions of silica fume (SF) and Egyptian RHA (EG-RHA) produced at different combustion temperatures were made and compared. The workability, superplasticizer and air-entraining admixture requirements, and compressive strength at various ages of these concrete mixtures were evaluated, and their resistance to rapid chloride penetrability and deicing salt surface scaling were examined. Test results indicate that contrary to RHA produced using existing technology, the superplasticizer and air-entraining agent requirements did not increase drastically when the RHA developed in this study was used. Compressive strengths achieved by concrete mixtures incorporating the new RHA exceeded those of concretes containing similar proportions of SF. The resistance to surface scaling of RHA concrete was better than that of concrete containing similar proportions of SF. While the chloride penetrability was substantially decreased by RHA, it remained slightly higher than that achieved by SF concrete

  10. Clay bricks prepared with sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash – A sustainable solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Saleem Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the clay bricks produced by the addition of the two agricultural waste materials i.e. sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash. Disposing off these waste materials is a very challenging task and is a hazard to environment. The sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash were collected locally from the cities of Peshawar and Wazirabad, respectively. These were mixed with the clay for brick manufacturing in three different proportions i.e. 5, 10 and 15% by weight of clay. Mechanical i.e. compressive strength and modulus of rupture and durability properties i.e. water absorption; freeze-thaw and sulphate resistance of these bricks were evaluated. Test results indicated that the sulphate attack resistance and efflorescence of clay bricks incorporating sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ash have been increased significantly. However, no significant effect on mechanical properties was observed. Furthermore, the additions of wastes have reduced the unit weight of bricks which decrease the overall weight of the structure leading to economical construction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the addition of waste materials in brick manufacturing can minimize the environmental burden leading towards more economical and sustainable construction.

  11. Experimental study of Pb (II) solution sorption behavior onto Coffee Husk Bioactivated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fona, Z.; Habibah, U.

    2018-04-01

    Coffee husk which is abundantly produced in the coffee plantations is potential to be a challenging adsorbent. The fate of Pb (II) solution in the sorption mechanism onto the adsorbent has been investigated. This paper aimed to study the efficiency of Pb (II) aqueous solution removal using activated carbon from coffee husk (CAC). The sorption characteristics were using two isotherm models, Langmuir and Freundlich, were also reported. The coffee husk from local plantations in Middle Aceh was carbonized and sieved to 120/140 mesh. The charcoal was activated using hydrochloric acid before contacted with the different initial concentrations of Pb (II) solution. The remaining concentrations of the metal in the specified contact times were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer at 283.3 wavelength. The result showed that the equilibrium concentrations were obtained in about 30 minutes which depended on the initial concentration. The sorption mechanism followed Freundlich isotherm model where the adsorption constant and capacity were accordingly 1.353 and 1.195 mgg‑1. The iodine sorption was up to 1,053 mgg‑1. Based on the ash and moisture content, as well as iodine sorption, the activated carbon met the national standard.

  12. Study on concrete with partial replacement of cement by rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Increase in the demand of conventional construction materials and the need for providing a sustainable growth in the construction field has prompted the designers and developers to opt for ‘alternative materials’ feasible for use in construction. For this objective, the use of industrial waste products and agricultural byproducts are very constructive. These industrial wastes and agricultural by products such as Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash, Silica Fume, and Slag can be replaced instead of cement because of their pozzolanic behavior, which otherwise requires large tract of lands for dumping. In the present investigation, Rice Husk Ash has been used as an admixture to cement in concrete and its properties has been studied. An attempt was also done to examine the strength and workability parameters of concrete. For normal concrete, mix design is done based on Indian Standard (IS) method and taking this as reference, mix design has been made for replacement of Rice Husk Ash. Four different replacement levels namely 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% are selected and studied with respect to the replacement method.

  13. Non-isothermal degradation kinetics of filled with rise husk ash polypropene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stability and kinetics of non-isothermal degradation of polypropene and polypropene composites filled with 20 mass% vigorously grounded and mixed raw rice husks (RRH, black rice husks ash (BRHA, white rice husks ash (WRHA and Aerosil Degussa (AR were studied. The calculation procedures of Coats – Redfern, Madhysudanan et al., Tang et al., Wanjun et al. and 27 model kinetic equations were used. The kinetics of thermal degradation were found to be best described by kinetic equations of n-th order (Fn mechanism. The kinetic parameters E, A, ΔS≠, ΔH≠and ΔG≠for all the samples studied were calculated. The highest values of n, E and A were obtained for the composites filled with WRHA and AR. A linear dependence between lnA and E was observed, known also as kinetic compensation effect. The results obtained were considered enough to conclude that the cheap RRH and the products of its thermal degradation BRHA and WRHA, after vigorously grounding and mixing, could successfully be used as fillers for polypropene instead of the much more expensive synthetic material Aerosil to prepare various polypropene composites.

  14. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD. Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  15. Enhancement of Biogas Production from Rice Husk by NaOH and Enzyme Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrudin; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Agnesia, Shandy Sarima; Matin, Hashfi Hawali Abdul; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas. This research aims to analyze the impact of NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) and enzyme usage on the production of rice husk biogas using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD). Generally, SS-AD occurs at solid concentrations higher than 15%. The waste of rice husk are used as substrate with a C/N ratio of 25% and the total of solid that are used is 21%. Rice husk contains high lignin, therefore it is handled with chemical and biological treatment. The chemical preliminary treatment was using NaOH with various concentrations from 3%, 6% and 9% while the biological preliminary treatment was using enzyme with various concentration from 5%, 8%, and 11%. The biogas that is produced then measured every two days during 60 days of research with the biogas volume as a parameter observed. The result of the research shows that preliminary treatment with NaOH and enzyme can increase the production of biogas. The highest biogas production was obtained by the NaOH pretreatment using 6% NaOH which was 497 ml and by enzyme pretreatment using 11% enzyme which was 667,5 ml.

  16. Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated

  17. Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Ahmed M., E-mail: amyoussef27@yahoo.com [Packing and Packaging Materials Department, National Research Center, Dokki, P.C. 12622, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-02-15

    Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated.

  18. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  19. Influence of Rice Husk Ash and Clay in Stabilization of Silty Soils Using Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjajakusuma Jack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization is needed to enhance the strength of the soil. One popular method of soil stabilization is using cement. Due to the environmental issue, it is a need to reduce the application of cement and/or to replace partially the cement with other environmental-friendly compounds. One of these compounds is rice husk ash (RSA, which is agricultural wastes. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of RSA and clay as partial replacement to cement in soil stabilization of silt soil with high plasticity (MH using cement. The cement used was ordinary Portland cement, while the RHA was obtained by burning rice husk at temperature of 250°C. The MH soil is stabilized with 4% cement, 4% cement and 3% rice husk ash and 4% cement, 3 % RHA and 3 % clay. The various tests were conducted on the pure and stabilized soils. Results have indicated that application of 4% cement, 3 % RHA and 3 % clay as silt soil stabilization is more favorable in increasing soil strength and reducing brittle behaviour of soil.

  20. Rice husk as dyes removal from impregnated cotton wastes generated in sports industries of sialkot, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, M.; Khan, M.U.; Malik, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to the potential dyes removal present in solid wastes of cotton (Generated from sports industries). Sport products were colored with different shaded dyes with the help of cotton that are disposed to the different environmental compartment. Cost effective and eco-friendly adsorbents (rice husk) has been collected and used as an ideal alternative to the conventional method of dyes removal for disposed cotton wastes. The effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, shaking speed and amount of dyes solution of rice husks on dyes removal have been evaluated and optimized. Maximum and efficient dyes removal was observed at pH (3.0), contact time (240 min), adsorbent dose (8.0 g), shaking speed (300 rpm) and amount of dyes solution (200 ml). All these conditions have ensured dyes removal up to 91, 93, 92, 90 and 93% respectively. This process highlighted the advantage of recovery of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and dyes which may be used again after modification. Furthermore the present study encourages that the rice husks generated as biological waste can be used as promising tool for dyes removal. (author)

  1. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  2. Assessment of hazelnut husk as a lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of fermentable sugars and lignocellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Orkun; Karaosmanoğlu, Kübra; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kula, Ceyda; Kazan, Dilek; Sayar, Ahmet Alp

    2017-12-01

    The present work focuses firstly on the evaluation of the effect of laccase on enzymatic hydrolysis of hazelnut husk which is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic agricultural residues generated in Turkey. In this respect, the co-enzymatic treatment of hazelnut husk by cellulase and laccase, without a conventional pretreatment step is evaluated. Using 2.75 FPU/g substrate (40 g/L substrate) and a ratio of 131 laccase U/FPU achieved the highest reducing sugars concentration. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that the hydrolysate was composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. The inclusion of laccase in the enzyme mixture [carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and β-glucosidase] increased the final glucose content of the reducing sugars from 20 to 50%. Therefore, a very significant increase in glucose content of the final reducing sugars concentration was obtained by laccase addition. Furthermore, the production of cellulases and laccase by Pycnoporus sanguineus DSM 3024 using hazelnut husk as substrate was also investigated. Among the hazelnut husk concentrations tested (1.5, 6, 12, 18 g/L), the highest CMCase concentration was obtained using 12 g/L husk concentration on the 10th day of fermentation. Besides CMCase, P. sanguineus DSM 3024 produced β-glucosidase and laccase using hazelnut husk as carbon source. In addition to CMCase and β-glucosidase, the highest laccase activity measured was 2240 ± 98 U/L (8.89 ± 0.39 U/mg). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report hazelnut husk hydrolysis in the absence of pretreatment procedures.

  3. Evaluation of strategies for utilizing rice husk based on life cycle cost analysis in relation to Greenhouse Gas emissions in An Giang province, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Thao, Pham Thi; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of rice husk utilization, a life cycle cost analysis was conducted for 18 scenarios developed in a previous study. The allocation of fuels other than rice husks was decided on the basis of current demand for and supply of rice husks. The production of rice husk briquettes is also discussed as a means of circumventing problems arising from the bulk of the material. In the power generation scenarios, differences between two generating capacities (5 and 30 MW) were analyzed. Costs savings are possible by using rice husk to replace fossil fuels for cooking. With regard to power generation, operation on a 30-MW scale by combustion of all available rice husk was identified as the most economically efficient scenario, followed by small-scale gasification scenarios (5 MW). The combustion of rice husk briquettes for power generation appeared to be less cost-efficient than direct combustion, whereas large-scale gasification scenarios and pyrolysis scenarios give rise to increases in cost compared with the baseline. When both GHG abatement and costs are taken into consideration, suitable scenarios that are practicable involve the use of rice husk for cooking, for large-scale combustion power generation, and for small-scale gasification. -- Highlights: ► Life cycle cost analysis was conducted to evaluate potentiality of rice husk use. ► The scenarios used rice husk for cooking showed a better cost effectiveness. ► While large-scale gasification and pyrolysis is less. ► In relation to GHG emission, the win–win scenarios are to use rice husk for cooking. ► Large-scale combustion and small-scale gasification also showed practical scenarios.

  4. Novel uses of rice-husk-ash (a natural silica-carbon matrix) in low-cost water purification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetan; Patil, Rajshree; Kausley, Shankar; Ahmad, Dilshad

    2013-06-01

    Rice-husk-ash is used as the base material for developing novel compositions to deal with the challenge of purifying drinking water in low-income households in India. For example, rice-husk-ash cast in a matrix of cement and pebbles can be formed into a filtration bed which can trap up to 95% of turbidity and bacteria present in water. This innovation was proliferated in villages across India as a do-it-yourself rural water filter. Another innovation involves embedding silver nanoparticles within the rice husk ash matrix to create a bactericidal filtration bed which has now been commercialized in India as a low-cost for-profit household water purifier. Other innovations include the impregnation of rice-husk-ash with iron hydroxide for the removal of arsenic from water and the impregnation of rice-husk ash with aluminum hydroxide for the removal of fluoride ions from water which together have the potential to benefit over 100 million people across India who are suffering from the health effects of drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic and fluoride.

  5. Stakeholder preferences towards the sustainable development of CDM projects: Lessons from biomass (rice husk) CDM project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate stakeholder preferences towards sustainable development (SD) priorities in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The CDM's contribution to SD is explored in the context of a biomass (rice husk) case study conducted in Thailand. Quantitative analysis ranks increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority, followed by employment and technology transfer. Air pollution (dust) is ranked as the most important problem. Preference weights expressed by experts and local resident are statistically different in the cases of: employment generation; emission reductions; dust; waste disposal; and noise. Qualitative results, suggest that rice husk CDM projects contribute significantly to SD in terms of employment generation, an increase in usage of renewable energy, and transfer of knowledge. However, rice husk biomass projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. In order to ensure the environmental sustainability of CDM projects, stakeholders suggest that Thailand should cancel an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) exemption for CDM projects with an installed capacity below 10 MW and apply it to all CDM projects. - Highlights: → Stakeholders rank increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority. → Biomass (rice husk) CDM projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. → Rice husk CDM projects cannot give an extra income to farmers. → Preference weights expressed by experts and local residents are statistically different.

  6. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  7. Fabrication and Performance Test of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite as Industrial and Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahat Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs used extensively in various engineering fields due to their exceptional mechanical properties. In this present study, aluminium matrix composites (AMCs such as aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with rice husk ash particles (RHA are made to explore the possibilities of reinforcing aluminium alloy. The stir casting method was applied to produce aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with various amounts of (2%, 4%, and 6% rice husk ash (RHA particles. Physical treatment was carried out before the rice husk ash manufacturing process. The effect of mechanical strength of the fabricated hybrid composite was investigated. Therefore, impact test, tensile stress, compressive stress, and some other tests were carried out to analyse the mechanical properties. From the experimental results, it was found that maximum tensile, and compressive stress were found at 6% rice husk ash (RHA and aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. In future, the optimum percentages of rice husk ash (RHA to fabricate the hybrid composites will be determined. Also, simulation by finite element method (FEM will be applied for further investigation.

  8. Enhancement of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane performance by modification with rice husk nanosilica for removal of organic matter in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyati, S.; Armando, M. A.; Mawardi, H.; Azmi, F. A.; Pratiwi, W. P.; Fadzlina, A.; Akbar, R.; Syawaliah

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the effects of rice husk nanosilica addition on the performance of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. Polyethersulfone membrane (PES) was fabricated by using N-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and rice husk nanosilica as a modifying agent. The influence of the rice husk nanosilica additive on the characteristics and performance of the membrane has been studied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the manufactured membrane has an asymmetric morphological structure consisting of two layers. The upper part of the membrane is a thin layer, meanwhile in the bottom side is a porous layer. The addition of 5% nanosilica resulting a PES membrane to have a bigger porous than that of pristine PES. The pure water flux of nanosilica-modified membranes were greater in comparison to the pure water flux of unmodified PES membrane. The performance of all membranes were evaluated on humic acid removal. The highest selectivity was showcased by pure PES membrane. The introduction of rice husk nanosilica additive to the membrane declined the selectivity of the membrane to humic acid in the feed solution. This is caused by the pores enlargement and enhanced hydrophilicity of the membrane after modification with rice husk biosilica.

  9. Esterification free fatty acid in sludge palm oil using ZrO2/SO42- - rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as sludge palm oil (SPO) from palm oil industries. The use of SPO can lower the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes SPO a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid on sludge palm oil was studied using rice husk ash as heterogeneous solid catalysts. Heterogeneous solid catalysts offer significant advantages of eliminating separation, corrosion, toxicity and environmental problems. In this paper the esterification of SPO, a by-product from palm oil industry, in the presence of modified rice husk ash catalysts was studied. The rice husk ash catalysts were synthesized by impregnating of Zirconia (Zr) on rice husk ash followed by sulfonation. The rice husk ash catalysts were characterized by using different techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, and porous analysis. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (1 - 10%), the molar ratio of methanol to oil (4:1 - 10:1), and the reaction temperature (40 - 60°C) were studied for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs) to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to oil molar ratio of 10:1, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  10. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was more highly heritable than canopy diameter. at this stage in the establishment,and.hen.cewolJ.ld.l!e more readily manipulated byselectiondn.a breeding programme. ' .:;' -:_~ J',. ,,_,._ .. : . -.-' ... occidentale L.) grown in Tanzania, are, planted as unselected ...... selected cashew clones, (Anacardium occidentale linn). Tan-.

  11. Process for production of high density/high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk : part I : Lignin as intrinsic thermosetting binder resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Teunissen, W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Peralta, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are abundantly growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The coconut husk is available in large quantities as residue from coconut production in many areas, which is yielding the coarse coir fibre. The husk comprises ca. 30 wt.% coir fibres and 70 wt.% pith. Both fibre and pith are

  12. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  13. Kinetic and Thermodynamics Studies the Adsorption of Phenol on Activated Carbon from Rice Husk Activated by ZnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Muhammad Anshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption ability of activated carbon from rice husk in adsorbing phenol. Activated carbon used was in this studies burning risk husk at 300 and 400oC and then activated by 10% of ZnCl2. The from activated carbon was characterized using an Infrared Spectrometer, an X-ray diffraction, an Scanning Electron Microscope, and a gas sorption analyzer. The best activated carbon for adsorbing phenol was the activated carbon that prodused from the burning of rice husk at a temperature 400oC and activated with 10% of ZnCl2 for 24 hours. Adsorption capacity of the best activated carbon was 3.9370 mg/g adsorbent with Gibbs free energy of -25.493 kJ/mol.

  14. Leachability of heavy metals in geopolymer-based materials synthesized from red mud and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoc Thang; Pham, Vo Thi Ha Quyen; Dang, Thanh Phong; Dao, Thanh Khe

    2018-04-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste generated during aluminum production from bauxite whereas rice husk ash is an agricultural waste from burning of rice husk that could cause negative impact on the environment if not properly managed. This study demonstrates the utilization of red mud in combination with rice husk ash to form a geopolymer-based material which can be used as bricks or replacement for traditional cement materials. The focus of this study is on the leachability of heavy metals in the raw materials and the geopolymer as this would be significant in assessing the environmental impact of the product. Leachability of metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cr was evaluated based on European (EN 124572-2 EU CEN TC292/ CEN TC 308) standard with pH value 7. Results indicate that the leachability of these metals in the geopolymer matrix is lower than that of the raw materials.

  15. Adsorption of lead and copper ions from aqueous effluents on rice husk ash in a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the kinetic adsorption of Pb and Cu ions using rice husk ash as adsorbent in a fixed bed. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for lead and copper ions in the fixed bed were 0.0561 and 0.0682 mmol/g (at 20 ºC, respectively. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the lead adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous, while the copper adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Characterization results indicated the presence of several functional groups, amorphous silica and a fibrous and longitudinal structure of rice husks. Rice husk ash (RHA from northern Brazil can be used as a bioadsorbent for the individual removal of Pb(II and Cu(II ions from metal-containing effluents.

  16. Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend composite reinforced with coffee parchment husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Colombo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that the addition of natural fiber or proper filler is an effective strategy for achieving improved properties in biodegradable polymer materials. Moreover, is especially important if such fibers are residues of agro-industrial processes. In this work, a promising technique to develop biodegradable polymer matrix composite based on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend (Evela®) and coffee parchment husk, which is residue from coffee processing is described. The biodegradable polymeric blend (Evela®) with 5 % (w/w) of ball-milled coffee parchment husk fiber powder, with size ≤250 μm, without any modification was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine and then pelletized. In a second step, the pelletized Evela®)/coffee parchment (Composite) was then dried at 70 ± 2 deg C for 24 h in a circulating air oven, fed into injection molding machine and test specimens were obtained. The Composite specimen samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator, at radiation dose of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), tensile tests and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. In addition, coffee parchment husk fiber characterization by SEM, EDS, XRD and WDXRF have also been carried out with a view to evaluate its importance in determining the end-use properties of the composite. (author)

  17. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  18. Analysis of Chemical and Physical Properties of Biochar from Rice Husk Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Atika; Djafar, Zuryati; Piarah, Wahyu H.; Tahir, Dahlang

    2018-03-01

    Chemical and physical properties of Rice Husk as a potential energy resource were analyzed by means Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). Rice husk is heated with varied temperature of 250°C, 350°C, 450°C and 30, 60, 90 minutes respectively combine with time variation. The results show that the calorific value decreases whenever the temperature and time increase. The heating time of 30 minutes at 250 °C of temperature gives calorific value of 10.4 MJ/Kg. While at the 450°C of temperature, the calorific value decrease to 4.7 MJ/Kg. The EDS shows that the time of heating is an important parameter where carbon and nitrogen were decreasing with the increment of the heating time while the oxygen increase when the heating time increase. The XRD shows that the broad (002) reflections between 20° and 30° indicate carbon disordered with small domains of coherent and parallel stacking of the graphene sheets, which consists of surface morphology from SEM. FTIR shows that the O-H stretching pronounced at around 3452 cm-1 and 3412 cm-1 and pronounced clearly at the highest temperature. The aromatic group from lignin gives rise to C=C asymmetric stretching at cm-1 as a G band corresponds to the sp2-hybradization bonding of carbon atoms and C-H bending modes at 2927 at 796 cm-1. This results of the characteristic of chemical and physical properties of the rice husk examination provide the prominent source of useful energy that can eventually replace the fossil fuel.

  19. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RICE HUSK ASH, POWDERED GLASS AND CEMENT AS LATERITIC SOIL STABILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Ridwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the stabilizing effects of three different materials, namely: rice husk ash, powdered glass, and cement on the properties of lateritic soil. The basic properties of the lateritic soil were first obtained through colour, moisture content determination, specific gravity, particle size distribution and Atterberg limits tests. Each of the stabilizing materials was then mixed with the lateritic soil in varying percentages of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight of the soil. Thereafter, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR tests were carried out on the sample mixes to determine the effects of the materials on the lateritic soil. Chemical tests were also carried out on the samples to determine their percentage oxides composition. The compaction test showed that the highest maximum dry densities (MDD obtained for the mixed samples were 2.32 g/cm3 (at 2.5% cement addition, 2.28g/cm3 (at 5% powdered glass (PG addition and 2.18 g/cm3 (at 5% rice husk ash (RHA addition with corresponding optimum moisture contents (OMC of 10.06%, 14.3% and 12.31% respectively. The CBR tests showed that the CBR values increased in all cases as the materials were added with those of the cement and powdered glass giving the highest values and showing close semblance under unsoaked conditions. The chemical test showed that the significant oxides present in the cement, powdered glass and rice husk ash were CaO (53.60%, SiO2 (68.45% and SiO2 (89.84% respectively.

  20. Synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten modified composite systems based on bisorbent from rice husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duisek Haisagalievich Kamysbaev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the synthesis of a new composite material modified with polyvalent metals. Rice husk was chosen as a raw material for obtaining a carrier – a bisorbent consisting of carbon and amorphous silicon oxide. The sorption material was obtained from the products of thermal decomposition of rice husks. Further it was modified with ammonium salts of molybdenum and tungsten: (NH46Mo7O24·4H2O and (NH42O·12WO3·5H2O in Mo/W ratios: 5/5 wt. %, 10/5 wt. % and reducted by heating in a stream of hydrogen. The registration of the voltammetric curves in the medium of 1-methyl-4-piperidone was carried out in various background electrolytes: 0.2 M Li2SO4, pH = 6.36 and 0.1 M KOH, pH = 13, 2,5·10–2 M K2HPO4 + 2,5·10–2 M NaH2PO4, pH = 6.86. Differential voltammetric curves were analyzed. The electrochemical activity of the obtained modified composites in the potential range from -1.2 V to 0.5 V was determinated. The mechanism of the proceeding electrochemical processes on these modified electrode materials has been studied. The possibility of further use of synthesized composite systems based on bisorbents from the rice husk for the electrochemical reduction of 1-methyl-4-piperidone was shown.

  1. The influence of rice husk and tobacco waste biochars on soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamzah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in agricultural land threatens soil and food quality. Soil pollution could be remediate using biochar, but the effectiveness of biochar on soil quality improvement is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. This study was aimed to explore the effect of different types of biochar on soil properties.  Biochar from rice husk and tobacco waste was applied to soil contaminated with lead and mercury. This study was conducted at Sumber Brantas, Malang East Java, and used a completely randomized design with three replicates. Heavy metals content was measured using AAS. The results of measurements were analyzed using analysis of variance at 5% and 1% significance levels. The initial analysis of the soil properties at the research site showed that the soil nutrient status was low, i.e. N (0.2 %, K (0.50 cmol+/kg, and CEC (5.9 me/100g respectively, but soil pH was neutral (6.8. The research site also has crossed the threshold of heavy metal content for Hg (0.5 ppm, Pb (25.22 ppm, Cd (1.96 ppm, and As (0.78 ppm. Biochar added had a positive influence on soil characteristics improvement. It could increase the content of organic C, i.e. 35.12% and 31.81% and CEC (cation exchange capacity, i.e.30.56 me/100g and 28.13 me/100 g for rice husk biochar and tobacco waste biochar, respectively.  However, N, P, and K contents were low i.e. N ( 0.33 and 0.30 %; P2O5 (148.79 and 152 ppm; K (1.58 and 2.11 mg/100g for rice husk biochar and tobacco waste biochar, respectively.

  2. Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend composite reinforced with coffee parchment husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria A., E-mail: valquiriaalves36@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that the addition of natural fiber or proper filler is an effective strategy for achieving improved properties in biodegradable polymer materials. Moreover, is especially important if such fibers are residues of agro-industrial processes. In this work, a promising technique to develop biodegradable polymer matrix composite based on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend (Evela®) and coffee parchment husk, which is residue from coffee processing is described. The biodegradable polymeric blend (Evela®) with 5 % (w/w) of ball-milled coffee parchment husk fiber powder, with size ≤250 μm, without any modification was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine and then pelletized. In a second step, the pelletized Evela®)/coffee parchment (Composite) was then dried at 70 ± 2 deg C for 24 h in a circulating air oven, fed into injection molding machine and test specimens were obtained. The Composite specimen samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator, at radiation dose of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), tensile tests and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. In addition, coffee parchment husk fiber characterization by SEM, EDS, XRD and WDXRF have also been carried out with a view to evaluate its importance in determining the end-use properties of the composite. (author)

  3. Rice husk ash – A valuable reinforcement for high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayswarya, E.P.; Vidya Francis, K.F.; Renju, V.S.; Thachil, Eby Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RHA is formed from the incineration of rice husk. ► RHA is mainly a mixture of silica with various metallic compounds. ► RHA is a valuable reinforcing material for HDPE. ► RHA can be incorporated into HDPE by the melt blending process. ► The best mechanical properties are observed at 1.5% RHA and 15% compatibilizer. -- Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the use of rice husk ash (RHA) for property modification of high density polyethylene (HDPE). Rice husk is a waste product of the rice processing industry. It is used widely as a fuel which results in large quantities of RHA. Here, the characterization of RHA has been done with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES), light scattering based particle size analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Most reports suggest that RHA when blended directly with polymers without polar groups does not improve the properties of the polymer substantially. In this study RHA is blended with HDPE in the presence of a compatibilizer. The compatibilized HDPE-RHA blend has a tensile strength about 18% higher than that of virgin HDPE. The elongation-at-break is also higher for the compatibilized blend. TGA studies reveal that uncompatibilized as well as compatibilized HDPE-RHA composites have excellent thermal stability. The results prove that RHA is a valuable reinforcing material for HDPE and the environmental pollution arising from RHA can be eliminated in a profitable way by this technique.

  4. Xylitol from rice husks by acid hydrolysis and Candida yeast fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magale K. D. Rambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the production of xylose by acid hydrolysis of rice husks and its subsequent bioconversion to xylitol. The parameters were optimised using the response surface methodology. The fermentation stage took place with the aid of the yeast species Candida guilliermondii and Candida tropicalis. An evaluation of the influence of several biomass pre-treatments was also performed. The effects of the acid concentration and hydrolysate pH on xylitol global yield were also assessed, and the highest yield of xylitol was 64.0% (w/w. The main products, xylose and xylitol, were identified and quantified by means of liquid chromatography.

  5. Effects of Silica in Rice Husk Ash (RHA) in producing High Strength Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini, K; Nurul Nazierah, M.Y; Zaidahtulakmal, M.Z; Siti Aisyah, G

    2012-01-01

    High strength concrete (HSC) are known to have a higher amount of cement binder in the mix design properties with low w/b ratio. The high mass of cement content produced substantial heat liberation in the concrete due to the reaction between cement and water, which can lead to cracking. Additive likes silica fume is too expensive to use in the HSC in order to overcome the problems, however, the initiative of utilizing the rice husk ash (RHA) which have high silica content are apply for the de...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of High Silica Molecular Sieve from Rice Husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnaung Hnaung Win; Tin Tin Aye; Kyaw Myo Naing; Nyunt Wynn

    2008-03-01

    A mordenite type of hight silica molecular sieve with a formula composition Na32 (ALO2)32 (SiO2)176 192H2O having a high molar ratio of SiO2 /Al2O3 (5.4) with a percent yield of 98.76% has been prepared from synthesized zeolite NaY and glycolato silicate on the basis of hydrothermal condition.Zeolicate NaY and glycolato silicate were synthesized by using 98.34% purified silica which was extracted from rice husk.The characterizations with XRD, FT-IR, EDXRF,TG-DTA and SEM techniques were studied.

  7. Effects of Sawdust and Rice husk Additives on Physical Properties of Ceramic Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Majid. Muhi Shukur; Mohsin Abbas Aswad; Saba Mohamed Bader

    2017-01-01

    Two processes were employed for forming, specifically,  slip casting and semi-dry press were used to manufacture ceramic filters from local raw materials, red clay and combustible materials  (sawdust and rice husk). Different proportions of additives were used as pores forming agents to create porosity in ceramic filter. Dried filters  were fired at temperature to 1000°C.   It was found that the forming technique and additives have great effect on the physical properties of the produced ...

  8. Influence of Rice Husk Ash and Clay in Stabilization of Silty Soils Using Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Widjajakusuma Jack; Winata Hendo

    2017-01-01

    Soil stabilization is needed to enhance the strength of the soil. One popular method of soil stabilization is using cement. Due to the environmental issue, it is a need to reduce the application of cement and/or to replace partially the cement with other environmental-friendly compounds. One of these compounds is rice husk ash (RSA), which is agricultural wastes. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of RSA and clay as partial replacement to cement in soil stabilization of sil...

  9. Stabilisation of Clay Soil with Lime and Melon Husk Ash for use in Farm Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of traditional stabilising agents and the need for economical utilisation of industrial and agricultural waste for beneficial engineering purposes has encouraged an investigation into the stabilization of clay soil with lime and melon husk ash. The chemical composition of the melon husk ash that was used in stabilising clay soil was determined. The clay soil was divided into two parts, one part was used to determine the index properties while the other part was treated at British Standard Light (BSL compaction energy with 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % melon husk ash by dry weight of the soil and each was admixed with 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % lime. The stabilised clay soil was cured for 7, 14 and 28 days before the unconfined compressive strength were determined while the coefficients of permeability of the stabilised clay soil were also determined at 28 days of curing. The data obtained from the experiment was subjected to analysis of variance to examine the significance at 5% level. Results showed that the natural clay soil belong to A-7-6 or CH (clay of high plasticity in the American Association of State Highway Transportation Official (AASHTO and Unified Soil Classification System (1986. The chemical composition of the ash had aluminum oxide, iron oxide and silicon dioxide values of 18.5%, 2.82% and 51.24% respectively. The unconfined compressive strength and coefficient of permeability of the natural clay soil was determined to be 285 kN/m2 and 1.45 x 10-5 cm/s, respectively. Increase in melon husk ash and lime percent increases the unconfined compressive strength (UCS of the stabilised clay soil significantly (p < 0.05 and decrease the coefficient of permeability when compared with the natural clay soil. The peak values of unconfined compressive strength for 7, 14 and 28 days of curing are 1200 kN/m2, 1598 kN/m2 and 1695 kN/m2 respectively at 6% MHA and 8% lime content while the lowest value for coefficient of permeability was 0

  10. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid)/rice husk ash hydrogels composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Francisco H.A.; Lopes, Gabriel V.; Pereira, Antonio G.B.; Fajardo, Andre R.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental concerns, super absorbent hydrogel composites were synthesized based on rice husk ash (RHA), an industrial waste, and Chitosan-graft-poly(acrylic acid). The WAXS and FTIR data confirmed the syntheses of hydrogel composites. The effect of crystalline or amorphous RHA on water uptake was investigated. It was found that the RHA in crystalline form induces higher water capacity (W eq ) of composites hydrogels due to the fact that the intra-interactions among silanol groups on RHA make available new sites in the polymer matrix, which could interact to water. (author)

  11. Contribution à une étude phytoécologiques des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine (Algérie occidentale).

    OpenAIRE

    CHERIF, ISMAHENE

    2012-01-01

    La zone sur laquelle porte notre contribution est localisées dans la partie occidentale du Nord-Ouest Algérien, elle fait partie intégrante des monts des Traras. Cette étude est consacrée à l’analyse phytoécologique des groupements à Tetraclinis articulata du littoral de Honaine. L’étude bioclimatique a révélé un décalage de certaines stations météorologiques, vers des ambiances plus sèches sur le climagramme pluviothermique d’Emberger, témoignant ainsi une tendance générale à ...

  12. Voyageuses occidentales et impérialisme : l’Orient à la croisée des représentations (XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ernot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’appuie sur une dizaine de récits de voyages, effectués par des Françaises dans les régions arabo-musulmanes durant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Ils constituent un matériau permettant d’articuler étude sur le genre et l’impérialisme. Le propos concerne particulièrement le rôle des Occidentales dans la construction d’un discours qui accompagne la colonisation et participe de la définition des hiérarchies sociales et/ou raciales. L’analyse comporte deux versants : le premier s’intéresse aux éléments mobilisés dans la production d’une représentation de la femme arabo-musulmane, figure de l’assujettissement et contre-modèle de l’Occidentale ; le second fait retour sur les locutrices elles-mêmes et questionne l’origine de leurs représentations.This article explores how gender and imperialism are articulated in the writings of a number of French women travelers to Eastern and Arab countries in the second half of the 19th century. It argues for the role of these Western women travelers in the construction of a discourse that accompanied the process of colonialism and contributed to the defining of social and/or racial hierarchies. The article begins with an examination of the rhetoric used to produce a representation of the oppressed Arab-Muslim woman, in opposition to that of the Western woman. It then examines the travel writers themselves in an effort to discern the origins of the representations they develop.

  13. Breeding sites of drosophilids (Diptera in the Brazilian Savanna. I. Fallen fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae and Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae Sítios de criação de drosofilídeos (Diptera no bioma Cerrado. I. Frutos caídos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae e Anacardium humile (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drosophilids that bred in fruits of three common plant species of the Brazilian Savanna were investigated: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa and Anacardium humile, along with the temporal and spatial distribution of these insects among fruits obtained from six individuals of E. nitens. Fallen fruits were collected in natural environments, placed on moist sand in individual containers and all drosophilids that emerged from these resources during 15 days were collected, counted and identified. From 3,651 fruits collected (3,435 of E. nitens, 179 of A. humile and 37 of H. speciosa 4,541 flies emerged and were classified into 19 species of Drosophilidae. Their distribution was unequal among the three resources, also over time, and among the six individuals of E. nitens. Such fluctuations probably reflect the availability of resources in time and space and probably the action of selective factors such as larval competition.Neste estudo, são investigados os drosofilídeos que se criam em frutos de três espécies de plantas comuns do Cerrado brasileiro: Emmotum nitens, Hancornia speciosa e Anacardium humile, juntamente com a distribuição temporal e espacial desses insetos entre os frutos obtidos de seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Frutos recolhidos sobre a serrapilheira, em ambientes naturais, foram mantidos no laboratório e os drosofilídeos que deles emergiram foram contados e identificados. Dos 3.651 frutos coletados (3.435 de E. nitens, 179 de A. humile e 37 de H. speciosa emergiram 4.541 drosofilídeos, classificados em 19 espécies. A distribuição dessas espécies foi desigual entre os três tipos de recursos, ao longo do tempo, e também entre os seis indivíduos de E. nitens. Essas flutuações refletem a disponibilidade dos recursos no tempo e no espaço, e provavelmente a ação de forças seletivas como a competição entre as larvas.

  14. Accelerated Aging Effect on Epoxy-polysiloxane Polymeric Insulator Material with Rice Husk Ash Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmadi .

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The performances of outdoor polymeric insulators are influenced by environmental conditions. This paper presents the effect of artificial tropical climate on the hydrophobicity, equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD, surface leakage current, flashover voltage, and surface degradation on epoxy-polysiloxane polymeric insulator materials with rice husk ash (RHA. Test samples are made at room temperature vulcanized (RTV of various composition of epoxy-polysiloxane with rice husk ash as filler. The aging was carried out in test chamber at temperature from 50oC to 62oC, relative humidity of 60% to 80%, and ultraviolet (UV  radiation 21.28 w/cm2 in daylight conditions for 96 hours. The experiment results showed that the flashover voltage fluctuates from 34.13 kV up to 40.92 kV and tends to decrease on each variation of material composition. The surface leakage current fluctuates and tends to increase. Test samples with higher filler content result greater hydrophobicity, smaller equivalent salt deposit density, and smaller critical leakage current, which caused the increase of the flashover voltage. Insulator material (RTVEP3 showed the best performance in tropical climate environment. Artificial tropical aging for short duration gives less effect to the surface degradation of epoxy-polysiloxane insulator material.

  15. Application of cationic hemicelluloses produced from corn husk as polyelectrolytes in sewage treatment

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    Alan Soares Landim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicelluloses were extracted from corn husk and converted into cationic hemicelluloses using 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. The degree of substitution was determined as 0.43 from results of elemental analysis. The cationic derivative was also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Carbon-13 magnetic nuclear ressonance. The produced polymer was employed as coagulant aid in a sewage treatment station (STS of the municipal department of water and sewer (Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgoto - DMAE in Uberlândia-Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Jar test experiments. Its performance was compared to ACRIPOL C10, a commercial cationic polyacrylamide regularly used as a coagulant at the STS. The best result of the jar-test essays was obtained when using cationic hemicelluloses (10 mg L- 1 as coagulant aid and ferric chloride as coagulante (200 mg L- 1. The resultsof color and turbidity reduction, 37 and 39%, respectively, were better than when using only ferric chloride. These results were also higher than those of commercial polyacrylamide, on the order of 32.4 and 38.7%, respectively. The results showed that the cationic hemicelluloses presented similar or even superior performance when compared to ACRIPOL C10, demonstrating that the polyelectrolytes produced from recycled corn husks can replace commercial polymers in sewage treatment stations.

  16. SOLUBILIZATION OF POTASSIUM FROM ALTERNATIVE ROCKS BY HUMIC AND CITRIC ACIDS AND COFFEE HUSK

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    Rodrigo Souza Pessoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil imports most of the potassium that it consumes in agriculture, however, such huge external dependence can be minimized with the use of alternative local K bearing rocks. This experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating the solubility of nepheline syenite and glauconite as a function of three organic matrices, humic acid, citric acid and coffee husk. Incubation of low grade K rocks and organic matrices were done in laboratory conditions, in a completely randomized design. Each rock was mixed with five different doses of each organic matrix and the potassium solubilized was measured periodically, during 180 days. Regardless of the organic matrix and its dose investigated, nepheline syenite samples released more K than the modified glauconite. Soluble K increased as the incubation time increased and its release was greater as the organic matrix dose increased. There was more soluble K when the coffee husk was mixed with the potassic rocks, in relation to the humic and citric acids.

  17. A COST-REDUCTION OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE INCORPORATING RAW RICE HUSK ASH

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    H. AWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher material cost of self-compacting concrete (SCC as compared to normal vibrated concrete is mainly due to its higher cement content. In order to produce economical SCC, a significant amount of cement should be replaced with cheaper material options, which are commonly found in byproduct materials such as limestone powder (LP, fly ash (FA and raw rice husk ash (RRHA. However, the use of these byproduct materials to replace the high volumes of cement in an SCC mixture will produce deleterious effects such as strength reduction. Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum SCC mixture proportioning capable of minimizing SCC’s material cost. A total of fifteen mixes were prepared. This study showed that raw rice husk ash exhibited positive correlations with fly ash and fine limestone powder and were able to produce high compressive and comparable to normal concrete. The SCC-mix made with quaternary cement-blend comprising OPC/LP/FA/RRHA at 55/15/15/15 weight percentage ratio is found to be capable of maximizing SCC’s material-cost reduction to almost 19% as compared with the control mix

  18. Removal of Cd (II from Aqueous Media by Adsorption onto Chemically and Thermally Treated Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Hoyos-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically and thermally treated rice husks were evaluated as a potential decontaminant of toxic Cd (II in aqueous media. Rice husk (RH, a by-product from rice milling, was chemically treated with HCl and NaOH. Then, thermal treatments to 300, 500, and 700°C were applied. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of RH were evaluated by different techniques. The specific surface area analysis of RH samples by BET nitrogen adsorption method provided specific surface areas ranging from 6 to 14 m2/g. SEM, FTIR, and EDX analyses of RH were carried out to determine the surface morphology, functional groups involved in metal binding mechanism, and C/O and C/Si ratios, respectively. The maximum Cd (II adsorption capacity was 28.27 mg/g at an optimum pH, 6.0. The kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  19. ABSORPTION AND PERMEABILITY PERFORMANCE OF SELANGOR RICE HUSK ASH BLENDED GRADE 30 CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARTINI, K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Substituting waste materials in construction is well known for conservation of dwindling resources and preventing environmental and ecological damages caused by quarrying and depletion of raw materials. Many researches had shown that some of these wastes have good pozzolanic properties that would improve the quality of concrete produced. One such waste material is agricultural waste rice husk, which constitute about one-fifth of 600 million tonnes of rice produced annually in the world. The RHA obtained by burning the rice husk in the ferrocement furnace and used as a cement replacement material. The use of this supplementary cementing material is expected to meet the increase in demand of cement, as the current world cement production of approximately 1.2 million tonnes is expected to grow exponentially to about 3.5 billions tonnes per year by 2015. This paper reports the results of durability performance conducted on the normal strength concrete specimens of 30 N/mm2 containing 20% or 30% RHA by cement weight, with or without addition of superplasticizer. The results show that replacement of cement with RHA lowers initial surface absorption, lowers the permeability, lowers the absorption characteristics, longer time taken for the capillary suction resulted in lower sorptivity value, lower water permeability and increase the resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration in comparison with the OPC control concrete. The present investigations revealed that incorporation RHA significantly improve the absorption and permeability characteristics of concrete.

  20. Energetic characterization of the husk of the castor bean fruits of the variety Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Sousa, Frederico Faula; Castro Neto, Pedro [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DCF/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais; Fraga, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Nunes, Ramon Rachide [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The knowledge of the physical properties and of the calorific power and of the immediate chemical analysis certain products are interesting for the development of new technologies and equipment for your processing or use as fuel. This way, due to the scarce readiness of referring works for the husk of the castor bean fruits, the present study seeks complemental the available data in the literature. For such were certain the following properties of the husk of the castor bean fruits of variety Guarani: angle of repose, hectolitre weigh, moisture, ash content, volatile material content, fixed carbon content and superior calorific power and inferior calorific power. The following values were found: 42 deg for the angle of repose, 13.92 kg for the hectolitre weight, 4223.19 kcal/kg for the superior calorific power, 3829.92 kcal/kg for the inferior calorific power, 8.21% for the moisture, 9.86% for the ash content, 73.67% for the volatile material content and 8.26% for the fixed carbon content. (author)

  1. High temperature capture of CO2 on lithium-based sorbents from rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Pengfei; Wang, Fanzi; Zheng, Chuguang

    2011-05-15

    Highly efficient Li(4)SiO(4) (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature, was developed using waste materials (rice husk ash). Two treated rice husk ash (RHA) samples (RHA1 and RHA2) were prepared and calcined at 800°C in the presence of Li(2)CO(3). Pure Li(4)SiO(4) and RHA-based sorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and thermogravimetry. CO(2) sorption was tested through 15 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. The metals of RHA were doped with Li(4)SiO(4) resulting to inhibited growth of the particles and increased pore volume and surface area. Thermal analyses indicated a much better CO(2) absorption in Li(4)SiO(4)-based sorbent prepared from RHA1 (higher metal content sample) because the activation energies for the chemisorption process and diffusion process were smaller than that of pure Li(4)SiO(4). RHA1-based sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Thermomechanical Properties of Polyurethanes and Biocomposites Derived from Macauba Oil and Coconut Husk Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L. Quirino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a very effective route to produce bio-based polyurethanes (PUs and composites with high content of renewable carbon sources. The PUs are prepared with polyols synthesized from macauba oil (Acrocomia aculeata and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, at different [NCO]/[OH] molar ratios. Later, biocomposites are prepared with the as-obtained PUs reinforced with coconut husk fibers. The successful synthesis of natural oil-based polyols is ascribed to the hydroxylation and consumption of carbon-carbon double bonds in the fatty acid chains of the original starting oil as attested by FTIR spectroscopy. According to different thermal analysis techniques (TG, DTG, and DTA, the increase in the [NCO]/[OH] molar ratio improves the thermal stability of PUs, likely due to an increase of crosslinks. Dynamic mechanical analysis evidences the reinforcement effect of coconut husk fibers in bio-based PUs. The present PUs and composites are of low-cost and environmentally friendly materials for structural applications.

  3. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, N.S.; Gad, H.M.H.; Ahmad, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, ph, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium were quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg/g for La(III) and 250 mg/g for Er(III) . The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/ mol while 14.6 kJ/ mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La (III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application

  4. Mechanical properties of epoxy composites with plasma-modified rice-husk-derived nanosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubilla, Fatima Athena D.; Panghulan, Glenson R.; Pechardo, Jason; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the use of rice-husk-derived nanosilica (nSiO2) as fillers in epoxy resins. The nSiO2 was irradiated with a capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma using an admixture of argon (Ar) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) or 1,7-octadiene (OD) monomers. The plasma-polymerized nSiO2 was loaded at various concentrations (1-5%) into the epoxy matrix. Surface hydrophobicity of the plasma-treated nSiO2-filled composites increased, which is attributed to the attachment of functional groups from the monomer gases on the silica surface. Microhardness increased by at least 10% upon the inclusion of plasma-modified nSiO2 compared with pristine nSiO2-epoxy composites. Likewise, hardness increased with increasing loading volume, with the HMDSO-treated silica composite recording the highest increase. Elastic moduli of the composites also showed an increase of at least 14% compared with untreated nSiO2-filled composites. This work demonstrated the use of rice husk, an agricultural waste, as a nSiO2 source for epoxy resin fillers.

  5. Arsenate Removal: Comparison of FSM-16 with Low Cost Modified Rice Husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The recently discovered meso porous molecular sieve FSM-16 was tested as an absorbent for arsenic (V) sorption from aqueous solutions. Its adsorption behavior was evaluated and compared with a low cost sorbent prepared from available agroresidue, rice husk, (boiled with 5% KOH followed by 10 % HCl). Factors affecting sorption of arsenate ions by the two sorbents (e.g., porosity, surface area of the sorbent, equilibrium time, adsorption rate, ph and temperature) were studied using ICP-MS for analysis. The data of adsorption of the two systems were described according to the S-Langmuir type according to the initial slope. The monolayer coverage was 92 and 68 mg/g for FSM-16 and modified rice husk (MRH),respectively, due to the silica content of the former is higher than the latter. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and indicated that this adsorption is endothermic process.It was found that the adsorptive capacity for arsenate using MRH represents 75% of that FSM-16. Therefore, the MRH is useful in the removal of arsenate ions due to its low cost, availability, and its good efficiency in this application and no need to be regenerated

  6. Conversion of rice husk into fermentable sugar by two stage hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M. N.; Lim, S. E.; Yusoff, A. H. M.; Jamlos, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    Rice husks, a complex lignocellulosic biomass which comprised of high cellulose content (38-50%), hemicellulose (23-32%) and lignin (15-25%) possesses the potential to pursue as low cost feedstock for production of ethanol. Dilute sulfuric acid at concentration of 1, 2, 3 (%, v/v) were used for pretreatments at varied hydrolysis time (15-60 min) and enzymatic saccharification at range of 45-60˚C and pH 4.5-6.0 were evaluated for conversion of rice husk’s cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of fermentable sugars from rice husks by dilute sulfuric acid (2%, 60 minutes) was 0.0751 g/l. Total fermentable sugar was identified using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and expressed in g/l. Enzymatic hydrolysis for conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugar has been studied by applying response surface methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Two independent variables namely initial pH and incubation temperature were considered using Central Composite Design (CCD). The determination coefficient, R2 obtained was 0.9848. This indicates that 98.48% capriciousness in the respond could be clarified by the ANOVA. Based on the data shown by Design Expert software, the optimum condition for total sugar production was at pH 6.0 and temperature 45˚C as it produced 0.5086 g/l of total sugar.

  7. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Alessandra; Lanari, Silvia; Santulli, Carlo; Pettinari, Claudio

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance). Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler's microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards.

  8. Development of heat resistant geopolymer-based materials from red mud and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Hoc; Nhung, Le Thuy; Quyen, Pham Vo Thi Ha; Phong, Dang Thanh; Khe, Dao Thanh; Van Phuc, Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Geopolymer is an inorganic polymer composite developed by Joseph Davidovits in 1970s. Such material has potentials to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)-based materials in the future because of its lower energy consumption, minimal CO2 emissions and lower production cost as it utilizes industrial waste resources. Hence, geopolymerization and the process to produce geopolymers for various applications like building materials can be considered as green industry. Moreover, in this study, red mud and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for geopolymeric production, which are aluminum industrial and agricultural wastes that need to be managed to reduce their negative impact to the environment. The red mud and rice husk ash were mixed with sodium silicate (water glass) solution to form geopolymer paste. The geopolymer paste was filled into 5-cm cube molds according to ASTM C109/C109M 99, and then cured at room temperature for 28 days. These products were then tested for compressive strength and volumetric weight. Results indicated that the material can be considered lightweight with a compressive strength at 28 days that are in the range of 6.8 to 15.5 MPa. Moreover, the geopolymer specimens were also tested for heat resistance at a temperature of 1000oC for 2 hours. Results suggest high heat resistance with an increase of compressive strength from 262% to 417% after exposed at high temperature.

  9. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  10. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Naghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC. Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure with interconnected porosities. There appears to be a relationship between the increase in R-SBgC concentration and increased material density and compressive modulus; however, increasing R-SBgC concentration result in reduced scaffold porosity. In conclusion, it is possible to fabricate a PCL/bioactive glass-ceramic composite from processed rice husk. Varying the R-SBgC concentrations can control the properties of this material, which is useful in the development of the ideal scaffold intended for use as a bone substitute in nonload bearing sites.

  11. Effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandro Ciciliano Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooded rice cultivation promotes anaerobic conditions, favoring the formation of short chain organic acids such as acetic acid, which may be toxic to the crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on rice seeds coated with rice husk ash. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 5 x 5 factorial randomized design, with two cultivars (IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, five doses of coating material (0, 2, 3,4 e 5 g kg-1 seed and five concentrations of acetic acid (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mM, with 4 replications, totaling 50 treatments. The variables first count of germination, germination, shoot and root length, dry weight of shoots and roots were recorded. The results showed that coating rice seeds with rice husk ash up to 5 g kg-1 seed does not influence the performance of rice seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência when exposed to concentrations of 12 mM acetic acid. The presence of acetic acid in the substrates used for seed germination reduced the vigor and viability of seeds of cultivars IRGA 424 and BRS Querência, as well as seedling development, affecting mainly the roots of BRS Querência.

  12. Synthesis and Characterizations of Fine Silica Powder from Rice Husk Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Muyar Latt

    2011-12-01

    The silica content of rice husk ash obtained from the uncontrolled burning temperature of gasifier was 90.4%. The obtained rice husk ash was an amorphous form of silica with low crystallization by XRD. The sodium hydroxide solution, 1.5N, 2N, 2.5N and 3N, respectively was used to prepare sodium silicate solution by extraction method. The product silica was produced by acid precipitation method used 4.5N, 5.5N and 6.5N sulphuric acid solution. The highest yield percent of product silica extraced by 2.5N sodium hydroxide solution at 5N sulphuric acid solution was 88.84%. The crystallize size of product silica containing silicalite as a source of silica was 86nm at this condition. The fine silica powder was produced by acid refluxing mothod used 5.5N, 6N and 6.5N hydrochloric acid solution. 98% of pure fine silica powder can be produced from the product silica by refluxing method. The crystallize size of fine silica powder was 54nm. The distribution of the crystallize size of product silica powder could be found uniform in size and agglomeration. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra indicate the hydrogen bonded silinol groups and siloxane groups in product silica and fine silica powder.

  13. Potential use of chicken egg shells and cacao pod husk as catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andherson, T.; Rachmat, D.; Risanti, Doty D.

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggshells and cacao pod husk are known as waste materials that can be used to produce catalyst of CaO and K2CO3, respectively. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is an alternative raw material to produce economical and cheaper biodiesel. WCO first undergoes a pre-treatment process that aims to remove free fatty acid (FFA). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification between triglyceride and alcohol with the presence of a catalyst. To obtain the catalyst, eggshell was calcined in a furnace at temperatures of 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C for 6 hours. On the other hand, K2CO3 catalyst synthesis was carried out by carbonization cacao pod husk at temperature of 650°C and subsequently extracted using aquadest solvent. Catalysts were then characterized by XRD and FTIR. The biodiesel synthesis in this research was conducted at 65°C with molar ratio of 1: 6 WCO to methanol, reaction time for 1 and 2 hours, for K2CO3 and CaO, respectively. The optimum condition for the reaction using CaO was obtained for CaO that carbonized at 900°C. It produced 81.43% conversion of biodiesel. On the other hand, reaction using K2CO3 could reach a higher conversion of 85%. From the results it was clear that the biodiesel fuel production was within the recommended SNI 7182: 2015 standard.

  14. Preparation of Silicon by Calcium Reduction of Purified Rice Husk Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swe Zin Tun

    2011-12-01

    This research has studied on the possibility of production and preparation of silicon powder from rice husk ash (RHA) as raw material. RHA from gasifier, a waste product of the rice mill is rich in silica which contains 90.43% of silica. RHAs were purified by precipitation method using 1.5N, 2N, 2.5N and 3N of sodium hydroxide solution and 4.5N, 5N, 5.5N and 6.5N of sulphuric acid solution. The highest yield percent of silica was given by using 2.5N sodium hydroxide solution and 5N sulphuric acid solution X-ray fluoresence (XRF), X-rays diffraction (HRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTRI) spectra were applied for determination of mineral content and chemical bonding in extracted silica and rice husk ash. Metallothermic reduction of purified extracted silica with calcium was investigated within the temperacture range of 700-900 C. The reduction product was characterized by XRD, XRF and scanning electron microcopy (SEM). The effect of temperature and reaction time in which reduction process was studied in this research.

  15. Rice husk (RH) as additive in fly ash based geopolymer mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Zarina; Razak, Rafiza Abd; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Rahim, Mohd Azrin Adzhar; Nasri, Armia

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete is vastly used as main binder in construction industry which lead to depletion of natural resources in order to manufacture large amount of OPC. Nevertheless, with the introduction of geopolymer as an alternative binder which is more environmental friendly due to less emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and utilized waste materials can overcome the problems. Rice husk (RH) is an agricultural residue which can be found easily in large quantity due to production of paddy in Malaysia and it's usually disposed in landfill. This paper investigated the effect of rice husk (RH) content on the strength development of fly ash based geopolymer mortar. The fly ash is replaced with RH by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% where the sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide was used as alkaline activator. A total of 45 cubes were casted and their compressive strength, density and water absorption were evaluated at 1, 3, and 7 days. The result showed compressive strength decreased when the percentage of RH increased. At 5% replacement of RH, the maximum strength of 17.1MPa was recorded at day 7. The geopolymer has lowest rate of water absorption (1.69%) at 20% replacement of RH. The density of the sample can be classified as lightweight geopolymer concrete.

  16. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ceyhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling the waste such as hazelnut husk, sewage sludge etc. has been one of the issues into the agenda of many countries. Therefore the purpose of the study was to examine the economic feasibility of the vermicompost production. Technical data about composting hazelnut husk and sewage sludge were gathered from past research. The time series data such as production, export, import and price of vermicompost collected from TURKSTAT, FAO and related institutions. Autoregressive integrating moving average model (ARIMA and smoothing methods such as double exponential model and winter model were used in forecasting process. We followed net present value and internal rate of return procedures when evaluating the financial feasibility of the facility having one ton vermicompost production capacity per day. Research results showed that the profitability of vermicompost production facility was high, while the likelihood of loss was less. Vermicompost production facility with approximately 130 thousands of US dollars initial investment provided net present value of 1.28 million of US dollars during the economic life. The internal rate of vermicompost production facility was 23%. Research results also revealed that production cost of vermicompost was $0.2 per kilogram. Since vermicompost production facility investment with high profitability and low level of risk was good investment alternatives facing with low level of competitive in market, the study suggest to investors who has good back grounding about sector that they should pay attention to marketing system and market observation about organic input market.

  18. Potency and Utilization of Cocoa Pod Husk as an Alternative Feed for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk (CPH is potential as an alternative source of feed for ruminants due to its quantity and quality. The availability of CPH in Indonesia during the harvest season is abundant and able to feed around 635,305 animal unit (AU per year. Cocoa pod husk as a feedstuff which contains crude protein between 6.80-13.78%; NDF 55.30-73.90% and ADF 38.31-58.98% is a source of fiber and can replace grass. However, CPH also contains antinutritional compounds such as lignin, tannin and theobromine. In order to optimize the use of CPH as feed, treatments are needed to improve the nutritive value and digestibility, to reduce negative effects and to extend shelf life. Processing methods can be conducted physically, chemically and microbiologically. Processing can improve the nutritional value of CPH especially the protein content. Feeding livestock using processed CPH showed better weight gain than that of unprocessed CPH. Besides, the attempt to utilize CPH as feed can overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season and increase ruminant productivity around the area of cocoa plantations.

  19. The Effect of Alkaline Concentration on Coconut Husk Crystallinity and the Yield of Sugars Released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, H. F.; Widjaja, A.

    2018-02-01

    This work was to analyze the effect of alkaline concentration on coconut coir husk crystallinity and sugar liberated enzymatically. The data showed that the employing of alkaline on lignocellulose transformed the crystallinity. The XRD peaks increased highly which indicated that cellulose was more opened and exposed. After pretreatment, the chemical compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were changed significantly. The employing 1% alkaline, the cellulosic content inclined if compared to that of non-pretreatment. When the alkaline concentration was added to 4%, the cellulose was decreased slightly which indicated that a part of cellulose and hemicellulose was dissolved into solution. It was found the alkaline pretreatment influenced by the biochemical reaction of treated substrates in producing the reducing sugars. The amounts of sugar liberated enzymatically of coconut husk treated by 1% and 4% alkaline increased to 0.26, and 0.24 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose), respectively, compared to that of native solid recorded at 0.18 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose).

  20. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases.

  1. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Rice Husk and Coconut Pulp for Potential Bio fuel Production by Flash Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhaza Alias; Norazana Ibrahim; Mohd Kamaruddin Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics and thermal degradation behavior of rice husk and coconut pulp for bio fuel production via flash pyrolysis technology. The elemental properties of the feedstock were characterized by an elemental analyzer while thermal properties were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The pyrolysis processes were carried out at room temperature up to 700 degree Celsius in the presence of nitrogen gas flowing at 150 ml/ min. The investigated parameters are particle sizes and heating rates. The particle sizes varied in the range of dp 1 < 0.30 mm and 0.30= dp 2 <0.50 mm. The heating rates applied were 50 degree Celsius/ min and 80 degree Celsius/ min. It was shown smaller particle size produces 2.11-3.59 % less volatile product when pyrolyzed at 50 degree Celsius/ min compared to 80 degree Celsius/ min. Higher heating rates causes biomass degrades in a narrow temperature range by 25 degree Celsius. It also increases the maximum peak rate by 0.01 mg/ s for rice husk at dp 1 and 0.02 mg/ s at dp 2 . In case of coconut pulp, the change is not significant for dp 1 but for dp 2 a 0.02 mg/ s changes was recorded. (author)

  2. Effect of rice husk biochar application to soil insect diversity on potato cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilin, A.; Rubiana, R.

    2018-02-01

    High intensity of disease infection and the intensive use of fertilizers and pesticidescause saturated fertilizer and pesticide to the land. Remediation using biochar rice husk is one of the technology to decrease fertilizer and pesticide residue. The diversity of soil insects can be used as bioindicators because of their existence dependsg on soil structure and condition. This study was aimed to study the diversity and structure communities of soil insect in potatoes on difference husk rice biochar application. The sampling of soil insects was done on potato farmer’s land with four treatments i.e control (farmers’ technique), trichokompos without biochar, trichokompos + biochar with dose 1 ton/ha, and trichokompos + biochar with dose 2 ton / ha. At each point a single pitfall trap was installed for two nights and then it was taken for identification. The results showed that biochar application had significant effect on the number of soil insect species (P = 0.037). The soil insect species composition pattern also showed significant differences between the four treatments (R: 0.2306, Pvalue = 0.001). This mean that the application of biochar affects the number of insects species and plays a role in the formation of soil insect diversity beta patterns.

  3. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  4. Process Development in the Preparation and Characterization of Silicon Alkoxide From Rice Husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Win; Toe Shein; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The preparation and characterization of silicon alkoxide (silicon isopropoxide) from rice husk char has been studied. In the investigation, four kinds of Myanmar paddies were chemically assayed. Analyses showed the silicon contend varies from 73-92% . Based on the silicon content, the process development in the production of silicon isopropoxide was carried out. In the process development, silicon isopropoxide with a yield of 44.21% was achieved by the direct reaction of isopropanol in situ by silicon tetrachloride, which was directly produced by the chlorination of rice husk char at the high temperature range of 900-1100 C. The novelity of the process was that, silicon isopropoxide was achieved in situ and not by using the old process, where generally isopropanol was reacted with silicon tetrachloride. The physiochemical properties of silicon isopropoxide was confirmed by conventional and modern techniques. In the investigation, the starting materials, silica in the reaction products were characterized, identified and confirmed by modren techniques. Silicon isopropoxide can be a sources of pore silica whereby silicon of 97-99% of purity can be achieved.

  5. Effect of Rice Husk and Diatomite on the Insulating Properties of Kaolin - Clay Firebricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogo ONCHE

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to investigate the effect of rice husk and diatomite on the insulating properties of kaolin-clay firebrick. Five firebrick samples of different compositions were fired at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1200°C. Samples A-E are all insulating firebricks that can withstand temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1200°C since none of the samples crumbled during firing. The results showed that they all had good insulating characteristics with their highly porous structure making them suitable for backup insulation. Mixing ratios of 3:2:4:1 representing weight in grams of kaolin, plastic clay, rice husk and diatomite respectively for sample D gave the optimum performance values in terms of modulus of rupture, apparent porosity, apparent density, bulk density, and thermal conductivity at all temperatures. At 1200°C, the values are 22.57kgf/cm2 for modulus of rupture, 98.25% for apparent porosity, 2.38g/cm3 for apparent density, 1.11g/cm3 for bulk density, and 0.038w/mK for thermal conductivity.

  6. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Morphological Studies of Rice Husk (Treated/Untreated)-CaCO3 Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepak; Joshi, Garvit; Gupta, Ayush

    2016-10-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites are a very popular area of research because of the easy availability and biodegradability of these fibers. The manufacturing of natural fiber composite is done by reinforcing fibers in the particulate form, fiber form or in woven mat form. Natural fiber composites also utilize industrial wastes as a secondary reinforcements like fly ash, sludge etc. By keeping all these point of views in the present investigation the effect of rice husk flour (chemically treated/untreated) and micro sized calcium carbonate with epoxy resin have been evaluated. The diameter of rice husk flour was maintained at 600 µm through mechanical sieving machine. The husk flour was chemically treated with NaOH (5 % w/v). Mechanical properties like hardness, flexural impact and compression strength were evaluated and found to be superior in modified or chemically treated flour as compared to unmodified or untreated flour reinforced composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was also undertaken for the developed composites. SEM study shows the distribution of the rice husk flour and calcium carbonate over the matrix.

  7. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Chen, Lung-Chuan; Lee, Cheng-Chieh; Pan, Ting-Chung; You, Bing-Xuan; Yan, Qi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5 mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The improvement of eggs quality of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica with soybean husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidanah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica through complete feeding containing soybean husk was fermented using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three stages: The first stages, isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from S. litura; the second stage, the fermentation of soybean husk through the application of bacterial cellulolytic isolate from the first stage; and the third stage, the application of the best complete feed formulation from the second stage to Mojosari duck. Results: There are four dominant bacteria: Bacillus sp., Cellulomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Cytophaga sp. Furthermore, the best reduction of the crude fiber of soybean husks is the use of Cellulomonas sp. bacteria. The final of the study, the quality of the eggs of Anas javanica, was improved, as indicated by cholesterol decrease from the yolk without the decrease of egg weight and eggshell thickness, although the decrease in egg yolk color was inevitable. Conclusion: Soy husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of S. litura was added to complete feeding can be performed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck.

  10. Study of the rice husk ash utilization as filler polypropylene matrix and ionization radiation effect on this composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Eduardo de Faria

    2010-01-01

    In the first step of this work, it was evaluated the possibility of using rice husk ash as a filler in polypropylene (PP) making a comparison with talc which is the most used mineral filler in polymers. This comparison was made by using polypropylene with 20% rice husk ash as well as polypropylene with 20% talc measuring their properties. Despite the properties of the PP with 20% rice husk ash decreased compared with the composite of polypropylene with 20% talc it can be said that the rice husk ash can be used as filler for or other utilization less noble of PP . This way it is being given a destination for this residue that it is disposable in the environment contributing to its preservation, moreover reducing the product cost. This work had also as an aim to study the ionizing radiation effect in the properties of these composites. It was used the coupling agent, maleic anhydride , to verify a best sample homogenization. According to the results it can be said that PP is a semicrystalline polymer, and so it has its morphology modified when exposed to the irradiation process. This fact is due to the scission mechanisms of the polymeric chains which it is in compliance to the literature. (author)

  11. A short review on the potential of coffee husk gasification for sustainable energy in Uganda [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert John Miito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass is widely recognized as a clean and renewable energy source, with increasing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels in the energy market. Uganda, like other developing countries, has a high dependency (91% on wood fuel, leading to environmental degradation. With a coffee production of 233 Metric Tonnes per annum, relating to 46.6 Mega Tonnes of coffee husks from processing, transforming these husks into syngas through gasification can contribute to resolving the existing energy challenges. The objective of this article is to briefly review the energy potential of coffee husks through gasification, and how the gasification process could increase energy recoveries for coffee farmers. Previous  findings indicate that the 46.6 Mega Tonnes per year of coffee husks generated in Uganda, with a heating value of 18.34 MJ/kg, is capable of generating 24 GWh of energy. This will address a 0.7% portion of the energy situation in Uganda, while protecting the environment.

  12. Utilization of rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Waldir Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the dimensional stability, as well as, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of polymers, new filler to this purpose has been developed. The mos applied filler to propitiate the features previously mentioned are the glass and carbon fibers, the mineral filler as the calcium carbonate, the talc and the micro glass sphere. The main aim of this work was to study the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 and ionizing radiation effect studies on this composite, irradiated by electron beam at different doses, since it is constituted of at least 90% of silicon dioxide, and compared with the talc which is the most applied mineral filler. This comparison was made from a compound made through the refined rice husk ash and the polyamide 6 (PA 6), which is one of the main engineering plastic with applications in several productive areas. The samples were injected and irradiated in a electron accelerator. Afterwards, their mechanical and thermal properties were measured. It was also inject automotive parts to verify the processing of the PA 6 with CCA. The results showed that the use of the rice husk ash as filler for polyamide 6 composite is technically and economically viable. The irradiation of the studied composite (PA 6 with 30% of rice husk ash) did not provide any improvement for the mechanical and thermal properties previously appraised. (author)

  13. SiOx/C composite from rice husks as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yanming; Tang, Joel A.; Zhu, Kai; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice husks were utilized to prepare SiO x /C as an anode material for lithium ion battery. • SiO x /C composite was prepared by a two-step fire process. • SiO x /C contains low valence silicon owing to thermal treatment at argon/hydrogen atmosphere. • SiO x /C exhibits a high specific capacity of nearly 600 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 current density after 100 cycles. - Abstract: SiO x /C composite material derived directly from agricultural rice husk byproducts through an economically viable and environmentally benign approach has been explored to be used as an anode for rechargeable lithium batteries. Rice husks were converted into a SiO x /C composite directly by heat treatment under argon/hydrogen atmosphere, at a temperature of 900 °C. The composite contains SiO x surrounded by an amorphous carbon matrix. A steady state reversible capacity of nearly 600 mAh g −1 was delivered at 100 mA g −1 current density after 100 cycles. The improved performance of the SiO x /C composite anode over other agricultural byproduct derived carbon materials is believed to be due to the presence of low valence silicon. The filth-to-wealth conversion of rice husks to battery material is a highly energy efficient process with great economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong, E-mail: shihtong@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lung-Chuan, E-mail: lcchen@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: etmediagoing@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ting-Chung, E-mail: tcpan@mail.ksu.edutw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); You, Bing-Xuan, E-mail: kp2681@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Yan, Qi-Feng, E-mail: rsrs0938@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5 mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Chen, Lung-Chuan; Lee, Cheng-Chieh; Pan, Ting-Chung; You, Bing-Xuan; Yan, Qi-Feng

    2009-11-15

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Mohd F., E-mail: faisalt@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Shuib, Anis Suhaila, E-mail: anisuha@petronas.com.my; Borhan, Azry [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  17. Retrofit design of rice husk feeding system in the production of amorphous silica ash in a pilot scale fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, A.; Rozainee, M.; Anwar, J.; Wan Alwi, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice husk is among the most important recovery resources for silica that is produced annually in huge quantities in many countries such as Malaysia which produces 2.38 (MT) of rice paddy. Rice husks accounts for 14-35 % of the weight of the paddy harvested, depending on the paddy variety and because of its abundance it poses serious environmental problems in the rice producing countries. Therefore, the thermo-chemical conversion of rice husks to useful silica ash by fluidized bed combustion is the proven and cost-effective technology for converting the renewable waste husks by making commercial use of this rice husk ash because of its self sustaining ability. However, feeding of rice husk into the reactor bed has become a difficult problem hindering the production of amorphous silica. This is due to the poor penetration and low bulk density as well as the flaky, abrasive and joined nature of rice husk. Most of the researches into fluidized bed combustion are on laboratory or bench scale and none had discussed pilot scale combustion of rice husk into amorphous silica. A recent attempt to solve this feeding problem from an experimental investigation in a bench-scale culminates into a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor designed with a combined screw conveyor and an inclined pneumatic feeding by direct injection, yet the problem persists. This paper presents a retrofit design of the existing 0.5 m internal diameter pilot scale fluidized bed combustor by the use of combined screw feeding system. It is envisaged that at the end of the experimental investigation the retrofit design will address the problem associated with rice husk feeding in bubbling fluidized bed combustors. (author)

  18. Composição do meio de cultivo para produção de microplantas de caju-de-árvore-do-Cerrado (Anacardium othonianum RIZZ. - Composition of the cultivation medium for the production of microplants of Cerrado-tree cashew (Anacardium othonianum RIZZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Danielle Sousa

    2017-07-01

    The Anacardium othonianum Rizz. It’s a typical plant of regions of tropical climate characterized by the exotic appearance and pleasant aroma. In the quest to diversify production and activities that provide greatest profitability, micropropagation has been an alternative for large-scale production in short time. Therefore, the objective of this work is to determine the best in vitro results for micropropagation of this species, for this, we evaluated the addition of different concentrations of AIB (Indolbutyric Acid, sucrose and activated charcoal in the in vitro culture medium. Five concentrations of AIB (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 mg L-1 and five sucrose concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 g L-1 were used in the absence or presence of activated charcoal, in WPM 50% medium. At 30 and 60 days, the number of oxidation, average length and number of leaves per explant were evaluated. It was found that the culture medium supplemented with activated charcoal and an addition of 4 mg L-1 of IBA, contributed to in vitro root growth. While the culture medium with 30 g L-1 sucrose and the presence of activated charcoal provided a longer length of the explants and a larger number of leaves. Key words: Native Fruit, Cerrado, Micropropagation.

  19. Cinquante années de recherches sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien en Europe occidentale

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    François Djindjian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Une histoire des cinquante dernières années de rechercties sur les débuts de l'Aurignacien est tentée ici. Cet historique retrace brièvement les débuts entre 1860 et 1950 de la connaissance de l'Aurignacien resituant dans leur contexte les apports respectifs de Lartet, De Mortlllet, Breuil et Peyrony. Puis, les résultats des recherches des années 1950 à 1990 des différents acteurs (D. de Sonnevllle-Bordes, F. Bordes, H. M. Movius, H. Delporte, G. Laplace, J. Hahn, N. Soler, F. Bazile, F. Champagne, etc. concernant les débuts de l'Aurignacien sont analysés à la lueur des nouvelles données de fouilles en Aquitaine (Roc de Combe, La Ferrassie, Le Facteur, Caminade, Le Flageolet I, Le Plage, en Pyrénées (Gatzarria, Cueva h/iorin, en Jura-Souabe (Geissenklosterle et sur la côte méditerranéenne (abri l\\Aochi, La Laouza, l'Arbreda, L'Esquicho-Grapaou. Les apports des recherches sur le paléoenvironnement pour la reconstitution du climat et des méthodes mathématiques et informatiques dans les années 70 à la structuration chronologique de l'Aurignacien sont développés. Les différentes données à l'origine de l'existence d'un Protoaurignacien, d'un Aurignacien 0 en Périgord, d'un Aurignacien initial et la question de l'interstratification entre Castelperronien et Aurignacien sont discutées. Les récentes critiques depuis le début des années 90 concernant la fiabilité du cadre paléoclimatique des remplissages d'abrissous- roctie et la pertinence des approches typologiques sont examinées. Les conclusions amènent l'auteur à proposer suggérer que les débuts de I'Aurignacien, encore mal connus, ne sont pas uniformes suivant les régions et dans le temps. En Europe occidentale, l'existence d'un Aurignacien initial semble prouvé sur la côte méditerranéenne de la Ligurie jusqu'en Catalogne. L'expansion aurignacienne suit alors la bordure septentrionale pyrénéenne de l'Aude jusqu'en Cantabres et en Asturies. Puis, sous

  20. Effects of Rice Husk Modification with Liquid Natural Rubber and Exposure to Electron Beam Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of NR/ HDPE/ Rice Husk Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, C.E.; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Dahlan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Rice husk (RH) powder is a natural fibre capable of reinforcing natural rubber thermoplastic (TPNR) NR/ HDPE composites on specific modification of the particle surface. In this study the modification of RH powder involved pre-treatment with 5 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, soaking in LNR solution and exposure of LNR coated RH to electron beam (EB) irradiation. Preparation of NR/ HDPE/ RH composites was via melt-mixing in an internal mixer at predetermined conditions. Morphology study of the composites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a homogeneous distribution of modified RH particles and particle-matrix interaction in the composite. Modified RH filled composites exhibited a significant change in mechanical properties. The maximum stress and impact strength were 6.7 MPa and 13.2 kJ/ m 2 , respectively at 20 kGy radiation, while the tensile modulus was 79 MPa at 30 kGy dose. The interfacial RH-TPNR interaction for the LNR-EB treated RH particles had improved in the EB dosage range of 20-30 kGy. However, over exposure to radiation caused degradation of rubber coat and interaction between particles to increase. Agglomeration of filler particles would occur and caused inhomogeneous distribution of filler in the composite. (author)

  1. Paddy Husk as Support for Solid State Fermentation to Produce Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan KAPILAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize culture conditions for xylanase production by solid state fermentation (SSF using Bacillus pumilus, with paddy husk as support, solid medium contained 200 g of paddy husk with 800 mL of liquid fermentation medium [xylan, 20.0 g/L; peptone, 2.0 g/L; yeast extract, 2.5 g/L; K2HPO4, 2.5 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.0 g/L; NaCl, 0.1 g/L; (NH42SO4, 2.0 g/L, CaCl2·2H2O, 0.005 g/L; MgCl2·6H2O, 0.005 g/L; and FeCl3, 0.005 g/L] at pH 9.0 was applied. The highest xylanase activity (142.0 ±0.47 U/g DM] was obtained on the 6th day at 30°C. The optimized paddy husk to liquid fermentation medium ratio was 2:9, and the optimized culture temperature was 40°C. When commercial Birchwood xylan was replaced with different concentrations of corncob, xylanase production was maximized (224.2 U/g DM in the medium with 150 g/L corncob. Xylanase production was increased by sucrose, fructose and arabinose, whereas reduced by glucose, galactose, lactose and amylose. When organic nitrogen sources were replaced with locally available nitrogen sources such as groundnut powder or sesame seedcake powder or coconut seedcake powder or soy meal powder, the highest xylanase production (290.7 U/g DM was obtained in the medium with soy meal powder and 16.0 g/L of soy meal powder was the optimum (326.5±0.34 U/g DM. Based on the optimization studies, B. pumilus produced 2.3 times higher xylanase activity. The medium cost was reduced from 2 458.3 to 178.3 SLR/kg and the total activity which could be obtained from 1 kg of the medium was increased from 48 624 to 220 253 Units.

  2. Utilization of cocoa pod husk waste as potential adsorbents for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Tong Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Removal of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV5R) dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon produced from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste was investigated. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 30 degree Celsius on the basis of batch analysis. Isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV-spectroscopy and the data were treated according to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The fits of experimental data to these equations were examined. It was found that the adsorption process by RVB5R dye onto activated carbon (AC) follows the Freundlich and pseudo-first-order model. (author)

  3. Activated carbon derived from rice husk by NaOH activation and its application in supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khu Le Van

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Four activated carbon (AC samples prepared from rice husk under different activation temperatures have been characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA–DTA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The specific surface area of AC sample reached 2681 m2 g−1 under activation temperature of 800 °C. The AC samples were then tested as electrode material; the specific capacitance of the as-prepared activated carbon electrode was found to be 172.3 F g−1 using cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and 198.4 F g−1 at current density 1000 mA g−1 in the charge/discharge mode.

  4. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  5. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviano, Daniela S; Rodrigues, Karen F; Leitão, Suzana G; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2004-06-01

    In the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. The orally administered Cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. Tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat stimulus. A LD(50) of 2.30 g/kg was obtained in acute toxicity tests. Topic treatment of rabbits with the Cocos nucifera extract indicated that it does not induce any significant dermic or ocular irritation. In vitro experiments using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay demonstrated that this plant extract also possesses free radical scavenging properties.

  6. Stabilization/solidification of lead-contaminated soil using cement and rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chun-Yang; Mahmud, Hilmi Bin; Shaaban, Md Ghazaly

    2006-10-11

    This paper presents the findings of a study on solidification/stabilization (S/S) of lead-contaminated soil using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and rice husk ash (RHA). The effects of varying lead concentrations (in the form of nitrates) in soil samples on the physical properties of their stabilized forms, namely unconfined compressive strength (UCS), setting times of early mixtures and changes in crystalline phases as well as chemical properties such as leachability of lead, pH and alkalinity of leachates are studied. Results have indicated that usage of OPC with RHA as an overall binder system for S/S of lead-contaminated soils is more favorable in reducing the leachability of lead from the treated samples than a binder system with standalone OPC. On the other hand, partial replacement of OPC with RHA in the binder system has reduced the UCS of solidified samples.

  7. Utilizing Rice Husk Briquettes in Firing Crucible Furnace for Low Temperature Melting Metals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Musa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fuels for firing crucible furnace for low temperature melting metals has become mandatory, as a result of the pollution problem associated with the use of fossil fuels, the expense of electricity and also deforestation as a result of the use of charcoal. An agricultural waste, rice husk, in briquette form was used as an alternative fuel to fire crucible furnace to melt lead, zinc and aluminium. Results showed that lead and zinc melted and reached their pouring temperatures of 3840C and 5300C in 70 minutes and 75 minutes respectively. Aluminium was raised to a maximum temperature of 5200C in 75 and 100 minutes.The average concentration of the pollutants (CO, SO2and NOX were found to be below the tolerance limit and that of TSP (Total Suspended Particulates was found to be within the tolerance limit stipulated by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA in Nigeria.

  8. Comparison between rice husk ash and commercial silica as filler in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, I.J.; Calheiro, D.; Santos, E.C.A. dos; Oliveira, R.; Rocha, T.L.A.C.; Moraes, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of rice husk ash (RHA) as filler in polymeric materials has been studied in different polymers. Research reported that RHA may successfully replace silica. The silica production process using ore demands high energy input and produces considerable amounts of waste. Therefore, the replacement of silica by RHA may be economically and environmentally advantageous, reducing environmental impact and adding value to a waste material. In this context, this study characterizes and compares RHA of different sources (travelling grate reactor and fluidized bed reactor) with commercially available silicas to assess performance as filler in polymeric materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, loss on ignition, X-ray diffraction, grain size, specific surface area and specific weight. The results show that RHA may be used as a filler in several polymeric materials.(author)

  9. Impact strength and abrasion resistance of high strength concrete with rice husk ash and rubber tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of High Strength Concrete (HSC technology for concrete production with the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash (RHA residues by replacing a bulk of the material caking and rubber tires with partial aggregate volume, assessing their influence on the mechanical properties and durability. For concrete with RHA and rubber, it was possible to reduce the brittleness by increasing the energy absorbing capacity. With respect to abrasion, the RHA and rubber concretes showed lower mass loss than the concrete without residues, indicating that this material is attractive to be used in paving. It is thus hoped that these residues may represent a technological and ecological alternative for the production of concrete in construction works.

  10. An integrated green process: Subcritical water, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, for biohydrogen production from coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Ranggina, Dian; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO 2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N 2 as the pressurizing gas. The result of SEM analysis confirmed the structural changes during SCW pretreatment. This study integrated three steps all of which are green processes which ensured an environmentally friendly process to produce a clean biohydrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a technique for psyllium husk mucilage purification with simultaneous microencapsulation of curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Álvares Monge Neto

    Full Text Available This study focused on evaluating a technique for the psyllium husk mucilage (PHM purification with simultaneous microencapsulation of curcumin. PHM was extracted with water and purified with ethanol. For the mucilage purification and simultaneous microencapsulation, an ethanolic solution of curcumin was used. After dehydration, the samples were analysed by instrumental techniques and evaluated for thermal stability. The presence of curcumin in the solution did not impair the yield of precipitated polysaccharide. Interactions of the dye and carbohydrates were confirmed by displacement of peaks in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The onset temperature of degradation of microcapsules was superior to that of curcumin. Thermal stability in solution at 90°C also improved. After 300 minutes of heating, the microcapsules had a remnant curcumin content exceeding 70%, while, in standard sample, the remaining curcumin content was 4.46%. Thus, the developed technique was successful on purification of PHM and microencapsulation of curcumin.

  12. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk for High Performance Supercapacitor

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    Huaxing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous activated carbon material was produced from the waste rice husks (RHs by precarbonizing RHs and activating with KOH. The morphology, structure, and specific surface area were investigated. The nanoporous carbon has the average pore size of 2.2 nm and high specific area of 2523.4 m2 g−1. The specific capacitance of the nanoporous carbon is calculated to be 250 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 and remains 80% for 198 F g−1 at the current density of 20 A g−1. The nanoporous carbon electrode exhibits long-term cycle life and could keep stable capacitance till 10,000 cycles. The consistently high specific capacitance, rate capacity, and long-term cycle life ability makes it a potential candidate as electrode material for supercapacitor.

  13. From rice husk to high performance shape stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Rosen, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM) was fabricated by using a vacuum impregnation technique. The lightweight, ultra-high specific surface area and porous activated carbon was prepared from waste material (rice husk) through the combination of an activation temperature approach...... and a sodium hydroxide activation procedure. Palmitic acid as a phase change material was impregnated into the porous carbon by a vacuum impregnation technique. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were employed as an additive for thermal conductivity enhancement of the SSPCMs. The attained composites exhibited...... exceptional phase change behavior, having a desirable latent heat storage capacity of 175 kJ kg(-1). When exposed to high solar radiation intensities, the composites can absorb and store the thermal energy. An FTIR analysis of the SSPCMs indicated that there was no chemical interaction between the palmitic...

  14. Vibration behaviour of foamed concrete floor with polypropylene and rise husk ash fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. A. Mohd; Ghafar, N. H. Abd; Ayub, N.; Ibrahim, M. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In the history of the construction industry, lightweight concrete or foamed concrete is a special concrete which can very useful in the construction sector because it is very lightweight and it can compact by itself at each angle of foamwork. Foamed concrete is one of lightweight concrete which widely used for floor construction due to its light weight and economic. The significant challenges in the floor design process are considering the vibration that needs improvements for the poor dynamic behaviour insulation. An alternative material to replace sand with certain amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and polypropylene was introduced. Research was determine the dynamic behavior of foam-polypropylene and foam-RHA concrete by using impact hammer test. The natural frequency for normal foamed concrete, 0.5 % of Polypropylene and 15% of RHA is 29.8 Hz, 29.3 Hz and 29.5 Hz respectively.

  15. Effects of Sawdust and Rice husk Additives on Physical Properties of Ceramic Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid. Muhi Shukur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two processes were employed for forming, specifically,  slip casting and semi-dry press were used to manufacture ceramic filters from local raw materials, red clay and combustible materials  (sawdust and rice husk. Different proportions of additives were used as pores forming agents to create porosity in ceramic filter. Dried filters  were fired at temperature to 1000°C.   It was found that the forming technique and additives have great effect on the physical properties of the produced ceramic filters. The slip casting technique was more suitable procedure for producing a porous ceramic filter. As well as, porosity increased as percentage of the combustible materials increased.

  16. Synthesis of geopolymer from rice husk ash for biodiesel production of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Nugraha, M. W.; Helwani, Z.; Olivia, M.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, geopolymer was prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) made into sodium silicate then synthesized by reacting metakaolin, NaOH, and water. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), Brunaeur Emmet Teller (BET), and basic strength. Then, the catalyst used for transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in order to produce biodiesel. The variation of process variables conducted to assess the effect on the yield of biodiesel. The highest yield obtained 87.68% biodiesel with alkyl ester content 99.29%, density 866 kg/m3, viscosity 4.13 mm2/s, the acid number of 0.42 mg-KOH/g biodiesel and the flash point 140 °C. Generally, variations of %w/w catalyst provides a dominant influence on the yield response of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with ASTM standard specifications.

  17. Analysis of the husk and kernel of the seeds of Moringa stenopetala

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    Y. Melaku,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the kernel of the endemic plant Moringa stenopetala after silica gel column chromatography led to the isolation of 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxybenzyl glucosinolate (1 and sucrose. The oil obtained by Soxhlet extraction with petrol was trans-esterified with BF3-MeOH and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed the presence of diverse fatty acids namely palmitic (11%, palmitoleic (1.2%, stearic (11%, oleic (63%, linoleic (1.2%, arachidic (6% and the rare behenic acids (6%. The white glossy seed husk which comprises 25% of the whole seed yielded two compounds namely 4-(σ-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl alcohol (2 and allantoin (3. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of compound 2 as a natural product. Allantoin is reported here for the first time from the genus Moringa.

  18. Experimental Studies on SiC and Rice Husk Ash Reinforced Al Alloy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash Y. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work Aluminium alloy with Cu (4.5% as the major alloying element is used as the matrix in which SiC and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are dispersed to develop a hybrid composite. The dispersion is done by the motorized stir casting arrangement. The composite is fabricated by varying the proportions of the reinforcements in the base alloy. The composite specimens were tested for density changes, hardness and the wear. The microstructure images showed a uniform dispersion of the reinforcements in the matrix and this resulted in higher strength to weight ratio. The increase in strength of the composite is probably attributed to the increase in the dislocation density. Also, the abrasive wear resistance of the produced composite is found to be superior as compared to the matrix alloy because of the hard-ceramic particles in the reinforcements.

  19. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E. The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA, developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equivalence ratio (ER and steam to fuel ratio (S : F on equilibrium temperature and gas composition of ~150 species. Also, an atom balance model was developed for comparison purposes. The results showed that increased ER and (S : F ratios produce mixtures that are rich in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. The value for the activation energy was estimated to be 221 kJ/kmol.

  20. Characterization of upgraded hydrogel biochar from blended rice husk with coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Farhana; Alias, Azil Bahari; Talib, Norhayati; Rashid, Zulkifli Abd; Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim

    2017-12-01

    Rice husk biochar (RB) blended with coal fly ash (CFA) is used as a material to develop hydrogel for heavy metal removal. This combination, namely hydrogel rice husk biochar-coal fly ash (HRB-CFA) composite is synthesized by embedding the biochar into acrylamide (AAM) as monomer, with N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. While activated carbon (AC) remains an expensive material, HRB-CFA is attracting great interest for its use in the absorption of organic contaminants due to its low material cost and importance as renewable source for securing future energy supply in the environmental system. Although the CFA does not have the surface area as high as AC, certain metallic components that are naturally present in the CFA can play the catalytic role in the removal of heavy metal from wastewater. The percentage of heavy metal removal is depends on the parameters that influence the sorption process; the effect of pH solution, dosage of adsorbent, initial concentration of solution, and contact time. The aim of this study is to characterize HRB-CFA by performing several analyses such as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermogravimetric (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) methods. The results obtained revealed that the best hydrogel ratio is 0.5:0.5 of blended RB and CFA, as proven by BET surface area, pore volume and pore size of 3.5392 m2/g, 0.00849 cm3/g and 90.566 Å, and the surface morphology showed an increase in porosity size.

  1. The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) is a source of anti-neoplastic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschek, P R; Alviano, D S; Alviano, C S; Gattass, C R

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-tumoral activities of fractions from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber of the typical A and common varieties of Cocos nucifera (Palmae). Cytotoxicity against leukemia cells was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cells (2 x 10(4)/well) were incubated with 0, 5, 50 or 500 microg/mL high- or low-molecular weight fractions for 48 h, treated with MTT and absorbance was measured with an ELISA reader. The results showed that both varieties have almost similar antitumoral activity against the leukemia cell line K562 (60.1 +/- 8.5 and 47.5 +/- 11.9% for the typical A and common varieties, respectively). Separation of the crude extracts with Amicon membranes yielded fractions with molecular weights ranging in size from 1-3 kDa (fraction A) to 3-10 kDa (fraction B) and to more than 10 kDa (fraction C). Cells were treated with 500 microg/mL of these fractions and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT. Fractions ranging in molecular weight from 1-10 kDa had higher cytotoxicity. Interestingly, C. nucifera extracts were also active against Lucena 1, a multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line. Their cytotoxicity against this cell line was about 50% (51.9 +/- 3.2 and 56.3 +/- 2.9 for varieties typical A and common, respectively). Since the common C. nucifera variety is extensively cultured in Brazil and the husk fiber is its industrial by-product, the results obtained in the present study suggest that it might be a very inexpensive source of new antineoplastic and anti-multidrug resistant drugs that warrants further investigation.

  2. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH˙ radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 μg mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes.

  3. Adsorption behavior of rice husk for the decontamination of chromium from industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rahman, A.; Ahmad, S.; Toheed, A.; Ahmed, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, was studied as a potential decontaminant for chromium in the effluents of leather tanning industries. Physico-chemical parameters such as selection of appropriate electrolyte, shaking time, concentration of absorbent and absorbate were studied to optimize the best conditions in which this material can be utilized on commercial scale for the decontamination of effluents. The radiotracer technique was used to determine the distribution of chromium. In certain cases atomic absorption spectrophotometry was also employed. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol x dm -3 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 3.0 g of absorbent for 2.73 x 10 -3 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration in five minutes equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all acids. The adsorption data follows the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 2.73 x 10 -3 to 2.73 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants, i.e., 1/n = 0.86 ± 0.06 and A = 2.35 ± 0.06 mmol x g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG deg, ΔS deg and ΔH deg have also been calculated for the system. Application of the method to a test case of a medium size industry showed that 21 kg of rice husk was sufficient to maintain the NEQS limits of chromium for industrial effluents. (author)

  4. Engineering properties of lightweight geopolymer synthesized from coal bottom ash and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Hoc; Hoa, Nguyen Ngoc; Quyen, Pham Vo Thi Ha; Tuyen, Nguyen Ngoc Kim; Anh, Tran Vu Thao; Kien, Pham Trung

    2018-04-01

    Geopolymer technology was developed by Joseph Davidovits in 1970s based on reactions among alumino-silicate resources in high alkaline conditions. Geopolymer has been recently gaining attention as an alternative binder for Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) due to its low energy and CO2 burden. The raw materials used for geopolymerization normally contain high SiO2 and Al2O3 in the chemical compositions such as meta-kaoline, rice husk ash, fly ash, bottom ash, blast furnace slag, red mud, and others. Moreover, in this paper, coal bottom ash (CBA) and rice husk ash (RHA), which are industrial and agricultural wastes, respectively, were used as raw materials with high alumino-silicate resources. Both CBA and RHA were mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 20 minutes to obtain the geopolymer pastes. The pastes were filled in 5-cm cube molds according to ASTM C109/C109M 99, and then cured at room condition for hardening of the geopolymer specimens. After 24 hours, the specimens were removed out of the molds and continuously cured at room condition for 27 days. The geopolymer-based materials were then tested for engineering properties such as compressive strength (MPa), volumetric weight (kg/m3), and water absorption (kg/m3). Results indicated that the material can be considered lightweight with volumetric weight from 1192 to 1425 kg/m3; compressive strength at 28 days is in the range of 12.38 to 37.41 MPa; and water absorption is under 189.92 kg/m3.

  5. Biocompatibility assessment of rice husk-derived biogenic silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshatwi, Ali A., E-mail: alshatwi@ksu.edu.sa; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic forms of silica have low biocompatibility, whereas biogenic forms have myriad beneficial effects in current toxicological applications. Among the various sources of biogenic silica, rice husk is considered a valuable agricultural biomass material and a cost-effective resource that can provide biogenic silica for biomedical applications. In the present study, highly pure biogenic silica nanoparticles (bSNPs) were successfully harvested from rice husks using acid digestion under pressurized conditions at 120 °C followed by a calcination process. The obtained bSNPs were subjected to phase identification analysis using X-ray diffraction, which revealed the amorphous nature of the bSNPs. The morphologies of the bSNPs were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed spherical particles 10 to 30 nm in diameter. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the bSNPs with human lung fibroblast cells (hLFCs) was investigated using a viability assay and assessing cellular morphological changes, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxidative stress-related gene expression. Our results revealed that the bSNPs did not have any significant incompatibility in these in vitro cell-based approaches. These preliminary findings suggest that bSNPs are biocompatible, could be the best alternative to synthetic forms of silica and are applicable to food additive and biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Simple, rapid and convenient process • Amorphous and spherical with 10–30 nm size SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were fabricated. • Biogenic silica nanoparticles showed biocompatibility. • bSNPs are an alternative to synthetic forms of silica.

  6. Mechanical and durability performance of rice husk ash concrete of grade 30, 40 and 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erawati, M.; Nik Anisah, N.N.; Nurdiyana, M.H.; Noor Arbaiyah, M.Y.; Kartini, K.

    2010-01-01

    Cement is produce and manufactured on a large scale from the silicate industry and used mostly in building homes, industrial buildings and other structures. Cements are produce from raw naturally occurring materials and the production involved both mining and manufacturing components, and it is a major source of greenhouse gas emission. For sustainability, and to reduce the greenhouse gas emission cause by cement production, therefore it is highly time to look into the other possibility of replacing this cementitious material. Research had shown that small amounts of inert filler have always been acceptable as cement replacements, what more if the fillers have the pozzolanic properties, in which it will not only impart technical advantages to the resulting concrete but also enable larger quantities of cement replacement to be achieved. In this millennium due to constantly increasing amount of industry by products, concretes made almost completely of waste materials should be produced in large scale. Extensive studies have been carried out and have indicated that the incinerator ash can be beneficially utilize, however, in Malaysia the utilization of this ash is not routinely practiced or mandated. This paper highlighted the possibility of using rice husk ash as cement replacement for sustainability in making concrete of grade 30, 40 and 50. The strength and durability tests will conducted to validate the possibility of it uses. Studies conducted have shown that rice husk ash has the pozzolanic properties, achieved the target strength and improved its permeability. Thus, not only give technical advantage to the resulting concrete but it also reduces cement consumption and on top of that the conservation of resources. (author)

  7. Combination of sawdust from teak wood and rice husk activated carbon as adsorbent of Pb(II) ion and its analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Mahardiani, L.; Wulandari, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to know the usage of sawdust of teak wood and rice husk waste as Pb (II) ion adsorbents in simulated liquid waste, the combined optimum mass required adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) ion, the sensitivity of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) method in determining the decrease of Pb (II) metal ion levels in the μg/L level. This research was conducted by experimental method in laboratory. Adsorbents used in this study were charcoal of sawdust sawdust activated using 15% ZnCl2 solution and activated rice husk using 2 N NaOH solution. The adsorption processes of sawdust and rice husk with Pb(II) solution was done by variation of mass combination with a ratio of 1: 0; 0: 1; 1: 1; 1: 2; and 2: 1. Analysis of Pb(II) ion concentration using SPS and characterization of sawdust and rice husk adsorbent ads using FTIR. The results showed that activated charcoal from sawdust of teak wood and rice husks can be used as Pb (II) metal ion adsorbents with adsorption capacity of 0.86 μg/L, charcoal from sawdust of teak wood and rice husk adsorbent with a combination of optimum mass contact of sawdust and rice husk is 2:1 as much as 3 grams can adsorb 42.80 μg/L. Solid-phase spectophotometry is a sensitive method for analysis of concentration decreasing levels of Pb(II) ion, after it was absorbed by sawdust of teak wood and rice husk with high sensitivity and has the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 μg/L.

  8. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  9. Rice Husk Ash as a Renewable Source for the Production of Value Added Silica Gel and its Application: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, silica gels have developed a lot of interest due to their extraordinary properties and their existing and potential applications in science and technology. Silica gel has a wide range of applications such as a desiccant, as a preservation tool to control humidity, as an adsorbent, as a catalyst and as a cata-lyst support. Silica gel is a rigid three-dimensional network of colloidal silica, and is classified as: aqua-gel, alco-gel, xero-gel and aero-gel. Out of all known solid porous materials, aero-gels are particularly known for their high specific surface area, high porosity, low bulk density, high thermal insulation value, ultra low dielectric constant and low index of refraction. Because of these extraordinary properties silica aero-gel has many commercial applications such as thermal window insulation, acoustic barriers, super-capacitors and catalytic supports. However, monolithic silica aero-gel has been used extensively in high energy physics in Cherenkov radiation detectors and in shock wave studies at high pressures, inertial confinement fusion (ICF radio-luminescent and micrometeorites. Silica gel can be prepared by using various sol gel precursors but the rice husk (RH is considered as the cheapest source for silica gel production. Rice husk is a waste product abundantly available in rice producing countries during milling of rice. This review article aims at summarizing the developments carried out so far in synthesis, properties, characterization and method of determination of silica, silica gel, silica aero-gel and silica xero-gel. The effect of synthesis parameters such as pH, temperature of burning the rice husk, acid leaching prior to formation of rice husk ash (RHA on the properties of final product are also described. The attention is also paid on the application of RH, RHA, sil-ica, silica aero-gel and silica xero-gel. Development of economically viable processes for getting rice husk silica with specific

  10. Influence of operating conditions on the removal of brilliant vital red dye from aqueous media by bio-sorption using rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Anwar, J.; Mahmud, T.; Salman, M.; Shafique, U.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-sorption is emerging as an economical and eco friendly methodology for the removal of hazardous and toxic chemicals from waste water. The operating conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of this process. Conventional and indigenous bio sorbents like bagasse, wheat husk and rice husk have been evaluated for their removing efficiency of Brilliant Vital Red dye from water. Rice husk is proved better among them. The effect of important operating conditions for the removal of the dye using rice husk were studied. The observed optimum values for various factors are; 0.2 g of bio sorbent, 25 ppm initial dye concentration, 30 deg. C temperature, 15 minutes contact time, 300 rpm stirring speed and 2.0 ph. Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was also applied to evaluate maximum adsorption capacity of rice husk for Brilliant Vital Red dye. Q/sub max/ value was 15.06 which indicated that rice husk can effectively be used for the removal of Brilliant Vital Red dye from wastewater using the optimized operational conditions. This study would be accommodative with regard to practical wastewater treatment. (author)

  11. In vitro cultivation of Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: effects of salt concentration and culture medium volume=Cultivo in vitro de Anacardium othonianum Rizz.: efeito da variação das concentrações dos sais e volumes do meio de cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Waldemar Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium othonianum Rizz. is a medicinal plant species that is native to the Brazilian savannah. Adult plants are different from other genus members in this ecosystem due to their size, and efforts to locate the plants may lead to their extraction from the savannah and, frequently, plant death. Micropropagation has played a significant role in the propagation and preservation of specimens of several plant species; therefore, this study evaluated the effect of various salt concentrations and culture medium volumes on the in vitro cultivation of A. othonianum Rizz. Trial (I evaluated two culture media (MS and WPM and three salt concentrations (100, 50 and 25% in a completely randomized design. Trial (II evaluated two culture media and salt concentrations, MS (50% and WPM (100%, and five medium volumes (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL per test tube as a 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design. After 30 and 60 days of growth, the percentage of plantlet survival, average plantlet and leaf lengths and the average number of leaves and buds per explant were evaluated. The MS (50 and 25% media and WPM (100 and 50% media were the most effective for plantlet regeneration. The best responses were observed in 15- and 25-mL volumes of the MS (50% medium. Therefore, the use of a 15-mL volume is suggested for greater medium economy.O Anacardium othonianum Rizz. é uma espécie frutífera e medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. As plantas adultas distinguem-se das demais espécies do gênero existente nesse bioma em função do seu porte arbóreo. Sua exploração ocorre de forma extrativista e muitas vezes em caráter predatório. Sob esse contexto, a micropropagação tem dado significativas contribuições na propagação e preservação de caracteres de interesse em diversas espécies de plantas e, desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sais e volumes do meio de cultura no cultivo in vitro de A

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDIES FOR PRODUCING CRUDE LIPASE FROM TEMPE’S MOULD CULTIVATED IN RICE-HUSK-BASED SOLID MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Beuna Bardant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of these preliminary studies is to support Indonesian program for increasing palm oil added value through independent production technology based on Indonesian natural resources. Various palm oil derivatives could be synthesized enzymatically using lipase from microbes that available in Indonesia. Tempe's mould is available in abundance in Indonesia and had already been proved for producing lipase. This paper provides information about producing crude lipase from Tempe's mould cultivated in rice-husk-based solid media using palm oil as carbon source. Observed variables include solid media composition, optimum fermentation time, extraction and enriching process of crude lipase. The crude lipase was analyzed its hydrolysis activity on coconut oil and palm oil. The result of these preliminary studies shows that this production process is a simple and tough process and very potential to be developed.   Keywords: lipase, Tempe's mould, palm oil, solid fermentation, rice husk

  13. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: technical solutions and quality of cured compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, G; Belli, C; Lustrato, G; Ranalli, G

    2008-07-01

    The present work proposed an economically sustainable solution for composting olive humid husks (OHH) and leaves (OL) at a small/medium sized olive oil mill. We planned and set up a composting plant, the prototype taking the form of a simplified low-cost turning machine, and evaluated the use of an inoculum of one year-old composted humid husks (CHH) and sheep manure (SM) to facilitate the starting phase of the process. Trials were carried out using four piles under different experimental conditions (turnover, static, and type of inoculum). The best results were achieved with turnover and an inoculum that induced fast start-up and a correct evolution of the composting process. The final product was a hygienically clean, cured compost.

  14. Characterization and use of in natura and calcined rice husks for biosorption of heavy metals ions from aqueous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal removal by adsorption using rice husks as a bioadsorbent was evaluated as an alternative for wastewater treatment. Batch equilibrium experiments and kinetic sorption studies were performed using monocomponent solutions of Ni(II, Cd(II, Zn(II, Pb(II and Cu(II in surface samples of in natura(RH and calcined rice husks (RHA. RHA showed higher potential for removing lead and copper. Experimental data for adsorption isotherms of lead and copper were adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevick (D-R models, being better represented by the Langmuir model. The calcination of RH increased its surface area, improving its adsorption properties. From a morphological analysis obtained by SEM and diffraction patterns (XRD, a longitudinal fibrous and amorphous structure was observed for RH. TGA resultsindicated a total mass loss of around 60% for RH and 24.5% for RHA.

  15. Enhanced ethanol and glucosamine production from rice husk by NAOH pretreatment and fermentation by fungus Mucor hiemalis

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    Maryam Omidvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from rice husk by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Mucor hiemalis was investigated. To reach the maximum ethanol production yield, the most important influencing factors in the pretreatment process, including temperature (0-100°C, NaOH concentration (1-3 M, and the pretreatment time (30-180 min, were optimized using an experimental design by a response surface methodology (RSM. The maximum ethanol production yield of 86.7 % was obtained after fungal cultivation on the husk pretreated with 2.6 M NaOH at 67°C for 150 min. This was higher than the yield of 57.7% obtained using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control. Furthermore, fermentation using M. hiemalis under the optimum conditions led to the production of a highly valuable fungal biomass, containing 60 g glucosamine (GlcN, 410 g protein, and 160 g fungal oil per each kg of the fungal biomass.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of high surface area nanosilica from rice husk ash by surfactant-free sol-gel method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Abdelghny, A.M.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Youssef, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2014), 465-472 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanosilica * Rice husk * Sol-gel method * N-2 adsorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2014

  17. Rice husk-derived sodium silicate as a highly efficient and low-cost basic heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Rice husk-derived sodium silicate exhibits high potential as a low-cost solid catalyst for industrial biodiesel production. - Highlights: • Rice husk-derived sodium silicate was employed as a high performance catalyst for biodiesel production. • 97% yield of FAME was achieved in 30 min at 65 °C. • The room-temperature transesterification gave 94% yield of FAME after only 150 min. - Abstract: In the present work, rice husk-derived sodium silicate was prepared and employed as a solid catalyst for simple conversion of oils to biodiesel via the transesterification reaction. The catalyst was characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, XRF, FT-IR, SEM, BET and Hammett indicator method. Under the optimal reaction conditions of catalyst loading amount of 2.5 wt.%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, the prepared catalysts gave 97% FAME yield in 30 min at 65 °C, and 94% FAME yield in 150 min at room temperature. The transesterification was proved to be pseudo-first order reaction with the activation energy (Ea) and the frequency factor (A) of 48.30 kJ/mol and 2.775 × 10"6 min"−"1 respectively. Purification with a cation-exchange resin efficiently removed all soluble ions providing high-quality biodiesel product that meets all the ASTM and EN standard specifications. Rice husk-derived sodium silicate showed high potential to be used as a low-cost, easy to prepare and high performance solid catalyst for biodiesel synthesis.

  18. Studying of Nano SiO2 Preparation from Rice Husk Ash by Using High Gravity Reaction Precipitation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Hoang Van Duc

    2013-01-01

    A novel method (High-gravity reactive precipitation - HGRP) was developed to prepare nano-SiO 2 from rice husk ash using gas-liquid reaction system. The precipitated silica produced by our proposed method had average size of 20 nm with narrow size distribution and purity of SiO 2 was approximately 99.2%. The principles of the method as well as experimental conditions were also described. (author)

  19. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  20. Cacao pod husks as a source of low-methoxyl, highly acetylated pectins able to gel in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesmann, Lúcia Cristina; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2017-08-01

    Cacao pod husks, the main by-product from cocoa production, have been investigated for pectin isolation. In the present study, the rheological properties of two low-methoxyl (LM) pectins isolated from cacao pod husks using different extraction conditions were evaluated. One pectin was obtained from optimized conditions employing aqueous nitric acid as an extractant, and the other one was extracted with boiling water. Pectin gels (0.99% galacturonic acid equivalent, w/w) were prepared at pH 2.5-3.0 in the presence of 60% sucrose (w/w) and subjected to rheological analysis. Dynamic oscillatory experiments at 25°C indicated that better gels were obtained at the lowest pH (2.5). Steady shear measurements revealed a shear-thinning behavior. The apparent viscosities of the samples increased as pH decreased. Gelation with calcium ions was not observed for either of the highly acetylated LM pectins analyzed. The rheological analysis results showed that despite their high acetyl content, LM pectins extracted by different methods from cacao pod husks were able to form gels at low pH under reduced water activity, suggesting a possible application in acidic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance Role of Low-Cost Sorbent Produced from rice husk in Separation of zirconium from yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The agricultural waste, rice husk, was used as a precursor for the production of low-cost sorbent. Rice husk, a by-product of the rice milling industry, accounts for about 20 % of the whole rice. The argro-residue sorbent extracted from rice husk was employed in separation of zirconium from yttrium. The separation of Zr from the binary systems (Zr-Y) was achieved in batch and column modes. In a batch mode, the adsorption behavior was studied in deferent media, namely, hydrochloric acid, 0.1 M citrate buffer and 0.1 M acetate buffer. In addition, other factors affecting the sorption process of each metal e.g. ph-value of the medium and metal ion concentration were also studied. The breakthrough experiments were carried in the form of mini-column with different bed depths of sorbent at flow rates of 20 ml/min and 40 ml/min. These studies were performed to elucidate the valuable of use of locally, available, agro-residue for separation of Zr from Y target as a promising sorbent for purification of 88 Zr, 89 Zr from Y.

  2. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Welander, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments. PMID:28114377

  3. Optimization of binder addition and particle size for densification of coffee husks briquettes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudah; Zulkifli

    2018-03-01

    The present research focuses on establishing the optimum conditions in converting coffee husk into a densified biomass fuel using starch as a binding agent. A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approach using Box-Behnken experimental design with three levels (-1, 0, and +1) was employed to obtain the optimum level for each parameter. The briquettes wereproduced by compressing the mixture of coffee husk-starch in a piston and die assembly with the pressure of 2000 psi. Furthermore, starch percentage, pyrolysis time, and particle size were the input parameters for the algorithm. Bomb calorimeter was used to determine the heating value (HHV) of the solid fuel. The result of the study indicated that a combination of 34.71 mesh particle size, 110.93 min pyrolysis time, and 8% starch concentration werethe optimum variables.The HHV and density of the fuel were up to 5644.66 calgr-1 and 0.7069 grcm-3,respectively. The study showed that further research should be conducted to improve the briquette density therefore the coffee husk could be convert into commercialsolid fuel to replace the dependent on fossil fuel.

  4. Synthesis of zeolite from rice husk ash waste of brick industries as hydrophobic adsorbent for fuel grade ethanol purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, A.; Alhanif, M.; Khotimah, C.; Zuhra, UA; Putri, BR; Kumoro, AC

    2017-11-01

    A lot of researchers have devoted on ethanol utilization as renewable energy to substitute petroleum based gasoline. When ethanol is being used as a new fuel candidate, it should have at least of 99.5% purity. Usually produced via sugar fermentation process, further purification of ethanol from other components in fermentation broth to obtain its fuel grade is a crucial step. The purpose of this research is to produce synthetic zeolite as hydrophobic adsorbent from rice husk ash for ethanol-water separation and to investigate the influence of weight, adsorption time and initial ethanol concentration on zeolite adsorption capacity. This research consisted of rice husk silica extraction, preparation of hydrophobic zeolite adsorbent, physical characterization using SEM, EDX and adsorption test for an ethanol-water solution. Zeolite with highest adsorption capacity was obtained with 15: 1 alumina silica composition. The best adsorption condition was achieved when 4-gram hydrophobic zeolite applied for adsorption of 100 mL of 10% (v/v) ethanol-water solution for 120 minutes, which resulted in ethanol with 98.93% (v/v) purity. The hydrophobic zeolite from rice husk ash is a potential candidate as an efficient adsorbent to purify raw ethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Implementation of this new adsorbent for ethanol production in commercial scale may reduce the energy consumption of that usually used for the distillation processes.

  5. Partial oxidation of methane to methanol over catalyst ZSM-5 from coal fly ash and rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirda Yanti Fusia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that can be converted into liquid fuels such as methanol to retain most of the energy of methane and produce a cleaner environment. The conversion of methane to methanol using ZMS-5 represents a breakthrough in the utilization of methane. However, material sources for zeolite synthesis as catalyst usually are pro-analysis grade materials, which are expensive. Therefore, in this research, coal fly ash and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. First, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment to extract silicate (SiO44− and aluminate (AlO45− and impurities separation. The ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates. After ZSM-5 was synthesized, it was modified with Cobalt through impregnation method. The catalytic activity of both ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane were preliminary tested and compared with that commercial one. The result showed that the zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 from fly ash coal and rice husk ash has the potential to be used as catalysts in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  6. Polyphenolic content, in vitro antioxidant activity and chemical composition of extract from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican rambutan) husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristian; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan; De la Garza, Heliodoro; Wong-Paz, Jorge; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo Cristian; Castro-López, Cecilia; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    To determinate the recovery of total polyphenolic compounds content, in vitro antioxidant activity and HPLC/ESI/MS characterization of extract from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Mexican rambutan). The rambutan husk extract was obtained by aqueous extraction and a polyphenolic fraction was recovered using Amberlite XAD-16. The total polyphenolic compounds content was determined by the Folin Ciocalteu and butanol-HCI methods. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed using ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Mexican rambutan husk showed a total polyphenolic content of 582 mg/g and an evident antioxidant activity by ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power analysis. The HPLC/ESI/MS assay allowed the identification of 13 compounds, most of which belong to ellagitannins. Geraniin, corilagin and ellagic acid were present in the sample; the mineral composition was also evaluated. Rambutan husk cultivated in Mexico is a promising source for the recovery of added value bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which have potential applications as bioactive antioxidant agents for the treatment of diseases. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technological, economic and environmental evaluation of rice husk gasification in a biorefinery context to produce indirect energy as jet fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jacobo Jaramillo Obando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Higher alcohol 1-octanol was evaluated as jet fuel potential. The synthesis of the 1-octanol was modeled and the technological, economic and environmental evaluation of the global production process of the rice husk gasification was performed. The best operating conditions to 1-octanol synthesis were obtained in packed bed reactor PBR using Matlab software. Mass and energy balances were calculated using Aspen Plus Software. Economic assessment was developed using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer Software. Environmental impact evaluation was carried out using the waste reduction algorithm WAR. Process yield was 0.83 kg of 1-Octanol by kg of rice husk. Total production cost obtained was USD 0.957 per kg of 1-octanol and the total PEI of product leave the system is 0.08142 PEI/kg with a PEI mitigated of 12.97 PEI/kg. Production process of high alcohols from rice husk shows a high potential technological, economical and environmental as a sustainable industry at take advantage of an agroindustrial residue and transformed in products with added value and energy. 1-octanol as jet fuel has a potential but need to be more studied for direct use in jet motors.

  9. Microbial Biotreatment of Actual Textile Wastewater in a Continuous Sequential Rice Husk Biofilter and the Microbial Community Involved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Forss

    Full Text Available Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

  10. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks, was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH, broken bricks (BB and spent bleaching earth (SBE. Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash, was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, it showed a continued decrease in Ca(OH2 in the hydrating cement as a function of curing time and replacement levels of the cement. Up to 45 % replacement of the OPC by CSBR produced a Portland pozzolana cement (PPC material that passed the relevant Kenyan Standard. Incorporation of the CSBR in OPC reduces the resultant calcium hydroxide from hydrating Portland cement. The use of the waste materials in production of cementitious material would rid the environment of wastes and lead to production of low cost cementitious material.

  11. Combination of rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) ionic metal and it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmah, D. N.; Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the effect and determine the mass comparation which most effective combination between rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent to adsorb Pb (II) ion using SPS method. This research used experimental method. Technique to collecting this datas of this research is carried out by several stages, which are: (1) carbonization of rice husk and coconut shell adsorbent using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for an hour; (2) activation of the rice husk and coconut shell adsorbent using NaOH 1N and ZnCl2 15% activator; (3) contacting the adsorbent of rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation comparison of rice husk and coconut shell, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2; (4) analysis of Pb(II) using Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry (SPS); (5) characterization of combination rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent using FTIR. The result of this research show that the combined effect of combination rice husk and coconut shell activated adsorbent can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II) ion then the optimum adsorbent mass ratio required for absorbing 20 mL of Pb(II) ion with a concentration of 49.99 µg/L is a ratio of 2:1 with the absorption level of 97,06%Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry (SPS) is an effective method in the level of µg/L, be marked with the Limit of Detection (LOD) of 0.03 µg/L.

  12. Use of the rice husk as an alternative substrate for growing media on green walls drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey Rivas-Sánchez, Yair; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán Cañas, José

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, we have been looking for alternatives to traditional growing mediums for green walls. Commercially available systems for green walls are commonly made with Sphagnum, rock wool or polymers that are unsustainable materials. In the design of the green wall, local components such as agricultural by-products should be considered more often. The objective of this research is to use alternative materials available in Andalusia that are suitable for use as a growing medium in green walls, using organic residues generated by agriculture as in this case the rice husk, compared to conventional and used materials as a growing media in green walls such as coconut fiber and rock wool. The physical-chemical characteristics of the water were analyzed through the collection of excess irrigation water, after passing through the prototypes of green walls, installed in the Rabanales Campus of the University of Córdoba between April and July 2016 and thus observe the feasibility of using rice husk as an alternative material. The 16 mm diameter irrigation pipes are at the top and middle of each module, with 12 adjustable drippers of 4 l / h for each module, 72 drippers in the whole experimental green wall prototype installed at every 15 centimeters of tube. Two different species of plant material (Lampranthus spectabilis) and (Lavandula stoechas), were selected, taking into account the solar exposition of the place of establishment of the prototype of the green wall and the easy acquisition of these plants in the region. Water samples were collected every day twice a day for 10 weeks of the experiment, taking a sample of the surplus runoff water from six green wall prototypes.PH 40 - pH - conductivity - TDS - temperature, CRISON. Differences in pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total solids of the treatments were examined by ANOVA with the test of normality and homogeneity of variances. It was observed that the substrates used in the prototypes of the

  13. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    construction of the El Golfo volcano seems to have taken place after a relatively long period of activity, probably coinciding with the maximum development of the Cumbre Nueva rift on La Palma. The initial subaerial activity at El Golfo was characterised by basaltic lavas that evolved to trachybasalts and trachytes, and finally towards more differentiated eruptive episodes indicative of the terminal state of the volcanic activity of the El Golfo volcano. The excessive growth of this volcano triggered the failure of its north flank, generating the spectacular scarp and present El Golfo depression. Subsequent volcanism, from emission vents arranged in a three-armed rift system (rift volcanism, with ages ranging from 145 ka to 2,500 years, with probably prehistoric eruptions, implies the much more moderate continuation of the earlier predominantly basanitic-tephritic volcanic activity. This period may correspond to that of maximum development of the Cumbre Vieja rift, in the island of La Palma.Las Canarias occidentales, relativamente poco estudiadas hasta hace unos años desde el punto de vista geológico, han aportado sin embargo datos decisivos para la comprensión de muchos de los problemas geológicos más importantes del archipiélago, que posiblemente se hubieran dilucidado más prontamente si su estudio se hubiese comenzado, como en la mayoría de las cadenas de islas volcánicas oceánicas, por su extremo más reciente. Como resumen de sus principales rasgos geológicos evolutivos de ambas islas destacamos las siguientes etapas de desarrollo: Durante el Plioceno se levanta en el extremo occidental del Archipiélago, en la isla de La Palma, un edificio o monte submarino constituido por pillow lavas, pillow brechas e hialoclastitas de composición basáltica, intruido por domos traquíticos, plutones de gabros y una densísima red de diques. Por el efecto de la intensa intrusión magmática y filoniana el edificio submarino sufrió un levantamiento hasta cotas de 1.500 m y

  14. Effect of rice husk ash and fly ash on the compressive strength of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Tang; Bulgakov, Boris; Aleksandrova, Olga; Larsen, Oksana; Anh, Pham Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    The usage of industrial and agricultural wastes for building materials production plays an important role to improve the environment and economy by preserving nature materials and land resources, reducing land, water and air pollution as well as organizing and storing waste costs. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling dependence of the compressive strength of high performance concrete (HPC) at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days on the amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and fly ash (FA), which are added to the concrete mixtures by using the Central composite rotatable design. The result of this study provides the second-order regression equation of objective function, the images of the surface expression and the corresponding contours of the objective function of the regression equation, as the optimal points of HPC compressive strength. These objective functions, which are the compressive strength values of HPC at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days, depend on two input variables as: x1 (amount of RHA) and x2 (amount of FA). The Maple 13 program, solving the second-order regression equation, determines the optimum composition of the concrete mixture for obtaining high performance concrete and calculates the maximum value of the HPC compressive strength at the ages of 28 days. The results containMaxR28HPC = 76.716 MPa when RHA = 0.1251 and FA = 0.3119 by mass of Portland cement.

  15. Reuse of Coconut Shell, Rice Husk, and Coal Ash Blends in Geopolymer Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmiki Samadhi, Tjokorde; Wulandari, Winny; Prasetyo, Muhammad Iqbal; Rizki Fernando, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Mixtures of biomass and coal ashes are likely to be produced in increasing volume as biomass-based energy production is gaining importance in Indonesia. This work highlights the reuse of coconut shell ash (CSA), rice husk ash (RHA), and coal fly ash (FA) for geopolymer synthesis by an activator solution containing concentrated KOH and Na2SiO3. Ash blend compositions are varied according to a simplex-centroid mixture experimental design. Activator to ash mass ratios are varied from 0.8 to 2.0, the higher value being applied for ash compositions with higher Si/Al ratio. The impact of ash blend composition on early strength is adequately modeled by an incomplete quadratic mixture model. Overall, the ashes can produce geopolymer mortars with an early strength exceeding the Indonesian SNI 15-2049-2004 standard minimum value of 2.0 MPa. Good workability of the geopolymer is indicated by their initial setting times which are longer than the minimum value of 45 mins. Geopolymers composed predominantly of RHA composition exhibit poor strength and excessive setting time. FTIR spectroscopy confirms the geopolymerization of the ashes by the shift of the Si-O-Si/Al asymmetric stretching vibrational mode. Overall, these results point to the feasibility of geopolymerization as a reuse pathway for biomass combustion waste.

  16. Removal Of Labeled ALPHA-Fetoprotein (AFP) Using Rice Husk-Based Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-MOUHTY, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass agricultural waste materials, rice husk (RH) or saw dust (SD), were used for the preparation of activated carbons. RH was activated by chemical activation using phosphoric acid or potassium hydroxide. The prepared activated carbons were characterized and used for the adsorption of labeled alpha-fetoprotein ( 125 I-AFP) from the lab waste of iodine labeled alpha-fetoprotein tracer. The effects of various factors, e.g. carbon type, carbon dosage, temperature, particle size of carbon, effect of different waste volumes on the adsorption capacity, were quantitatively determined. Desorption of activated carbon was also investigated. From the experimental results, it was found that SDK had the lowest ability for adsorption of 125I-AFP and the highest uptake was 83% by carbon RHH. The amount of adsorption accomplished per unit weight of a solid adsorbent was greater, the more finely divided and the more porous the solid. 0.5 g for RHH carbon was found to be optimum dose of adsorbent for the removal of 125I-AFP. The optimum volume of waste with 0.5 g dose of RHH was 15 ml. The increased adsorption with temperature may be due to the increase of the intra-particle diffusion rate of sorbate ions into the pores at higher temperature as diffusion is an endothermic process.

  17. Adsorption of sulfur compound utilizing rice husk ash modified with niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rodrigo M.; Pessoa Júnior, Wanison A.G. [Laboratório de Catálise Química e Materiais (CATAMA), Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Av. Gen. Rodrigo Otávio Jordão Ramos, 6200, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Braga, Valdeilson S. [Laboratório de Catálise, Centro das Ciências Exatas e das Tecnologias, Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia, Rua Professor José Seabra de Lemos, 316, Recanto dos Pássaros, 47808-021 Barreira, BA (Brazil); Barros, Ivoneide de C.L., E-mail: iclbarros@gmail.com [Laboratório de Catálise Química e Materiais (CATAMA), Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Av. Gen. Rodrigo Otávio Jordão Ramos, 6200, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorbents based in RHA modified with niobium were prepared by impregnation. • The impregnation modified the particle size and topology of RHA particles. • The adsorbents were applied in sulfur removal in model liquid fuels. • The larger sulfur removal (>50%) was achieved using RHA with 5 wt.% niobium oxide. • The adsorbent show great selectivity in adsorption experiments. - Abstract: Adsorbents based in rice husk ash (RHA) modified with niobium pentoxide were prepared for impregnation methods and applied in sulfur removal in liquid fuels. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and thermal analysis; they show that there was no qualitative change in the amorphous structure of the RHA; however, the method of impregnation could modify the particle size and topology of RHA particles. The larger sulfur removal (>50%) was achieved using RHA with 5 wt.% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} at a dosage of 10 g L{sup −1}, after 4 h of contact with the model fuel. The kinetic study of adsorption of thiophene showed that the models of pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion best fit the experimental data. The adsorption experiments with the thiophenic derivatives compounds show a large selectivity of the adsorbent.

  18. Utilization of Cacao Pod Husk Silage as Cattle Ration Mixture at Taluditi, Pohuwatu Regency, Gorontalo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, M.; Pratama, H. Y.; Martono, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cacao plantation produces cacao pod husks (CPHs) by-products during the harvest period. This research aimed to make benefits the CPH, preserved with silage technology as cattle ration mixture, investigate the adequacy of nutrient for the cattle after treated with addition of CPH silage, and investigate the quota of cattle treated with CPH silage addition. The research design was conducted by giving extension and field observation that was carried out at Taluditi on July to August 2015 during the activity of Student Community Service (KKN PPM UGM Unit Gorontalo 02). The secondary data was gathered from the Department of Agriculture and Plantation Pohuwatu Regency, and also supporting references. The number of respondents in each location was about 30 - 40 people. The research results showed that the silage preservation technology can be well received by the farmers. There was improvement of cattle ration nutrient supplemented with CPH compared to that of ration nutrient which was usually be used by the farmers or standard ration nutrient. The research also resulted in fresh CPH production 2,625.741 tons/year, CPH silage production 2,140.549 tons/year and load capacity + 575 heads/day weight 250-300 kg.

  19. Rapid Synthesis and Characterization of Nano sodalite Synthesized using Rice Husk Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Haslina Ahmad Rusmili; Zainab Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) which contains more than 90 percent silica is proven to be an active silica source in zeolite synthesis. In this study, nano sodalite has been successfully synthesized hydrothermally at 60 degree Celsius using RHA as silica source in alkaline medium at various crystallization times. Commercial fumed silica was used as comparison for the silica source. Analysis by XRD has shown that pure nano sodalite was formed in 3 hours and stable up to more than 24 hours when using RHA as silica source. On the other hand, fumed silica produced pure nano sodalite only at 4 hours while a mixture of zeolites was observed outside this time range. FESEM shows a worm-like morphology of nano sodalite in the size range of 50-100 nm while FTIR shows the formation of aluminosilicates bonds. Analysis on the dissolved silica in the gel reaction mixture demonstrates the decreasing mass of silica after prolong time of crystallization which indicates the consumption of the dissolved silica in crystal growth of nano sodalite. This study shows that RHA is a better silica source in stabilizing the nano sodalite phase in oxide gel reaction mixture as compared to fumed silica. (author)

  20. Thermal stability in a newly designed columnar-conical fluidized bed for combustion of rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozainee, M.; Salema, A.A.; Ngo, S.P.; Chye, G.B. [Malaysian Technological Univ., Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The effects of fluidizing and liquid propane gas (LPG) flow rates on thermal stability of a fluidized bed were examined. The aim of the study was to hybridize a columnar and conical fluidized bed (CCFB) in order to encourage the combustion of low-calorific fuels such as rice husks. Experiments were conducted to examine the thermal stability of the CCFB. Premixed primary air and liquid propane gas (LPG) was fed into the bed in order to verify its thermal stability. Temperature profiles of the combustor and bed were measured. The impact of the fluidizing velocity and LPG flow rate on the temperature profile was examined in order to analyze the influence of the fluidizing velocity and LPG rate on combustion rates. Results of the study showed that the combustion of the CCFB was sustained at a fluidizing velocity of 1.5 U{sub mf} and at an LPG flow rate of 8 liters per minute. Results of the study showed that fluidizing velocity played an important role on the thermal stability of the bed. It was concluded that the thermal stability of the combustor is sufficient for the CCFB. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.