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Sample records for husher melissa muth

  1. An interview with Melissa Little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Catarina

    2016-03-15

    Melissa Little is a Senior Principal Research Fellow at the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia. Her lab has studied kidney development and regeneration for over 20 years, recently making notable advances in the generation of kidney organoids from human iPSCs. We chatted with Melissa about her career, her thoughts on the potential of the organoid and stem cell fields, and what she hopes to achieve during her guest editorship with Development.

  2. Does melissa officinalis cause withdrawal or dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

  3. μ-Carbonato-bis-(bis-{2-[(diethyl-amino)-meth-yl]phen-yl}bis-muth(III)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Albert P; Nema, Mihai G; Breunig, Hans J; Silvestru, Cristian

    2011-01-12

    The mol-ecular structure of the title compound, [Bi(2)(C(11)H(16)N)(4)(CO(3))], consists of a symmetrically bridging carbonato group which binds two [2-Et(2)NCH(2)C(6)H(4)](2)Bi units that are crystallographically related via a twofold rotation axis bis-ecting the carbonate group. The two Bi atoms and two of the C atoms directly bonded to bis-muth are quasi-planar [deviations of 0.323 (1) and 0.330 (9)Å for the Bi and C atoms, respectively] with the carbonate group. The remaining two ligands are in a trans arrangement relative to the quasi-planar (CBi)(2)CO(3) system. The metal atom is strongly coordinated by the N atom of one pendant arm [Bi-N = 2.739 (6) Å], almost trans to the O atom, while the N atom of the other pendant arm exhibits a weaker intra-molecular inter-action [Bi⋯N = 3.659 (7) Å] almost trans to a C atom. If both these intra-molecular N→Bi inter-actions per metal atom are considered, the overall coordination geometry at bis-muth becomes distorted square-pyramidal [(C,N)(2)BiO cores] and the compound can be described as a hypervalent 12-Bi-5 species. Additional quite short intra-molecular Bi⋯O inter-actions are also present [3.796 (8)-4.020 (9) Å]. Inter-molecular associations through weak η(6)⋯Bi inter-actions [Bi⋯centroid of benzene ring = 3.659 (1) Å] lead to a ribbon-like supra-molecular association.

  4. Melissa Wells : "Mojo serdtse teper s etimi ljudmi i ihh problemani" / Melissa Wells ; interv. Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wells, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Intervjuu USA suursaadikuga Eestis Melissa Wellsiga, põhiteemad: USA uue administratsiooni poliitika Baltimaade suhtes, nn. Kaliningradi skandaal, NATO laienemine, Baltimaade ühinemine NATO-ga, Eesti ja Euroopa kiirreageerimisjõud. Eesti-USA suhted pärast Eesti ühinemist EL-iga, muutused Eestis viimastel aastatel, USA saatkonna osavõtt integratsiooniprojektist. Melissa Wellsi eluloolisi andmeid

  5. Melissa Wells : "Mojo serdtse teper s etimi ljudmi i ihh problemani" / Melissa Wells ; interv. Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wells, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Intervjuu USA suursaadikuga Eestis Melissa Wellsiga, põhiteemad: USA uue administratsiooni poliitika Baltimaade suhtes, nn. Kaliningradi skandaal, NATO laienemine, Baltimaade ühinemine NATO-ga, Eesti ja Euroopa kiirreageerimisjõud. Eesti-USA suhted pärast Eesti ühinemist EL-iga, muutused Eestis viimastel aastatel, USA saatkonna osavõtt integratsiooniprojektist. Melissa Wellsi eluloolisi andmeid

  6. Do Stemhagen, Reich, and Muth Have Ears to Hear and Eyes to See? Toward the Subaltern and Counternarratives in Curriculum Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, I offer a response to Stemhagen, Reich, and Muth's (see EJ1089246) delineation of disciplined judgment. I draw from my latest obsession with epistemologies of ignorance to complicate their focus on disciplinarity with questions over how non-knowledge gets framed and created. I use Suniti Sharma's seven-year study to highlight the…

  7. "O trabalho na forma de alegria juvenil": a ginástica segundo Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Amgarten Quitzau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer uma aproximação com a obra de Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths, pedagogo alemão que, no final do século XVIII, publicou uma das obras fundamentadoras da ginástica alemã: Gymnastik für die Jugend (Ginástica para a Juventude. Seu trabalho baseia-se principalmente nas teorias da denominada polícia médica, e apresenta um forte discurso em defesa da instituição dos exercícios físicos como instrumento de regeneração e fortalecimento da população alemã.

  8. Site- and strand-specific nicking of DNA by fusion proteins derived from MutH and I-SceI or TALE repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabsalilow, Lilia; Schierling, Benno; Friedhoff, Peter; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Targeted genome engineering requires nucleases that introduce a highly specific double-strand break in the genome that is either processed by homology-directed repair in the presence of a homologous repair template or by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) that usually results in insertions or deletions. The error-prone NHEJ can be efficiently suppressed by 'nickases' that produce a single-strand break rather than a double-strand break. Highly specific nickases have been produced by engineering of homing endonucleases and more recently by modifying zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) composed of a zinc finger array and the catalytic domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI. These ZF-nickases work as heterodimers in which one subunit has a catalytically inactive FokI domain. We present two different approaches to engineer highly specific nickases; both rely on the sequence-specific nicking activity of the DNA mismatch repair endonuclease MutH which we fused to a DNA-binding module, either a catalytically inactive variant of the homing endonuclease I-SceI or the DNA-binding domain of the TALE protein AvrBs4. The fusion proteins nick strand specifically a bipartite recognition sequence consisting of the MutH and the I-SceI or TALE recognition sequences, respectively, with a more than 1000-fold preference over a stand-alone MutH site. TALE-MutH is a programmable nickase.

  9. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from melissa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, G; Wagner, H; Bos, R

    1982-10-01

    Different oil-samples of Melissa officinalis L. were analysed by capillary GC/MS, using fused silica columns and E.I.-Mass-spectrometry. Comparing the observed mass-spectra with those of a spectral collection, 70 compounds of the oil were identified. Geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, citronellal, geranyl-acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and beta-caryophyllene-oxide comprise about 96%. The fingerprint of the capillary gas-chromatogramm permitted differentiation of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Nepeta cataria var. citriodora., as well as a standardisation of pharmaceutical preparations containing Melissa oil.

  10. Antioxidant activity of supercritical extract of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Bruno; Porcedda, Silvia; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Deiana, Monica; Dessì, Maria Assunta

    2004-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and of Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora extracts, obtained by using carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions was investigated. The samples were prepared in two steps. A preliminary extraction at 90 bar and 50 degrees C eliminated the essential oil, then a further extraction at 300 bar and 50 degrees C obtained the high molecular mass extract. These samples were tested for autoxidation and the iron or EDTA-mediated oxidation of linoleic acid at 37 degrees C in the absence of solvent, in in vitro systems. During linoleic acid autoxidation and its EDTA-mediated oxidation both M. officinalis and M. inodora extracts showed an antioxidant activity, and no significant differences in their efficacy were observed. None showed any prooxidant activity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice...

  12. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraj, Sepide; Rafieian-Kopaei; Kiani, Sara

    2016-09-11

    Melissa officinalis is a plant cultivated in some parts of Iran. The leaves of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae), are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review article was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L," "antioxidant properties," oxidative stress," "oxidative damage", "ROS." Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes and affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The radical scavenging properties were also investigated in cells and in cell free systems, where this plant was shown to be a good free radical scavenger. The MAO-A bioassay was also performed to detect possible antidepressant activities demonstrating that both extracts inhibited this enzyme, which has a key role in neurotransmitters metabolism. However, no activity was detected in the acetylcholinesterase and GABA assays. In general, the methanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous.

  14. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  15. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Paillé, C.; Lamaze, B.; Rebeyre, P.; Rodriguez, A.; Ordonez, L.; Marty, F.

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA It involves several independent organisations University of Ghent EPAS SCK VITO B University of Clermont Ferrand SHERPA F University Autonoma of Barcelona E University of Guelph CND It is co-funded by ESA the MELISSA partners the Belgian DWTC the Spanish CIRIT and CICYT and the Canadian CRESTech CSA authorities The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food water and oxygen from organic waste inedible biomass CO 2 faeces urea Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem MELISSA process comprises 5 compartments from the anoxygenic fermenter up to the photosynthetic one algae and higher plants The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy During the past 15 years of research and development a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop This approach starts from the selection of processes their characterisation and mathematical modelling the validation of the control strategy up to the

  16. Preliminary approach of the MELiSSA loop energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Lucie; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lebrun, Jean

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require a huge amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen). Current rockets are at the moment unable to launch such a mass from Earth. Consequently Regenerative Life Support Systems are necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. Thus the European and Canadian research has been concentrating on the MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) project over the last 20 years. MELiSSA is an Environmental Controlled Life Support System (ECLSS), i.e. a closed regenerative loop inspired of a lake ecosystem. Using light as a source of energy, MELiSSA's goal is the recovery of food, water and oxygen from CO2 and organic wastes, using microorganisms and higher plants. The architecture of a ECLSS depends widely on the mission scenario. To compare several ECLSS architectures and in order to be able to evaluate them, ESA is developing a multi criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced LIfe Support System Evaluator). One of these criteria is the energy needed to operate the ECLSS. Unlike other criteria like the physical mass, the energy criterion has not been investigated yet and needs hence a detailed analysis. It will consequently be the focus of this study. The main objective of the work presented here is to develop a dynamic tool able to estimate the energy balance for several configurations of the MELiSSA loop. The first step consists in establishing the energy balance using concrete figures from the MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP). This facility located at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) is aimed at the ground demonstration of the MELiSSA loop. The MELiSSA loop is structured on several subsystems; each of them is characterized by supplies, exhausts and process reactions. For the purpose of this study (i.e. a generic tool) the solver EES (Engineering

  17. Isolation and Purification Chemical Compound from Melissa officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study was done on the leaves of Melissa officinalis. The separations of the chemical components were carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic method including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three compounds were isolated and identified as friedoolean-7-one , stigmasterol and betulinic acid.

  18. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  19. Systematics of Vampyressa melissa Thomas, 1926 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species of Vampyressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.

    2014-01-01

    Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.

  20. Amtimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aničić Nada V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis was investigated in this paper. The essential oil was obtained by the principle of water and steam and analyzed by GC and GC-MS using FID and MSD. The main components of the oil of Melissa officinalis were geranial (17.30%, neral (14.70% and citronellal (10.70%. The antimicrobial properties were tested against the following bacterial species: B subtilis, B.cereus Bifidobacterium sp., Corynobacterium sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Listeria monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, P. aerugenosa, S. enteritidis, Shigella sp., S. aureus, and fungi Candida albicans, Alternarija sp. and Aspergillus niger. The diffusion technique was used for testing: the antimicrobial activity, and the MIC was determined by the broth dilution method. The essential oil of M. officinalis showed high antimicrobial activity.

  1. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  2. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect.

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  4. Antidepressant effect of Melissa officinalis in the forced swimming test

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    M Emamghoreishi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: In Iranian and other traditional medicines, an antidepressant effect has been indicated for Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae. However, studies showing its antidepressant effect is lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine whether the aqueous extract and essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis have an antidepressant-like activity in mice.  Materials and Methods: The effect of subchronic administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or water; n=9-10 and the essential oil (10, 25, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg or almond oil; n=9-10 on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test. Fluoxetine (20mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract, used in this study, produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. Essential oil caused a dose-dependent reduction in immobility and an increase in climbing at all studied doses, compared to control group. Only the highest dose (300mg/kg of essential oil showed a significant increase in swimming behavior. The aqueous extract, but not the essential oil, decreased spontaneous activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the Melissa officinalis possess an antidepressant-like activity similar to imipramine which may have a potential clinical value for treatment of depression.

  5. Extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa using microwave and ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa by microwave and ultrasound was studied. In both the microwave and ultrasound extractions, the effects of extraction time (5-20 min for microwave; 5-30 min for ultrasound) and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 g mL-1) on total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated. Effects of different powers (50% and 80%) were also studied for the ultrasound extraction. As a solvent, water was used. In microwave extractions, the highe...

  6. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

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    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress.MethodsWe examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured.ResultsCytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 mug/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05. Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05 and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01. Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and HIF-1alpha mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1alpha gene expression (P<0.05.DiscussionResults showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  7. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

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    Kristina Ramanauskiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h. RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  8. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  9. Melissa officinalis L. extract – an effective remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm is the popular name of Melissa officinalis L. Melissa comes from the Greek word Mélissa meaning honeybee. Within the species were distinguished three subspecies: M. officinalis ssp. altissima Arcangeli, M. officinalis ssp. officinalis, and M. officinalis ssp. indora Boran. These are the plants from Lamiaceae group, native to the Mediterranean, but also widespread distributed in moderate and subtropical climate regions. M. officinalis is commonly used for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and more recently in the treatment of Herpes simplex lesions. Leaves are pharmacopeia material. In the fresh herb a content of balm oil is 0.01-0.10% and in the dried leaves from 0.1% up to 0.3%. The main components of M. officinalis usually are: citronellal (approximately 40% of content of balm oil, citral, neral, linalool, flavonoids, chlorogenic, ferulic, rosmarinic (4% of content of balm oil and caffeic acid. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature date about the application of balm extract and oil in the contemporary medicine. The latest studies showed the evidence that the alcoholic lemon balm leaves extract has antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects. Thus could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia by the activation of receptors PPAR playing the major role in glucose and lipids metabolism. Another importance of the lemon balm leaves extract is its antiviral activity, owes to rosmarinic acid. Melissa extract demonstrates high virucidal activity even at very low concentrations; it demonstrates low toxicity and inhibits HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. The volatile oils included in lemon balm inhibit the replication of HSV-2. Moreover, the rosmarinic acid found out to be cytotoxic against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line. The substance contained in an alcoholic extract from M. officinalis turned out to be anti-proliferative and decrease in cell number neoplasmatic cell

  10. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits attachment of herpes simplex virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis as well as phenolic extract compounds, i.e. caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. When drugs were added to HSV-1-infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed as determined by plaque reduction assay and analysis of expression of viral protein ICP0. However, the Melissa extract demonstrated a high virucidal activity against HSV-1, even at very low concentrations of 1.5 μg/ml, whereas similar results for phenolic compounds were only achieved at 100 times higher concentrations. Besides the virucidal activity, the Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that rosmarinic acid was the main contributor to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. However, the selectivity index of Melissa extract of 875 against HSV is superior to the selectivity indices of single constituents. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity, is virucidal and affects HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Allyne Carvalho; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2004-05-01

    Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent.

  13. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    Higher plants play an important role in closed ecological life support systems as oxygen pro-ducers, carbon dioxide and water recyclers, and as a food source. For an integration of higher plant chambers into the MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) loop, a detailed characterization and optimization of the full food production and preparation chain is needed. This implies the prediction and control of the nutritional quality of the final products consumed by the crew, the prediction of the wastes quality and quantity produced along the chain for further waste treatment (MELiSSA waste treatment) and the optimization of overall efficiencies. To reach this goal several issues have to be studied in an integrated manner: the physiological responses of crops to a range of environmental parameters, crop yield efficiencies and respective ratio and composition of edible and inedible biomass, the processability and storability of the produced food and last but not least composition of wastes in view of further degradation (fiber content). Within the Food Characterization (FC) project several compar-ative plant growth bench tests were carried out to obtain preliminary data regarding these aspects. Four pre-selected cultivars of each of the four energy-rich crops with worldwide usage -wheat, durum wheat, potato and soybean -were grown under well-characterized environmental conditions. The different cultivars of each species are screened for their performance in view of a closed loop application by parameter ranking. This comprises the characterization of edi-ble/inedible biomass ratio, nutritional quality, processability and overall performance under the specific conditions of hydroponic cultivation and artificial illumination. A second closely linked goal of the FC project is to develop a mechanistic physiological plant model, which will ease the integration of higher plants compartments in the MELiSSA concept by virtue of its predictive abilities

  14. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-05-01

    Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes.

  16. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility: Objectives and Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gødia, F.; Pérez, J.; Albiol, J.; Lasseur, C.; Lamaze, B.; Ordónez, L.

    MELiSSA Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for long-term manned missions i e planetary base For its study and implementation the MELiSSA loop has been divided in five interconnected compartments organized in three different loops solid liquid and gas This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility an ESA External Laboratory located at Universitat Aut o noma of Barcelona has been conceived to achieve a preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale using animals as a model to substitute the crew The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space In order to fulfill this challenging objective a number of steps have to be covered from the individual design of each compartment to the continuous operation of the complete loop with all compartments interconnected operating in sterile conditions in controlled conditions and in a biosafe manner A new site for the MELISSA Pilot Plant facility has been recently completed to host the final integration of the complete loop The contribution will cover the general design aspects of the loop including the current state of the different compartments and their interconnection with solid liquid and gas loops and the future plans of how these different elements will be integrated to achieve the final

  17. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  18. Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.

  19. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  20. Biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract on balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoo Abdolrasool

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melissa officinalis is usually used as antispasmodic, antiaxiety and antibacterial agent. However, its toxicity has not been evaluated, yet. In this study biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated in balb/C mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 21 balb/C male mice were randomly designated to three equal groups. Group I was treated with normal saline and groups II and III were respectively treated with 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg, hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinals daily for two weeks, intraperitoneally. Then on 15th day of the experiment, blood samples were obtained from the heart. The blood was centrifuged and then the sera were evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine, using autoanalyzer and commercial kits. The liver and kidney tissues were also hystopathologically evaluated. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc test, and Kruskal-Wallis at a significance level of p<0.05. Results: Melissa officinals dose dependently caused a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, Melissa officinals extract had no effect on the amount of urea and creatinine compared to the control group. The liver and kidney histopathological changes in the groups that received different doses of the extract showed mild, moderate, and severe tissue injuries. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis in this study indicates that the extract of Melissa officinals causes liver tissue damage in mice; therefore, its consumption in high doses should be avoided.

  1. The influence of the harvest cut height on the quality of the herbal drugs Melissae folium and Melissae herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrlianová, Mária; Tekel'ová, Daniela; Felklová, Melanie; Reinöhl, Vilém; Tóth, Jaroslav

    2002-02-01

    Variability in both the content and quality of essential oil was observed in herb and leaf drugs in dependence on the harvest cut height of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. cv. Citra). Three different cuts were carried out on the respective plants. The oil content in the herb was highest in the top third (0.13 % V/m), satisfactory in the herb including both the top and middle thirds (0.08 % V/m) and lowest in the whole herb (0.06 % V/m). The oil content in the leaves of the respective herbs was in the range 0.39 % - 0.14 % V/m (top third part - whole aerial part). The percentage of citrals, linalool and beta-caryophyllene in essential oil decreased in the basipetal direction, whilst the amounts of beta-caryophyllene oxide and citronellal increased in the same direction. Citrals (A and B): 55.79 % in the top third part of the herb, 48.46 % in the whole herb, 59.74 % and 56.87 % in the leaves from that parts, respectively. Similarly, beta-caryophyllene: 5.01 %, 3.87 %, 6.97 %, 5.13 %; beta-caryophyllene oxide: 17.19 %, 24.07 %, 15.64 %, 17.82 %; citronellal: 2.73 %, 5.51 %, 2.82 %, 6.44 %.

  2. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Flowering biology and nectary structure of Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. covered flowering biology, monitoring of pollinating insects and floral nectary structure. The micromorphology of epidermal cells of the nectary was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The nectariferous tissues were observed using light microscopy based on semi-thin sections. Lemon balm flowered from the second decade of June until September. Buds opened from early morning hours until noon. Flowers lived for 24 hours, on the average. Their primary pollinator was the honey bee. The beginning of nectar secretion was found to be at the bud swell stage. The automorphic nectary forms a disc with four protrusions at the base of the nectary. Three smaller ones and one larger than the other ones were distinguished among them. No stomata were found on the lower protuberances, whereas on the highest part anomocytic stomata were present, the number of which was 15. The stomata exhibited different development stages and they were situated above other epidermal cells. In their outline, they were ellipsoidally shaped (18 × 23 µm and they had average-sized cuticular ledges. They produced a smooth cuticle and wax granules. In cross section, the nectary tissues were composed of a singlelayered epidermis and 9 - 11 layers of the nectary parenchyma. Their thickness was 198 µm. In longitudinal section, the height of the nectary was within a range of 354 - 404 µm. The epidermal cells produced thin outer cell walls. Some of them were completely filled with strongly stained cytoplasm, whereas others showed a high degree of vacuolisation. But the nectary parenchyma cells were marked by poorly stained cytoplasm, a large nucleus and vacuolisation of varying degree.

  4. A Comparative Study on Essential Oil Intraspecific and Seasonal Variations: Melissa romana Mill. and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Marianna; Atzei, Aldo Domenico; Marchetti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover, we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one obtained from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are the long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes, and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, M. romana recalls in its composition M. officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants, and among essential oils distilled in different seasons. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  5. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl; Hossein Ghahremani, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2012-10-03

    Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (PMelissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (PMelissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and HIF-1α mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1α gene expression (PMelissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  6. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

  7. Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar;

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes...

  8. On the differences between Danais Limniace, Cram. and Danais melissa Cram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1914-01-01

    In „The Rhopalocera of Java”, Danaidae, Satyridae, Ragadidae and Elymniadae by M. C. Piepers and P. C. T. Snellen (the Hague, H. Nyhoff, 1913) I have found on page 80, that D. melissa Cram. should be synonymous with D. limniace Cram. On the same page one read: „The forms of this species (limniace Cr

  9. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  10. Produção de biomassa e do rendimento do óleo essencial de melissa em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com mil-folhas e alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soares Brandão

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção da biomassa e o rendimento de óleo essencial da melissa, quando em cultivo solteiro e consorciada com mil-folhas e alface. Os tratamentos consistiram em melissa em cultivo solteiro, melissa em consórcio com mil-folhas, melissa consorciada com alface, mil-folhas e alface em cultivo solteiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram avaliados o teor e o rendimento do óleo essencial da melissa e a matéria fresca e a matéria seca da parte aérea de todas as espécies. Notou-se, a partir dos valores das médias, que o cultivo consorciado de melissa com alface proporcionou maior rendimento de óleo essencial, matéria fresca e matéria seca. Os menores valores de todas as variáveis foram observados no cultivo solteiro da melissa. Considerando o Uso Eficiente da Terra (UET, o cultivo consorciado da mil-folhas e da alface com a melissa gerou bons rendimentos de biomassa das plantas, pois os valores calculados para as espécies foram superiores a 1,0. O cultivo consorciado das espécies não interferiu significativamente no teor do óleo essencial da melissa.

  11. Esterco bovino e biofertilizante no cultivo de erva-cidreira-verdadeira (Melissa officinalis L. Cattle manure and biofertilizer on the cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A importância fitoterápica e, consequentemente, econômica da Melissa officinalis tem contribuído para expansão do cultivo. O óleo essencial das folhas é formado por constituintes químicos que podem ser largamente empregados na indústria farmacêutica por possuírem atividades antioxidativa, antivirótica e sedativa. Assim sendo, objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de combinações de doses de adubação orgânica com biofertilizante comercial e esterco bovino no cultivo de Melissa officinalis. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de biofertilizante orgânico (Vitassolo® e esterco bovino, sendo estes de 0, 30.000, 60.000 e 90.000 L ha-1. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados no fatorial 4x4, com 3 repetições. As características avaliadas foram altura de planta, rendimento de folha, teor e rendimento de óleo essencial. As maiores doses de esterco bovino resultaram em um maior desenvolvimento das plantas, em relação às mesmas doses do biofertilizante.The phytotherapic and economic importance of Melissa officinalis has contributed to its cultivation expansion. The essential oil of leaves is composed of chemical constituents, which can be largely employed in the pharmaceutical industry due to their antioxidant, antivirotic and sedative activities. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of level combination of organic fertilization with commercial biofertilizer and cattle manure on Melissa officinalis cultivation. Treatments constituted of four levels of organic biofertilizer (Vitassolo® and cattle manure at 0; 30,000; 60,000 and 90,000 L ha-1. Experimental design was in randomized blocks, in split plot 4X4 factorial arrangement, with three replicates. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, leaf yield, essential oil content and yield. The highest cattle manure levels resulted in higher plant development, compared with the same

  12. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  13. Mechanical properties and total hydroxycinnamic derivative release of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis extract films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Mello Rechia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four films were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa officinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the film reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades mecânicas e o mecanismo de liberação de um sistema tópico de liberação prolongada para o tratamento do Herpes labial a partir de filmes de amido/glicerol/extrato de Melissa officinalis, planta com comprovada atividade antiviral. Foram obtidos quatro filmes poliméricos com diferentes concentrações de amido, glicerol e extrato de Melissa officinalis os quais foram caracterizados mecanicamente e determinado o perfil de liberação de derivados hidroxicinâmicos. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da concentração de glicerol no filme produz uma redução no módulo de elasticidade e na tensão de deformação como conseqüência do efeito plastificante. O aumento no volume livre do polímero resultou em aumento da liberação dos derivados hidroxicinâmicos expressos como ácido rosmarínico.

  14. Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA -Literature Review and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodina, Marina; Kittang, Ann-Iren; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Aase Wolff, Silje; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The human exploration of space requires the development of closed life support systems to regenerate oxygen, purify water, and produce food. MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a model system for advanced life support based on different microbial species and higher plants. The main objective of the LiRHiPliSMe (Literature Review of Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA) project was to elaborate the preliminary roadmap for higher plant research activities for the MELiSSA project Phase 2 (Preliminary Space Experiments). The first task was to establish an understanding of the current knowledge concerning how higher plant will adapt to Moon/Mars physical factors different from Earth with focus on reduced gravity, space radiation, variations in magnetic field and combined effects of these factors. The literature related to how Moon/Mars physical factors can affect genetic processes, growth regulators, development, morphology, water and nutrients transport, gas exchange and metabolism of higher plants during one life cycle were collected. The possible effects of the space environment on the plant role as a food and on the mass balance in a Life Support System that includes a Higher Plant Compartment are reviewed. Based on this literature review there was made an assessment of where new or extended scientific knowledge about space factors effects on higher plant growth and development is needed. The requirements for research activities on higher plants in enclosed life support systems were identified. The required higher plant research activities for MELiSSA phase 2 both on ground and in space were placed in a timescale from the present until higher plants can be grown in closed life support systems on Moon and Mars.

  15. THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEMON BALM (Melissa officinalis L.), ITS COMPONENTS AND USING FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    BAHTİYARCA BAĞDAT, Reyhan; Coşge, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), member of Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) family, is one of the important medicinal plant species. Today, it is used in different branches of industry (such as medicine, perfume, cosmetic, and food etc.) in many countries of the world. The main components of lemon balm essential oil, ranged from 0.01 to 0.25%, are 39% citronellal, 33% citral (citronellol, linalool) and geraniol. It is traditionally used as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent...

  16. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  17. Neuroprotective properties of melissa officinalis L. Extract against ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Akbari, Mohammad; Shokri, Saeed; Ghahremani, Mohammadhosein; Amin, Gholamreza; Kashani, Iraj; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Melissa officinalis, a major antioxidant plant, against neuron toxicity in hippocampal primary culture induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, one of the most abused drugs, which causes neurotoxicity. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess mitochondrial activity, reflecting cell survival. Caspase-3 activity assay and Hoechst / propiedium iodide (PI) staining were done to show apoptotic cell death. A high dose of ecstasy caused profound mitochondrial dysfunction, around 40% less than the control value, and increased apoptotic neuronal death to around 35% more than the control value in hippocampal neuronal culture. Co-treatment with Melissa officinalis significantly reversed these damages to around 15% and 20% respectively of the MDMA alone group, and provided protection against MDMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurons. Melissa officinalis has revealed neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by MDMA in the primary neurons of hippocampal culture, which could be due to its free radical scavenging properties and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effects.

  18. Adubação orgânica e mineral em melissa Organic and mineral fertilization in lemon balm

    OpenAIRE

    Sodré,Ana Carolina B; Lenita L Haber; José Magno Q Luz; Márcia OM Marques; Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    A melissa (Melissa officinalis) é uma planta medicinal comumente usada como calmante e ingerida na forma de chá. Para otimizar sua produção, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de esterco bovino, com relação ao fertilizante mineral na produção de biomassa foliar e teor de óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Uberlândia e no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. O delineamento estatístico foi de blocos casualisados com seis tratamentos (0,...

  19. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  20. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  1. [The content and quality of Melissa officinalis essential oil after application of Rastim 30 DKV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverková, S; Hollá, M; Takeĺ, J

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the content and quality of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis in various leaf insertions in the course of the ontogenetic development of the plant. The quality of the drug after the administration of the preparation Rastin 30 DKV in the form of granules was not changed in comparison with control samples. The experimental work, subsequent analysis of samples, and evaluation of results led to conclusions important from the viewpoint of significant changes in the content and composition of the essential oil taking place in the plant in the course of the vegetation period.

  2. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K

    2003-07-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO.

  3. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  4. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cassettari de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE (250 or 500 mg/kg or aqueous (Mo-AE (100 mg/kg solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance.

  5. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăncianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gille, Elvira; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is used in traditional medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, gastric conditions, psychiatric conditions, migraines, hypertension and bronchial conditions. Natural essential oils (mixtures of fragrant chemical) obtained from various parts of plants are efficient active antimicrobial agents. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents selects resistant bacterial strains, which seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of lack of susceptibility to synthetic antibiotics that is associated with therapeutic failures. In this work, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from romanian Melissa officinalis were determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon balm oil by comparison with lavender essential oil, which is also utilised for its antimicrobial properties in folk medicine. The most important identified compounds, well known for their antimicrobial effects were citral (neral and geranial) (16.10%), citronellal (3.76%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.57%).The lemon balm oil sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains. The both oil samples tested has shown a high activity against Candida albicans. The gram-negative bacteria were not affected by the lemon balm oil.

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis, S. fruticosa, Melissa officinalis, and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couladis Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried leaves of commercially available Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Melissa officinalis were divided into two parts; the first part was subjected to hydrodistillation and the second part was used for the preparation of the infusions. The essential oil and the infusion of each sample were subjected to analysis by means of GC-FID and GC-MS. The oxygenated monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (27.5% and camphor (11.5% appeared as the most important metabolites in Salvia officinalis, α- and β-thujone (16.5%, 16.4%, followed by 1,8-cineole (8.8% were characterizing the essential oil of Salvia fruticosa, whereas in the oil of Melissa officinalis the sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide (14.9% was the most abundant constituent, followed by geranial (12.2%, neral (11.2% and citronellal (6.7%. The infusions were characterized by the higher levels of the most important compounds found in the essential oil of the respective sample, as in the case of S. officinalis (1,8-cineol 53.6%, camphor 25.8% and S. fruticosa (α- thujone 61.2%, β-thujone 24.3%, 1,8-cineole 14.5%, while the infusion of M. officinalis was dominated by palmitic and stearic acid (25.5%, 19.5%.

  7. [Comparison of the quality of Melissa officinalis L. cultivar Citra with Mellissas of European origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrlianová, M; Tekel'ová, D; Felklová, M; Tóth, J; Musil, P; Grancai, D

    2001-11-01

    Within two vegetation periods, melissas from 17 European regions and the inland cultivar Citra were examined. Melissas differed in height, foliage, and essential oil content. In the cultivating conditions under study, two collections were possible in one year. In both experimental years at the stage just before blooming, or at the onset of blooming, plants 60-80 cm in height prevailed in the set. The share of leaves in the tops was 35-70%. In the second repeated harvest, plants with newly formed sprouts reached a height of 15-35 cm and had the best foliage (60-95%). The essential oil content in the leaves at the stage just prior to blooming, or at the onset of blooming, ranged from 0.06 to 0.16% (V/m), and the maximal essential oil content was in the plants from the second harvest (0.09-0.45%). The cultivar Citra was characterized by medium height (75-80 cm), stable values of foliage (1st harvest 55-60%, 2nd harvest 70-80%), and essential oil content (1st harvest 0.13%, 2nd harvest 0.23-0.27%).

  8. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  9. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  10. Composition of Volatile Oil and Methanolic Extract of Jordanian Melissa Officinals L. and Actions Againsthuman Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem A. Barakat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Jordanian MelissaofficinalisL. were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. Components representing 96.40% of the total oil were identified. The methanolic extract and the volatile oil of Melissa officinalisL, were tested and showed anti-proliferation activities against 3 cancer cell lines.

  11. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  12. Produção de mudas, altura e intervalo de corte em melissa Seedling production, cutting height and harvest interval in Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie F. Blank

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de recipientes e composições de substratos na produção de mudas e da altura e intervalo de cortes na produção de melissa (Melissa officinalis L. em estufa agrícola. No ensaio de mudas empregou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, com três repetições, onde se avaliou cinco composições de vermicomposto (V e esterco bovino (E (nas proporções 1V:0E, 2V:1E, 1V:1E, 1V:2E e 0V:1E e quatro concentrações das composições no pó-de-coco (0; 20; 40 e 60%. No ensaio de altura e intervalo de corte utilizou-se o delineamento blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com três repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Nas parcelas foram colocados os quatro intervalos de colheita (8; 9; 10 e 11 semanas após a primeira colheita e nas subparcelas altura de corte (5 e 10 cm. No ensaio de mudas a presença de vermicomposto nos substratos resultou em mudas vigorosas. Quando se usou 60% de vermicomposto e 40% de pó de coco observou-se maior sistema radicular, seguido pelo substrato 26,7% de vermicomposto, 13,3% de esterco bovino e 60% de pó de coco, que também proporcionou mudas mais altas. No ensaio de altura e intervalo de corte, o corte a 5 cm de altura diminuiu a sobrevivência de plantas rebrotadas e não influenciou o peso seco de folha por planta. A colheita da rebrota pode ser feita 11 semanas após o primeiro corte.The effect of recipients and substrate compositions was evaluated on seedling production, the height of cutting and harvest interval on the production of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse. For the transplants trial a randomized experimental design in factorial scheme 5 x 4 with three replications was used. Five compositions of vermicompost (V and bovine manure (B (1V:0B; 2V:1B; 1V:1B; 1V:2B; 0V:1B and four concentrations of the compositions mixed with coconut dust (0; 20; 40; 60%. For the harvest interval essay a

  13. Comparison of melissa with citalopram and placebo in treatment of sleep disorders in menopausal women: clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Shirazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different treatment used for resolving menopausal problems. Some studies assayed effectiveness of citalopram but it had some side effects and other studies about medicinal plants in Iran, including Melissa (combination of officinalis and foeniculum vulgare showed improvement insomnia and anxiety. This study decided to assay effectiveness of this drug and comparison with placebo and citalopram in treatment of sleep disturbance of menopausal women. Methods: Sixty postmenopausal women suffering from sleep disturbances that referred to Yas hospital between 2011-2013 were recruited to this double blind controlled study with 8 weeks’ follow-up period. They were randomized in three groups of twenty patients each, group A: received Melissa 600 mg that made by traditional medical school, group B: received citalopram 20 mg from Arya company that increased to 30 mg after one week and group C: received placebo. The patients were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire before and after treatment, also we checked the side effects of every drugs. Study was dissertation of one of the author with code 22263. This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Grant. This study was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with code of IRCT2013072714174N1. Results: Pittsburgh sleep quality index improved significantly in all groups, there was significant differences between Melissa group and two other group, but there wasn’t significance difference between citalopram and placebo group, there was a trend in favor of Melissa versus citalopram and placebo. All of seven field of PSQI improved significantly in all groups that showed improvement of sleep quality in all field of sleep disturbance. Conclusion: Melissa (compound of officinalis and foeniculum vulgare may be recommended for the treatment of sleep disturbances in postmenopausal women. Although further investigation with

  14. Comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of the species known as lemongrass (limonotu): Melissa officinalis L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Aloysia citriodora Palau.

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akalın, Yeter Yeşil,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae), Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae) and Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) leaves have a gentle lemon-scented essential oil, contains citral or citronellal and are called the Lemongrass in Turkey. This similarity causes the use of plants for the same purposes despite the presence of different families and different morphological and anatomical structure. Instead of Melissa officinalis, which grows naturally in our country, Aloysia citriodora samples are sold...

  15. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  16. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation.

  18. Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family with a long story of human consumption. It has been consumed for decades, directly in food and as a decoction or an infusion for its medicinal purposes. In this manuscript, a detailed chemical characterization of the decoction of this plant is described, encompassing antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid A were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Quinic acid, fructose, glucose and γ-tocopherol were the most abundant within their groups of molecules. M. officinalis decoctions were active against a wide range of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, and Penicillium funiculosum being the most sensitive bacteria and fungi, respectively. The growth inhibition of different human tumor cell lines (mainly MCF-7 and HepG2) was also observed, as also high free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. This manuscript highlights some beneficial effects of these functional beverages.

  19. Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

    1992-12-01

    The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected.

  20. Melissa L. Anderson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association/American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. The 2012 winner is Melissa L. Anderson for her ongoing commitment to understanding, treating, and preventing domestic violence in Deaf women and underserved populations in general. Anderson is passionate in her efforts to study the factors underlying violence toward women and in applying psychological science to intervene in and prevent such abuse. She is dedicated to improving the quality of life and well-being of underserved women and ensuring that services and programs become accessible to them. Anderson's Award citation is also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Little, Wendy; Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-02-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) have been used both traditionally and contemporaneously as mild sedatives, anxiolytics and hypnotics. Recent research has suggested that both may attenuate laboratory induced stress. As the two herbs are most often sold in combination with each other the current study assessed the anxiolytic properties of such a combination during laboratory-induced stress. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced cross-over experiment, 24 healthy volunteers received three separate single doses (600 mg, 1200 mg, 1800 mg) of a standardized product containing M. officinalis and V. officinalis extracts, plus a placebo, on separate days separated by a 7 day wash out period. Modulation of mood and anxiety were assessed during pre-dose and 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-dose completions of a 20 min version of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) battery. Cognitive performance on the four concurrent tasks of the battery was also assessed. The results showed that the 600 mg dose of the combination ameliorated the negative effects of the DISS on ratings of anxiety. However, the highest dose (1800 mg) showed an increase in anxiety that was less marked but which reached significance during one testing session. In addition, all three doses led to decrements in performance on the Stroop task module within the battery, and the two lower doses led to decrements on the overall score generated on the DISS battery. These results suggest that a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis possesses anxiolytic properties that deserve further investigation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (Pofficinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, Pofficinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  4. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extract...

  5. Simulation of the MELiSSA closed loop system as a tool to define its integration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poughon, L.; Farges, B.; Dussap, C. G.; Godia, F.; Lasseur, C.

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by a terrestrial ecosystem, Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is a project focused on a closed-loop life support system intended for future long-term manned missions (Moon and Mars bases). Started by the ESA in 1989, this 5-compartment concept has evolved through a mechanistic engineering approach designed to acquire both theoretical and technical knowledge. In its current state of development, the project can now start to demonstrate the MELiSSA loop concept at pilot scale. Thus, an integration strategy for a MELiSSA Pilot Plant (MPP) has been defined, describing the different test phases and connections between compartments. The integration steps are due to be started in 2008 and completed with a complete operational loop in 2015. The ultimate objective is to achieve a closed liquid and gas loop fulfiling 100% of oxygen requirements and at least 20% of food requirements for one-man. Although the integration logic could start with the most advanced processes in terms of knowledge and hardware development, this logic needs to be expanded to encompass a high-level simulation policy. This simulation exercise will make it possible to run effective demonstrations of each independent process, followed by progressive coupling with other processes in operational conditions mirroring as far as possible the final configuration. The theoretical approach described in this paper is based on mass balance models of each MELiSSA compartment which are used to simulate each integration step and the complete MPP loop itself. These simulations will help identify criticalities in each integration step and check consistency between objectives, flows, recycling efficiencies and sizing of the pilot reactors. An MPP scenario compatible with current knowledge on the operation of the pilot reactors was investigated, and the theoretical performances of the system were compared against the objectives assigned to the MPP. This scenario makes it possible to

  6. Dynamic aspects and controllability of the MELiSSA project: a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Bérangère; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA is an integrated sum of interconnected biological subsystems. On one hand, all unit operations in charge of the elementary functions constitutive of the entire life support system are studied until a thorough understanding and mathematical modelling. On the other hand, the systemic approach of complex, highly branched systems with feedback loops is performed. This leads to study in the same perspective, with the same degree of accuracy and with the same language, waste degradation, water recycling, atmosphere revitalisation and food production systems prior to the integration of knowledge-based control models. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the MELiSSA system and the interface between the control strategy of the entire system and the control of the bioreactors.

  7. Investigation between Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil Melissa Officinalis L. New in Growth Inhibition of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Therapy of plant is not any side effects and drug resustant for inhibition of disease in world. In this study, antimicrobial effects of Melissa officinalis L. ethanol exteract and essential oil on E. coli have been investigated. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, diameter of inhibitory zone of these materials was measured in disk agar diffusion method. Therefore, Melissa officinalisL. ethanolic exteract (80% and essential oil have been supplied. Then, antimicrobial activity these substances next for 24 hour for ethanol extraction 80% concentration 50 to 1000 mg/mL and essential oil concentration with 3% to 100% has been considered. Also, comparison of mean diameter of inhibitory zone between treatment and control groups of ANOVA has been used.Results: Results of these investigations were shown that extract ethanol Melissa officinalis L. was any inhibitory effect on E. coli growth 24 hour after of treatment. Also, diameter of inhibitory zone for 100% essential oil have been 33.2±0.13mm in E. coli that has been increased in comparison control groups significantly (p=0.001. This inhibitory effects was more than cefixime and cefteriaxone (p=0.00, p=0.01.Conclusion: These found were shown that this plant prevents growth of E. coli In vitro condition. This essential oil could be suggested as antimicrobial agents for inhibition of bacterial diseases in human.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  10. The influence of quorum sensing in compartment II of the MELiSSA loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Sandra; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) has been conceived as a 5 compartments microorganisms and higher plants recycling system for long haul space flights. Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H colonizes compartment II. Previous work reported that continuous culture of the bacterium in a photobioreactor could lead to thick biofilm formation, leading to bioreactor arrest. Our aim is to investigate the unknown quorum sensing (QS) system of R. rubrum S1H, specifically under MELiSSA relevant culture conditions meaning light anaerobic (LAN) and using acetate as carbon source. In that purpose an autoinducer synthase gene (Rru_A3396) knockout mutant was constructed by allelic exchange generating strain M68. In addition phenotypic comparison between wild type (WT) and M68 was performed. Results of thin layer chromatography assay where Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 have been used as reporter strain showed that WT produces acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) from C4 to C12 acyl carbon chain length; however, in M68 no AHLs were detected confirming that gene Rru_A3396 (named rruI) encodes an autoinducer synthase. Interestingly under a low shear or static environment M68 showed cell aggregation similar as reported in a closely related bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (cerI mutant). In contrast to WT, M68 did not form biofilm and exhibited a decreased motility and pigment content. M68 vs wild type transcriptomics results showed that 326 genes were statistically significant differentially expressed. Downregulation of genes related to photosynthesis e.g., reaction center subunits, light harvesting complex and photosynthetic assembly proteins was observed. Similar results were obtained for preliminary proteomic analysis. Results obtained showed that in R. rubrum S1H the AHL-based QS system regulates almost 8% of the genome which is linked to biofilm formation among other biological processes described above. Since strain M68 could not be used in compartment II due to its less

  11. The Effects of Medicinal Plants of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems in women, especially in young women. Although dysmenorrhea is not life threatening , it can have ad-verse effect on quality of life and cause disability or ineffectiveness. With regard to the young society suffering from it, various treatments are offered for dysmenorrhea one of which is medicinal plants. This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea Materials & Methods: This study was a clinical trial study performed on 50 girls with dys-menorrheal taking Salvia officinalis as infusion for five days before menstruation and five days during the menstruation. The consumption of the plants was repeated in the next two periods in the same way. Severity of pain, blooding duration and dysmenorrhea duration were evaluated with VAS (Visual Analog Scale Questionnaire in their next two cycles. Data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test and WILCOXON statistical test. Results: The results of this study showed that after using the plants, pain severity and pain duration significantly reduced P<0.01so that pain severity decreased from 6.30 to 3.94 and 3.24, (on a scale of 1 to 10 after taking the plants in the first and second periods ,respectively. The maximum pain duration before the treatment was 1 to 6 h (28.6% and this number reduced to less than 1 h after using these medicinal plants (38.0%. Mean of blooding duration was 6.36 days before the treatment. After the first and second duration, this value reached 6.48 and 6.34 days, respectively. It was determined that taking oral seda-tives reduced from 56% to 26% and 22% after the first and second periods, respectively. Fi-nally, after the second period, 42% of the girls reported high rates of satisfaction because of using the medicinal plants. Conclusion: Generally, it was showed that Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis signifi-cantly reduced pain severity and pain

  12. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. METHODS: Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001, 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016, and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001. The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser

  13. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  14. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Young Park

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2 and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  15. Antinociceptive and antihyperglycemic effects of Melissa officinalis essential oil in an experimental model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Riahi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oral administration of Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) on hyperalgesia was investigated using the formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into control, MOEO-treated control (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 mg/day), diabetic and MOEO-treated diabetic (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 mg/day) groups. Nociceptive testing was performed on male adult Wistar rats 4 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia. At the end of the experiment, all rats were weighed and plasma glucose measurements were performed. Diabetes was associated with significant hyperalgesia during both phases of the formalin test. MOEO (0.04 mg/day) completely reversed hyperalgesia in diabetic rats, while MOEO (0.02 and 0.04 mg/day) caused less intensive nociceptive behaviors during both phases of the test in control rats. MOEO at both high doses restored euglycemia and reduced the body weight of treated diabetic animals compared to untreated diabetic animals. The 0.01-mg dose of MOEO did not alter pain responses in the control or diabetic groups compared to their respective controls. This study shows that chronic administration of MOEO displays efficacy in an experimental model of diabetic hyperalgesia. MOEO may therefore show promise as a treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

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    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

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    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL. PMID:26417300

  18. Monitoring of phenolic compounds for the quality control of Melissa officinalis products by capillary electrophoresis.

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    Acosta, Gimena; Arce, Silvia; Martínez, Luis D; Llabot, Juan; Gomez, María R

    2012-01-01

    Official assays for the quality control of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) leaves establish the quantification of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid. The goal of this work was to develop a simple, fast and reliable method for monitoring the phenolic composition in herbs from the Lamiaceae family and for rapidly detecting M. officinalis adulteration or substitution in commercial medicinal samples in Argentina. A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was performed under the following conditions: the background electrolyte (BGE) consisted of 20 m m sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.2; the applied voltage was 25 kV; the capillary and sample temperatures were kept at 25 °C; the hydrodynamic mode was selected for the sample injection (3.45 kPa during 5 s). A CZE method that achieved the separation and simultaneous determination of eight related phenolic compounds in less than 11 min was optimised for application to control quality analysis of M. officinalis-based products. The method was validated according to the US Federal Drug Agency requirements and offers advantages in terms of analysis time, cost and operation. The proposed methodology can be applied to the standardisation and quality control of plant material and phytopharmaceutical products derived from the Lamiaceae family, as indicated by the results obtained in the analysis of commercial medicinal products in Argentina. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.

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    Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

    2012-06-01

    Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05).

  20. Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2011-05-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melissa officinalis grown under in vitro condition

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    Saba Pirtarighat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To evaluate the biosynthesis of Ag NPs using plant extract of Melissa officinalis (at the eight leaf stage grown under in vitro (controlled condition for the first time.Materials and Methods: Biosynthesis of Ag NPs using plant extract was carried out and formation of Ag NPs confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The functional groups of compounds adsorbed on the Ag NPs were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscop (FTIR studies. The antibacterial activity of the Ag NPs was investigated by agar disc diffusion method.Results: The plant extract showed color change in extract from yellow to brown after formation of Ag NPs. The surface Plasmon resonance found at 450 nm confirmed the formation of Ag NPs. FESEM images revealed relatively spherical- shaped of Ag NPs. The biosynthesized Ag NPs were crystalline in nature with mean diameter about 34.64 nm. FTIR results expounded the functional groups of plant extract responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions and their interaction between them. The obtained nanoparticles showed good inhibitory activity against the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.Conclusion: These results suggested that with changes in plants culture condition it may be possible to obtain nanoparticles with desired characteristics.

  2. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns.

  3. Combined Administration of Melissa officinalis and Boswellia serrata Extracts in an Animal Model of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Takht Firozeh, Sayyed Mehdi; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Tamtaji, Omid Reza

    2016-09-01

    Boswellia serrata and Melissa officinalis is traditionally used for its memory enhancing effects. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of combined form of these extracts on memory improvement of scopolamine treated rats by the Morris water maze method. Two groups (group 1 and 2) of animals were pretreated with combined extracts of B. serrata and M. officinalis (200, 400 mg/Kg body weight) for four weeks and then, 30 minutes before starting the experiment scopolamine was injected (0.1 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pretreated animals. The control group was the animals that were injected by scopolamine and pre treated with distilled water (group 3). The normal group was treated with distilled water alone (group 4). For time spent and distance, there was no substantial difference between groups 1, 2 and 4, while they had statistical difference with group 3 (P = 0.001). The spatial memory evaluation showed no significant difference between treated groups and normal group. Therefore, the combination of the two extracts had the ability to improve memory as its traditional use.

  4. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration.

  5. Can Ozone Alter the Terpenoid Composition and Membrane Integrity of in vitro Melissa officinalis Shoots?

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    D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Pistelli, Luisa; Pistelli, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Ozone affects volatile organic compounds that protect plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In vitro Melissa officinalis shoots were exposed to ozone (200 ppb, 3 h) in controlled environmental conditions: leaf pigments, membrane integrity and headspace composition were assayed during fumigation and after the recovery period (3 h from the beginning of the exposure, FBE). At the end of the exposure, no injury was observed in untreated and treated shoots, although an evident increase in lipid peroxidation was reported (+38.5 and +37.2% of TBARS levels in comparison with controls, respectively after 1 and 3 h FBE). The levels of total carotenoids significantly rose as a normal response mechanism to oxidative stress. SPME-GS-MS analysis showed that, as a consequence of the fumigation, the trends in non-terpenoid compounds increased after 1 and 3 h FBE. This suggests that the concentration and the duration of the treatment were enough to cause a breakdown of cells (as evidenced by increased TBARS levels) and involves an association between volatile products of the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products) and membrane degradation.

  6. Signaling molecules and cell death in Melissa officinalis plants exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Trivellini, Alice; Campanella, Alessandra; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina; Vernieri, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    The study focuses on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and hormones that regulate the programmed cell death in plants of Melissa officinalis exposed to ozone. Interaction between hormone and redox signaling pathways has been investigated in ozone-stressed (200 ppb, 5 h) lemon balm to verify if the response resembles the biotic defense reactions. In comparison to controls, plants exhibited foliar injury and the cell death was induced by (1) biphasic production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical; (2) hormonal regulation of ozone-induced lesion formation with a significant production of ethylene, salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acid; (3) ozone degradation to reactive oxygen species and their detoxification by some enzymatic (such as superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems (such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids), that worked in cooperation without providing a defense against free radicals (such as confirmed by the modification of the antioxidant properties of leaf tissue). This integrated view showed that reactive oxygen species interact with hormonal signaling pathway regulating cell death and the sensitivity of lemon balm to ozone.

  7. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

    2011-11-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 μg/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 μg/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 μg/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h).

  9. Antitumoral effects of Melissa officinalis on breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraydin, Serpil Unver; Tuncer, Ersin; Tepe, Bektaş; Karadayi, Sule; Özer, Hatice; Şen, Metin; Karadayi, Kursat; Inan, Deniz; Elagöz, Şahande; Polat, Zübeyde; Duman, Mustafa; Turan, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    There is a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Here we investigated the antiproliferative properties of Melissa officinalis (MO) from Turkey on breast cancer. MO extracts were studied for cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). In vitro apoptosis studies were performed by annexin V staining and flow cytometry analyses. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and caspase 7 in the tumoral tissue sections of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats was also performed, along with TUNEL assays to detect apoptotic cells. In vivo anticancer activity testing was carried out with reference to inhibition of growth of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats. MO showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, inducing increase in Annexin-positive cells. Expression of caspase-7 protein and TUNEL positive cells were much higher in rats treated by MO, compared with the untreated control group, while expression of Ki-67 was decreased. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that mean tumor volume inhibition ratio in MO treated group was 40% compared with the untreated rats. These results indicated that MO extrcts have antitumoral potential against breast cancer.

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  11. Growth and production of essential oil of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

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    Ernane Ronie Martins

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis in the climatic conditions of Montes Claros – MG. The experiment was conducted from May to November 2009. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with four treatments and five repetitions. In the first analysis, the effect of harvesting time on the biomass and essential oil was evaluated. In the second analysis, the production of biomass and essential oil after 30 days of harvest of the previous study was evaluated. The data were submitted to regression analysis using the software SAEG. From the results, the first cut at 33 days, increased the percentage of dry matter, and the best time of production of the Lemon Balm’s essential oil occurred during regrowth, 30 days after the first harvest of the younger plant. This study concluded that the early harvest in the conditions of northern Minas Gerais favors the production of biomass and feature content of essential oil similar to other crops.

  12. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

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    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  13. Reduction of Adipose Tissue Mass by the Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Melissa officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Young; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Lee, Hee Suk; Park, Eun Kyu; Hahm, Jong Cheon; Kim, Jin Woo; Shin, Soon Shik; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. This study was undertaken to determine whether ALS-L1023 (ALS) prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from Melissa leaves, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity, can regulate adipose tissue growth. The effects of ALS on angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling were measured using in vitro assays. The effects of ALS on adipose tissue growth were investigated in high fat diet-induced obese mice. ALS inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and suppressed matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vitro. Compared to obese control mice, administration of ALS to obese mice reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size without affecting appetite. ALS treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. ALS reduced the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas ALS increased the mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. The protein levels of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also decreased by ALS in adipose tissue. Metabolic changes in plasma lipids, liver triglycerides, and hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation genes occurred during ALS-induced weight loss. These results suggest that ALS, which has antiangiogenic and MMP inhibitory activities, reduces adipose tissue mass in nutritionally obese mice, demonstrating that adipose tissue growth can be regulated by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovic, Marina; Simin, Natasa

    2004-05-05

    The present study describes antimicrobial and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) together with the effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) of Melissa officinalis essential oil. The chemical profile of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of essential oil on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. The effect on LP was evaluated following the activities on Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The examined essential oil exhibited very strong RSC, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50) = 7.58 microg/mL) and OH radical generation (IC(50) = 1.74 microg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. According to the GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene aldehydes and ketones (neral/geranial, citronellal, isomenthone, and menthone) and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (E-caryophyllene). Very strong inhibition of LP, particularly in the Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system of induction (94.59% for 2.13 microg/mL), was observed in both cases, also in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed on a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity was exhibited on Trichophyton species.

  16. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

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    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  17. Understanding Recent Home-Birth Research: An Interview With Drs. Melissa Cheyney and Jonathan Snowden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In the past month, two new studies have been released-one in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM; Snowden et al., 2015) and the other in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (Hutton et al., 2015)-comparing out-of-hospital birth outcomes to hospital birth outcomes. These studies join a growing body of literature that consistently shows high rates of obstetric intervention in hospitals and also show low risk to neonates regardless of setting. However, the recent NEJM study found a small but statistically significant increase in risk for perinatal mortality for babies born out of hospital. Jeanette McCulloch of BirthSwell (http://www.birthswell.com) interviews Melissa Cheyney, PhD, CPM, LDM, medical anthropologist, chair of the Midwives Alliance Division of Research, and lead author on the largest study of outcomes for planned home births in the United States to date (Cheyney et al., 2014a), and Jonathan Snowden, PhD, epidemiologist and assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and School of Public Health at Oregon Health and Science University. Snowden is also the lead author of the recent NEJM study.

  18. Variation of essential oil composition of Melissa officinalis L. leaves during different stages of plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keivan Saeb; Sara Gholamrezaee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best time of harvest for Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) L. to gain highest amounts essential oil.Methods: M. officinalis leaves were harvested in three different stages (before flowering stage, flowering stage and after of flowering stage) and were dried. The essential oils were isolated by hydro- distillation and analyzed by GC/MS.Results: It showed that most essential oils of plants were in before flowering stage. In before flowering stage 37 compounds were identified in leaves oil of M.officinalis. The major components before flowering stage were decadienal (29.38%), geraniol (25.3%), caryophyllene oxide (8.75%), geranyl acetate (5.41%). In the flowering stage 36 compounds were identified as the major components of plant essential oils: decadienal (28.04%), geraniol (24.97%), caryophyllene oxide (7.55%), caryophyllene E (4.65%) and 16 components in the after flowering stage of plant were identified as the major components carvacrol (37.62%), methyl citronellate (32.34%), geranyl acetate (5.82%), caryophyllene (5.50%).Conclusions: The essential oils yields vary considerably from month-to-month and is also influenced by the micro-environment (sun or shade) in which the plant is growing. We found that the essential oil content of M. officinalis L. of leaves is significantly affected by harvesting stages.

  19. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  20. "Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae"

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    "MA Oshaghi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L. Burm.F., (lemon and Melissa officinalis, (balm were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05 against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference between Deet and lemon oil, whereas the difference between lemon and melissa oils was significant. Relative efficacy of lemon oil to Deet was 0.88 whereas it was 0.71 for melissa oil. The results were found marginally superior in repellency for animals than human. Due to advantages of botanic compounds to synthetic compounds we recommend lemon essential oil as an effective alternative to Deet with potential as a means of personal protection against mosquito vectors of disease.

  1. The Comparison Effect of Nanocopper Particles and Melissa Officinalis Essential Oil on Growth Inhibition of Escherichia Coli and Streptococcus Mutans

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    Naghsh, N. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: the plants with the less side effects and drug resistance have been used worldwide. In this study, we compared the inhibitory effects of nanocopper and essential oil of Melissa officinalis.La on E.coli and S.mutans in In Vitro condition. Material and Methods: for studying diameter of inhibitory zone, disk agar diffusion method was used. Then, antibacterial effects of these substances were evaluated by treating them for 24 hours in Nanocopper particles (concentration of 100 and 500 ppm and essential oil (12.5% to 100%, and analyzed by ANOVA. Results: twenty-four hours after treatment, nanocopper had no inhibitory effect on these bacteria. However, the diameter of inhibitory zone for E.coli and S.mutans was 31.30±0.13mm and 16.30±0.13mm, respectively. There was not any synergistic effect between different concentrations of this plant and 500ppm of nanocopper after 24 hours of treatment on E.coli. But for S. Mutans, the diameter of inhibitory zone for mixture of 50% & 25% essential oil and 500ppm concentration of nanocupper was increased significantly compared to only essential oil (p=0.001,p=0.01. Conclusion: based on the findings, nanocopper particles and essential oil of Melissa officinalis L.a have not any synergic effects on E.coli, but with some concentrations of this plant the reverse is true on S.mutans. Keywords: Essential Oil of Melissa Officinalis, Nanocopper Particles, E.Coli, S.Mutans

  2. Einfluss von Umweltbedingungen und Entwicklungsstadium auf Ertragsparameter und sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe von Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L.

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    Russo, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Um die Qualität von Arznei- und Gewürzpflanzen langfristig sichern zu können, ist eine genauere Kenntnis der sie beeinflussenden Faktoren von Interesse. Am Beispiel der Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L. wurden in zwei Feldversuchen an unterschiedlichen Standorten die Einflüsse der Faktoren Lichtintensität, Sorte und Erntezeitpunkt auf Ertragsparameter sowie sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe untersucht. Es konnten teilweise deutliche Effekte der unterschiedlichen Lichtbedingungen auf die Gesamtphenole und die antioxidative Kapazität beobachtet werden, die zum Teil signifikanten Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Prüffaktoren unterlagen.

  3. DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

    2012-04-27

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm.

  4. Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile, cytotoxic and anti-kinetoplastidae activity of Melissa officinalis.

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    Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson

    2016-09-01

    Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50  value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value  = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value  = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50  value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities.

  6. Anti Proliferative Properties of Melissa officinalis in Different Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanban-Esfahlan, Akram; Modaeinama, Sina; Abasi, Mozhgan; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants, especially examples rich in polyphenolic compounds, have been suggested to be chemopreventive on account of their antioxidative properties. Melissa officinalis L. (MO), an aromatic and medicinal plant, is well known in thios context. However, toxicity against cancer cells has not been fully studied. Here, we investigated the selective anticancer effects of an MO extract (MOE) in different human cancer cells. a hydro-alcoholic extract of MO was prepared and total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined by colorimetric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity. MTT assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity of different doses of MOE (0, 5, 20, 100, 250, 500, 1000 μg/ml) towards A549 (lung non small cell cancer cells), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), SKOV3 (ovarian cancer cells), and PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma) cells. Significant (P<0.01) or very significant (P<0.0001) differences were observed in comparison to negative controls at all tested doses (5-1000 μg/ml). In all cancer cells, MOE reduced the cell viability to values below 33%, even at the lowest doses. In all cases, IC50 values were below 5μg/ml. The mean growth inhibition was 73.1%, 86.7%, 79.9% and 77.8% in SKOV3, MCF-7 and PC-3 and A549 cells, respectively. Our results indicate that a hydro-alcoholic extract of MO possess a high potency to inhibit proliferation of different tumor cells in a dose independent manner, suggesting that an optimal biological dose is more important than a maximally tolerated one. Moreover, the antiprolifreative effect of MO seems to be tumor type specific, as hormone dependant cancers were more sensitive to antitumoral effects of MOE.

  7. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  8. Melissa offiinalis effiacy against human inflenza virus (New H1N1 in comparison with oseltamivir

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    Parvane Jalali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (MO extract against the influenza virus H1N1 in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity of MO extract was identified on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell culture by MTT assay. The virus was inoculated to the cells (multiplicity of infection = 0.1 in two protocols. In protocol 1, the MO extracts at concentrations of 0.005, 0.050, 0.010, 0.100 and 0.500 mg/mL were incubated with the virus for one hour preinoculation. In protocol 2, the mentioned concentrations of MO extracts were added to the cells one-hour post infection. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of oseltamivir with different concentrations was tested as the positive controls. The 50% tissue culture infective dose, neutralizing index and hemagglutination titer were determined. Results: The medicine oseltamivir and MO extracts were not toxic for MDCK at concentrations less than 1 mg/mL. All utilized concentrations of MO extracts were vigorously efficient to decrease the viral yield in both experiments. The 50% tissue culture infective dose of the groups containing up to 0.100 mg/mL of MO extracts in the first experiment in compare with 0.050 mg/mL in the second experiment reduced to 0. Although hemagglutination tests showed little titers, the viral quantity significantly decreased in both experiments. By the way, the medicine oseltamivir could completely suppress viral replication in MDCK. Conclusions: The present study suggests that MO extracts have a potent anti-influenza effect in cell culture.

  9. Comparative analysis of the aroma chemicals of Melissa officinalis using hydrodistillation and HS-SPME techniques

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    Shakeel-u- Rehman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS has been used for the chemical analysis of Melissa officinalis (leaves cultivated in Institute Germplasm. The HS-SPME analysis led to the identification of 22 components constituting 99.1% of the total volatile constituents present in the leaves whereas its hydrodistillate led to the identification of 24 volatile constituents constituting 98.1% of the volatile material. The chemical composition of the SPME and hydrodistilled extract of M. officinalis leaves comprised mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (78.5% and 57.8% respectively and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (14.9% and 29.7% respectively. The major components identified in the HS-SPME extract were citronellal (31.1%, citronellol (18.3%, β-caryophyllene (12.0%, (E-citral (11.9%, (Z-citral (9.6%, geraniol (3.6%, (Z-β-ocimene (3.1% and 1-octen-3-ol (2.0% whereas hydrodistilled essential oil was rich in (Z-citral (19.6%, β-caryophyllene (13.2%, (E-citral (11.2%, citronellal (10.2%, germacrene-d (8.3%, δ-3-carene (5.0%, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (3.7% and citronellyl acetate (3.7%. The comparative analysis of volatile constituents of M. officinalis leaf extract using HS-SPME and hydrodistillation techniques shows both qualitative as well as quantitative differences. The current study is the first report involving rapid analysis of volatile components of M. officinalis by HS-SPME.

  10. The Relationship Between Ants and Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Elizabeth G; Thiet, Rachel K

    2016-04-22

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a federally listed, endangered species that has experienced dramatic decline over its historic range. In surviving populations, Karner blue butterflies have a facultative mutualism with ants that could be critically important to their survival where their populations are threatened by habitat loss or disturbance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ants, wild blue lupine population status (native or restored), and fire on adult Karner blue butterfly abundance at the Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA. Ant frequency (the number of times we collected each ant species in our pitfall traps) was higher in restored than native lupine treatments regardless of burn status during both Karner blue butterfly broods, and the trend was statistically significant during the second brood. We observed a positive relationship between adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency during the first brood, particularly on native lupine, regardless of burn treatment. During the second brood, adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency were not significantly correlated in any treatments or their combinations. Our findings suggest that a combination of native and restored lupine is important for supporting both Karner blue butterflies and ants at the Concord Pine Barrens, and that burning does not affect the mutualism. Thus, scientists and managers at the site may wish to target their habitat management activities to best support both Karner blue butterflies and the particular ant species that provide the greatest benefit to their survival. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. "High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2011-08-01

    A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ω-3 PUFAs content, especially α-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ω-6/ω-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O₂/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O₂/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  13. Coadministration of Dexamethasone and Melissa officinalis Has Neuroprotective Effects in Rat Animal Model with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah; Kaka, Gholamreza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Mansoori, Korosh; Mohammadi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes inflammation, deformity and cell loss. It has been shown that Melissa officinalis (MO), as herbal medicine, and dexamethasone (DEX) are useful in the prevention of various neurological diseases. The present study evaluated combinational effects of DEX and MO on spinal cord injury. Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were used in this experimental study. The weight-drop contusion method was employed to induce spinal cord injury in rats. DEX and MO were administrated alone and together in different treatment groups. Intra-muscular injection of DEX (1 mg/kg) was started three hours after injury and continued once a day for seven days after injury. Intra-peritoneal (I.P) injection of MO (150 mg/ kg) was started one day after injury and continued once a day for 14 days. Our results showed motor and sensory functions were improved significantly in the group received a combination of DEX and MO, compared to spinal cord injury group. Mean cavity area was decreased and loss of lower motor neurons and astrogliosis in the ventral horn of spinal cord was significantly prevented in the group received combination of DEX and Melissa officinalis, compared to spinal cord injury group. Furthermore, the findings showed a significant augmentation of electromyography (EMG) recruitment index, increase of myelin diameter, and up-regulation of myelin basic protein in the treated group with combination of DEX and MO. Results showed that combination of DEX and MO could be considered as a neuroprotective agent in spinal cord injury.

  14. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L-a randomized controlled clinical trial.

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    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one's teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip(®) test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism.

  15. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L—a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one’s teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip® test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism. PMID:27134350

  16. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, S; Noroozian, M; Mohammadi, M; Ohadinia, S; Jamshidi, A; Khani, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of Melissa officinalis extract using a fixed dose (60 drops/day) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Design: A four month, parallel group, placebo controlled trial undertaken in three centres in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease aged between 65 and 80 years (n = 42; 18 women, 24 men) with a score of ≥ 12 on the cognitive subscale of Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS-cog) and ≤ 2 on the clinical dementia rating (CDR) were randomised to placebo or fixed dose of Melissa officinalis extract. The main efficacy measures were the change in the ADAS-cog and CDR-SB scores compared with baseline. Side effects were systematically recorded. Results: At four months, Melissa officinalis extract produced a significantly better outcome on cognitive function than placebo (ADAS-cog: df = 1, F = 6.93, p = 0.01; CDR: df = 1, F = 16.87, p Melissa officinalis extract is of value in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and has a positive effect on agitation in such patients. PMID:12810768

  17. Evaluating the Protective Effects of Melissa Officinalis on Learning Deficits of Rat’s Offspring Exposed to Lead Acetate During Pre- and Postnatal Periods

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    Z Momeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Lead contamination dramatically influences different body systems especially the central nervous system. Lead absorption during gestational period has deleterious effects on fetal differentiation and development and it may possibly result in learning deficits in adulthood. Recent studies have demonstrated positive effects of Melissa officinalis on memory improvement in some neural disorders. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Melissa on learning deficits in lead acetate exposed rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study in department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (2008-2009, 40 mated Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups as follows: control, negative control (Pb, Melissa (M and Pb+M, and each in 3 different subgroups. The treatment started from the 7th day of gestation and continued during pregnancy and lactation. The learning ability and memory retention of four months old offspring were tested by complex T-maze. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA and Toki test. Results: A significant difference was found between lead exposed group and other groups regarding the time to reach the goal and the number of errors while there was no meaningful difference between the control and other experimental groups. Conclusion: In lead exposed rats, learning deficits were obviously noticed. Since there was meaningful difference between control and Pb+M subgroups, Melissa can possibly improve learning deficits in lead acetate exposed rats.

  18. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-07-21

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders

  19. The Effects of Methanolic Extract of Melissa officinalis on Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Arezoo; Abbasloo, Elham; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Yazdanpanah, Mahnaz; Mirkamandari, Ehsan; Sheibani, Vahid; Safi, Zohreh

    2016-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO) has potent antioxidant activity. Recent research has demonstrated the anti-ulcer properties of some medicinal plants through their antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of MO on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were starved for 24 hours prior to the induction of gastric ulceration by either indomethacin (48 mg/kg/oral) or water immersion restraint (WIR) stress. Experimental rats received either ranitidine (25 mg/kg) or MO extract (150, 300 and 450mg/kg) orally 2 hours prior to WIR stress or indomethacin treatment, for the evaluation of their gastroprotective effects. The control group received the same volume of saline. Gastric lesions were scored according to the surface of lesions on the ulcer index. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were determined as measures of antioxidant defense, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined to measure tissue oxidation. MO extract (150 and 300 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ulcer index in both the indomethacin (1.3 ± 0.09 and 1.5 ± 0.19, respectively) and WIR stress groups (1.5 ± 0.17 and 1.5 ± 0.22, respectively), as compared to the control rats (2.5 ± 0.28) (P 0.05). Also, MO extract (150 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced MDA serum levels (0.69 ± 0.6 µmol/L and 0.85 ± 0.24 µmol/L, respectively, vs. 4.5 ± 1.9 µmol/L in the saline group) and significantly increased antioxidants' SOD activities (296.3 ± 146.4 U/mL and 561.4 ± 120 U/mL, respectively, vs. 190.2 ± 63.8U/mL in the control group) and GPX levels (8273 ± 3049 U/mL and 14574 ± 5012 U/mL, respectively), compared to the control (3236 ± 1699 U/mL). Our results showed that MO extract may have a gastroprotective effect against experimental gastric ulcers in rats. The exact mechanism has not yet been determined, but it may be due to enhancing enzymatic antioxidant defenses and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  20. Diferentes concentrações de solução nutritiva para o cultivo de Mentha piperita e Melissa officinalis Mentha piperita (peppermint and Melissa officinalis (balm development in different concentrations of nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita L. Haber

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento das espécies de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares Mentha piperita (hortelã-pimenta e Melissa officinalis (melissa em diversas concentrações de solução nutritiva em sistema hidropônico NFT. Os experimentos foram implementados em ambiente protegido sendo as espécies semeadas em espuma fenólica com dimensões de 2,5x2,5x3 cm, com 3 sementes por cubo, irrigadas diariamente com água até a germinação e, posteriormente com solução nutritiva diluída em 50%. Após 15 dias para a melissa e 16 dias para a hortelã-pimenta, as mudas foram transferidas para as bancadas de desenvolvimento onde receberam solução nutritiva diluída em 75% por 12 dias, sendo as mudas posteriormente transplantadas para as bancadas de cultivo onde foram submetidas às concentrações da solução nutritiva até o momento da colheita. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. As concentrações da solução nutritiva (I 50%, II 75%, III 100%, IV 125% foram sorteadas nas parcelas e nas subparcelas avaliando-se o efeito da posição das plantas nos perfis hidropônicos (I - inicial, II - intermediária e III - final, totalizando 12 tratamentos, para cada espécie. Cada posição continha 5 conjuntos de plantas sendo utilizadas 3 repetições por tratamento. Foram avaliados a altura das plantas, número de folhas e brotos, peso fresco e seco, tanto da parte aérea quanto de raiz. Com relação à posição das plantas nos perfis, foi observada interação significativa entre os tratamentos para número de folhas e peso seco para menta e melissa, respectivamente, onde a posição inicial revelou ser o melhor tratamento. Ainda para melissa foi observada diferença significativa entre as posições para altura das plantas, peso fresco de raiz e peso fresco e seco de folhas, com a posição inicial tendo os maiores valores, apesar de não diferir significativamente

  1. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  2. Effect of Time of Harvesting on Yield and Quality of Melissa Officinalis L. in Doon Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Chauhan, N. K.; Lohani, H.; Sah, S.; Yadav, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

  3. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  4. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sevik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L, and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  6. Effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of melissa officinalis L. In doon valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Chauhan, N K; Lohani, H; Sah, S; Yadav, R K

    2014-09-01

    A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %).

  7. Adubação orgânica e mineral em melissa Organic and mineral fertilization in lemon balm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B Sodré

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A melissa (Melissa officinalis é uma planta medicinal comumente usada como calmante e ingerida na forma de chá. Para otimizar sua produção, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de esterco bovino, com relação ao fertilizante mineral na produção de biomassa foliar e teor de óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Uberlândia e no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. O delineamento estatístico foi de blocos casualisados com seis tratamentos (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg m-2 de esterco bovino e 30 g m-2 de NPK 4-14-8, em quatro repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação em equipamento tipo Clevenger modificado. As doses de esterco bovino influenciaram a altura de plantas, massa fresca total e massa seca foliar por planta e por hectare. As duas formas de adubação foram superiores à testemunha para praticamente todas as variáveis, exceto em relação ao comprimento e largura foliar, teor de óleo na matéria seca e fresca foliar. Conclui-se que a melissa responde à adubação orgânica com esterco bovino e adubação mineral para produção de biomassa.Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant commonly used as a sedative and ingested as a tea. Studies on agricultural practices are required to optimize its yield. To optimize its production, this study evaluated the effect of different doses of organic fertilizer (cow manure in comparison to mineral fertilizer on biomass production and essential oil yield. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and at the Agronomic Institute of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg m-2 of manure and 30 g m-2 of NPK 4-14-8, and four replications. Hydro-distillation was done with a modified Clevenger distiller for essential oil extraction. Cattle manure influenced plant height, total fresh

  8. Composition of the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and evaluation of skin irritation in a reconstituted human epidermis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencherini, Teresa; Picerno, Patrizia; Russo, Paola; Meloni, Marisa; Aquino, Rita

    2009-08-01

    The composition of a centrifuged product obtained from the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and skin irritation in the reconstituted human epidermis (Episkin model) have been investigated in comparison to the EtOH-H(2)O (1:1) extract obtained by Soxhlet from the dried plant. Two new sulfated triterpenes (1 and 2) and two ionol derivatives have been isolated for the first time from Melissa officinalis together with caffeic and rosmarinic acids. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Both the centrifuged material and its major constituents neither affected cell viability nor caused the release of pro-inflammatory mediators or the decrease of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the reconstituted human epidermis.

  9. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE MODOS DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE FITOTERÁPICOS A BASE DE MELISSA OFFICINALIS – UMA DISCUSSÃO FARMACOCINÉTICA

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    Guilherme Nobre L. do Nascimento, Dr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Melissa officinalisL. (Lamiaceae presents high levels of phenolic compounds that have a serie of biological effects, as anti-inflammatory that inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase and inhibition of Cytochromes P450. Due to his biological effects, it is in evidence in diverse studies. They are present in vegetables and in diverse forms in our food, like tea and herbal capsules. The objective this study was to compare the difference in availability of active molecules from medicinal plants in two different forms of use, capsules and tea. After simulation in vitro of gastric digestion, the total phenolic compounds were determined employing a spectrophotometric method Folin-Ciocalteau. We obtained higher values of total phenols in the digestion of capsules than in Melissa officinalis. It indicates that probably the capsules presents more availability of active ingredients that infusions. It is worth mentioning the need for further studies to compare the total phenol content of Melissa officinalisinfusions, as well as the use of other plants to verify the best use of medicinal plants.

  10. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.

  11. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p insomnia by 42% (p insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers.

  12. Melissa officinalis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in colon cancer cells through formation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C; Rousseau, M; Plauth, A; Wowro, S J; Fischer, C; Abdel-Aziz, H; Sauer, S

    2015-02-15

    Efficient strategies for the prevention of colon cancer are extensively being explored, including dietary intervention and the development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Safe extracts of edible plants contain structurally diverse molecules that can effectively interfere with multi-factorial diseases such as colon cancer. In this study, we describe the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of ethanolic lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves extract in human colon carcinoma cells. We further investigated the role of extra- and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antitumor effects of lemon balm extract (LBE) were investigated in HT-29 and T84 human colon carcinoma cells. Inhibition of proliferation was analyzed by DNA quantification. The causal cell cycle arrest was determined by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells and by immunoblotting of cell cycle regulator proteins. To investigate apoptosis, cleavage of caspases 3 and 7 was detected by immunoblotting and fluorescence microscopy. Phosphatidylserine externalization was measured by Annexin V assays. Mechanistic insights were gained by measurement of ROS using the indicator dyes CM-H2DCFDA and Cell ROX Green. After 3 and 4 days of treatment, LBE inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 and T84 colon carcinoma cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 346 and 120 µg/ml, respectively. Antiproliferative effects were associated with a G2/M cell cycle arrest and reduced protein expression of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 2, 4, 6, cyclin D3, and induced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18) and 1A (p21). LBE (600 µg/ml) induced cleavage of caspases 3 and 7 and phosphatidylserine externalization. LBE-induced apoptosis was further associated with formation of ROS, whereas quenching of ROS by antioxidants completely rescued the colon carcinoma cells from LBE-induced apoptosis. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) extract inhibits the proliferation of colon carcinoma cells and

  13. Crescimento, produção de fitomassa e teor de óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L. sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth, biomass production and essential oil content of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Meira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a variação no teor de óleo essencial, crescimento e produção de fitomassa de Melissa officinalis L. cultivada sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso (DIC com quatro níveis de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA, luz plena (testemunha e sombreamento progressivo com tela tipo sombrite (sombreamento de 75, 50 e 25% e seis repetições. Foram avaliados: diâmetro do caule, altura da planta, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, teor do óleo essencial, rendimento de óleo e área foliar. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e análise de regressão a 1 e 5% de probabilidade de erro. As características, diâmetro do caule e altura da planta, não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. A produção de massa fresca, massa seca e o teor de óleo essencial, foram similares entre todos os tratamentos diferenciando apenas do tratamento em pleno sol, onde (MF: 25%=50%, 91, 33 g e 68, 66 g; (MS: 25%=0%=50%, 11,35, 11,66, 10,66 g e 4,33 g e TO: 25%=50%, 0,48 e 0,40% respectivamente. O tratamento que resultou em menor produtividade foi o sombreado a 75%. Assim, nas condições norte-mineiras, de fevereiro a junho, o cultivo da melissa pode ser conduzido em condições de até 50% de sombreamento, favorecendo a produção de massa seca, massa fresca e teor de óleo essencial; sendo estas variáveis de interesse comercial pelos produtores de plantas medicinais e aromáticas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in essential oil content, growth and biomass production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under different shading levels. Experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with four levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, full light (control and progressive shading with shade net (shading of 75, 50 and 25% and six replicates. The following parameters were assessed: stem diameter, plant height, fresh

  14. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-05-05

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  15. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje A. Wolff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  16. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Safaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs under oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 . Cells were incubated with H 2 O 2 (0.5 mM, 2 h after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 µg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 µg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity , this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  17. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (pofficinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD.

  18. Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-04-01

    The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose.

  19. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Leila; Sajjadi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Montazeri, Hossein; Samani, Fariba

    2016-10-01

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cells were incubated with H2O2 (0.5 mM, 2 h) after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 μg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 μg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H2O2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity, this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  20. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melissa officinalis Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats and Potentiates Its Anticancer Activity on MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin Ahmed; Ahmed, Mahguob Mohamed; Elwey, Hanan Mohamed; Amin, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a limiting factor of doxorubicin (DOX)-based anticancer therapy. Due to its beneficial effects, we investigated whether standardized extract of Melissa officinalis (MO) can attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and can potentiate the efficacy of DOX against human breast cancer cells. MO was administered orally to male albino rats once daily for 10 consecutive days at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt. DOX (15 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) was administered on the 8th day. MO protected against DOX-induced leakage of cardiac enzymes and histopathological changes. MO ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by decreasing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and total oxidant capacity depletion and by increasing antioxidant capacity. Additionally, MO pretreatment inhibited inflammatory responses to DOX by decreasing the expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 and the activity of myeloperoxidase. MO ameliorated DOX-induced apoptotic tissue damage in heart of rats. In vitro study showed that MO augmented the anticancer efficacy of DOX in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and potentiated oxidative damage and apoptosis. Thus, combination of DOX and MO may prove future cancer treatment protocols safer and more efficient.

  2. Effect of Melissa officinalis Capsule on the Intensity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms in High School Girl Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dehghani, Mansoore; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Tavakoli, Pouran; Zare, Najaf

    2015-06-01

    Several studies are conducted on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). However, a few herbal surveys exist on the treatment of PMS in Iran. Due to the sedative effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), this question comes to mind that "can it be used in the treatment of PMS symptoms?" The current study aimed to assess the effect of M. officinalis capsule on the intensity of PMS in high-school girls. A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 100 high school girls from 2013 to 2014. The intervention group (n = 50) received 1200 mg of M. officinalis essence daily from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycle for three consecutive cycles. The second group (n = 50) received the placebo. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool was used to assess the intensity of PMS symptoms in the two groups before and one, two, and three months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. The results of repeated measures test revealed a significant reduction (P officinalis capsules were effective in reduction of the PMS symptoms. Yet, application of this medication requires further investigations.

  3. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Adefunmilayo E; Leite, Franco B; Lucena, Greice M; Barros, Marilia; Silveira, Dâmaris; Silva, Mônica V; Ferreira, Vania M

    2012-03-01

    To analyse the behavioral effects of Melissa officinalis extract in rats following acute or subacute treatment. The behavioral effects of an acute or subacute (10-day course) orally administered M. officinalis (MO; 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg) ethanol extract were evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. The effects of diazepam (DZP; 1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FXT; 10 mg/kg) were also assessed. In the EPM test, the percentage of open arm entries and open arm times of both males and females given the subacute M. officinalis ethanol extract were significantly higher than those of the vehicle-treated animals but were at levels similar to those observed in the DZP group, regardless of the treatment length. In the FS test, immobility duration was significantly lower in both males and females treated with the plant extract when compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. A 10-day treatment with FXT induced the same antidepressant response, regardless of gender, and was more effective than the M. officinalis extract. Male and female rats demonstrated distinct gender profiles, and treatment × gender interactions were observed. Locomotion in the EPM and OF tests was not significantly altered by treatments. The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length.

  4. Effect of water supply on growth and polyphenols of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh-Zámbori, Éva; Pluhár, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Krisztina; Malekzadeh, Mahmoud; Radácsi, Péter; Inotai, Katalin; Komáromi, Bonifác; Seidler-Lozykowska, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    A pot experiment was carried out with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Different water supply was applied: 25%, 40% and 70% saturation of soil water capacity (SWC). Morphological traits, biomass and phenolic type active ingredients were investigated. Among the two species, main differences were registered in biomass and TPC. Lower SWC resulted in reduced biomass production of lemon balm, while the applied stress treatments did not effect the biomass of thyme. In lemon balm, highest TPC contents were measured in control plants both in shoots and roots but in thyme, the shoots showed a significantly increased TPC at the 25% SWC conditions. Neither the content of total flavonoids nor that of the rosmarinic acid was affected by the treatments. The antioxidant capacity proved to be in tight connection with the TPC in both species (r = 0.766-0.883). The rosmarinic acid content of lemon balm plants contributed to the antioxidant capacity, as well (r = 0.679-0.869).

  5. Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Rasekh, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Liver is one of the most sensitive tissues to oxidant damage. Hence, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of Melissa officinalis (MO) extract and Atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups (n=10). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a fatty diet while other groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of MO, at minimum (25 mg/kg), moderate (50 mg/kg), and maximum (75 mg/kg) doses (i.p.). The last group received Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) through gavage with a fatty diet over a 21-day period. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), activity of liver enzymes as well as cholesterol in the samples were measured. Results: The obtained results showed that the activity of liver enzymes in the treatment groups receiving MO extract and the group receiving Atorvastatin decreased significantly. MO extract reduced the level of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies for obtaining a better understanding of the mechanism of effect of MO for treating liver diseases are recommended. PMID:25050297

  6. Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66 ± 4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04 ± 0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells.

  7. Phytochemistry of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. growing wild in Morocco: preventive approach against nosocomial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zineb; Jalal; Yassine; El; Atki; Badiaa; Lyoussi; Abdelfattah; Abdellaoui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Melissa oi cinalis essential oil against bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections.Methods: The phytochemical characterization of essential oil was evaluated using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Antibacterial activity of the oil was tested against four bacterial strains responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter koseri using disc dif usion method.Results: Thirty three components were identified representing 89.30% of the total oil composition. The yield of essential oil was 0.4% and the predominant components were citronellal(14.40%), isogeraniol(6.40%), geraniol acetate(10.20%), nerol acetate(5.10%), caryophyllene(8.10%) and β-caryophyllene oxide(11.00%). Antibacterial activity of the oil showed the higher activity against all bacterial strains tested.Conclusions: The essential oil extracted from lemon balm can be used to clean the environment of reanimation polyvalent and anesthesia service.

  8. Movement patterns and population characteristics of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Randy L.; Kwilosz, John R.; Grundel, Ralph

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a three-year mark-release-recapture study of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore to describe the butterfly's movement patterns and to assess seasonal changes in the Karner blue's population structure. Estimated mean Karner blue adult life span was less than 3.5 days. Populations exhibited protandry and about a 2:1 male:female sex ratio at population peak within a brood. Ranges, or maximum distances moved by individual butterflies, were typically less than 100 m. Maximum ranges were less than 1 km. These distances are similar to those reported for other lycaenid butterflies and from other studies of the Karner blue in the midwestern United States. At two sites, fewer than 2% of adults had ranges greater than 300 m, while at a third site 4.3% of adults had ranges greater than 300 m. Given typical subpopulation sizes these movement percentages suggest that few adults per generation will move between subpopulations separated by more than 300 m. Movement of individuals between subpopulation sites is important for maintaining genetic diversity within a metapopulation and for recolonizing areas following local extinctions. Therefore, prudent conservation planning should aim for a landscape with habitat patches suitable for Karner blue butterfly occupancy separated by less than 300 m.

  9. Alelopatia do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas do manjericão "Maria Bonita" na germinação de alface, tomate e melissa Allelopathy of aqueous extract and essential oil of leaves from basil "Maria Bonita" on lettuce, tomato and melissa germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D.S. Rosado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso e do óleo essencial de folhas frescas de Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' no índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de germinação da alface (Lactuca sativa L., de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., e de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. Os extratos foram obtidos pela trituração das folhas frescas e o óleo essencial extraído por hidrodestilação das folhas durante 90 min. Foram utilizadas duas formas de aplicação, extrato aquoso e óleo essencial, cinco concentrações (0,0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1,0% v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, com 25 sementes de cada espécie por placa, totalizando 25 parcelas para cada espécie. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos aquosos de manjericão apresentaram efeito significativo apenas para o índice de velocidade de germinação das sementes de tomate e para comprimento de raízes da alface e da melissa. O óleo essencial do manjericão apresentou potencialidades alelopáticas inibitórias em sementes de alface, de tomate e de melissa afetando o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento das raízes e a porcentagem de germinação.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract and essential oil of fresh leaves from Ocimum basilicum L. 'Maria Bonita' on germination velocity index, root length and germination percentage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., and melissa (Melissa officinalis L.. The extracts were obtained by grounding fresh leaves and the essential oil was extracted through hydrodistillation of the leaves during 90 min. Two application forms were used, aqueous extract and essential oil, five concentrations (0.0; 0.001; 0.01; 0.1 and 1.0% v/v, in completely randomized design, with five replicates including 25 seeds of each species per plot

  10. Negative Chronotropic and Antidysrhythmic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Dianat, Mahin; Radan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, myocardial infarction leads to arrhythmia. Since antioxidant agents have an important protective role in heart disease, these compounds in medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine. Lemon balm extract, compared to other plants of the lamiaceae family, has been proven to have significant amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rats. This research is an experimental study; male adult Sprague Dawley rats that weighed 200-250 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., 1) control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg/day), 2) extract (100 mg/kg), and 3) extract (200 mg/kg). The normal saline and the extracts were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. After anesthesia, lead II electrocardiograms were recorded for calculating the rats' heart rates (HRs). Arrhythmia was induced by intravenous injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg), and the percentages of incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and ventricular premature beats (VPB) were recorded. The results were analyzed by using Fisher's exact test and one-way ANOVA. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant level. Heart rates and percentages of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF were reduced significantly in extract groups (with the highest activity at 200 mg/kg) in comparison with the control group. Melissa officinalis was considered to be an antiarrhythmic agent because it reduced the percentage of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF in the groups that received it. The results indicated that Melissa officinalis had a protective effect on the heart.

  11. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

    2010-01-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils.

  12. Efecto del aceite esencial de Melissa oficinalis l. “toronjil” y meditación mindfulness en niveles de ansiedad estado y ansiedad

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Vásquez, Marilú Roxana; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Alvarado García, Paul Alan Arkin; Rosales Cerquín, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la aromaterapia en base al aceite esencial de Melissa oficinalis L. y la meditación mindfulness en los niveles de ansiedad de voluntarios humanos. Para este fin se realizó un estudio experimental con mediciones pre test y post test, en una muestra de 52 participantes, divididos aleatoriamente en  un grupo control, a cuyos integrantes se les mantuvo en lista de espera, y tres grupos experimentales; siendo el primer grupo tratado...

  13. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiviral activity of the oseltamivir and Melissa officinalis L. essential oil against avian influenza A virus (H9N2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghanbari, Gholamhosein; Nili, Hasan; Moattari, Afagh; Mohammadi, Ali; Iraji, Aida

    2016-06-01

    Lemon balm derivatives are going to acquire a novelty as natural and potent remedy for treatment of viral infections since the influenza viruses are developing resistance to the current antivirals widely. Oseltamivir, Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) and their synergistic efficacy against avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 were evaluated in vitro in MDCK cells at different time exposure by using TCID50, HA, Real Time PCR and HI assay. The results showed that MOEO could inhibit replication of AVI through the different virus replication phase (P ≤ 0.05). Also the highest antiviral activity of MOEO was seen when AIV incubated with MOEO before cell infection. The TCID50/ml was reduced 1.3-2.1, 2.3-2.8, 3.7-4.5 log 10 than control group (5.6 log 10), HAU/50 µl was decreased 85-94, 71.4-94, 71.4-94 % and viral genome copy number/µl was brought down 68-95, 90-100, 89.6-99.9 % at pre-infection, post-infection and simultaneous stage, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition result showed the MOEO was not able to inhibit agglutination of the chicken red blood cell (cRBC). Replication of the AVI was suppressed by the different concentration of oseltamivir completely or near 100 %. Also oseltamivir showed a synergistic activity with MOEO especially when oseltamivir concentration reduced under 0.005 mg/ml. The chemical composition was examined by GC-MS analysis and Its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that lemon balm essential oil could inhibit influenza virus replication through different replication cycle steps especially throughout the direct interaction with the virus particles.

  15. Efficacy of Melissa officinalis in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias following ischemia-reperfusion of the heart: a comparison with amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Zarisfi, Zahra; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Bashiri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the influence of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), a well-known herbal drug with numerous applications in traditional and modern medicine, on cardiac conduction and susceptibility to lethal ventricular arrhythmia. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into a control group (CTL), an M. officinalis group that received the aqueous extract of M. officinalis L. intraperitoneally (i.p.) at dosages of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml/kg, respectively, and an amiodarone group (Amio group) that received 30 mg/ml/kg i.p. of amiodarone. Heart ischemia/reperfusion was induced by the ligation and release of the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. There were no statistical differences between the groups in the basal heart rate and blood pressure. PR, corrected QT (QTc) and QRS intervals increased in the M. officinalis and Amio groups. PR and QTc were statistically significant only in the Amio group and QRS was significant only in the group receiving 400 mg of M. officinalis (M400 group) in comparison with the CTL group. During the reperfusion period, the decrease in ventricular fibrillations was statistically significant in all groups (except the M400 group) when compared with the CTL group. The score of arrhythmia severity also decreased, but was statistically significant only in the Amio group (p < 0.05 vs. CTL group). Our findings suggest that M. officinalis extract has a mild protective effect against reperfusion-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias in rats. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Melissa officinalis Acidic Fraction Protects Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons Against Beta Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, Maliheh; Dashti, Abolfazl; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Akbari, Shole; Ataei, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular deposition of the beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), leads to oxidative damage and apoptosis in neurons. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family that has neuroprotective activity. In the present study we have investigated the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Additionally, we investigated a possible role of the nicotinic receptor. This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. CGNs were pre-incubated with different concentrations of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis for 24 hours, followed by incubation with Aβ for an additional 48 hours. CGNs were also pre-incubated with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis and mecamylamin, followed by incubation with Aβ. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to measure cell viability. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipidperoxidation, and caspase-3 activity were measured after incubation. Hochst/annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed to detect apoptotic cells. The acidic fraction could protect CGNs from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Mecamylamine did not abolish the protective effect of the acidic fraction. AChE activity, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity increased after Aβ incubation. Preincubation with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis ameliorated these factors and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Our results indicated that the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis was not mediated through nicotinic receptors. This fraction could protect CGNs through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities.

  17. Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, S; Orhan, I; Turan, N N; Sahan, G; Ark, M; Tosun, F

    2008-12-01

    In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10(-5)M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium intact or endothelium denuded effect was determined. The agents used were N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), an irreversible inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, indomethacin (10 microM), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and glibenclamide (10 microM), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. The extract was found to exert a vasorelaxant effect and rosmarinic acid quantity, the characteristic compound of the plant, was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (18.75%), and was further confirmed by LC-MS analysis giving a prominent [M(+1)] molecular ion peak at m/z 365. Total phenol amount in the extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (0.284 mg/mg extract). Vasorelaxant effect of the extract was entirely dependent on the presence of endothelium and was abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME, whereas pretreatment with indomethacin and glibenclamide reduced the relaxation to a minor extent. Rosmarinic acid was also tested in the same manner as the extract and was found to exert vasorelaxant effect. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of MOO vasodilates via nitric oxide pathway with the possible involvement of prostacycline and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways as well.

  19. Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-08-01

    Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism.

  20. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijaniha, Fatemeh; Naseri, Mohsen; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Fallahi, Faramarz; Noorbala, Ahmadali; Mosaddegh, Mahmood; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Sadrai, Sima

    2015-04-22

    In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations. Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients׳ diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), before and after intervention. Fifty-five volunteers out of 71 recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-day of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004 resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects. Lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  2. Efeitos da adubação química e da calagem na nutrição de melissa e hortelã-pimenta Effect of chemical fertilization and liming on lemon balm and peppermint nutrition

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    Arie F Blank

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da adubação química e da calagem no crescimento e na nutrição da melissa (Melissa officinalis e hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita, com a técnica da diagnose por subtração. Os tratamentos foram: Completo (adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe e Zn+ calagem; Completo calagem; Completo N; Completo P; Completo K; Completo S; Completo B; Completo Zn; Completo Fe e Testemunha (solo natural. Após 120 dias da semeadura a calagem e a adubação mostraram ser essenciais para o crescimento de melissa e hortelã-pimenta. No solo utilizado, a falta da calagem e dos nutrientes N e P causaram as maiores quedas ou ausência, no caso da falta de calagem em melissa, na produção de folhas, órgão usado na medicina popular e que contém os princípios ativos.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilization and liming on growth and nutrition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and peppermint (Mentha piperita, using the missing element technique. Treatments were: complete (fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe and Zn+ liming; complete - liming; complete -N; complete -P; complete -K; complete -S; complete -B; complete -Zn; complete -Fe and control (natural soil. The following results were obtained within 120 days after sowing: liming and fertilization are essential for lemon balm and peppermint growth. In the soil used in this experiment the nutrients which showed highest results on growth and nutrition of lemon balm and peppermint were N and P, besides liming.

  3. Chemical composition and larvicidal evaluation of Mentha, Salvia, and Melissa essential oils against the West Nile virus mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopoulos, George; Pitarokili, Danae; Kioulos, Elias; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2010-07-01

    The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.

  4. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

    2012-01-04

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn

  5. Assessment of Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa officinalis in Combination With Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells After Spinal Cord Injury

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    Seyed Ruhollah Hosseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI has a classically bad prognosis. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs and Melissa officinalis (MO are useful for the prevention of neurological disease. Methods Thirty-six adult male rats were randomly divided into intact, sham, control (SCI, MO, hUCBSC, and MO-hUCBSC groups. Intraperitoneal injection of MO (150 mg/kg was commenced 24 hr post-SCI and continued once a day for 14 days. Intraspinal grafting of hUCBSCs was commenced immediately in the next day. The motor and sensory functions of all animals were evaluated once a week after the commencement of SCI. Electromyography (EMG was performed in the last day in order to measure the recruitment index. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and transmission electron microscopy evaluations were performed to determine the level of astrogliosis and myelination. Results The results revealed that motor function (MO-hUCBSC: 15 ± 0.3, SCI: 8.2 ± 0.37, p < .001, sensory function (MO-hUCBSC: 3.57 ± 0.19, SCI: 6.38 ± 0.23, p < .001, and EMG recruitment index (MO-hUCBSC: 3.71 ± 0.18, SCI: 1.6 ± 0.1, p < .001 were significantly improved in the MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. Mean cavity area (MO-hUCBSC: 0.03 ± 0.03, SCI: 0.07 ± 0.004, p < .001 was reduced and loss of lower motor neurons (MO-hUCBSC: 7.6 ± 0.43, SCI: 3 ± 0.12, p < .001 and astrogliosis density (MO-hUCBSC: 3.1 ± 0.15, SCI: 6.25 ± 1.42, p < 0.001 in the ventral horn of spinal cord were prevented in MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. Conclusion The results revealed that the combination of MO and hUCBSCs in comparison with the control group has neuroprotective effects in SCI.

  6. The effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) pretreatment on the resistance of the heart to myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh; Sheibani, Mohammad; Najafipour, Hamid; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    The antihyperlipidemic, antiarrhythmic, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) have been reported. However, no study has examined its effects on the resistance of the heart to stressful conditions. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on Wistar rat heart with/without cardiac injury. Animals were grouped as control, isoproterenol (ISO), M. officinalis without (M50, M100, and M200) and with isoproterenol (M50 + ISO, M100 + ISO, and M200 + ISO). The aqueous extract of M. officinalis was orally administered at dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. On the 6th and 7th day, ISO, M50 + ISO, M100 + ISO, and M200 + ISO groups received 85 mg/kg of isoproterenol for myocardial injury induction. On day 8, hemodynamic parameters were recorded and samplings were done. The extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the heart rate (264 ± 5, 259 ± 5 and 281 ± 3 versus 377 ± 13 in control group, p < 0.01). Blood pressure was significantly decreased in M50 + ISO (75 ± 5) versus M50 (110 ± 6) and M100 + ISO (72 ± 6) versus M100 (105 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde levels of the injured hearts were lower in M50 + ISO and M100 + ISO groups than in the ISO group (p < 0.05). Serum cardiac troponin I was higher in the M200 + ISO group (5.1 ± 1.7) than in the ISO group (2.7 ± 0.7 ng/ml, p < 0.05). The lower dose of extract, by improving the balance of the redox system and by reducing the heart rate, may increase the heart resistance to injury. However, the higher doses of extract may intensify the injury of ischemic heart.

  7. Assessment of Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa officinalis in Combination With Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah; Kaka, Gholamreza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Mohammadi, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) has a classically bad prognosis. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs) and Melissa officinalis (MO) are useful for the prevention of neurological disease. Thirty-six adult male rats were randomly divided into intact, sham, control (SCI), MO, hUCBSC, and MO-hUCBSC groups. Intraperitoneal injection of MO (150 mg/kg) was commenced 24 hr post-SCI and continued once a day for 14 days. Intraspinal grafting of hUCBSCs was commenced immediately in the next day. The motor and sensory functions of all animals were evaluated once a week after the commencement of SCI. Electromyography (EMG) was performed in the last day in order to measure the recruitment index. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and transmission electron microscopy evaluations were performed to determine the level of astrogliosis and myelination. The results revealed that motor function (MO-hUCBSC: 15 ± 0.3, SCI: 8.2 ± 0.37, p < .001), sensory function (MO-hUCBSC: 3.57 ± 0.19, SCI: 6.38 ± 0.23, p < .001), and EMG recruitment index (MO-hUCBSC: 3.71 ± 0.18, SCI: 1.6 ± 0.1, p < .001) were significantly improved in the MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. Mean cavity area (MO-hUCBSC: 0.03 ± 0.03, SCI: 0.07 ± 0.004, p < .001) was reduced and loss of lower motor neurons (MO-hUCBSC: 7.6 ± 0.43, SCI: 3 ± 0.12, p < .001) and astrogliosis density (MO-hUCBSC: 3.1 ± 0.15, SCI: 6.25 ± 1.42, p < 0.001) in the ventral horn of spinal cord were prevented in MO-hUCBSC group compared with SCI group. The results revealed that the combination of MO and hUCBSCs in comparison with the control group has neuroprotective effects in SCI. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Chemical composition and laboratory investigation of Melissa officinalis essential oil against human malarial vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mathalaimuthu Baranitharan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To decide the larvicides, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activity of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis chemical compositions against important mosquito Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: A chemical constituent of 24 compounds was identified in the oils of M. officinalis compounds representing to 98.73%. A total of 25 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi were showed to a variety of concentrations (30–300 mg/L in laboratory by means of utilizing the standard procedure portrayed by World Health Organization (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h and mortalities were subjected to probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was strong-minded against An. stephensi mosquito to a variety of concentrations ranging from 15– 90 mg/L under the laboratory circumstances. The repellent activity of M. officinalis chemical compositions tested at concentrations of 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 cm × 45 cm × 40 cm including 100 blood starving female mosquitoes of An. stephensi using the methods of World Health Organization (1996. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values of citronellal compound against An. stephensi larvae were 85.44 and 159.73 mg/L, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal action was observed 48 h post-treatment. Similarly, the citronellal compound and other compositions were found to be mainly effective against eggs of An. stephensi. Citronellal compound exerted 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg/L against An. stephensi, respectively. The repellent activity of citronellal compound was contained to be mainly effective and the maximum action was observed at 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 concentrations giving 100% protection up to 210 min against An. stephensi. Conclusions: This current study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent potential of compounds from the M. officinalis essential oil against An. stephensi. This is initial statement on the mosquito larvicidal

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of Melissa officinalis oil and donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine; Holmes, Clive; Francis, Paul; Morris, Julie; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Chazot, Paul; Lees, George; Ballard, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are frequent in people with Alzheimer's disease and cause considerable stress to patients and their carers. Antipsychotics have been widely used as a first-line treatment, resulting in an estimated 1,800 excess strokes and 1,600 excess deaths in the UK alone. Safe and effective alternatives are urgently needed. Based upon preliminary evidence from clinical trials, aromatherapy with melissa oil may be such an alternative, but initial studies have been modest in size, and adequate blinding has been problematic. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of melissa aromatherapy in the treatment of agitation in people with Alzheimer's disease in an adequately powered and robustly blinded randomized controlled trial comparing it with donepezil, an anticholinesterase drug used with some benefit to treat BPSD. The study was a double-blind parallel-group placebo-controlled randomized trial across 3 specialist old age psychiatry centres in England. Participants had probable or possible Alzheimer's disease, were resident in a care home, had clinically significant agitation (defined as a score of 39 or above on the Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory) and were free of antipsychotics and/or anticholinesterase for at least 2 weeks. Participants were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: placebo medication and active aromatherapy; active medication and placebo aromatherapy or placebo of both. The primary outcome measure was reduction in agitation as assessed by the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS) at 4 weeks. This is an observational scale, and raters were required to wear nose clips to ensure that full blinding was maintained. The PAS, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI; another measure of BPSD) and other outcome measures were completed at baseline, 4-week and 12-week follow-ups. 114 participants were randomized, of whom 94 completed the week 4 assessment and 81 completed the week 12 assessment. Aromatherapy and donepezil were well tolerated

  10. Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Clive G; O'Brien, John T; Reichelt, Katharina; Perry, Elaine K

    2002-07-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia are frequent and are a major management problem, especially for patients with severe cognitive impairment. Preliminary reports have indicated positive effects of aromatherapy using select essential oils, but there are no adequately powered placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to determine the value of aromatherapy with essential oil of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) for agitation in people with severe dementia. Seventy-two people residing in National Health Service (U.K.) care facilities who had clinically significant agitation in the context of severe dementia were randomly assigned to aromatherapy with Melissa essential oil (N = 36) or placebo (sunflower oil) (N = 36). The active treatment or placebo oil was combined with a base lotion and applied to patients' faces and arms twice a day by caregiving staff. Changes in clinically significant agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]) and quality of life indices (percentage of time spent socially withdrawn and percentage of time engaged in constructive activities, measured with Dementia Care Mapping) were compared between the 2 groups over a 4-week period of treatment. Seventy-one patients completed the trial. No significant side effects were observed. Sixty percent (21/35) of the active treatment group and 14% (5/36) of the placebo-treated group experienced a 30% reduction of CMAI score, with an overall improvement in agitation (mean reduction in CMAI score) of 35% in patients receiving Melissa balm essential oil and 11% in those treated with placebo (Mann-Whitney U test; Z = 4.1, p essential balm oil (Mann-Whitney U test; percentage of time spent socially withdrawn: Z = 2.6, p = .005; percentage of time engaged in constructive activities: Z = 3.5, p = .001). The finding that aromatherapy with essential balm oil is a safe and effective treatment for clinically significant agitation in people with severe dementia, with

  11. Teor e composição química do óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis L. in vitro sob influência do meio de cultura = Content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. in vitro under the influence of the culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Soares Reis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do meio de cultura no teor e composição química do óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis, foi realizado o presente trabalho, que avaliaram três concentrações do meio de cultura MS. O experimento foi implantado em delineamentointeiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, e cada repetição foi representada por uma amostra de 20 g de plântulas frescas. A extração do óleo foi realizada em aparelho de Clevenger modificado com duração de 1h e 30 min. e a análise química foi realizada por cromatografiagasosa. Observou-se que o teor e a composição química do óleo essencial de M. officinalis foram influenciados pela concentração de sais do meio MS. As plântulas que se desenvolveram nos meios MS e MS/4 apresentaram maior teor de óleo essencial, e os componentes majoritários foram o geranial (25,23 e 16,21%, respectivamente e o neral (24,5 e 20,53%, respectivamente. Já o componente majoritário presente no óleo de plântulas de melissa cultivadas em meio MS/2 foio acetato de nerila (18,69%.The present work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of the culture medium in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, evaluating three concentrations of the MS culture medium. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, with 7 repetitions, where each repetition was represented by 20 g of fresh biomass. Oil extraction was accomplished using a Clevenger modified device for 1 hour and 30 minutes, and the chemical analysis was accomplished by gas chromatography. It was observed that the content and chemicalcomposition of the essential oil of M. officinalis was influenced by the concentration of MS medium. The plants grown in the MS medium and MS/4 presented higher content of essential oil, and the major components of these plants were geraniol (25.23 and 16.21%, respectively and nerol (24.5 and 20.53%, respectively. The major

  12. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol h(-1) and g h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L.

  13. Sistemas e épocas de cultivo na produção agronômica e de óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Sérgio Macedo

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis é uma espécie medicinal e aromática, originária da Ásia e Europa, adaptada a um clima subtropical e temperado, sendo, porém, encontrada em quase todo o Brasil. Para descobrir quais são as formas de obter uma alta produtividade e produtos com teores de óleos essenciais e com boa qualidade é necessário submeter as plantas às mais diferentes condições, entre elas: época de cultivo (primavera-verão e outono-inverno), intervalo de corte, estágios ontogenéticos (f...

  14. EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF Melissa Officinalis and Aloe Vera ON HEMATOLOGICAL TRAITS, LIPID OXIDATION OF CARCASS AND PERFORMANCE IN RAINBOW TROUT (Oncorhynchus Mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FARAHI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This was conducted investigate the effect of feeding lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and Aloe (Aloe vera on growth performance, hematological parameters and oxidative stability of rainbow trout. 360 uniform rainbow trout (20.87±0.25 g were divided into 3 groups, and fed standard diets supplemented with ground lemon balm (2%, L group or supplemented with Aloe (1%, A group and without supplementation (Control, C group. Growth performance and body composition were not influenced by plant supplementation. Survival rate of fish was promoted in diets supplemented with herbs, significantly (P0.05 were not observed in RBC and Hb in treatments (P>0.05. Results of thiobarbituric acid value (TBA showed that lemon balm and Aloe herbs could be protective against lipid peroxidation in fish meat during chilling storage (4°C, 7 days.

  15. Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) extract on neurogenesis associated with serum corticosterone and GABA in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-02-01

    Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) to check their possible mechanisms related to neurogenesis. We administered 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE to the animals once a day for 3 weeks. For labeling of newly generated cells, we also administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) twice a day for 3 days from the day of the first MOE treatment. Administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE dose-dependently increased Ki67 positive nuclei to 244.1 and 763.9% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively. In addition, 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE significantly increased DCX positive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. Furthermore, MOE administration significantly increased BrdU/calbindin D-28 k double labeled cells (integrated neurons into granule cells in the DG) to 245.2% of the vehicle-treated group. On the other hand, administration of MOE reduced corticosterone levels in serum and decreased GABA-T levels in the DG homogenates. These results suggest that MOE increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells by decreasing serum corticosterone levels as well as by increasing GABA levels in the mouse DG.

  16. Inhibitory effects of 16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid (Corchorifatty acid B) isolated from Melissa officinalis Linné on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideaki; Hongo, Maya; Mochizuki, Mayu; Yokoyama, Kouji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2011-05-01

    16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid, also known as Corchorifatty acid B (CFAB), is isolated from the ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of Melissa officinalis Linné (Labiatae) and exhibits inhibitory effects on cellular pigmentation in both human melanocytes and mouse melanoma B16 cells. CFAB specifically decreases cellular melanin by most likely inducing rapid degradation of tyrosinase in B16 cells. Interestingly, unlike other reagents that promote degradation of tyrosinase in proteasomes or lysosomes, neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors can halt CFAB-induced tyrosinase degradation. Only brefeldin A, which specifically inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, can effectively impede CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease. These results suggest that CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease occurs in post-Golgi compartments but not in proteasomal or lysosomal compartments. Taken together, CFAB is a unique reagent that primarily accelerates tyrosinase decrease by a mechanism that differs from those considered for other hypopigmentation reagents currently reported. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Anti-diabetic effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis) essential oil on glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Ja; Cho, Sung-Yun; Bhuiyan, Muhammad Javidul Haque; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant activity of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) essential oil (LBEO) on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and its hypoglycaemic effect in db/db mice were investigated. LBEO scavenged 97 % of DPPH radicals at a 270-fold dilution. Mice administered LBEO (0.015 mg/d) for 6 weeks showed significantly reduced blood glucose (65 %; P < 0.05) and TAG concentrations, improved glucose tolerance, as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, and significantly higher serum insulin levels, compared with the control group. The hypoglycaemic mechanism of LBEO was further explored via gene and protein expression analyses using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Among all glucose metabolism-related genes studied, hepatic glucokinase and GLUT4, as well as adipocyte GLUT4, PPAR-gamma, PPAR-alpha and SREBP-1c expression, were significantly up-regulated, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was down-regulated in the livers of the LBEO group. The results further suggest that LBEO administered at low concentrations is an efficient hypoglycaemic agent, probably due to enhanced glucose uptake and metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue and the inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  18. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

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    Marcin Ozarowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae, one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o. compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o. and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o. on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, and beta-secretase (BACE-1 mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus. However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.

  20. Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: An open randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ummarino, D; Giugliano, F P; Sciorio, E; Tortora, C; Bruzzese, D; De Giovanni, D; Rutigliano, I; Valenti, S; Romano, C; Campanozzi, A; Miele, E; Staiano, A

    2017-06-30

    Infant colic (IC) is a prevalent physiological event of infants, which can disrupt the child's home environment. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a mixture of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) compared with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and with simethicone for the treatment of IC. A multicenter randomized comparative study was conducted in infants with colic, according to Rome III criteria, who were randomly assigned to receive M. chamomilla L., M. officinalis L. and tyndallized L. acidophilus (HA122) (Colimil(®) Plus(®) ; Milte Italia Spa, Milan, Italy) (Group A), L. reuteri DSM 17938 (Group B) and simethicone (Group C). Treatment was given to subjects for 28 days. One-hundred and seventy-six patients completed the study. Mean daily crying time at day 28 was significantly lower in group A (-44, 95% CI: -58 to -30, Pofficinalis L. and tyndallized L. acidophilus (HA122) and L. reuteri DSM 17938 are significantly more effective than simethicone in IC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02708238. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Melissa officinalis L. on oxidative status and DNA damage in subjects exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatpishe, Akbar; Oryan, Shahrbano; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Pilevarian, Ali Asghar; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Baeeri, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the capability of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm) infusion on improvement of oxidative stress status in radiology staff that were exposed to persistent low-dose radiation during work. The study was a before-after clinical trial performed on 55 radiology staff. They were asked to drink Lemon balm infusion which was prepared like a tea bag twice daily (1.5 g/100 mL) for 30 days. In the plasma, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured before and after using Lemon balm infusion.Use of Lemon balm infusion in radiology unit workers resulted in a significant improvement in plasma levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase and a marked reduction in plasma DNA damage, myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation. It is concluded that infusion of Lemon balm markedly improve oxidative stress condition and DNA damage in radiology staff when used as a dietary supplement for radiation protection.

  2. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration. PMID:27239217

  3. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Melissa officinalis originating from north-Est Morocco, against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouadi, Y; Manssouri, M; Bouyanzer, A; Majidi, L; Bendaif, H; Elmsellem, H; Shariati, M A; Melhaoui, A; Hammouti, B

    2017-06-01

    To investigate biological control methods against post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples, tests on the antifungal activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis were carried out. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis of the essential oil was able to detect 88.7% of the components. The main components are P-mentha-1,2,3-triol (13.1%), P-menth-3-en-8-ol (8.8%), pulegone (8.8%), piperitynone oxide (8.4%) and 2-piperitone oxide (7.3%). The determination of the antifungal activity of the essential oil of M. officinalisis carried out in vitro using the technique of poison food (PF) and the volatile activity test (VA). To carry out these two tests, three phytopathogens that cause the deterioration of apples have been selected: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer. The overall results of this study suggest that M. officinalis essential oil has potential as a bio-antifungal preservative for the control of post-harvest diseases of apple. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenium, iodine, omega-3 PUFA and natural antioxidant from Melissa officinalis L.: a combination of components from healthier dry fermented sausages formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Larequi, Eduardo; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    A new formulation of dry fermented sausage, including ingredients that improve the nutritional and health benefits of this type of product is presented. Se yeast (2g/kg), iodized salt (26g/kg), linseed:algae (3:2) emulsion (62.5g/kg), and lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. as a source of natural antioxidants (686mg/kg), yielded dry fermented sausages with technological and sensory properties similar to traditional ones. From the nutritional standpoint, a 50g portion of this product would give 100% of the recommended daily intake for Se, 70% of DRI for iodine, and 40% and 100% of the reference intake for alpha-linolenic and EPA+DHA, respectively. The omega-6/omega-3 ratio decreased from 15.7 in the control product to 1.96 in the modified one. Despite the high PUFA content, no oxidation was detected by TBARS (officinalis. The modified formulation presented good acceptability for panelists with similar appearance, odor, taste and juiciness as the control products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillere, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Lesburgere, Edith; Beracochea, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in the brain (Awad et al., 2007; Awad et al., 2009). Thus, we evaluated Cyracos use in independent groups of C57BL/6 mice with regard to anxiety-like reactivity in an elevated plus maze and an open field task. We found that Cyracos significantly reduced anxiety-like reactivity in the elevated plus maze dose-dependently, but no significant effect was observed in the open field task. Parallel experiments in independent groups of mice showed that the Cyracosdose at which it exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze did not alter exploratory or circadian activities. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Cyracos has anxiolytic-like effects under moderate stress conditions and does not alter activity levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological profile of an essential oil derived from Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Huang, Liping; Elliott, Mark S J; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

    2008-03-01

    A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically-validated essential oil derived from Melissa officinalis (MO), which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. MO inhibited binding of [35S] t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to the rat forebrain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 0.040+/-0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropianate (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Electrophysiological analyses with primary cultures of rat cortical neurons demonstrated that MO reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. Interestingly, MO elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classical GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxinin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of MO in in-vitro we report in neural membranes are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here.

  7. Adaptações fisiológicas e anatômicas de Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae cultivadas sob malhas termorrefletoras em diferentes intensidades luminosas Physiological and morphological adaptations of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae cultivated under thermo-reflector shading nets at different luminous intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Brant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com a realização da pesquisa, avaliar modificações fisiológicas e anatômicas em plantas de melissa, cultivadas sob malhas termorrefletoras (Aluminet®, em diferentes níveis de sombreamento, visando conhecer a plasticidade fenotípica em resposta de adaptação a diferentes quantidades de luz. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por plantas submetidas a pleno sol e a 20 e 60% de intensidade luminosa, e arranjados conforme o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. As quantificações de clorofila foram feitas em quatro repetições, as medições das epidermes e parênquimas foram repetidas 15 vezes e utilizou-se 10 repetições para as avaliações das características de cloroplastos e grãos de amido destes. Plantas submetidas a 20% de intensidade luminosa apresentaram maior quantidade de clorofila a e, portanto, maior razão clorofila a/b. Comparativamente, as folhas de melissa a pleno sol e a 60% de luz apresentaram células da epiderme adaxial mais espessas, mas as células da epiderme abaxial mostraram características encontradas em folhas de sombra, ou seja, mais finas. Quanto maior a intensidade luminosa, maior o número de cloroplastos, porém, a pleno sol mostraram-se mais finos e com menor área. Os grãos de amido de plantas cultivadas sob ambientes sombreados tiveram maior área e ocuparam maior parte nos cloroplastos de plantas a 60% de intensidade luminosa. Assim, plantas de melissa, quando submetidas ao sombreamento, tiveram plasticidade fenotípica.The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and anatomical modifications in lemon balm plants, cultivated under thermo-reflector nets (Aluminet® at different levels of shading, in order to understand the phenotypic plasticity in adaptation response to different light quantities. The treatments were characterized by plants subjected to full sun and 20 and 60% of luminous intensity, and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD. The quantifications

  8. The anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2011-08-01

    Growing adipose tissue is thought to require adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Close examination of developing adipose tissue microvasculature reveals that angiogenesis often precedes adipogenesis. Since our previous study demonstrated that Ob-X, the anti-angiogenic herbal composition composed of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae), reduced adipose tissue mass in obese mice, we hypothesized that adipogenesis can be inhibited by Ob-X. To investigate the effects of the anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Ob-X, we studied the effects of Ob-X on triglyceride accumulation and expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and ECM remodeling. Treatment of cells with Ob-X inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) mix. Ob-X reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A, -B, -C, -D, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors [(thrombospondin-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2)] in differentiated cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also decreased in Ob-X-treated cells. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. These events may be mediated by changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, angiogenesis, and the MMP system. Thus, by reducing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic Ob-X provides a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and its related disorders.

  9. Lemon balm extract (Melissa officinalis, L.) promotes melanogenesis and prevents UVB-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in a skin cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Herranz-López, María; Castillo, Julián; Micol, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the main causes of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancer. Its UVB component (280-315nm) leads to oxidative stress and causes inflammation, DNA damage, p53 induction and lipid and protein oxidation. Recently, an increase in the use of plant polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has emerged to protect human skin against the deleterious effects of sunlight. This study evaluates the protective effects of lemon balm extract (LBE) (Melissa Officinalis, L) and its main phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) against UVB-induced damage in human keratinocytes. The LBE composition was determined by HPLC analysis coupled to photodiode array detector and ion trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-MS/MS). Cell survival, ROS generation and DNA damage were determined upon UVB irradiation in the presence of LBE. The melanogenic capacity of LBE was also determined. RA and salvianolic acid derivatives were the major compounds, but caffeic acid and luteolin glucuronide were also found in LBE. LBE and RA significantly increased the survival of human keratinocytes upon UVB radiation, but LBE showed a stronger effect. LBE significantly decreased UVB-induced intracellular ROS production. Moreover, LBE reduced UV-induced DNA damage and the DNA damage response (DDR), which were measured as DNA strand breaks in the comet assay and histone H2AX activation, respectively. Finally, LBE promoted melanogenesis in the cell model. These results suggest that LBE may be considered as a candidate for the development of oral/topical photoprotective ingredients against UVB-induced skin damage. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A medicinal herb, Melissa officinalis L. ameliorates depressive-like behavior of rats in the forced swimming test via regulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chou, Mei-Ling; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Hao, Cherng-Wei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-12-04

    Depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. However, the conventional medications typically cause side effects that result in patients opting to out of therapy. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., MO) is an old and particularly reliable medicinal herb for relieving feelings of melancholy, depression and anxiety. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of water extract of MO (WMO) by evaluating its influence on the behaviors and the relevant neurotransmitters of rats performed to forced swimming test. Two phases of the experiment were conducted. In the acute model, rats were administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, WMO, or the indicated active compound (rosmarinic acid, RA) three times in one day. In the sub-acute model, rats were respectively administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, or three dosages of WMO once a day for 10 days. Locomotor activity and depression-like behavior were examined using the open field test and the forced swimming test, respectively. The levels of relevant neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. In the acute model, WMO and RA significantly reduced depressive-like behavior but the type of related neurotransmitter could not be determined. The results indicated that the effect of WMO administration on the reduction of immobility time was associated with an increase in swimming time of the rats, indicative of serotonergic neurotransmission modulation. Chromatography data validated that the activity of WMO was associated with a reduction in the serotonin turnover rate. The present study shows the serotonergic antidepressant-like activity of WMO. Hence, WMO may offer a serotonergic antidepressant activity to prevent depression and to assist in conventional therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Anti-angiogenic effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L., on experimental choroidal neovascularization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young-Jung; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Cho, Won-Kyung; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) leaves, on experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice was evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were given either vehicle or ALS-L1023 daily via oral gavage for 3 weeks (days 0-21). CNV was induced by rupturing Bruch's membrane using laser photocoagulation (day 7). Two weeks after laser injury (day 21), the CNV lesions were evaluated by an examination of choroidal flat mounts using fluorescein-labelled dextran, immunofluorescence staining with isolectin B4 and fluorescence angiography. The effects of ALS-L1023 on endothelial cell tube formation and the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The extent of CNV was reduced by ALS-L1023. Mice treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of the material exhibited 44.3 and 68.1% reductions in the extent of CNV lesions, respectively, compared to the vehicle group (P < 0.001). The size of the isolectin B4-labelled area was also significantly decreased in the ALS-L1023-treated groups (P < 0.001). On fluorescein angiography, ALS-L1023-treated mice exhibited significantly less leakage of fluorescent material than did vehicle-treated mice. ALS-L1023 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was suppressed by ALS-L1023. The laser-induced CNV in mice can be inhibited by ALS-L1023. Therefore, it may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases involving CNV. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Michung; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-06-01

    The growth and development of adipose tissue leading to obesity is suggested to depend on angiogenesis. Our previous study showed that Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, M. alba, M. officinalis, and A. capillaris, can regulate obesity. To investigate the inhibitory effect of Ob-X on obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. The effect of Ob-X on angiogenesis was measured using a mouse Matrigel plug assay. The effects of Ob-X on obesity were investigated in ob/ob mice. Ob-X inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by decreased blood vessel density in a mouse matrigel plug assay. Administration of Ob-X to ob/ob mice for 5 weeks produced a significant reduction in body weight gain by 27% compared with control (12.1 ± 3.01 vs. 16.6 ± 2.24 g, respectively). Ob-X also significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue mass by 15% (0.87 ± 0.12 vs. 1.02 ± 0.15 g, respectively). The size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue was reduced by 46% in Ob-X-treated mice. Ob-X treatment inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and significantly decreased circulating glucose levels compared with controls (197 ± 56.5 vs. 365 ± 115 mg/dL, respectively). These results suggest that Ob-X, which has an anti-angiogenic activity, reduces body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue mass in genetically obese mice, providing evidence that obesity can be prevented by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  13. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315

  14. Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Dixon, Christine L; Elliot, Mark S J; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

    2008-11-01

    Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans, indicating common components with a depressant action in the central nervous system. A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically validated essential oil derived from La, which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. La inhibited [35S] TBPS binding to the rat forebrain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 = 0.040 +/- 0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A 50:50 mixture of Mo and La essential oils inhibited [3H] flunitrazepam binding, whereas the individual oils had no significant effect. Electrophysiological analyses with rat cortical primary cultures demonstrated that La reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classic GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). These properties are similar to those recently reported for Mo. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La we report in neural membranes in-vitro are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here. These data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of Melissa officinalis and combination of Achillea millefolium and Crataegus oxyacantha on broiler growth performance, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bača

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. and combination of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. on growth performance of chicken, meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability. Ninety one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (C with standard diet without antioxidants supplementation; second group (L with standard diet supplemented with ground lemon balm (2% and third group (HY with standard diet supplemented with ground hawthorn (1% and yarrow (1%. Final body weight and total feed intake were not influenced by plant supplementation. However, feed conversion ratio was the lowest (P0.05 by plants supplementation, but the proportions of various carcass parts (breast and leg were higher in L and HY groups. Feeding of plants had no effect on the chemical composition of thigh meat. However, in breast meat fed by HY diet higher content of dry matter and crude protein (P<0.05 was found. In breast (L the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids was decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA proportion was increased compared with control group (P<0.05. In thigh HY the proportion of saturated fatty acids was increased and PUFA was decreased compared with control. Results of thiobarbituric value method showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of hawthorn and yarrow in the diet significantly influenced reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh during chilling storage (4°C, 11 days.

  16. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  17. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Investigation of the in vitro effects of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergüden, Ceren; Özkoç, Soykan; Öztürk, Bintuğ; Bayram Delibaş, Songül

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free living amoeba found widely all over the world. They are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), an infection which is especially seen in contact lens users and after minor corneal traumas, that may lead blindness. At present, antifungals and antiseptics are used for the treatment of AK cases, however, some problems such as long treatment periods and the occurrence of side effects, resistance of cyst forms against drugs, emphasize the need for new drugs. There are some published studies that pointed out the effectiveness of plant extracts and essential oils on Acanthamoeba spp. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of essential oils of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) belonging to Lamiaceae family, on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The strain used in our study, namely A. castellanii T4 genotype, is the most frequently isolated amoeba from environment and also the causative agent of AK and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. For the determination of amebicidal activity, essential oils obtained from Mentha x priperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. by Neo-Clevenger type of distillation apparatus have been used. In vitro experiments were performed by using 96-well microplates. Cyst and trophozoite solutions were added on the essential oil dilutions to obtain the last concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 µg/ml for the cysts, and 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.313 µg/ml for the trophozoites. After the incubation of microplates at 30oC for 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the viability of parasitic forms were evaluated under the light microscope followed by staining trypan blue. It was found that, each essential oil showed amebicidal effect on A.castellani cysts and trophozoites dependent on dosage and time, when compared with the control group, The maximum lethal effect occured with Melissa

  19. Chemical composition and laboratory investigation ofMelissa officinalis essential oil against human malarial vector mosquito,Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathalaimuthu Baranitharan; Shanmugam Dhansekaran; Kadarkarai Murugan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Jayapal Gokulakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To decide the larvicides, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activity ofMelissa officinalis (M. officinalis) chemical compositions against important mosquitoAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: A chemical constituent of 24 compounds was identified in the oils ofM. officinalis compounds representing to 98.73%. A total of 25 3rd instar larvae ofAn. stephensi were showed to a variety of concentrations (30–300 mg/L) in laboratory by means of utilizing the standard procedure portrayed by World Health Organization (2005). The larvae were exposed for 24 h and mortalities were subjected to probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was strong-minded againstAn. stephensi mosquito to a variety of concentrations ranging from 15–90 mg/L under the laboratory circumstances. The repellent activity ofM. officinalis chemical compositions tested at concentrations of 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 cm×45 cm×40 cm) including 100 blood starving female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi using the methods of World Health Organization (1996). Results: The LC50 and LC90 values of citronellal compound againstAn. stephensi larvae were 85.44 and 159.73 mg/L, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal action was observed 48 h post-treatment. Similarly, the citronellal compound and other compositions were found to be mainly effective against eggs ofAn. stephensi. Citronellal compound exerted 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg/L againstAn. stephensi, respectively. The repellent activity of citronellal compound was contained to be mainly effective and the maximum action was observed at 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 concentrations giving 100% protection up to 210 min againstAn. stephensi. Conclusions:This current study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent potential of compounds from theM. officinalis essential oil againstAn. stephensi. This is initial statement on the mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity

  20. 维药香蜂花挥发油的GC-MS分析%Analysis of Essential Oil Components in Melissa officinalis Linn by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔; 赵鹤珊; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil components were analyzed in Melissa offciinalis Linn by both GC-MS and retention indices at the same time.Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from dried aerial part of M.officinalis Linn collected from Xinjiang province (western China),was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID),gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and all components' retention indices.Twenty-eight constituents were accurately detected from the essential oil,accounting for 99.02% of the total amount.The quantitatively significant constituents of the essential oil were ( E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol acetate (26.48%),(Z)-citral ( 15.46% ),(E)-nerol (14.51%),(E)-citral (14.43%),isoanisole (7.88%),palmitic acid (6.93% ) and (Z)-nerol (2.56% ).The components of M.officinalis Linn essential oil were complicated and were dominated by mono-and sesquiterpene compounds,which were maybe the main biological activities.%结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术和保留指数对维医常用药材香蜂花挥发油提取物进行了分析.从该挥发油中共准确鉴定出28个化合物,占提取物总量的99.02%.结果发现,主要成分有(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol acetate( 26.48%)、(Z)-citral(15.46%)、(E)-nerol(14.51%)、(E)-citral(14.43%)、isoanisole (7.88%)、palmitic acid (6.93%)和(Z)-nerol (2.56%),多为单萜和倍半萜类成分,为维药香蜂花的质量标准制定提供了科学依据.

  1. PP-12 EFFICACY OF A STANDARDIZED EXTRACT OF MATRICARIAE CHAMOMILLA L., MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. AND TYNDALLIZED LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS (H122) COMPARED WITH LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI (DSM 17938) AND WITH SIMETHICONE FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFANTILE COLIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummarino, Dario; Martinelli, Massimo; Giugliano, Francesca Paola; Tortora, Clelia; Valenti, Simona; Pidone, Caterina; De Giovanni, Donatella; Rutigliano, Irene; Campanozzi, Angelo; Romano, Claudio; Miele, Erasmo; Staiano, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Infant colic is a prevalent physiological event of healthy children under 3 months of age, which can disrupt the child's home environment. Despite its benign natural history, sometimes it requires a therapeutic approach. There is limited evidence supporting the use of complementary and alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixture of standardized extract of matricariae Chamomilla L., Melissa Officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus Acidophilus (H122) compared with Lactobacillus Reuteri (DSM 17938) and with simethicone for the treatment of infantile colic. A multicenter prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted involving 133 infants with colic, according to Rome III criteria, who were assigned at random to receive Chamomilla L., Melissa Officinalis L. and tyndallized L. Acidophilus (H122) (Group A; n = 45), L reuteri DSM 17938 (10 CFU) (Group B; n = 45) or simethicone (Group C; n = 43). Treatment was given to subjects for 21 days and they were followed for 4 weeks. Treatment success was assessed at the end of study period. Daily crying and fussing times were recorded in a structured diary, and maternal questionnaires were completed to monitor changes in infant colic symptoms and adverse events. Treatment success was observed in 30 out of 45 patients (66.7%) of infants in Group A, while it was seen in 31 out of 45 patients (68.9%) of Group B and in 19 out of 43 (44.2%) of subjects of Group C (χ: 6.8; p = 0.03). Mean daily crying time was more significantly reduced (from 211.3 ± 40 min/day to 69.6 ± 59 min/day) in the Group A and in Group B (from 201.6 ± 32.5 min/day to 58.1 ± 48.9 min/day) when compared with Group C (from 199.5 ± 32 min/day to 106 ± 56.5 min/day) (p Melissa Officinalis L. and tyndallized L. Acidophilus (H122) and L reuteri DSM 17938 are significantly more effective than simethicone in improving colic symptoms. Therefore, the use of

  2. Microbial ecology of the closed artificial ecosystem MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative): reinventing and compartmentalizing the Earth's food and oxygen regeneration system for long-haul space exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Larissa; De Wever, Heleen; Hermans, Veronik; Mastroleo, Felice; Morin, Nicolas; Wilmotte, Annick; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    2006-01-01

    MELiSSA is a bioregenerative life support system designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the complete recycling of gas, liquid and solid wastes during long distance space exploration. The system uses the combined activity of different living organisms: microbial cultures in bioreactors, a plant compartment and a human crew. In this minireview, the development of a short-cut ecological system for the biotransformation of organic waste is discussed from a microorganism's perspective. The artificial ecological model--still in full development--that is inspired by Earth's own geomicrobiological ecosystem serves as an ideal study object on microbial ecology and will become an indispensable travel companion in manned space exploration.

  3. Crescimento, teor e composição do óleo essencial de melissa cultivada sob malhas fotoconversoras Growth, content and composition of lemon balm essential oil cultivated under color shading nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de malhas fotoconversoras para o cultivo de algumas espécies ornamentais e olerícolas tornou-se comum. Diante da grande influência que a radiação solar exerce sobre os vegetais, esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da intensidade e da qualidade espectral da luz transmitida pelas malhas fotoconversoras (Chromatinet® em relação a aspectos fisiológicos de crescimento (teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis L. Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram dispostos quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo cada parcela composta de quatro vasos (uma planta por vaso. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por plantas de melissa cultivadas a pleno sol, em malha preta (50%, em malha Chromatinet® vermelha (50% e em Chromatinet® azul (50%. As características avaliadas consistiram em: fitomassa seca de folhas, caules, parte aérea, raízes e total; razão raiz/parte aérea; área foliar total; razão de área foliar; razão de peso foliar; área foliar específica; teor, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial. A utilização de malhas no cultivo de melissa favoreceu o crescimento, independentemente da cor, em relação ao cultivo a pleno sol. Sob a malha vermelha houve menores teor e rendimento óleo essencial, porém apresentou o maior teor de citral.The use of color shading nets for cultivation of some ornamentals and vegetables has become common. Thus, observing the great influence of the solar radiation on the plant physiology, the objective of this research was to evaluate the the quantity and quality effects of spectral light transmitted through color shading nets (Chromatinet® in Melissa officinalis L., including physiological aspects as:growth ,content and chemistry composition. Four treatments and five replications were disposed in a completely randomized design, being each experimental unit composed by four pots (one plant per pot

  4. Efecto del extracto etanólico de Melissa officinalis (toronjil) en la modificación de la conducta del niño ansioso en la consulta dental

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo-Aldave, Karina; Magister en Estomatología, Facultad de Odontología. Universidad San Martin de Porres. Lima,; Díaz-Pizán, María Elena; Docente del Departamento Académico de Estomatología del Niño y del Adolescente. Facultad de Estomatología. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Villegas-Vilchez, León Faustino; Magister en Ciencias con Mención en Bioquímica. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Bernabé-Ortiz, Eduardo; Docente del Departamento Académico de Odontología Social. Facultad de Estomatología. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del extracto etanólico de Melissa officinalis (toronjil), a dosis de 3 y 6 mg/kg, contra placebo en el comportamiento de niños ansiosos de 6 y 7 años de edad, durante el examen clínico dental. Materiales y Métodos: Ensayo clínico randomizado a doble ciego en el cual participaron 90 niños (51 niñas y 39 niños) provenientes del Centro Materno Infantil de Zapallal (Lima, Perú). Los participantes no tenían experiencia odontológica previa y presentaban ansiedad dental, ...

  5. Crescimento vegetativo, produção de fitomassa e de óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis L. sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação Vegetative growth, phytomass and essential oil yield of Melissa officinalis L. under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messulan Rodrigues Meira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial da M. officinalis L. com lâminas de irrigação no Norte de Minas Gerais como medidas de uso racional da água. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com seis tratamentos definidos pelas lâminas de irrigação (T1=0,50xET0; T2=0,75xET0; T3=1,0xET0; T4=1,25xET0; T5=1,5xET0 e T6=1,75xETO, e quatro repetições. O estudo foi conduzido em microlisímetros. Com base na análise de regressão, observou-se que o crescimento e a produção de fitomassa foram influenciados pela disponibilidade hídrica. Maior produção e teor de óleo essencial foram conseguidos na menor lâmina e a época de avaliação não influenciou na aplicação das lâminas.The objective of this study has been to evaluate the essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. with irrigation blade in the North of Minas Gerais as a measure of water rational use. The experimental design has been completely randomized in subdivided plots in the time with six treatments, defined by irrigation blade (T1=0,50xET0; T2=0,75xET0; T3=1,0xET0; T4=1,25xET0; T5=1,5xET0 e T6=1,75 x ETO, and four replications. The study has been conducted at the micro lysimeter. Based on regression analysis, it has been observed that the fitomass production and growth was influenced by water availability. The production and content of the essential oil are inversely proportional to the increase in the irrigation blade. The production of biomass has been obtained from the smaller blade and the evaluation times did not influenciate on their blades.

  6. The herbal medicine Melissa officinalis extract effects on gene expression of p53, Bcl-2, Her2, VEGF-A and hTERT in human lung, breast and prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana; Seidi, Khaled; Monfaredan, Amir; Shafie-Irannejad, Vahid; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Karimian, Ansar; Yousefi, Bahman

    2017-05-20

    Earlier, we verified that Melissa officinalis extract (MOE) elicits potent antiproliferative effects on different human cancer cells. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms accounting for the cytotoxic effects of MOE, we assessed the expression patterns of several prominent molecules with therapeutic potential in cancer by Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cancer cells were grown in complete RPMI 1640 and seeded in 24 well micro plates. After incubation for 72h, 100μg/ml of MOE was added and the cells were further incubated for 72h. Afterwards, the cells were subjected to RNA extraction for the means of Q-PCR. Our results indicated that in PC3 cancer cells, MOE resulted in a significant downregulation of VEGF-A (0.0004 fold), Bcl-2 (0.001 fold), Her2 (0.02 fold), and hTERT (0.023 fold) compared to the untreated control. In addition, VEGF-A and hTERT mRNA were significantly downregulated in MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells, as well. Notably, high anti-angiogenic activity was closely associated with a high anti-telomerase activity of MOE in studying cancer cells. The decrease in VEGF-A expression was significantly superior than that of hTERT downregulation, as PC3 cancer cells with the highest hTERT down regulation (0.023) presented the highest anti VEGF activity (0.0004 fold), whereas MCF-7 cells with the lowest hTERT inhibition (0.213) showed the lowest VEGF inhibition(0.0435) among the three studied cancer cells. We noticed that the modulation of VEGF-A and hTERT gene expression can be considered as a common target, accounting for the therapeutic potential of MOE on human breast, lung and prostate cancer cells. Altogether, it is suggested that the potent antiproliferative activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis is somehow explainable by its high potency to inhibit expression of the prominent oncogenes Bcl2, Her2, VEGF-A and hTERT in prostate cancer. In tumors with functional p53, including MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells, the role

  7. Produtividade da biomassa de melissa em função de intervalo de cortes e doses de nitrogênio Biomass production of Lemon balm as a result of cutting interval and nitrogen levels

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    André May

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Melissa officinalis tem crescido em importância econômica no setor produtivo de plantas medicinais, contudo o nível de informações agronômicas a cerca da espécie é limitado. Dessa forma, foi instalado um experimento visando avaliar a influência do intervalo de cortes e de doses de nitrogênio sobre a produção de biomassa dessa espécie. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo os fatores estudados o intervalo de cortes (30; 42; 54 e 66 dias e dose de nitrogênio (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas a altura da planta e massa seca da parte aérea. Observou-se maior altura da planta para maior intervalo entre corte. Maiores rendimentos de massa seca foram observados com a aplicação de 180 kg ha-1 de N, havendo uma resposta linear para a produção de massa seca com a aplicação de N.Cultivation of Melissa officinalis is increasing in economic importance in the market of medicinal plants, although the level of agronomic information concerning the specie is limited. To achieve those objectives, a trial was carried out to study the influence of cutting intervals and nitrogen levels in biomass production. The experimental design was in blocks with three replications in a 4 x 4 factorial cheme: cutting intervals (30; 42; 54 and 66 days and nitrogen (0; 60; 120 and 180 kg ha-1 of N. The characteristics of plant height and aerial part and accumulated dry mater were evaluated. Increasing the cutting intervals resulted in higher plants. The highest dry matter value was observed using 180 kg ha-1 of N, having a linear reply for the production of dry mass with the application of N.

  8. Tipos de cobertura do solo e épocas de colheita na produção de melissa Types of mulching and harvesting time on lemon balm production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo e épocas de colheita sobre a produção de biomassa e o rendimento de óleo essencial de Melissa officinalis. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, no município de Pinhais-PR, de novembro de 2005 a maio de 2006. Os tratamentos testados foram acículas de pinus, plástico preto e a testemunha sem cobertura. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com seis repetições e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram feitas três colheitas, aos 84, 134 e 191 dias após o plantio, sendo o corte dos ramos feito a 10 cm do solo. Foram avaliados a massa fresca e seca por planta e por hectare e o teor de óleo essencial por hidrodestilação. Não houve efeito significativo da interação entre coberturas do solo e épocas de colheita sobre as características analisadas. Houve decréscimo na produção de biomassa na terceira colheita, uma vez que o rendimento médio de massa seca que foi de 976 e 1135 kg ha-1 na primeira e segunda colheitas, respectivamente, reduziu para 781 kg ha-1 na terceira. O rendimento de óleo essencial também reduziu com as colheitas sucessivas, cujos valores médios foram de 4,63; 2,97 e 0,43 L ha-1 na primeira, segunda e terceira colheitas, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a cobertura do solo com acículas de pinus e plástico preto não interferiram no rendimento de biomassa e de óleo essencial da M. officinalis. O crescimento e o acúmulo de óleo essencial da M. officinalis reduzem nas colheitas realizadas no outono na região de Pinhais-PR.The effect of covering and harvesting time on biomass production and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis was evaluated. The experiment was carried out at the Estação Experimental de Canguiri, Pinhais, Paraná State, Brazil, from November 2005 to May 2006. The treatments included pine needles, black plastic and control without

  9. Melissa officinalis essential oil reduces plasma triglycerides in human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice by inhibiting sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c-dependent fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Byun, Hanna; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) in human APOE2 transgenic mice and lipid-loaded HepG2 cells. Plasma TG concentrations were significantly less in APOE2 mice orally administered MOEO (12.5 μg/d) for 2 wk than in the vehicle-treated group. Cellular TG and cholesterol concentrations were also significantly decreased in a dose- (400 and 800 mg/L) and time- (12 and 24 h) dependent manner in HepG2 cells stimulated with MOEO compared with controls. Mouse hepatic transcriptome analysis suggested MOEO feeding altered several lipid metabolic pathways, including bile acid and cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. In HepG2 cells, the rate of fatty acid oxidation, as assessed using [1-(14)C]palmitate, was unaltered; however, the rate of fatty acid synthesis quantified with [1-(14)C]acetate was significantly reduced by treatment with 400 and 800 mg/L MOEO compared with untreated controls. This reduction was due to the decreased expression of SREBP-1c and its responsive genes in fatty acid synthesis, including FAS, SCD1, and ACC1. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis further demonstrated that the binding of p300/CBP-associated factor, a coactivator of SREBP-1c, and histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation at the FAS, SCD1, and ACC1 promoters were significantly reduced in the livers of APOE2 mice and HepG2 cells treated with MOEO compared with their controls. Additionally, MOEO stimulation in HepG2 cells induced bile acid synthesis and reduced the nuclear form of SREBP-2, a key transcription factor in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. These findings suggest that the intake of phytochemicals with pleasant scent could have beneficial metabolic effects.

  10. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  11. Nobles, Melissa, The Politics of Official Apologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Thaler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Desculpe parece ser a palavra mais difícil”, como nos lembrou Elton John. Como bem de mais sabemos, isto é verdade para as relações interpessoais. E no que se refere às tentativas colectivas de pedir desculpas? Por motivos óbvios, os grupos enfrentam problemas ainda maiores quando procuram expressar arrependimento pelas suas acções: quem é que está em posição de pedir desculpas em nome do colectivo? Pode alguém pedir desculpas por alguma coisa que não fez pessoalmente? Para que servem as des...

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Navy-wide Personnel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    morale, more job security). The confirmatory factor analyses were computed using the MPlus software program (Muthén & Muthén, 2003) while the IRT...Erlbaum. Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (1998-2004). Mplus User’s Guide (3rd Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Olmsted, M.G., & Whittam, K.P

  13. Melissa's Year in Sixth Grade: A Technology Integration Vignette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Jeanie

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, rather than require seventh-grade computer literacy classes, Texas allowed school districts to integrate technology skills into curricula. This article, the first of three, describes technology integration for sixth grade. Includes unit ideas on nations; the Holocaust; Olympic diving; Christmas; probability; organisms; Antarctica;…

  14. Graphical Tools for Linear Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    software packages include AMOS (Arbuckle, 2005), EQS (Bentler, 1989), LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1989), and MPlus (Muthén and Muthén, 2010) among...2010). Mplus : Statistical analysis with latent variables: User’s guide. Muthén & Muthén. Oster, E. (2013). Unobservable selection and coefficient sta

  15. Strategien für die Melissezüchtung (Melissa officinalis

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    Kittler, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Es wurden 120 Melisseherkünfte in Feldversuchen evaluiert. In diesem Material wurde die Variabilität für Winterhärte, Gehalt und Zsammensetzung des ätherischen Öls, Rosmarinsäuregehalt und eingeschränkt Blattertrag beschrieben. Die beschriebene Variabilität ermöglichte die Entwicklung homozygoter Linien mit hoher Eigenleistung für die genannten Zuchtziele bis zur I4-Inzuchtgeneration. Die Kreuzung definierter Linien ermöglichte die Schaffung eines neuen Genpools als Ausgansmaterial für die Entwicklung weiterer aussichtsreicher Linien.

  16. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM.

  17. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L. Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells

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    Kristina Ramanauskienė

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25–0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10–24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions.

  18. Review: Melissa Hardy & Alan Bryman (Eds. (2004. Handbook of Data Analysis

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    Iain Lang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Editors HARDY and BRYMAN present qualitative and quantitative analysis methods in the same book. The individual chapters tend to deal with one or the other approach, though, and there may have been some opportunities missed in terms of discussing both together. The chapters are of high quality and present the current state of knowledge in a wide range of methods. Researchers and students will find the book useful and informative, but this is likely to be a book for libraries rather than individuals to purchase. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602200

  19. Prenatal stimulation program to enhance postnatal bonding / Melissa Martina van der Walt

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Melissa Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The bonding process can start to develop as early as the planning of a pregnancy and can affect the relationship between mother and child through childhood. If proper bonding is not established, the child can present symptoms of depression, failure to thrive or delays in social and emotional, language or motor development. Stimulation programs implemented during pregnancy may positively affect the bonding process that act as a protective factor against negative outcomes in childho...

  20. MELISSA: Towards Automated Detection of Undesirable User Actions in Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.; Bolzoni, D.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We address the detection of process-related threats in control systems used in critical infrastructures. Process-related threats take place when an attacker gains user access rights and performs actions, which look legitimate, but which are intended to disrupt the industrial process. We use logs to

  1. Essential Oil Component in Flower of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

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    Jafer Adinee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition lemon balm essential oil. The essential oil of flowers was obtained by steam distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical components of the essential oil of lemon balm were analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS and 12 substances were identified. The flower oil contained trans-carveol (28.89%, citronellol (25.24%, δ-3-carene (5.26%, citronellal (4.9%, geraniol (2.2%, 1-octene-3-ol (2.03% and spathulenol (2.06%. The trans-carveol in flowers was dominant among components.

  2. Transformation Challenges in the South African Workplace: A Conversation with Melissa Steyn of iNCUDISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Terri

    2007-01-01

    Diversity communication and training are recent phenomena in South African workplaces. The demise of apartheid, new political dispensation, and reentry onto the world stage have all contributed to creating an opportunity for diversity. Accelerated corporate interest in this field may be linked to government pressure, globalization, and the much…

  3. Spirulina acceptability trials in rats. A study for the ``Melissa'' life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquille, N.; Emeis, J. J.; de Chambure, D.; Binot, R.; Tamponnet, C.

    1994-11-01

    Groups of five rats were fed for sixteen weeks a slightly deficient diet, supplemented with 0-40% of a dried preparation of the blue-green alga Spirulina as a protein source. Control groups were fed a normal rat diet. No significant differences between groups were found in food intake, growth rate or carbon dioxide production. All animals remained apparently healthy, and had similar organ weights. The study suggests taht Spirulina may be used as a protein source in rat diets.

  4. Suursaadikud Keskerakonna peakorteris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Melissa Wells kohtus Edgar Savisaare, Peeter Kreitzbergi ja Sven Mikseriga. Kommentaarid suursaadik Melissa Wells'ilt. Suurbritannia suursaadik Sarah Squire Keskerakonna peakorteris

  5. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Silje A. Wolff; Coelho, Liz H.; Irene Karoliussen; Ann-Iren Kittang Jost

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the ...

  6. Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patora, Jolanta; Majda, Teresa; Góra, Józef; Klimek, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Essential oil from a few different population of M. officinalis cultivated in Poland has been investigated. The percentage of essential oil ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 ml/100 g in the leaves and from 0.06 to 0.167 ml/100 g in the herb and was higher in the plant material from experimental patch than that from commercial cultivations. Comparative determinations of the essential oil in fresh and dried material showed slightly higher content of the oil in the fresh one. The analysis of the oil composition has been performed by GC and GC/MS. Great differences in the contents of citral, citronellal, linalool, nerol, geraniol beta-caryophyllene and beta-caryophyllene oxide among the populations has been found. Effect of the harvest time, drying and storage on the composition of lemon balm oil has also been studied.

  7. Influence of Biophysical Priming on Seed Germination and Yield on Two Landraces of Lemon-Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh HOSEINI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effects of physical seed priming on germination and yield of lemon balm. Laboratory and pots experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. The treatments are magnetic field with 75 mT for 10 and 15 min durations; laser light with 2 mw.cm-2 for 20 min; ultrasonic wave with physiotrapy device for 20 min; cs-gamma ray for one hour in lead cell, and control that were applied on two landraces of lemon balm (‘Karaj’, ‘Esfahan’. Then in laboratory with use of special paper and pure water the seeds were cultured in petri-dishes and were putt in germinator with 19°C temperature for 8 days and were counted daily. Some parts of primed seeds were stored in normal condition for 6 months and were cultured in laboratory condition. All the primed seeds were farmed in pots. Three months later the plants were harvested in first blooming level and dry weight and essential oil percentage were measured. Results showed that the influence of various treatments on germination percentage and germination rate were significant. Magnetic field treatment (15 min showed the highest positive effect on percentage (86%, and rate. The length and weight of seedling in magnetic field treatment were the highest in comparison with other ones. Considering physiological characteristics, the higher Leaf Area Ratio and Leaf Area Index were seen in magnetic field. Effect of different treatments on plant height, biomass dry weight and essential oil concentration was significant.

  8. Spatial ecology, dispersal patterns and monitoring methods for the Karner blue butterfly, Lycaides melissa samuelis on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study discusses disperal research that was conducted on three sites on the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1995. In addtion, three survey...

  9. Influence of Biophysical Priming on Seed Germination and Yield on Two Landraces of Lemon-Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh HOSEINI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effects of physical seed priming on germination and yield of lemon balm. Laboratory and pots experiments were conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design. The treatments are magnetic field with 75 mT for 10 and 15 min durations; laser light with 2 mw.cm-2 for 20 min; ultrasonic wave with physiotrapy device for 20 min; cs-gamma ray for one hour in lead cell, and control that were applied on two landraces of lemon balm (‘Karaj’, ‘Esfahan’. Then in laboratory with use of special paper and pure water the seeds were cultured in petri-dishes and were putt in germinator with 19°C temperature for 8 days and were counted daily. Some parts of primed seeds were stored in normal condition for 6 months and were cultured in laboratory condition. All the primed seeds were farmed in pots. Three months later the plants were harvested in first blooming level and dry weight and essential oil percentage were measured. Results showed that the influence of various treatments on germination percentage and germination rate were significant. Magnetic field treatment (15 min showed the highest positive effect on percentage (86%, and rate. The length and weight of seedling in magnetic field treatment were the highest in comparison with other ones. Considering physiological characteristics, the higher Leaf Area Ratio and Leaf Area Index were seen in magnetic field. Effect of different treatments on plant height, biomass dry weight and essential oil concentration was significant.

  10. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender

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    Adefunmilayo E Taiwo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length.

  11. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

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    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  12. Students with Non-Proficient Information Seeking Skills Greatly Over-Estimate Their Abilities. A Review of: Gross, Melissa, and Don Latham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study is an investigation of the relationship between students’ self-assessment of their information literacy skills and their actual skill level, as well as an analysis of whether library anxiety is related to information skill attainment. Design – Quantitative research design (Information Literacy Test (ILT, Library Anxiety Scale (LAS, pre and post surveys.Setting – Florida State University, United States.Subjects – Students, incoming freshmen.Methods – Information literacy skills were measured using the Information Literacy Test (ILT, presenting subjects with 65 multiple choice items designed around four of the five ACRL information literacy standards, in which students were expectedto: 1 determine the nature and extent of the information needed; 2 access needed information effectively and efficiently; 3 evaluate information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his/her knowledge base system; 4 understand many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally. The ILT categorized participant scores as non-proficient(Main Results – The main aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that students who test non-proficient on an information literacy test tend to overestimate their competency to a higher degree than proficient and advanced students. In the pre- and post-surveys, the students were asked to estimate their performance onthe ILT in terms of the expected percentage of questions they would answer correctly, the number of questions they expected to answer correctly, and how their performance on the ILT would compare toothers taking the test (in percentage. The results of the study show that all students overestimate their abilities, both in terms of performance and relative performance, in the pre-survey. The estimated percentage correct answers for the whole group was 75%, but the actual percentage correct was 65%. The estimated score was 50 and the actual 39, and the estimated comparison with their peers was 77% and the actual 53%. All three measures demonstrated a significant difference between estimated and actual values. On the ILT, the mean score for the bottom tier of the students was 34, and the mean score for the top tier was 42, showing a significant difference between the top and bottom tier in a t-test. On the ILT, 23 students scored less than 39 (= nonproficient, 27 scored between 39-53 (proficient. Only one student, a top quartile participant, showed advanced information literacy skills (a score above 53. In the post-survey, the students still over-estimated their performance, but to a lesser degree. All three groups adjusted their self-estimates in the post-survey in response to information skills testing, but the non-proficient group over-estimated their skills to a higher degree, on both pre-and post-surveys. The estimated percentage correct answers for the whole group was69%, but the actual was 65%, the estimated score was 44 and the actual 39, and the estimated comparison with their peers was 70% and the actual 53%. All three measures demonstrated a significant difference. All results show that the original hypothesis holds: non-proficient students over-estimate their abilities to a greater degree, both in terms of score and performance relative totheir peers. The LAS was used to see if there was a relationship between student scores on the ILT and library anxiety. Bi-variate analysis was performed on the ILT scores and student total scores on the LAS, and the results show that library anxiety tended to decrease with higher scores on the ILT. This result was not expected from the theory. In the pre-survey, the students were asked how they had obtained their information literacy skills. The top tier indicated a reliance on more formal sources (e.g. school library media center, classroom, and/or public library, while the bottom tier relied on less formal sources (e.g. friends and self-teaching. This suggested that li

  13. Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pereira Müzell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the bioactive properties of an aqueous extract of M. officinalis for its anti-inflammatory activity and its protection against hepatic and renal lesions induced by acetaminophen (APAP. Animals pre-treated with the crude extract in pleurisy induced by carrageenan showed a reduction in the amounts of exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Intragastric administration of the extract for seven days prior to the APAP-induced lesion showed no protective effect on the liver. The treatment with the extract induced an increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase, indicating a rise of toxicity. Contrarily, the same treatment reduced the APAP induced lesion in kidney, with respect to ν-glutamyltransferase. The results suggested that the extract was not hepatoprotective and could lead to an increase in the lesions induced by the APAP. On the other hand, the extract was nephroprotective against the lesions induced by the APAP and showed an anti-inflammatory effect on pleurisy carrageenan-induced.

  14. Antioxidant effect of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and mate tea (Ilex paraguensys) on quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation of cryopreserved boar epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, V; Gil, L; Olaciregui, M; Jerez, R A; de Blas, I; Hozbor, F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective ability of the addition of two antioxidant herb extracts, mate tea and lemon balm, on boar epididymal frozen-thawed spermatozoa quality. Testes from mature boars were collected at local slaughterhouse, and sperm samples from epididymis were recovered by flushing. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of lemon balm and mate tea (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 g l(-1) ) using the straw-freezing procedure. Motion parameters, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, lipoperoxidation levels and DNA oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine base lesion) were evaluated. There were no differences among experimental groups with regard to motility characteristics, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity; however, the highest concentration of lemon balm produced significant (P < 0.05) improvement in curvilinear trajectory, straightness and amplitude of lateral head displacement after thawing. The supplementation of freezing extender with mate tea and lemon balm reduced sperm lipid membrane peroxidation, and only mate tea protected DNA against oxidative damage during cryopreservation at 120 min post-thawing (P < 0.05). Mate tea experimental extender at concentration of 10 g l(-1) showed the lowest percentage of sperm oxidised DNA and malondialdehyde generation; thus, mate tea is a potential candidate such as antioxidant compound on boar sperm cryopreservation medium. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Interaction Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nutritional Conditions on Physiological Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud SHOOR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide enrichment and nutritional improvement can increase photosynthesis and growth of different crops. The aim of the present study was to assess interaction effects of CO2 enrichment and fertilizer on physiological characteristics and lemon balm essential oil. Experimental units were composed of CO2 at 380, 700, and 1050 ppm with and without manure and N fertilizer application. A continuous increasing trend of individual plant leaf area, total dry weight accumulation and relative growth ratio were recorded with CO2 enrichment. When CO2 was elevated from 380 to 1050 ppm, the values of height (24.3%, SPAD reading (2.7%, essential oil yield (26.3% and final yield (65.3% were increased, unlike, stomatal conductance (35.2% and essential oil percentage (53% were decreased. The highest and the lowest values (except for oil percentage were obtained under N and no fertilizer application, respectively. Except for SPAD, interaction between CO2 enrichment and each fertilizer on all measured characteristics had a significant effect, so that CO2 effect was intensified by applying each fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that when temperature increase caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not a limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will improve lemon balm biomass and essential oil yield.

  16. Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    catenatus Eastern massasauga Candidate Lycaeides melissa samuelis Karner blue butterfly Endangered Source. USFWS, 2009j. 3-42 Environmental...crane Non-essential Experimental Population Sistrurus catenatus catenatus Eastern massasauga Candidate Lycaeides melissa samuelis Karner blue

  17. 78 FR 67348 - Invitation for Public Comment on Draft Test Plan for the High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...: U.S. Department of Energy, C/O Melissa Bates, 1955 Freemont Ave., MS 1235, Idaho Falls, ID 83415..., 1955 Fremont Ave., Attn: Melissa Bates, Idaho Falls, ID, between 8 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. MT, Monday.... Melissa Bates, Contracting Officers Representative, High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and...

  18. Better management of multimorbidity: a critical look at the 'Ariadne principles'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bower, Peter

    2014-01-01

    .... The correspondence paper by Muth et al. entitled 'The Ariadne principles: how to handle multimorbidity in primary care consultations' outlines new thinking on a better way to manage the challenges of decision-making in multimorbidity...

  19. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...-839213 Applicant: David P. Muth, Martinez, California The applicant requests a permit renewal to take...-804203 Applicant: Stephen J. Meyers, Moreno Valley, California The applicant requests a permit renewal to...

  20. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...

  1. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...

  2. Detection of unobserved heterogeneity with growth mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Jost Reinecke; Luca Mariotti

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve models as structural equation models are extensively discussedin various research fields (Duncan et al., 2006). Recent methodological and statisticalextension are focused on the consideration of unobserved heterogeneity in empiricaldata. Muth´en extended the classical structural equation approach by mixture components,i. e. categorical latent classes (Muth´en 2002, 2004, 2007).The paper will discuss applications of growth mixture models with data from oneof the first panel...

  3. Over consumption. A horse race of Bayesian DSGE models

    OpenAIRE

    Argentiero, Amedeo; Bovi, Maurizio; Cerqueti, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models are populated by fully-informed-optimising Muth-rational agents. This kind of agent is at odds with well-known psychological biases, not to mention real life people. In particular, there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that consumers are overly optimistic. Also, the size of over optimism is likely to show cyclical features. In this paper we simulate two DSGE models, one standard with Muth-rational consumers,...

  4. Nonlinear Structured Growth Mixture Models in Mplus and OpenMx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne

    2014-01-01

    Growth mixture models (GMMs; Muthén & Muthén, 2000; Muthén & Shedden, 1999) are a combination of latent curve models (LCMs) and finite mixture models to examine the existence of latent classes that follow distinct developmental patterns. GMMs are often fit with linear, latent basis, multiphase, or polynomial change models because of their common use, flexibility in modeling many types of change patterns, the availability of statistical programs to fit such models, and the ease of programming. In this paper, we present additional ways of modeling nonlinear change patterns with GMMs. Specifically, we show how LCMs that follow specific nonlinear functions can be extended to examine the presence of multiple latent classes using the Mplus and OpenMx computer programs. These models are fit to longitudinal reading data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to illustrate their use. PMID:25419006

  5. Nonlinear Structured Growth Mixture Models in Mplus and OpenMx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne

    2010-01-01

    Growth mixture models (GMMs; Muthén & Muthén, 2000; Muthén & Shedden, 1999) are a combination of latent curve models (LCMs) and finite mixture models to examine the existence of latent classes that follow distinct developmental patterns. GMMs are often fit with linear, latent basis, multiphase, or polynomial change models because of their common use, flexibility in modeling many types of change patterns, the availability of statistical programs to fit such models, and the ease of programming. In this paper, we present additional ways of modeling nonlinear change patterns with GMMs. Specifically, we show how LCMs that follow specific nonlinear functions can be extended to examine the presence of multiple latent classes using the Mplus and OpenMx computer programs. These models are fit to longitudinal reading data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to illustrate their use.

  6. William A. Gleason. The Leisure Ethic : Work and Play in American Literature, 1840‑1940.Melissa Dabakis. Visualizing Labor in American Sculpture : Monuments, Manliness, and the Work Ethic, 1880‑1935.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Karsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Both of these books investigate changing conceptions of work from the Gilded Age to the eve of World War II. Gleason approaches his goal through an examination of leisure, the counterpoint to work. By studying the growing emphasis on notions of leisure and the role of play in forming the self and in defining the larger national identity, he emphasizes the shifting terrain of authority and social control away from the factory, focal point of industrial capitalism, to the playground. His source...

  7. Relationships of Stress Exposures to Health in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    undetermined maximum. Estimation (using Mplus 3.11, Muth6n & Muth6n, 2004) failed when extracting six or more classes, imposing a practical limit of...placed on them by the model and so they are not amenable to the FIML-based estimation in Mplus . In order to retain 810 cases that had missing values on...Factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and path analysis were all conducted using Mplus 3.11 (Muthrn & Muthrn, 2004). B. RESULTS Study population 8

  8. 77 FR 9610 - Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Reclassification of Sorbent Hemoperfusion Devices for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... prolonged and costly hospital stays. In 2009, there were approximately 43,500 patients hospitalized in the... CONTACT: Melissa Burns, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66, rm. 1646, Silver Spring, MD 20993, 301-796-5616, melissa.burns@fda.hhs...

  9. Cyberethics: Identifying the Moral, Legal and Social Issues of Cybertechnology in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S.; Wang, Tao

    2008-01-01

    Two computer viruses that have caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damage over the past four years are the Melissa and the Sasser virus. In March of 1999, the Melissa virus first appeared on the Internet and spread rapidly throughout computer systems in the United States and Europe. The virus made its way through 1.2 million computers in the…

  10. The Building Loads Analysis System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program, Version 2.0: Input Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    skills and determination Ms Ml Seala was the consulting editor on this Bl AS I Input Booklet All versions ol the Bl AS I program are copyrighted bj...Array A/ muth An<|ir Mass f low Co toi fttea Heat Content ol I T.ink Coliectoi Ht Excg Efl ’.’ . • im So ii rant Temp Elect I m

  11. Measurement Bias in Multilevel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement bias can be detected using structural equation modeling (SEM), by testing measurement invariance with multigroup factor analysis (Jöreskog, 1971;Meredith, 1993;Sörbom, 1974) MIMIC modeling (Muthén, 1989) or restricted factor analysis (Oort, 1992,1998). In educational research, data often

  12. Measurement bias in multilevel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Oort, F.J.; Dolan, C.V.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement bias can be detected using structural equation modeling (SEM), by testing measurement invariance with multigroup factor analysis (Jöreskog, 1971;Meredith, 1993;Sörbom, 1974) MIMIC modeling (Muthén, 1989) or restricted factor analysis (Oort, 1992,1998). In educational research, data often

  13. Capital as a Center of State-building: Historical Memory about ‘Capitalness’ in Kasimov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Savin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns functional elements of “capital” at the example of the Russian provincial town – Kasimov and seeks to explain the influence of the muth about “capitalness” on the construction of a nation. 

  14. Dual daughter strand incision is processive and increases the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hermans (Nicolaas); C. Laffeber; M. Cristovao (Michele); Artola-Borán, M. (Mariela); Mardenborough, Y. (Yannicka); P. Ikpa (Pauline); Jaddoe, A. (Aruna); H.H.K. Winterwerp (Herrie); C. Wyman (Claire); J. Jiricny (Josef); R. Kanaar (Roland); P. Friedhoff (Peter); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily-conserved process responsible for the repair of replication errors. In Escherichia coli, MMR is initiated by MutS and MutL, which activate MutH to incise transiently-hemimethylated GATC sites. MMR efficiency depends on the distribution of th

  15. Supporting Meteorological Field Experiment Missions and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    rely on the magnitude of the AMSU-A observed warm core (Fig. 5) and are further de- scribed in DeMuth et al. (2006) and Herndon et al. (2004). Since...REFERENCES Demuth , J. L., M. DeMaria, and J. A. Knaff, 2006: Im- provement of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit tropical cyclone intensity and size

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 317 ... Working with Groups by Lilly Becker (ed.) Abstract ... Ciara Wynne, Caoimhe Doyle, Rachel Kenny, Eileen Brosnan, John Sharry ... Karmel W. Choi, Melissa H. Watt, Donald Skinner, Seth C. Kalichman, Kathleen J. Sikkema.

  17. 77 FR 37570 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for a Pacemaker Programmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... requirements. DATES: This rule is effective September 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melissa Burns... being placed in commercial distribution. Dated: June 18, 2012. Nancy K. Stade, Deputy Director...

  18. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  19. 76 FR 42949 - Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Release. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David P. Bartels, Attorney-Adviser, Michael J. Spratt, Attorney-Adviser, Jennifer R. Porter, Senior Counsel, Devin F. Sullivan, Senior Counsel, Melissa A. Roverts,...

  20. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... cell suspension culture in Melissa officinalis L. H. Meftahizade1*, M. .... In other experiments, Hypocotyls were used as explants. These were excised from 10, ... Complete Randomized Design (CRD) by SAS 9. Acclimatization.

  1. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 14, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Christa Chidrawi, Minrie Greeff, Q. Michael Temane, Suria Ellis ... Christopher J Burman, Marota Aphane, Peter Delobelle ... Charles Kamen, Jill Arganbright, Eliza Kienitz, Melissa Weller, Anna Khaylis, Tammy Shenkman, Sarah Smith, ...

  2. Variable breeding phenology affects the exposure of amphibian embryos to ultraviolet radiation: Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Muths, E.

    2004-01-01

    Corn and Muths (2002) describe how seasonal and annual variation in estimated flux of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, combined with year-to-year variation in amphibian breeding, phenology, introduces considerable variability in the UV-B exposures to amphibians. The response to our paper by Blaustein et al. (2004) misstates the objective and conclusions of our study, contains other errors of interpretation, and critiques our study for adopting practices that they themselves use. We are confident that an unbiased assessment will show that the conclusions of Corn and Muths (2002) are valid and robust with respect to montane amphibians, and that the criticisms raised by Blaustein et al. (2004) are either invalid or irrelevant.

  3. Advanced Hemostatic Dressing Development Program: Animal Model Selection Criteria and Results of a Study of Nine Hemostatic Dressings in a Model of Severe Large Venous Hemorrhage and Hepatic Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    may be related to enhanced platelet procoagulant activity and annexin V binding.46 Another derivative of gallic acid , bis- muth subgallate, appears to...is described. We studied the effects of nine hemostatic dressings on blood loss using a model of severe venous hemorrhage and hepatic injury in swine...Methods: Swine were treated using one of nine hemostatic dressings. Dress- ings used the following primary active ingredients: microfibrillar

  4. Survey of Collision Avoidance and Ranging Sensors for Mobile Robots. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    AD-A269 846 Technical Report 1194 December 1992 Survey of Collision Avoidance and Ranging Sensors for Mobile Robots Revision 1 H. R. Everett D. E...Survey of Collision Avoidance and Ranging Sensors for Mobile Robots Revision 1 H. R. Everett D. E. DeMuth E. H. Stitz Accesior. For NTIS CRA&M DTIC TAB...3.3.7 Error Eliminating Rapid Ultrasonic Firing ........................ 118 3.3.8 Potential Field Obstacle Avoidance for Large Mobile Robots ........ 118

  5. Selecting Soldiers and Civilians into the U.S. Army Officer Candidate School : Developing Empirical Selection Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Studies have shown that missing data can lead to low power and downwardly biased estimates of model parameters ( Enders & Bandalos, 2001; Muthén, Kaplan...listwise, or pairwise deletion ( Enders , 2001). FIML uses all of the available data to estimate the likelihood value of the parameter estimates for each... Enders , 2006). Note that unlike other missing data estimation methods, data are not imputed into the database. FIML accounts for missing data by

  6. A replication of a factor analysis of motivations for trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan; Fulton, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using a 2013 sample of Minnesota trappers, we employed confirmatory factor analysis to replicate an exploratory factor analysis of trapping motivations conducted by Daigle, Muth, Zwick, and Glass (1998).  We employed the same 25 items used by Daigle et al. and tested the same five-factor structure using a recent sample of Minnesota trappers. We also compared motivations in our sample to those reported by Daigle et el.

  7. Sex determination of human skeletal populations using latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Zhang, Zhen; Pierce, Steven J

    2013-08-01

    Accurately estimating biological sex from the human skeleton can be especially difficult for fragmentary or incomplete remains often encountered in bioarchaeological contexts. Where typical anatomically dimorphic skeletal regions are incomplete or absent, observers often take their best guess to classify biological sex. Latent profile analysis (LPA) is a mixture modeling technique which uses observed continuous data to estimate unobserved categorical group membership using posterior probabilities. In this study, sex is the latent variable (male and female are the two latent classes), and the indicator variables used here were eight standard linear measurements (long bone lengths, diaphyseal and articular breadths, and circumferences). Mplus (Muthén and Muthén: Mplus user's guide, 6th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén, 2010) was used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for latent class membership from a known sample of individuals from the forensic data bank (FDB) (Jantz and Moore-Jansen: Database for forensic anthropology in the United States 1962-1991, Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2000) (n = 1,831), yielding 87% of correct classification for sex. Then, a simulation extracted 5,000 different random samples of 206 complete cases each from the FDB (these cases also had known sex). We then artificially imposed patterns of missing data similar to that observed in a poorly preserved bioarchaeological sample from Medieval Asturias, Spain (n = 206), and ran LPA on each sample. This tested the efficacy of LPA under extreme conditions of poor preservation (missing data, 42%). The simulation yielded an average of 82% accuracy, indicating that LPA is robust to large amounts of missing data when analyzing incomplete skeletons.

  8. Stress and Immunity Breast Cancer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    anxiety (Finlay-Jones & Brown, 1981; Manfro et al., 1996), anorexia nervosa (Horesh et al., 1995), and psychosis (Bebbington et al., 1993...Horesh, N., Apter, A., Lepkifker, E., & Ratzoni, G., et al. (1995). Life events and severe anorexia nervosa in adolescence. Acta Psychiatrica...284-298. Muth, J.L., & Cash, T.J. (1997). Body-image attitudes: What difference does gender make? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1438-1452

  9. Low-cost, High Performance Avalanche Photodiodes for Enabling High Sensitivity Bio-fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    224–231. 9. Muth, J. F.; Brown, J. D.; Johnson , M.A.L.; Yu, Shonghai; Kolbas, R. M.; Cook , Jr. J. W.; Schetzina, J. F. Absorption Coefficient and...using a titanium (Ti)/Al/nickel (Ni)/gold (Au) ohmic metal ring contact on the top n-GaN layer and a Ni/Ti/Al/Ni ohmic contact to the p-SiC layer

  10. Latent trajectory studies: the basics, how to interpret the results, and what to report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens van de Schoot

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In statistics, tools have been developed to estimate individual change over time. Also, the existence of latent trajectories, where individuals are captured by trajectories that are unobserved (latent, can be evaluated (Muthén & Muthén, 2000. The method used to evaluate such trajectories is called Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM or Latent Class Growth Modeling (LCGA. The difference between the two models is whether variance within latent classes is allowed for (Jung & Wickrama, 2008. The default approach most often used when estimating such models begins with estimating a single cluster model, where only a single underlying group is presumed. Next, several additional models are estimated with an increasing number of clusters (latent groups or classes. For each of these models, the software is allowed to estimate all parameters without any restrictions. A final model is chosen based on model comparison tools, for example, using the BIC, the bootstrapped chi-square test, or the Lo-Mendell-Rubin test. Method: To ease the use of LGMM/LCGA step by step in this symposium (Van de Schoot, 2015 guidelines are presented which can be used for researchers applying the methods to longitudinal data, for example, the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after trauma (Depaoli, van de Schoot, van Loey, & Sijbrandij, 2015; Galatzer-Levy, 2015. The guidelines include how to use the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998–2012 to run the set of models needed to answer the research question: how many latent classes exist in the data? The next step described in the guidelines is how to add covariates/predictors to predict class membership using the three-step approach (Vermunt, 2010. Lastly, it described what essentials to report in the paper. Conclusions: When applying LGMM/LCGA models for the first time, the guidelines presented can be used to guide what models to run and what to report.

  11. Semantic Stability is More Pleasurable in Unstable Episodic Contexts. On the Relevance of Perceptual Challenge in Art Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Claudia; Raab, Marius H; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of psychological aesthetics points to the appeal of stimuli which defy easy recognition by being "semantically unstable" but which still allow for creating meaning-in the ongoing process of elaborative perception or as an end product of the entire process. Such effects were reported for hidden images (Muth and Carbon, 2013) as well as Cubist artworks concealing detectable-although fragmented-objects (Muth et al., 2013). To test the stability of the relationship between semantic determinacy and appreciation across different episodic contexts, 30 volunteers evaluated an artistic movie continuously on visual determinacy or liking via the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP, Muth et al., 2015b). The movie consisted of five episodes with emerging Gestalts. In the first between-participants condition, the hidden Gestalts in the movie episodes were of increasing determinacy, in the second condition, the episodes showed decreasing determinacies of hidden Gestalts. In the increasing-determinacy group, visual determinacy was rated higher and showed better predictive quality for liking than in the decreasing-determinacy group. Furthermore, when the movie started with low visual determinacy of hidden Gestalts, unexpectedly strong increases in visual determinacy had a bigger effect on liking than in the condition which allowed for weaker Gestalt recognition after having started with highly determinate Gestalts. The resulting pattern calls for consideration of the episodic context when examining art appreciation.

  12. Semantic stability is more pleasurable in unstable episodic contexts. On the relevance of perceptual challenge in art appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMuth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of psychological aesthetics points to the appeal of stimuli which defy easy recognition by being semantically unstable but which still allow for creating meaning—in the ongoing process of elaborative perception or as an end product of the entire process. Such effects were reported for hidden images (Muth & Carbon, 2013 as well as Cubist artworks concealing detectable—although fragmented—objects (Muth, Pepperell, & Carbon, 2013. To test the stability of the relationship between semantic determinacy and appreciation across different episodic contexts, 30 volunteers evaluated an artistic movie continuously on visual determinacy or liking via the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP, Muth, Raab, & Carbon, 2015. The movie consisted of five episodes with emerging Gestalts. In the first between-participants condition, the hidden Gestalts in the movie episodes were of increasing determinacy, in the second condition, the episodes showed decreasing determinacies of hidden Gestalts. In the increasing-determinacy group, visual determinacy was rated higher and showed better predictive quality for liking than in the decreasing-determinacy group. Furthermore, when the movie started with low visual determinacy of hidden Gestalts, unexpectedly strong increases in visual determinacy had a bigger effect on liking than in the condition which allowed for weaker Gestalt recognition after having started with highly determinate Gestalts. The resulting pattern calls for consideration of the episodic context when examining art appreciation.

  13. Functions of the MMR system and special roles of mutL in bacterial evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN GONG; RU JING JIA

    2006-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair guards the integrity of the genome of almost all organisms by correcting DNA biosynthetic errors and by ensuring the fidelity of homologous genetic recombination. MutL is one of the important proteins involved in mismatch repair system. It has been suggested to function as a master coordinator or molecular matchmaker because it interacts physically with MutS, the endonuclease MutH, and DNA helicase UvrD. It also binds to DNA and has an ATPase activity. MutL defective bacteria strains have elevated mutation rates and it has been reported recently that MutL defect may have an important impact on bacterial evolution.

  14. Inventories, Factor Demand and Capacity Utilization : the Long and Short Run Structure

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An ECM is derived from first order conditions of a factor demand model. Decisions on inventory stock and capacity utilization are (endogenously) modelled, by which a large systems of equations results. Within this system the exogeneity of real factor prices as well as sales in tested. The role of inventory stock in the long run, i.e. as a precautionary measure (according to Holt, Modigliani, Muth and Simon (1960) and/or as a production factor (Kydland and Prescott (1982), Christiano (1988) ar...

  15. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145-2,099?µatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  16. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005▿

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, P. J.; Morin, N.; Mergeay, M; Leroy, B.; Wattiez, R; Vallaeys, T.; Waleron, K.; Waleron, M.; Wilmotte, A.; Quillardet, P; de Marsac, N. Tandeau; Talla, E.; Zhang, C.-C.; Leys, N.

    2010-01-01

    We determined the genome sequence of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005, a cyanobacterial strain of great interest to the European Space Agency for its nutritive value and oxygenic properties in the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) biological life support system for long-term manned missions into space.

  17. 75 FR 24966 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... requests a permit to take (capture, rear and release) Karner blue butterflies (Lycaeides melissa samuelis... involve capture of adult butterflies for captive rearing, experimental treatments on captive-reared larvae... in the Karner blue butterfly recovery plan and are aimed at enhancement of survival of the species in...

  18. Exposing Triple Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Angela P.

    2011-01-01

    Publicists often advise authors to be ready at a moment's notice to give the "elevator speech" about their books to anybody and everybody who will listen. Dr. Melissa V. Harris-Perry, the Tulane University professor, MSNBC commentator and pundit, is no stranger to media interviews. When she talked to Diverse weeks before the book was due out, she…

  19. Collection Development "Gay Parenting": Building Rainbow Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    While gay parenthood has existed from time immemorial, it has only emerged as a viable means of family building within the past 20 years. Celebrities like Melissa Etheridge, who had children with ex-partner Julie Cypher and sperm donor David Crosby, and Rosie O'Donnell, who adopted, have ushered gay parenting into the popular consciousness and…

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00742-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ORKING DRAFT SEQU... 38 5.5 5 ( CR855214 ) Oryza sativa genomic DNA, chromosome 4, BAC clone... 36 5.5 5 ( AF338937 ) Lycaeides melis...sa isolate J3 control region, part... 32 5.5 3 ( AY68943

  1. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts--in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahucky, Rudolf; Nuernberg, Karin; Kovac, Lubomir; Bucko, Ondrej; Nuernberg, Gerd

    2010-08-01

    The antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts was assessed in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. In the in vitro experiment, the anti-oxidative capacity of ethanol-water extract of Melissa officinalis (MW), ethanol-propylene-glycol extracts of M. officinalis (MP), Origanum vulgaris (O) and Salvia officinalis (S) at different dilutions was analysed. Furthermore a 2% essential oil concentrate was added to Origanum (OSi) and Salvia (SSi). In the two in vivo experiments in total 104 Slovak White Meaty pigs were fed with plant extracts (MW and O) at different doses with/without additional vitamin E. In the in vitro experiment Melissa (MW) showed a higher antioxidant potential compared to Origanum and Salvia assessed by TEAC assay. Addition of essential oil to Origanum improved substantially the anti-oxidative capacity. In the in vivo experiment the highest muscle anti-oxidative effect was obtained by feeding 60 ml Origanum. Small improvement in muscle antioxidant potential was observed by feeding Melissa or Origanum in combination with vitamin E. By feeding 10 ml Melissa, Origanum or Salvia the meat quality parameters such as pH(1) and pH(24), drip loss and shear force was not affected. After 5 days storage of meat the redness value was positively affected. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Operationalizing Cyberspace for Today’s Combat Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    top-cyber-security-risks/#trends ( accesed 12 March 2010). 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 Dr. Daniel T. Kuehl, (Professor, National Defense...trends ( accesed 12 March 2010). SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security Institute. “Intrusion Detection FAQ: What was the Melissa virus and what can we

  3. Tying up sündroom ehk väsimusmüopaatia : [hobustel] / Anne Rohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohtla, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Väsimusmüopaatia on kestvusratsutamishobustel esinev seisund, mida väljendadavad tunnused võivad olla vaevumärgatavad. Samas võib selline seisund areneda eluohlikuks, kui sellese ei sekkuta. Artikkel sisaldab ka refereeringut Melissa Ribley artiklist "Watch for the subtle signs of exertional myopathy"

  4. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  5. PD Pathways: Attending a Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott; Marcou, Darcy; Lange, Melissa; Konitzer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    For two weeks during Summer 2009, three elementary school teachers--Darcy Marcou, Melissa Lange, and Andrea Konitzer--participated in a science institute directed by Scott Ashmann, a science education professor at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. The purpose of this institute for elementary school teachers was to learn (a) more about Earth…

  6. Another Perspective: El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Herein, Tricia Tunstall presents a critique of the article by Melissa Lesniak published in the December 2012 "Music Educators Journal," and offers a new perspective on the Venezuelan youth orchestra program known as "El Sistema." The program, which began in Caracas thirty-eight years ago, is dedicated to changing the lives of…

  7. Things to Remember about El Sistema: A Response to "El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators" by Tricia Tunstall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Melissa Lesniak, the executive director of the Greater Miami Youth Symphony, discusses how much she enjoyed reading the responses to her "El Sistema" article and appreciates the opportunity for healthy dialogue and debate. In response, she states that there are many common goals and objectives across all music education programs that can…

  8. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Research Investigator. ● Matthew B. Young, BS. Title: Graduate Research Assistant ● Melissa M. Lestini, MD, PhD. Title: Neonatology Research...Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6084, and 2Division of Neonatology , Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 Memories for...Lestini’s present address: Division of Neonatology , Department of Pediatrics, Hackensack University Med- ical Center, 30 Prospect Avenue, Hackensack

  9. Engaging Honors Students through Newspaper Blackout Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenheim, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the author's attempt to convince her students that poetry can be "their thing," and also show them how much it can shape the way they think about the world and their place in it. In this article Melissa Ladenheim describes the technique known as "newspaper blackout" poetry. The exciting thing about this…

  10. Modeling Water Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) are not new to those in engineering or mathematics, but they were new to Melissa Parks. Model-eliciting activities are simulated real-world problems that integrate engineering, mathematical, and scientific thinking as students find solutions for specific scenarios. During this process, students generate solutions…

  11. Genetic Factors in Breast Cancer: Center for Interdisciplinary Biobehavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Cancer Institute of New Jersey); Erin Moshier, Elizabeth Zaita, Katie Dorn, Anneisha Camp- bell, Ana Estevez, Joan Bratton, Melissa Solis, Sherly Jacob...18) Costa -Pinto FA, Palermo-Neto J: Neuroimmune interactions in stress, Neuroimmunomodulation 2010; 17(3):196-9. 19) Smith AJP, Humphries SE

  12. The Viability of the English Major in the Current Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In an April, 2012 Wall Street Journal article titled "Wealth or Waste? Rethinking the Value of a Business Major," national reporter Melissa Korn explores an intriguing fact: the business major, the most popular major on college campuses for over 30 years and the discipline believed to be most economically viable by prospective college…

  13. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., Attention: Melissa Shurland, Office of Research and Development, Mail Stop 20, Room W36-429, 1200 New Jersey... alternatives to these products. Currently in the railroad industry petroleum-based fuel and lubricants are used... FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...

  14. Army AL&T, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Contracting Center Rosanne Spencer , U.S. Army TACOM LCMC, Rock Island Arsenal, IL Outstanding Contracting Officer Logistics Support (Sustainment...Command — Brenda Jackson-Sewell (PCO), Melissa Rider (Deputy Director/PARC) Space and Missile Defense Command — John Mason (PCO), Garfield W. Boon Jr

  15. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  16. Welcome to the Poster Website | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Melissa Porter, Executive Editor The Poster newsletter staff is pleased to present you with the all-new Poster website. Now you can access all the latest information from the National Cancer Institute at Frederick from your smart phone, tablet, notebook, or any other device with an Internet connection.

  17. Tying up sündroom ehk väsimusmüopaatia : [hobustel] / Anne Rohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohtla, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Väsimusmüopaatia on kestvusratsutamishobustel esinev seisund, mida väljendadavad tunnused võivad olla vaevumärgatavad. Samas võib selline seisund areneda eluohlikuks, kui sellese ei sekkuta. Artikkel sisaldab ka refereeringut Melissa Ribley artiklist "Watch for the subtle signs of exertional myopathy"

  18. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  19. Another Perspective: El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Herein, Tricia Tunstall presents a critique of the article by Melissa Lesniak published in the December 2012 "Music Educators Journal," and offers a new perspective on the Venezuelan youth orchestra program known as "El Sistema." The program, which began in Caracas thirty-eight years ago, is dedicated to changing the lives of…

  20. Things to Remember about El Sistema: A Response to "El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators" by Tricia Tunstall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Melissa Lesniak, the executive director of the Greater Miami Youth Symphony, discusses how much she enjoyed reading the responses to her "El Sistema" article and appreciates the opportunity for healthy dialogue and debate. In response, she states that there are many common goals and objectives across all music education programs that can…

  1. How Can We Motivate Struggling Latino Adolescents to Read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    When working as a teacher of deaf students, Melissa Herzig's school was a magnet high school just five minutes from the border of Mexico, where 95 percent of the students were Latinos. The deaf students' experiences with languages may involve using American Sign Language (ASL), a sign language they may have learned in their home country, English,…

  2. Using Self-Efficacy to Measure Primary School Teachers' Perception of ICT: Results from Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, F.; Rega, I.; Cantoni, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, the final results of two research projects, which investigated the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on primary schools teachers in disadvantaged areas in Brazil (BET k-12) and South Africa (MELISSA), are presented and discussed. Second, the Self-Efficacy construct is proposed as a…

  3. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid communityErik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas11US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New MexicoThe El Paso Children's He...

  4. Do I hear... anyone here? Tax-exempt healthcare facilities have taken a hit on auction-rate securities as the mortgage meltdown has investors skittish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-02-25

    The crisis in auction-rate securities is coming down hard on tax-exempt providers. Buyers are disappearing, sending interest rates soaring. Some hospitals and other healthcare borrowers are being forced to pay maximum interest. "Basically, the investor pool has all but vanished," says Melissa Williams, left, of Christus Health.

  5. Data Managment Open House

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilevsky, Nicole; Wirz, Jackie; Champieux,Robin; Haendel, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This event was the first of a two-part program aimed at understanding how libraries and librarians can facilitate data management, data publication, reproducibility, and data reuse as part of an award from Force11 to Melissa Haendel. The overall project goal is to promote interaction between librarians and research scientists to help define new roles for the OHSU library.

  6. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    1993-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov, became federally listed as endangered in 1992 and is thus afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. This insect has a very discontinuous range, with 1992 populations found in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, and New Hampshire. Karner blue...

  7. Is Transracial the Same as Transgender? The Utility and Limitations of Identity Analogies in Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vu T.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, Melissa Harris-Perry infamously analogized the possibility of trans-Black identity to the reality of transgender identity. Such analogies happen often and are used mostly for the benefit of learning about a less familiar form of identity. Building from a recent article by Suthakaranm, Filsinger, and White (2013) that presented a…

  8. 75 FR 80720 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... preamble, and the Classification sections of the final rule. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melissa..., sector vessels may still use, and lease, NE multispecies DAS. The Sustainable Harvest Sector and Tri... restrictions on DAS leases between vessels within their individual sectors as well as with vessels in...

  9. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Gislene G. F.; Juliana Locatelli; Freitas,Paulo C.; Silva,Giuliana L.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  10. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Gislene G. F.; Locatelli,Juliana; Freitas,Paulo C.; Silva,Giuliana L.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  11. About Eosinophilic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fish, MD Jonathan A. Flick, MD Andrew B. Grossman, MD Janice A. Kelly, MD, FAGA Judith R. Kelsen, MD Melissa A. Kennedy, MD Chris A. Liacouras, MD Petar Mamula, MD Asim Maqbool, MD Maria R. Mascarenhas, MBBS Jamie Merves, MD Amanda Muir, MD David A. Piccoli, MD Matthew J. Ryan, MD Edisio ...

  12. Unspeakable Silences, When Poetry Ceases to be a Luxury, Black Tulips, My Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Castillo-Garsow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Castillo-Garsow is a Mexican-American writer, journalist, and scholar currently pursuing a PhD in American Studies and African American Studies at Yale University. Her short stories and poetry have been published in various journals including The Acentos Review, La Bloga, Hispanic Culture Review, and Hinchas de Poesia. Her first novel, Pure Bronx, co-written with Fordham Professor Mark Naison, is due for release Oct. 2013 from Augustus Publishing. Melissa completed her Master’s degree in English with a concentration in Creative Writing at Fordham University in 2011. Prior to that she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts from New York University summa cum laude with a double major in Journalism and Latin American Studies. A former employee of NBC News, El Diario/ La Prensa and Launch Radio Networks, Melissa has had articles and reviews published in a wide variety of forums including CNN.com, Latin Beat Magazine, University Wire, El Diario/La Prensa, Women’s Studies, Words. Beats. Life: The Global Journal of Hip-Hop Culture, and The Bilingual Review. Melissa is an active scholar in the fields of English literature, American Studies, African American Studies and Latin American/Latino Studies. At Yale, she focuses on the study of Afro-Latino history and culture in the 20th Century.

  13. Functional Analysis and Therapeutic Potential of miR-708 in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    approximately 40,000 deaths. From a treatment perspective, breast cancer is a paradigm for individualized medicine with two personalized therapies in use...Vivek Mittal (PD) – No change Name: Linda Vahdat (Co-Investigator) – No change Name: Jenny Chang (Co-Investigator) – No change Name: Melissa Landis

  14. Approaches to Reading with Multiple Lenses of Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troise, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    High school teacher Melissa Troise challenges students to recognize the relationships that exist between literary theories, such as Marxism, feminism, and postcolonialism, and urges students to expand their contexts for reading texts by accessing and combining theories. Troise believes theory provides students with the potential to better…

  15. 78 FR 70945 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... 30309: 1. James Brian Ponder, Melissa Kay Ponder, Kenneth Earl Ponder, June Sumner Ponder, Beverly Ponder Paulk, all of Tifton, Georgia, Marlyn Jones Ponder, and Earline Ponder, individually and as trustee for April Farron Paulk Trust, Jessica Shannon Paulk Trust, Cyrus Jones Ponder Trust, Marilyn...

  16. A College Leadership Program Helps a Mother Consider Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Melissa P. Deputy, a 49-year-old mother of five and a community-college student, has long harbored desires to run for public office. Deputy decided to nurture her dreams of entering politics by attending a five-day program at Rutgers University earlier this month intended to encourage undergraduate women to run for elected office. Rutgers has held…

  17. Language Barrier May Keep Some Hispanics from Good Diabetes Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Another study in the same issue of the journal was led by Melissa Parker of Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, Calif. Her team found that blood sugar control could improve for Hispanic type 2 diabetes patients with limited English skills -- but only when they switched from a primary ...

  18. Impact of External Technology Funding Programs for Public Libraries: A Study of LSTA, E-Rate, Gates, and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Ryan, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Describes external sources of funding for public libraries to establish and maintain their technology infrastructure, telecommunications services, and network-based resources and services. Highlights include LSTA (Library Services and Technology Act); the E-rate program; and the Bill and Melissa Gates Foundation U.S. Library Program. (LRW)

  19. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosen, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

  20. A comparison of item response theory-based methods for examining differential item functioning in object naming test by language of assessment among older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M. Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Object naming tests are commonly included in neuropsychological test batteries. Differential item functioning (DIF in these tests due to cultural and language differences may compromise the validity of cognitive measures in diverse populations. We evaluated 26 object naming items for DIF due to Spanish and English language translations among Latinos (n=1,159, mean age of 70.5 years old (Standard Deviation (SD±7.2, using the following four item response theory-based ap-proaches: Mplus/Multiple Indicator, Multiple Causes (Mplus/MIMIC; Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2011, Item Response Theory Likelihood Ratio Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF/MULTILOG; Thissen, 1991, 2001, difwithpar/Parscale (Crane, Gibbons, Jolley, & van Belle, 2006; Muraki & Bock, 2003, and Differential Functioning of Items and Tests/MULTILOG (DFIT/MULTILOG; Flowers, Oshima, & Raju, 1999; Thissen, 1991. Overall, there was moderate to near perfect agreement across methods. Fourteen items were found to exhibit DIF and 5 items observed consistently across all methods, which were more likely to be answered correctly by individuals tested in Spanish after controlling for overall ability.

  1. A tutorial on structural equation modeling for analysis of overlapping symptoms in co-occurring conditions using MPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzler, Douglas D; Morris, Nathan

    2015-10-30

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a very general approach to analyzing data in the presence of measurement error and complex causal relationships. In this tutorial, we describe SEM, with special attention to exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicator multiple cause modeling. The tutorial is motivated by a problem of symptom overlap routinely faced by clinicians and researchers, in which symptoms or test results are common to two or more co-occurring conditions. As a result of such overlap, diagnoses, treatment decisions, and inferences about the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions can be biased. This problem is further complicated by increasing reliance on patient-reported outcomes, which introduces systematic error based on an individual's interpretation of a test questionnaire. SEM provides flexibility in handling this type of differential item functioning and disentangling the overlap. Scales and scoring approaches can be revised to be free of this overlap, leading to better care. This tutorial uses an example of depression screening in multiple sclerosis patients in which depressive symptoms overlap with other symptoms, such as fatigue, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment. Details of how MPlus (Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, CA, USA) software can be used to address the symptom overlap problem, including data requirements, code and output are described in this tutorial.

  2. Using the Mplus computer program to estimate models for continuous and categorical data from twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the focus of behavior genetic research was to obtain estimates of the sources of familial resemblance for a single phenotype. Current research strategies have moved beyond heritability estimates to the search for physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which genetic risk is translated into individual differences in behavior and disease liability. Such research questions often require multivariate designs and complex analytic models, including the analysis of continuous and categorical dependent variables within the same model. Recent advances in computer software for categorical data analysis have increased the tools available for researchers in behavior genetics. This paper describes how to use the Mplus software program (Muthén and Muthén, 1998, 2002) for the analysis of data obtained from twins. Example analyses include two- and five-group twin models for univariate and bivariate continuous and categorical variables. Data on alcoholism and age at first drink drawn from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders are used to illustrate how Mplus can be used to analyze multiple-category variables, recode and transform variables, select subgroups for analysis, handle subjects with incomplete data, include constraints to ensure non-negative loadings, include model covariates, model sex differences, and test alternative hypotheses about mediation of genetic risk by measured variables.

  3. Analyzing Latent State-Trait and Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Curve Models as Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent state-trait (LST and latent growth curve (LGC models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1 a large number of time points, (2 individually-varying times of observation, (3 unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4 incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person using the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012 and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

  4. A comparison of item response theory-based methods for examining differential item functioning in object naming test by language of assessment among older Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frances M; Heslin, Kevin C; Mehta, Kala M; Yang, Cheng-Wu; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Morales, Leo S; Hays, Ron D; Stewart, Anita L; Mungas, Dan; Jones, Richard N; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2011-01-01

    Object naming tests are commonly included in neuropsychological test batteries. Differential item functioning (DIF) in these tests due to cultural and language differences may compromise the validity of cognitive measures in diverse populations. We evaluated 26 object naming items for DIF due to Spanish and English language translations among Latinos (n=1,159), mean age of 70.5 years old (Standard Deviation (SD)±7.2), using the following four item response theory-based approaches: Mplus/Multiple Indicator, Multiple Causes (Mplus/MIMIC; Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2011), Item Response Theory Likelihood Ratio Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF/MULTILOG; Thissen, 1991, 2001), difwithpar/Parscale (Crane, Gibbons, Jolley, & van Belle, 2006; Muraki & Bock, 2003), and Differential Functioning of Items and Tests/MULTILOG (DFIT/MULTILOG; Flowers, Oshima, & Raju, 1999; Thissen, 1991). Overall, there was moderate to near perfect agreement across methods. Fourteen items were found to exhibit DIF and 5 items observed consistently across all methods, which were more likely to be answered correctly by individuals tested in Spanish after controlling for overall ability.

  5. Bayesian Factor Analysis as a Variable-Selection Problem: Alternative Priors and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhao-Hua; Chow, Sy-Miin; Loken, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Factor analysis is a popular statistical technique for multivariate data analysis. Developments in the structural equation modeling framework have enabled the use of hybrid confirmatory/exploratory approaches in which factor-loading structures can be explored relatively flexibly within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework. Recently, Muthén & Asparouhov proposed a Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) approach to explore the presence of cross loadings in CFA models. We show that the issue of determining factor-loading patterns may be formulated as a Bayesian variable selection problem in which Muthén and Asparouhov's approach can be regarded as a BSEM approach with ridge regression prior (BSEM-RP). We propose another Bayesian approach, denoted herein as the Bayesian structural equation modeling with spike-and-slab prior (BSEM-SSP), which serves as a one-stage alternative to the BSEM-RP. We review the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and compare their empirical performance relative to two modification indices-based approaches and exploratory factor analysis with target rotation. A teacher stress scale data set is used to demonstrate our approach.

  6. The Vsr endonuclease of Escherichia coli: an efficient DNA repair enzyme and a potent mutagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, G; Doiron, K M; Cupples, C G

    1997-01-01

    The Vsr endonuclease of Escherichia coli initiates the repair of T/G mismatches caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine. In this paper, we examine the capacity of Vsr to prevent CG-to-TA mutations in cells with increased transcription of the cytosine methylase gene (dcm). We find that sufficient Vsr is produced by a single chromosomal copy of vsr to prevent mutagenesis. We also investigate the cause of the transition and frameshift mutations in cells overproducing Vsr. Neither the absence of the dcm methylase nor its overproduction affects Vsr-stimulated mutagenesis. However, addition of mutS, mutL, or mutH on multicopy plasmids has a significant effect: mutL or mutH decreases the number of mutations, while mutS stimulates mutagenesis. The mut-containing plasmids have the same effect in cells treated with 2-aminopurine and in cells made defective in DNA proofreading, two experimental situations known to cause transition and frameshift mutations by saturating mismatch repair. PMID:9324251

  7. Genetic changes during a laboratory adaptive evolution process that allowed fast growth in glucose to an Escherichia coli strain lacking the major glucose transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar César

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli strains lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS, which is the major bacterial component involved in glucose transport and its phosphorylation, accumulate high amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate that can be diverted to the synthesis of commercially relevant products. However, these strains grow slowly in glucose as sole carbon source due to its inefficient transport and metabolism. Strain PB12, with 400% increased growth rate, was isolated after a 120 hours adaptive laboratory evolution process for the selection of faster growing derivatives in glucose. Analysis of the genetic changes that occurred in the PB12 strain that lacks PTS will allow a better understanding of the basis of its growth adaptation and, therefore, in the design of improved metabolic engineering strategies for enhancing carbon diversion into the aromatic pathways. Results Whole genome analyses using two different sequencing methodologies: the Roche NimbleGen Inc. comparative genome sequencing technique, and high throughput sequencing with Illumina Inc. GAIIx, allowed the identification of the genetic changes that occurred in the PB12 strain. Both methods detected 23 non-synonymous and 22 synonymous point mutations. Several non-synonymous mutations mapped in regulatory genes (arcB, barA, rpoD, rna and in other putative regulatory loci (yjjU, rssA and ypdA. In addition, a chromosomal deletion of 10,328 bp was detected that removed 12 genes, among them, the rppH, mutH and galR genes. Characterization of some of these mutated and deleted genes with their functions and possible functions, are presented. Conclusions The deletion of the contiguous rppH, mutH and galR genes that occurred simultaneously, is apparently the main reason for the faster growth of the evolved PB12 strain. In support of this interpretation is the fact that inactivation of the rppH gene in the parental PB11 strain substantially increased

  8. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, A. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)], E-mail: andres_iro2002@yahoo.com; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O. [' Babes-Bolyai' University, Str. M. Kogalniceanu, Nr. 1, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  9. Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenić-Milošević Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells. The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 μg/ml on HeLa cell lines was exhibited by Echinacea angustifolia. The extract of Salvia officinalis also showed a good cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines; the IC50 value was 70.41 μg/ml. Melissa officinalis manifested a slightly weaker cytotoxic activity and an IC50 value of 122.22 μg/ml. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34021 i br. 175011

  10. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  11. Naised vereimejate ümber / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Stephenie Meyeri "Videviku" romaani-saaga (Videvik, Noorkuu, Päikesevarjutus, Koidukuma) ja kahe esimese loo ekraniseeringud on fenomenaalselt populaarsed. Märkimisväärsed naised fenomeni loojate hulgas peale kirjanik Stephenie Meyeri on Bella osatäitja Kristen Stewart, filmide soundtrack'ide koostaja Alexandra Patsavas, sarja esimese filmi režissöör Catherine Hardwicke, saaga filmide stsenarist Melissa Rosenberg ja rock-bändi Paramore lauljatar Hayley Williams

  12. Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Stability and Essential Oil Percentage of Balm under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, the effect of drought stress on antioxidant enzymes, membrane stability and essential oil percentage in Balm (Melissa officinalis L. has been evaluted under field conditions. Experimental design was complete randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatments included: T1 (control; non stress, T2 (80%FC, T3 (60%FC, T4 (40%FC and T5 (20%FC. Results showed that there was a significant differences (P

  13. 1. II avati Rotermanni soolalao kunstimuuseumi näitusesaalis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Marco Laimre kuraatorinäitus "Hääled". Väljas on Oskar Kallise, Jaan Toomiku, Rainer Jancise, Elmar Kitse, Evald Okase, Melissa Gordoni (UK), Eduard Wiiralti, Jasper Zoova, Leili Muuga, Marko Mäetamme, Ene-Liis Semperi, Ado Vabbe, Elin Kardi, Kiwa, Peeter Alliku, Kaja Kärneri, Jüri Arraku, Kadi Estlandi ja Ülo Soosteri tööd

  14. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der α-Amylase-Aktivität durch Pflanzenextrakte und polyphenolische Reinstoffe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl. und seiner Inhaltsstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Ines

    2010-01-01

    The creation of a microplate-reader-based kinetic assay led to a rapid screening of plant extracts and pure compounds. Plant extracts were found to be able to inhibit the α-amylase activity. Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., Melissa officinalis L., Pyrus communis L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Malus domestica Borkh., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Tamarindus indica L. were found to be active in the used in vitro test model. A performed bioguided extraction showed that the active...

  15. Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moderated by Louisa Stein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Online Roundtable on Spreadable Media, by Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green, with participants Paul Booth, Kristina Busse, Melissa Click, Sam Ford, Henry Jenkins, Xiaochang Li, and Sharon Ross. Section 1 first published as the article "Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture", by Louisa Stein, from Cinema Journal Volume 53 Issue 3, pp152-177. Copyright 2014 by The University of Texas Press. All rights reserved.

  16. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Strategies and Demonstrations for the Reduction of Government Regulations Related to Commercial Shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Baltimore, Maryland Date: October 2-5. 1996 Location: Marriot Marquis Hotel , New York City Date: October 15-19,1997 Location: Westin Hotel , Ottawa...Manufacturers Association RNLI - Royal National Lifeboat Institute Date April 30,1996 May 1-2,1996 Location: Brighton Metropole Hotel , Brighton, UK Contact...Continental Hotel , Rio de Janeiro Contact Mrs. Melissa Nellis, Tel: (713)578-7171, Fax: (713)578-0589. Title: The 1996 USMSA Safety Seminar Sponsor: United

  17. Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionat...

  18. The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College Technical Report. Science Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    Franklin Professor of Physics Harvard University Irene Little-Marenin Associate Professor of Astronomy Wellesley College 9 Nanette Orme-Johnson Professor of...Fellows DELIA DIX AGUILAR ROSEMARY A.JOYCE ROSALIND 1H. SHAW Fellow (Women’s Studies) Flo~wýArithropology) Fellow (Anthropology) olngGen State...Also I joined with Prof. Elizabeth Simmons of Boston University and Prof. Melissa Franklin of Harvard University (both women at Harvard during my

  19. Porter Takes Reins of the FNL Green Team | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtesy of the FNL Green Team Melissa Porter, who recently joined the staff of Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, as administrative manager, has stepped forward to lead the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) Green Team in its efforts to promote a “green” work environment. “I am excited to lead the FNL Green Team and have been impressed by the enthusiasm and commitment of the FNL Green Team,” Porter said.

  20. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Melissa Fraine CELA typically includes Ms. Lisa Rawn, Ms. Darlene Whetsel, and Mr. Alan Johnstone Annual Report: Contract # W81XWH-09-2-0172...strategies (Richardson, Frueh, and Acierno 2010). References Bahraini, Nazanin H., Lisa A. Brenner, Jeri E. F. Harwood, Beeta Y. Homaifar, Susan...Haskell, Sally G., Kirsha S. Gordon, Kristin Mattocks, Mona Duggal, Joseph Erdos, Amy Justice, and Cynthia Brandt. 2010. “Gender Differences in Rates

  1. Implementation Guidance Document: Properties and Types of Significant Photothermal Retinal Lesion Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-17

    if ii does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 12...NUMBER Risk of Significant Injury Technical Working Group: Wesley Burgei, Shannon Foley, Matt Pandullo, Melissa Nass-Flores, George L. Fischer, Hugh...lesion injuries that is consistent with the language and intent ofDoD Instruction 3200.19. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Non-lethal, risk of significant injury

  2. Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Callegari C; Bertù L; Lucano M; Ielmini M; Braggio E; Vender S

    2016-01-01

    Camilla Callegari,1 Lorenza Bertù,2 Melissa Lucano,1 Marta Ielmini,1 Elena Braggio,1 Simone Vender1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine – Psychiatric Division, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Centre for Research EPIMED – Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot ...

  3. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    2002. The war of the woods : Facilitators and impediments of organizational learning processes. British Journal of Management, 13(Supplement 2): S61-S74...Warfare Systems Center 55. Colonel Yolanda Cruz U.S. Air Force 56. Capt Melissa Cunningham U.S. Air Force 57. Dr. Jonathan Czarnecki Naval...Canada 276. Dr. James Wirtz Naval Postgraduate School 277. Dr. Donna Wood DRDC Toronto 278. Ms. Laura Worley U.S. Department of State

  4. 《Blackwell双语与多语研究方法指导手册》介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Melissa G.Moyer; 阎喜

    2012-01-01

    《Blackwell双语与多语研究方法指导手册》(The Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism and Multilingualism)由Li Wei(李嵬)和MelissaG.Moyer编辑,Black well出版社2008年出版。本书分为三大部分,共22章。下面对其内容进行简介。

  5. Porter Takes Reins of the FNL Green Team | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtesy of the FNL Green Team Melissa Porter, who recently joined the staff of Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, as administrative manager, has stepped forward to lead the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) Green Team in its efforts to promote a “green” work environment. “I am excited to lead the FNL Green Team and have been impressed by the enthusiasm and commitment of the FNL Green Team,” Porter said.

  6. Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappedi M; Toraldo A; Mandrini S; Scarpina F; Aquino M; Magnani FG; Bejor M

    2013-01-01

    Matteo Chiappedi,1 Alessio Toraldo,2 Silvia Mandrini,3 Federica Scarpina,2 Melissa Aquino,2 Francesca Giulia Magnani,2 Maurizio Bejor31Don Carlo Gnocchi ONLUS Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2University of Pavia, Department of Psychology, Pavia, Italy; 3University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Resuscitative, Rehabilitative and Transplant Sciences, Pavia, ItalyIntroduction: Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for ne...

  7. Proceedings from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Natural and Nature-Based Features Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Dickerson (ERDC) developed and maintained the registration website. Dave Eslinger, Melissa Ladd, Rebecca Love , and Jennifer Mintz (all of NOAA...project. Locations for this project are proposed in Galveston, Texas, the Great Lakes , and the North Atlantic Region. This proposed project has broad...locations and would follow where work is already taking place. Several successful efforts have been achieved in the Great Lakes region through

  8. Seasonal temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa and human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lazenby, MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological Applications Vol. 21(4) Seasonal temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa and human health Melissa J. Lazenby,a* Willem A. Landman,b,c Rebecca M. Garlandb and David G. DeWittd a Department of Geography, University of Sussex..., Brighton, UK b Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa c Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa...

  9. Annual Assessment of Longitudinal Studies and Injury Surveillance for Gender Integration in the Army, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    health problems. This annual assessment meets the requirement described in Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) Execution Order (EXORD) 097-16...AUTHOR(S) Keith Hauret and Dr. Bruce Jones (Army Public Health Center) Cindy Bush, Steve Rossi, and Melissa Richardson (contractors for the Armed Forces... Health Surveillance Branch, Defense Health Agency) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WBS 0047783 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  10. Association between triglycerides and cardiovascular events in primary populations: a meta-regression analysis and synthesis of evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer ME; Weisenfluh L; Morrison A

    2013-01-01

    Melissa E Stauffer, Lauren Weisenfluh, Alan MorrisonSCRIBCO, Effort, PA, USABackground: Triglyceride levels were found to be independently predictive of the development of primary coronary heart disease in epidemiologic studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether triglyceride levels were predictive of cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lipid-modifying drugs.Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of 40 RCTs of lipid...

  11. Parenting Outside the Box, Part One: Our Path to a Diagnosis | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editor’s note: This article is the first in a series describing one NCI at Frederick parent’s perspective on special needs parenting. By Melissa Porter, Staff Writer My husband and I find calling ourselves “special needs parents” difficult. Yes, we do have a child who has autism, and yes, we approach each day differently, but I have never thought of that as special needs parenting.

  12. Clinical Nursing Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    for Sam Houston, Texas MAJ Joanne Burton , AN, Clinical Head Nurse, Psychiatry MAJ Shelby Christian, AN, Clinical Head Nurse, OB/GYN MAJ Melissa Opio...Specify Level) Parenting, Potential Alteration In Decubitus Ulcer Self-Care Deficit, Total (Specify Level) Social Isolation Fluid Volume Deficit. Potential...METABOLIC PATTERN Self-Care Dieficit. Total (Specify Level) SiX alizaticni Alterations ifl Decubitus ulcer S-If-Batingrla.v~qene Oeticit 601?Cif Levet

  13. Parenting Outside the Box, Part One: Our Path to a Diagnosis | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editor’s note: This article is the first in a series describing one NCI at Frederick parent’s perspective on special needs parenting. By Melissa Porter, Staff Writer My husband and I find calling ourselves “special needs parents” difficult. Yes, we do have a child who has autism, and yes, we approach each day differently, but I have never thought of that as special needs parenting.

  14. Zebrafish Functional Genetics Approach to the Pathogenesis of Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    2015 Name: Alejandro Gutierrez Office Address: Boston Children’s Hospital, Karp 8 300 Longwood Ave Boston, MA 02115 Home Address: 81 Franklin St...for International Cancer Research Ad Hoc Reviewer 2015 Children with Cancer UK Ad Hoc Reviewer 2015 German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific...Medical Sciences at Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 2013- Postdoctoral Research Advisor for Melissa Burns MD, Fellow in Pediatric

  15. Naised vereimejate ümber / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Stephenie Meyeri "Videviku" romaani-saaga (Videvik, Noorkuu, Päikesevarjutus, Koidukuma) ja kahe esimese loo ekraniseeringud on fenomenaalselt populaarsed. Märkimisväärsed naised fenomeni loojate hulgas peale kirjanik Stephenie Meyeri on Bella osatäitja Kristen Stewart, filmide soundtrack'ide koostaja Alexandra Patsavas, sarja esimese filmi režissöör Catherine Hardwicke, saaga filmide stsenarist Melissa Rosenberg ja rock-bändi Paramore lauljatar Hayley Williams

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of Resource Sharing Agreements Between Naval Hospital Great Lakes and North Chicago Veterans Affairs Medical Center: The Iron Triangle Theory of Healthcare Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    in Healthcare Administration ) 3151 Scott Road, Suite 1411- 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6135 NUMBER(S) --32-05 12...the Requirements for A Master in Health Administration By Lieutenant Melissa J. Harnly, MSC Naval Hospital Great Lakes, Illinois May 19, 2005 20060315...Services Capital Asset Realignment for Enhanced Services, announced on May 7, 2004, by former Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony J. Principi , is a

  17. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A; Proença, C; Serralheiro, M L M; Araújo, M E M

    2006-11-03

    Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also as aromatics. Melissa officinalis and Mentha suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher then 50% in the essential oil fraction. Laurus nobilis, Hypericum undulatum, and Sanguisorba minor showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction, 64% (1 mg ml(-1)) 68% (0.5 mg ml(-1)), and 78% (1 mg ml(-1)), respectively. Higher values of AChE inhibitory activity were found using decoctions of Lavandula pedunculata, Mentha suaveolens and Hypericum undulatum, 68, 69 and 82% (at a concentration of 5mg dry plant ml(-1) of assay), respectively. The free radical scavenger activity was higher for the polar extracts. In the water extracts most of the plants showed values around 90%. When antioxidant activity was measured with the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay high activity (65-95%) was also found in the water extracts. Hypericum undulatum, Melissa officinalis and Laurus nobilis showed both high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity.

  18. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  19. Preliminary investigations of Spirulina effect on cancer cells: interest for long-term manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatout, S.; Bekaert, S.; Hendrickx, L.; Derradji, H.; Mergeay, M.

    Background In view of long haul space exploration missions the development of regenerative life support systems is of crucial importance to increase the crew autonomy and decrease the cost associated to the mass embarked Therefore in the late 80 s the European Space Agency initiated the MELiSSA project Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative MELiSSA has been conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plant process enabling high recycling efficiency The cyanobacteria Arthrospira sp is occupying one of the MELiSSA compartments Its genome is now being sequenced and this will help to better understand or improve its food value as well as to have a look at its putative toxic potential Aim In this study we were interested in studying the threshold of intrinsic cytotoxic effects of Spirulina dry extract from Sigma containing washed and lyophilized mixed Arthrospira strains on human cancer cells and its cell type dependency Method For that purpose we used flow cytometry to estimate cell death apoptosis and necrosis in three human leukaemic cell lines HELA cervix carcinoma IM-9 multiple myeloma K562 chronic myelogenous leukaemia Cells were cultured in the presence of an aqueous extract of Spirulina concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 mu g ml for 15 to 40 hours Apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by annexin-V-PI staining cell size and granularity Early apoptosis was monitored by analysing the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential DioC 6 3 and the

  20. Factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a procedure to test factorial invariance in multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. When the group membership is at level 2, multilevel factorial invariance can be tested by a simple extension of the standard procedure. However level-1 group membership raises problems which cannot be appropriately handled by the standard procedure, because the dependency between members of different level-1 groups is not appropriately taken into account. The procedure presented in this article provides a solution to this problem. This paper also shows Muthén's maximum likelihood (MUML) estimation for testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups as a viable alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. Testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-2 groups and testing multilevel factorial invariance across level-1 groups are illustrated using empirical examples. SAS macro and Mplus syntax are provided.

  1. Modern psychometric approaches to analysis of scales for health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested in the development of new instruments for assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). For many new instruments, modern psychometric methods, such as item response theory (IRT) models, have been used, either as supplemental to classical...... psychometric testing or as the primary methodological approach. We will use the term modern psychometric methods to refer to psychometric methods for multi-item scales that (1) examine the contribution of each item to the measurement properties of the overall scale and (2) recognize that items are categorical....... The models include Rasch models (Rasch 1980; Fischer and Molenaar 1995), other IRT models (Samejima 1969; van der Linden and Hambleton 1997), and factor analytic models for categorical data (Muthén 1984). “Modern” psychometric methods have actually a rather long history within psychiatric research (both...

  2. Does Accessibility to the Central Business District (CBD Have an Impact on High-Rise Condominium Price Gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziauddin Mohd Faris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a spatial econometric method known as Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to investigate the impact of accessibility to the CBD on the high-rise condominium price gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using a GWR method, after having controlled other factors, this study clearly reveal the impact of accessibility to the CBD on high-rise condominium varying prices across the study area, having a much larger positive impact in some areas but less and counterintuitive impact in others. In general, the results from this study show accessibility to the CBD measured by the travel times does affect high-rise condominium prices (high-rise condominium prices decrease as travel times to the CBD increase in most part of the areas, hence proved Alonso, Muth and Mills were still right.

  3. A procedure for eliminating additive bias from cross-cultural survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    2005-01-01

    additive bias from cross-cultural data. The procedure involves four steps: (1) embed a potentially biased item in a factor-analytic measurement model, (2) test for the existence of additive bias between populations, (3) use the factor-analytic model to estimate the magnitude of the bias, and (4) replace...... differences in the understanding of item wording or response category labels. However, experience suggests that additive bias can be found more often than not. Based on the concept of partial measurement invariance (Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén 1989), the present paper develops a procedure for eliminating......Measurement bias in cross-cultural surveys can seriously threaten the validity of hypothesis tests. Direct comparisons of means depend on the assumption that differences in observed variables reflect differences in the underlying constructs, and not an additive bias that may be caused by cultural...

  4. A PRÁTICA DA EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA NA ESCOLA DO SÉCULO XIX: A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE FRANZ NACHTEGALL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desta investigação foi estudar a contribuição de Franz Nachtegall na implementação da Educação Física nas escolas dinamarquesas, no século dezenove. O estudo foi conduzido tendo como base informações históricas encontradas na literatura a respeito de Nachtegall. Pode-se dizer que ele não foi um inventor de um sistema próprio, mas utilizou os tipos de exercícios praticados no Instituto Schnepfenthal, onde Guts Muths havia trabalhado. Além disto. Nachtegall foi um bom professor e org...

  5. Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers with Probabilistic Non-Linear Relations of Low Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    (x,y)=0$ between plaintext $x$ and ciphertext $y$ that hold with small probability $\\mu$.The second attack needs access to $n=(2m/\\mu)^2$ plaintext/ciphertext pairs where $m=\\deg p$ and its running time is also polynomial in $n$. As a demonstration, we break up to 10 rounds of a cipher constructed...... employed is essentially Sudan's algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond the error-correction diameter. The known-plaintext attack needs $n=2m/\\mu^2$ plaintext/ciphertext pairs and the running time is polynomial in $n$.Furthermore, it is shown how to discover more general non-linear relations $p...... by Nyberg and Knudsen provablysecure against differential and linear cryptanalysis.Key words: Cryptanalysis, block cipher, interpolation attack, non-linear relations, Reed-Solomon codes, Sudan's algorithm....

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMATIC TRACKING MECHANISM OF LARGE LIGHT FOCUSING DEVICES OF PHOTOVOLTAJC GENERATION%大型光伏发电聚光器跟踪机构的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志龙

    2009-01-01

    The light focusing efficiency is largely influenced by the sun tracking accuracy of light focusing devices of pho-tovoltaic generation. The potential error of one planar tracking mechanism with friction wheel and lead screw combined was analyzed. In the test, practicality indicated which can be used in real-time tracking of the elevation angle and azi-muth angle of the sun for various kinds of large light focusing devices of photovoltaic generation.%介绍了一种摩擦轮驱动和丝杆驱动组合的二维跟踪机构,在此基础上对跟踪可能产生的误差进行分析,并通过实践验证,得出此种驱动方案适用于各种大型光伏发电聚光器实时跟踪太阳的方位角和高度角.

  7. The rational expectations equilibrium inventory model theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This volume consists of six essays that develop and/or apply "rational expectations equilibrium inventory models" to study the time series behavior of production, sales, prices, and inventories at the industry level. By "rational expectations equilibrium inventory model" I mean the extension of the inventory model of Holt, Modigliani, Muth, and Simon (1960) to account for: (i) discounting, (ii) infinite horizon planning, (iii) observed and unobserved by the "econometrician" stochastic shocks in the production, factor adjustment, storage, and backorders management processes of firms, as well as in the demand they face for their products; and (iv) rational expectations. As is well known according to the Holt et al. model firms hold inventories in order to: (a) smooth production, (b) smooth production changes, and (c) avoid stockouts. Following the work of Zabel (1972), Maccini (1976), Reagan (1982), and Reagan and Weitzman (1982), Blinder (1982) laid the foundations of the rational expectations equilibrium inve...

  8. Better management of multimorbidity: a critical look at the 'Ariadne principles'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter

    2014-12-08

    Primary care clinicians and researchers are growing increasingly aware of the prevalence of multimorbidity among long-term conditions, and the impact on patient experience, health, and utilisation of care. The correspondence paper by Muth et al. entitled 'The Ariadne principles: how to handle multimorbidity in primary care consultations' outlines new thinking on a better way to manage the challenges of decision-making in multimorbidity. The paper highlights the importance of shared treatment goals as a fundamental basis for more effective management. Although a welcome contribution to the literature, the principles raise a number of challenges: the complexities of achieving effective patient-centred assessment and goal-setting; how best to encourage implementation of new practices; and the current state of the evidence around multimorbidity and its management.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/223.

  9. The Curious Anomaly of Skewed Judgment Distributions and Systematic Error in the Wisdom of Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ) model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences...... be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates......, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem....

  10. Fórmula de valoração racional (RVF e variabilidade no tempo das taxas de retornos de ativos Rational valuation formula (RVF and time variability in asset rates of return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento de longo prazo e o correspondente mecanismo de correção de erros no curto prazo, entre dados agregados de preço e dividendos, é estudado no presente trabalho, através dos conceitos de fórmula de valoração racional e cointegração variante no tempo, e sob o referencial da teoria das expectativas racionais e de movimentação de preços de Muth (1961, para se supor a variabilidade das taxas de retorno de ativos, testando as hipóteses nulas de mecanismos de correção de erros dos vetores de cointegração constantes no tempo e de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. As séries obtidas foram as disponibilizadas por Shiller (2005 e se referem aos dados agregados de preço e dividendos do mercado acionário norte-americano, no período de 1871 a 2010. Os dados foram analisados através dos modelos de cointegração de Johansen, com a utilização de variáveis restritas decorrentes da combinação das variáveis estudadas com o polinômio temporal de Chebyshev, como proposto por Bierens e Martins (2010. Os resultados indicam a rejeição da hipótese nula de constância dos vetores de cointegração e, ainda, a não rejeição da hipótese nula de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. Tais resultados são consistentes com os obtidos por Bierens e Martins (2010 e não consistentes com a teoria das expectativas racionais de Muth (1961. Conclui-se, portanto, que os investidores possuem diferentes expectativas de retorno para diferentes períodos futuros, que os resultados sugerem a validação do modelo utilizado e que existe a possibilidade da ocorrência de movimentos especulativos suportados pela racionalidade ou bolhas especulativas racionais.The present study examines the long-term relationship between aggregate price and dividend data and the corresponding mechanism for shortterm error correction using the rational valuation formula and time-varying cointegration and based on Muth

  11. 基于改进遗传算法交叉算子的作业车间调度∗%Based on an Improved Crossover Operator of Genetic Algorithm for Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳青红; 袁逸萍; 李晓娟; 孙文磊

    2014-01-01

    针对传统遗传算法在求解作业车间调度问题时存在的算法收敛速度慢、寻优结果易陷入局部最优等缺点,提出了基于禁忌搜索算法的遗传交叉算子,采用MATLAB7.10编写程序,在pox交叉方法中加入禁忌功能,利用禁忌表对交叉过程重复产生的子代进行有效禁忌,以加快算法的收敛速度,提高算法的全局搜索能力。将提出的改进遗传算法应用于muth and Thompson′s基准问题,显示该算法在收敛速度和求解质量方面的有效性。%Considering slow convergence speed and optimization results easy to fall into local optimum and other shortcomings when traditional genetic algorithm solves job shop scheduling problem, tabu search algo-rithm, based on genetic crossover, is proposed. In order to accelerate the convergence rate and improve the global search capability, write programs by MATLAB7. 10 and join taboo functional in pox cross, it taboos the offspring effectively, produced by the cross-process repeats, by the use of tabu list. applying improved genetic algorithm to Muth and Thompson’ s benchmark problem, we proved that the improved genetic algo-rithm is effective in the convergence speed and the quality of solution.

  12. Micropollutants in closed life-support systems: the case of triclosan, a biocide excreted via urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; de Wever, Heleen; Hendrickx, Larissa; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of triclosan on the growth and physiology of the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied in the frame of the regenerative life-support system, Micro- Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA). A wide range of compounds, such as steroid hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, might enter the life support system via the excrements that are to be treated and recycled. Triclosan was chosen as the first compound to be tested because MELiSSA is a closed system, which is consequently particularly sensitive to compounds inhibiting the microbial metabolism. Because triclosan is increasingly used as an antimicrobial biocide in hygienic formulations (such as toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants, etc.) and due to its chemical stability, it is considered an emerging pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. METHODS: In a first phase, the triclosan concentration expected in the life-support system was estimated, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined via plating, and the effect on growth kinetics was assessed by comparing growth parameters in the Gompertz model. In a second phase, the secondary effects of triclosan on cell physiology and gene expression were studied through flow-cytometry and microarray analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the pharmacokinetic data from literature, the predicted concentration range is estimated to be 6-25µg/L triclosan in the Rhodospirillum rubrum compartment of the MELiSSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration of triclosan was determined to be 71 µg/L after 7 days of exposure on Sistrom medium. Upon exposure to 50-200µg/L triclosan, triclosan-resistant mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum arose spontaneously at high frequency (3.1 ∗ 10 - 4). Analysis of the growth kinetics of the wild-type revealed that triclosan causes an important elongation of the lag-phase and a decrease in growth rate. At concentrations higher than 75mg/L(LD = 500mg/L), triclosan is bactericidal to wild

  13. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found.

  14. Corrigendum

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S; Mak I; Power P; et al.

    2011-01-01

    Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunnigham M, Turcotte R, Ghert MGene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2010;3:129–134.Dr Melissa Cunningham’s name was spelt incorrectly in the published paper. The corrected citation is: Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunningham M, Turcotte R, Ghert M. Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applica...

  15. Citogen?mica comparativa de morcegos da fam?lia Phyllostomidae na Amaz?nia

    OpenAIRE

    Ara?jo, Sabrina Emanuela de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Dentre os Chiropteros, a fam?lia Phyllostomidae constitui o clado mais diversificado do neotr?pico e na Amaz?nia s?o encontradas cerca de 80 esp?cies. Do ponto de vista cromoss?mico, Phyllostomidae destaca-se por apresentar grande varia??o cariot?pica, com n?meros dipl?ides que v?o de 2n=14 em Vampyressa melissa (Stenodermatinae) a 2n=46 em Macrotus waterhousii (Macrotinae). S?o v?rios os processos ou mecanismos gen?ticos que podem resultar em altera??es cromoss?micas num?ricas/estruturais e ...

  16. Melting in the Arctic: Preparing Now for Possibilities in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    response/valdez- oil -spill?parentId=ef7252d1-7929-4f5c-9fa2- 05404bde2a0f (accessed January 6, 2016). 17 Melissa R. Pegna, “U.S. Arctic policy : The...threats. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: Arctic, South China Sea, U.S. Military, Russia , China 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...6 Before It’s News Inc., “Panama Canal and Suez Canal – pricing policies ,” http://beforeitsnews.com/eu/2013/05/panama-canal-and

  17. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage).

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity of orthographic networks in acquired dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Ellenblum

    2015-05-01

    The NTA findings indicate that the relationship between orthographic and default-mode networks is characterized by greater within- vs. across-network connectivity. Furthermore, we show for the first time a pattern of increasing within/across network “coherence normalization” following spelling rehabilitation. Additional dysgraphic participants and other networks (language, sensory-motor, etc. will be analyzed to develop a better understanding of the RS orthographic network and its response to damage and recovery. Acknowledgements. The work is part of a multi-site, NIDCD-supported project examining language recovery neurobiology in aphasia (DC006740. We thank Melissa Greenberger and Xiao-Wei Song.

  19. Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunnigham M, Turcotte R, Ghert MGene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2010;3:129–134.Dr Melissa Cunningham’s name was spelt incorrectly in the published paper. The corrected citation is: Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunningham M, Turcotte R, Ghert M. Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2010;3:129–134.Read the original article

  20. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  1. Atividade gastroprotetora do hidroxicitronelal em modelos de lesÃo gÃstrica aguda em camundongos.

    OpenAIRE

    CÃsar Braga de Holanda OsÃrio

    2011-01-01

    O hidroxicitronelal à um composto amplamente usado como fragrÃncia em cosmÃticos. Este composto pode ser obtido a partir da semi-sÃntese do citronelal, um terpeno isolado do Ãleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon marginatus) ou de cidreira (Melissa officinalis), e tambÃm vÃrias outras plantas. O objetivo deste estudo à demonstrar a atividade gastroprotetora do hidroxicitronelal em modelos de lesÃo gÃstrica aguda. A manipulaÃÃo dos animais e os protocolos experimentais foram registrados no...

  2. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  3. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Lanthanide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, James Henry [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have had considerable success on this project, particularly in the understanding of the relationship between nanostructure and magnetic properties in lanthanide nanocrystals. We also have successfully facilitated the doctoral degrees of Dr. Suseela Somarajan, in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Dr. Melissa Harrison, in the Materials Science Program. The following passages summarize the various accomplishments that were featured in 9 publications that were generated based on support from this grant. We thank the Department of Energy for their generous support of our research efforts in this area of materials science, magnetism, and electron microscopy.

  4. NCI at Frederick Employees Sew for Cancer | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The R&W Club Frederick hosted a sewing party on Feb. 18 to give employees a chance to help sew pillowcases for children hospitalized for illnesses and cancer treatments. The nonprofit organization ConKerr Cancer provides the pillowcases to children across the country. Melissa Porter, administrative manager, Office of Scientific Operations, NCI at Frederick, and vice chair of the R&W Club Frederick, said the event went well. While the turnout was lower than expected, 27 pillowcases were completed, she said.

  5. Performance Impacts for Actuator Misalignments and Failures in Large- Aperture Adaptive-Optic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    reconstitution operations after the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989. Along with his wife, Mary Ann, and daughters, Kelly Ann and Melissa, he entered the...Block Diagram of Adaptive Optics Simulation ...................................................... 3-3 4-1 Misalignment Effects on Radial-Averaged OTF...r0 = 13, ph = 2x10 6 , vT = 0). 4-10 4-2 Misalignment Effects on Change in OTF (r0 = 13, ph = 2xl0 6 , vt = 0) ............ 4-10 4-3 Misalignment

  6. The Effects of Powdered Fertilized Eggs on Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Ester

    2011-01-01

    This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of fertilized egg powder (Young Tissue Extract; YTE®) intake on outcome measures for depression. Fifty-five patients with depression were randomly assigned to receive YTE, YTE plus Melissa officinalis, or placebo for 12 weeks. At baseline, there were no significant differences in scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) or Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among the 3 groups. At 12 weeks, the HAM-D...

  7. Maintenance Performance Systems (Organizational) User’s Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Jaury18 Social Sciences JSanua8Rry19G84 5001 Eisenhower Ave. I UURO AE Alex~rndria.V 23 80 4. MONITORING AGNYAE & ADDRESS(If dIUleuint bM Conmolug Office... monitored technically by Dr. Michael Drillings and Dr. Melissa Berkowitz IS. KEY WORDS (ContbW9 on mvrae side ff noceear mid fdomtlip b Nok -ib...as indicated. 26 1-99 ARMOR PAGE 1 TABLE 5 (M60-A CO): MAINIENANCE TASKS BY VEHICLE FOUR-WEEK REPORTING PERIOD ENDING: 3182 (1 JUL 83) VEHICLE DUMPER

  8. Gerando planos de produção através de um problema linear quadrático Gaussiano com restrições nas variáveis de decisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar S. Silva Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo um problema sequencial de planejamento agregado da produção é formulado como um modelo de otimização sequencial do tipo Linear-Quadrático Gaussiano (LQG com restrições probabilísticas nas variáveis de estado e controle. Este problema está baseado em um modelo clássico desenvolvido por Holt, Modigliani, Muth e Simon, e conhecido na literatura como modelo HMMS. Como ideia central do trabalho busca-se estender o modelo original HMMS de modo que ele possa levar em conta restrições de chance nas variáveis de decisão e também uma representação do tipo ARMA como modelo de flutuação de demanda. Essencialmente, o artigo examina as principais características que permitem transformar o modelo HMMS para um padrão LQG com restrições de chances. Além disso, duas heurísticas subótimas muito simples são apresentadas como estratégias de resolução para este tipo de problema. Por fim, um exemplo ilustrativo de como gerar planos de produção agregados via o modelo proposto, é apresentado.A single product, multi-period, aggregate production planning problem is formulated as a Linear-Quadratic Gaussian (LQG optimal control problem with probabilistic constraints on state and control variables. This stochastic problem is based on a classical model developed by Holt, Modigliani, Muth and Simon, and known in the literature as HMMS model. The central idea is to extend the original HMMS model in order to take into account both chance-constraints on the decision variables and an ARMA forecasting model to represent the fluctuation of demand. Essentially, the paper discusses the main features that allow transforming the problem into a chance constrained LQG pattern. In addition, two sub-optimal techniques for solving this kind of problem are briefly described. At last, an illustrative example of how to provide aggregate production plans from the proposed problem is presented.

  9. Fórmula de valoração racional (RVF e variabilidade no tempo das taxas de retornos de ativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento de longo prazo e o correspondente mecanismo de correção de erros no curto prazo, entre dados agregados de preço e dividendos, é estudado no presente trabalho, através dos conceitos de fórmula de valoração racional e cointegração variante no tempo, e sob o referencial da teoria das expectativas racionais e de movimentação de preços de Muth (1961, para se supor a variabilidade das taxas de retorno de ativos, testando as hipóteses nulas de mecanismos de correção de erros dos vetores de cointegração constantes no tempo e de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. As séries obtidas foram as disponibilizadas por Shiller (2005 e se referem aos dados agregados de preço e dividendos do mercado acionário norte-americano, no período de 1871 a 2010. Os dados foram analisados através dos modelos de cointegração de Johansen, com a utilização de variáveis restritas decorrentes da combinação das variáveis estudadas com o polinômio temporal de Chebyshev, como proposto por Bierens e Martins (2010. Os resultados indicam a rejeição da hipótese nula de constância dos vetores de cointegração e, ainda, a não rejeição da hipótese nula de desigualdade entre valor fundamental e preço da ação. Tais resultados são consistentes com os obtidos por Bierens e Martins (2010 e não consistentes com a teoria das expectativas racionais de Muth (1961. Conclui-se, portanto, que os investidores possuem diferentes expectativas de retorno para diferentes períodos futuros, que os resultados sugerem a validação do modelo utilizado e que existe a possibilidade da ocorrência de movimentos especulativos suportados pela racionalidade ou bolhas especulativas racionais.

  10. Publicidade e deslocamentos de sentidos na relação masculino/feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ogécia Drigo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo explicitar aspectos da relação entre o feminino e o masculino na contemporaneidade. O corpus é composto por peças publicitárias impressas da série Contos de Melissa, da marca brasileira de calçados femininos Melissa. Para alcançar o objetivo, apresentam-se reflexões sobre marca, fundamentadas em Lipovetsky e Serroy, em Semprini e, por fim, a análise, na perspectiva da semiótica peirciana, da marca enquanto signo e de uma das peças publicitárias. Entre os resultados, vale enfatizar que o resgate do conto de fadas, ainda que subvertido, reatualiza as provas iniciatórias ao nível do imaginário, com o que a marca, via publicidade, propõe a reconstrução dos sentidos e valores que nele habitam.

  11. New Type of Beer – Beer with Improved Functionality and Defined Pharmacodynamic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Despotović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the facts about the possibilities of improving the functionality of beer with extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis and mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. It briefly summarizes the most important data about possible positive action of moderate beer consumption and the benefits of beer as a base for developing a variety of products with enhanced functionality. It gives an overview about the mentioned herbs and the mushroom, their use in traditional medicine, chemical composition, pharmacodynamic properties and possible benefits from the brewing point of view. Procedures for extraction of biological material, experimental results of antimicrobial properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory evaluation of beer enriched with these extracts are given. Experimental results indicate that commercially produced and bottled pils beer enriched with tinctures of Thymus vulgaris and Melissa officinalis shows improved antimicrobial and antioxidative properties. Ganoderma is particularly important because of its unique functional properties and sensory compatibility with beer. Products obtained like this could fulfill several goals: developing novel beer types, developing products with health-promoting properties that meet market needs and eventually gain new beer consumers. Alcohol content of such products depends on the type and alcohol content of initial beer.

  12. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Grażyna; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality.

  13. Design of a Regenerative Life Support System for a Moon Base. Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Guirado, Víctor; Lasseur, Christophe

    NTE-SENER has finalised a study under an ESA contract, to define a preliminary system design of an European Module to provide Environmental Control and Life Support to a potential Moon base. The design is based on current Life Support System technologies under development in Europe (MELiSSA, GWRU, Sabatier Reactor and UTU) along with contamination and microbial detection technologies (ANITA, MIDASS). The ECLSS is sized to provide water, air and up to the 40 As a support to the study a simulator has been developed to analyse the energy, volume and mass and the flow rates and efficiencies of the different components. The study applied the basics of the ALISSE criteria to evaluate the technologies taking as a source the results of the simulations. Detailed models of the different technologies have been developed including feedback from the pilot designs. The results of the study have showed up opportunities of improvement and many points that need to be further investigated. The technologies used in the study are based on the MELiSSA Pilot Plant reactors implementation and the results could affect their design in the near fu-ture in aspects such as carbon recycling, irrigation methods, energy consumption, technologies involved, etc.

  14. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Crystal structure of the new hybrid material bis-(1,4-diazo-niabi-cyclo-[2.2.2]octa-ne) di-μ-chlorido-bis-[tetra-chlorido-bis-muthate(III)] dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouri, Marwen; Boughzala, Habib

    2015-11-01

    The title compound bis-(1,4-diazo-niabi-cyclo-[2.2.2]octa-ne) di-μ-chlorido-bis-[tetra-chlorido-bis-muthate(III)] dihydrate, (C6H14N2)2[Bi2Cl10]·2H2O, was ob-tain-ed by slow evaporation at room temperature of a hydro-chloric aqueous solution (pH = 1) containing bis-muth(III) nitrate and 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) in a 1:2 molar ratio. The structure displays a two-dimensional arrangement parallel to (100) of isolated [Bi2Cl10](4-) bi-octa-hedra (site symmetry -1) separated by layers of organic 1,4-diazo-niabi-cyclo-[2.2.2]octane dications [(DABCOH2)(2+)] and water mol-ecules. O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds lead to additional cohesion of the structure.

  16. Examining discriminant validity issues of the Sport Motivation Scale-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Masato; Mallett, Clifford J

    2013-01-01

    The current study was conducted to re-assess the factor structure of the 24-item Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007) with an independent sample. A total of 437 participants completed the SMS-6, and their responses were examined with confirmatory factor analysis and recent exploratory structural equation modelling (Asparouhov & Muthén, 2009). A six-factor confirmatory-factor-analysis model did not fit to the sample data adequately. Through examination of the corresponding exploratory-structural-equation-modelling solution, it was found that two items loaded on non-target factors poorly. This result was replicated by a published data set (Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, et al., 2007). The modified confirmatory-factor-analysis model with these two items removed fit to the present study's data satisfactorily and all six factors were adequately diferentiated. These results generally validate the SMS-6 responses. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a comparison of confirmatory-factor-analysis and exploratory-structural-equation-modelling solutions for an accurate interpretation of individual parameters.

  17. Multiple Group Analysis in Multilevel Structural Equation Model Across Level 1 Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces and evaluates a procedure for conducting multiple group analysis in multilevel structural equation model across Level 1 groups (MG1-MSEM; Ryu, 2014). When group membership is at Level 1, multiple group analysis raises two issues that cannot be solved by a simple extension of the standard multiple group analysis in single-level structural equation model. First, the Level 2 data are not independent between Level 1 groups. Second, the standard procedure fails to take into account the dependency between members of different Level 1 groups within the same cluster. The MG1-MSEM approach provides solutions to these problems. In MG1-MSEM, the Level 1 mean structure is necessary to represent the differences between Level 1 groups within clusters. The Level 2 model is the same regardless of Level 1 group membership. A simulation study examined the performance of MUML (Muthén's maximum likelihood) estimation in MG1-MSEM. The MG1-MSEM approach is illustrated for both a multilevel path model and a multilevel factor model using empirical data sets.

  18. The curious anomaly of skewed judgment distributions and systematic error in the wisdom of crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik W Nash

    Full Text Available Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem.

  19. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Fold distribution, offset distribution and azi- muth distribution in a bin have direct effects on ge- ometry attributes in 3D seismic survey design. If two adjacent bins have the same fold but different offsets, this non-uniform offset distribution brings some stack amplitude diversity in the adjacent bins. At present, 3D geometry attribute uniformi- ty of the most analytical methods is expressed by qualitative analysis chart. We introduce in this pa- per a uniformity quantitative analysis method for offset distribution by average value, square devia- tion and weighting factor. The paper analyses effects on offset distribution uniformity of different 3D geometry parameters by the proposed uniformi- ty quantitative analysis method. Furthermore, the paper analyses effects on seismic stack amplitude or frequency uniformity of different 3D geometry parameters by the seismic wave modeling. The re- suits show that offset distribution uniformity is in good agreement with seismic stack amplitude or frequency uniformity. Therefore this improved method can be considered as a useful tool for ana- lyzing and evaluating 3D geometry attribute uni- formity.

  20. Da ‘Ginástica para a juventude’ a ‘A ginástica alemã’: observações acerca dos primeiros manuais alemães de ginástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Amgarten Quitzau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A passagem do século XVIII para o XIX se apresenta como um momento importante na constituição do que hoje conhecemos como educação física, pois é nesse período que as primeiras sistematizações dos exercícios físicos começam a ser formuladas e publicadas em diferentes manuais de ginástica. Na Alemanha, dois manuais tiveram grande destaque nesse momento de consolidação dos sistemas de exercícios físicos: Ginástica para a juventude, publicado em 1793 por J.C.F. Guts Muths, e A ginástica alemã, publicado em 1816 por F.L. Jahn. Este artigo tem como objetivo estabelecer uma aproximação entre esses dois manuais e apresentar os argumentos usados pelos autores para justificar a importância da ginástica, bem como similaridades existentes entre as duas propostas.

  1. Prevalence of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafus, Brent H.; Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    Information on disease presence can be of use to natural resource managers, especially in areas supporting threatened and endangered species that occur coincidentally with species that are suspected vectors for disease. Ad hoc reports may be of limited utility (Muths et al. 2009), but a general sense of pathogen presence (or absence) can inform management directed at T&E species, especially in regions where disease is suspected to have caused population declines (Bradley et al. 2002). The Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis), a species susceptible to infection by the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) (Bradley et al. 2002), and the non-native, invasive American Bullfrog (L. catesbeianus), a suspected vector for chytridiomycosis (Schloegel et al. 2012, Gervasi et al. 2013), both occur at Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) and surrounding lands in southern Arizona. Efforts to eradicate the bullfrog from BANWR began in 1997 (Suhre, 2010). Eradication from the southern portion of BANWR was successful by 2008 but the bullfrog remains present at the Arivaca Cienega and in areas immediately adjacent to the refuge (Fig. 1). Curtailing the re-invasion of the bullfrog into BANWR will require vigilance as to ensure the health of Chiricahua Leopard Frog populations.

  2. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Poon, Leo L M

    2013-04-09

    A novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC), has recently been detected in humans with severe respiratory disease. Further characterization of HCoV-EMC suggests that this virus is different from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) because it is able to replicate in multiple mammalian cell lines and it does not use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a receptor to achieve infection. Additional research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenicity and tissue tropism of this virus in humans. In their recent study published in mBio, Kindler et al. shed some light on these important topics (E. Kindler, H. R. Jónsdóttir, M. Muth, O. J. Hamming, R. Hartmann, R. Rodriguez, R. Geffers, R. A. Fouchier, C. Drosten, M. A. Müller, R. Dijkman, and V. Thiel, mBio 4[1]:e00611-12, 2013). These authors report the use of differentiated pseudostratified human primary airway epithelial cells, an in vitro model with high physiological relevance to the human airway epithelium, to characterize the cellular tropism of HCoV-EMC. More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection.

  3. Amphibian conservation: clarifications to comments from Andreone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    We appreciate the comments from Andreone (2016) regarding our proposed alternative strategy for addressing the amphibian crisis. Andreone recognizes the utility of an Incident Command System approach but doubts the feasibility of implementation at an international level. We stated in our original article, however, that ‘the feasibility of our suggestion is debatable, but our point is that radically different approaches are necessary to effectively manage the largest extinction event in modern history’ (Muths & Fisher, 2015). There are examples of where such top-down strategies are being applied; e.g. for the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis (Stanford & Rodda, 2007), and biosecurity planning for Micronesia and Hawaii (NAVFAC Pacific, 2016). Another example is presented by Andreone. In Madagascar a community-wide conservation plan has been developed complete with prioritization of specific actions (Andreone, 2016). As with any top-down strategy, challenges will surface, especially when making decisions that affect economics. We note this caveat in our article, and Andreone points out such issues in Madagascar, where there are mismatches in priorities between biodiversity conservation and civil needs. Our suggestion is that a new paradigm needs to be considered given the gravity of amphibian decline, and one option may be to take a global approach focusing on specific, major threats. Application of an Incident Command System would not necessitate competition with, or emasculation of, local conservation priorities or actions.

  4. Protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales: Spanish translation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Enache

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to translate into Spanish and examine the psychometric properties of the resulting Spanish version of Briscoe, Hall and DeMuth (2006’s Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale, encompassing: Self-Direction, Values-driven predispositions, Boundaryless mindset and Organizational Mobility Preference. Design/methodology/approach: Translation of the Protean and Boundayless Career Attitude Scale was carried out using a back-translation procedure and cognitive interviews were conducted to ensure an accurate interpretation of questionnaire items. The validity and reliability of the scale were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the factor structure of the modified version of the scale, which consists in those items with higher factor loadings.Findings: The reliability coefficients of the modified scale are consistent with those reported by Briscoe et al. (2006. Nevertheless, the values-driven attitudes scale seem to measure two latent traits: strong core beliefs regarding one’s definition of career success and individual emphasis of core personal values through work (reliance on personal values when individual and organizational values do not match.Originality/value: This is the first study which provides a Spanish translation of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scale.

  5. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  6. Management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma: new and emerging targets and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Janet Y Li1, Steven Horwitz2, Alison Moskowitz2, Patricia L Myskowski3, Melissa Pulitzer4, Christiane Querfeld31College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2Department of Medicine, Lymphoma Service, 3Department of Medicine, Dermatology Service, 4Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL clinically and biologically represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome being the most common subtypes. Over the last decade, new immunological and molecular pathways have been identified that not only influence CTCL phenotype and growth, but also provide targets for therapies and prognostication. This review will focus on recent advances in the development of therapeutic agents, including bortezomib, the histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and romidepsin, and pralatrexate in CTCL.Keywords: novel targets, histone deacetylase inhibitors, pralatrexate, bortezomib, cutaneous T cell lymphoma

  7. Safety and efficacy of entecavir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Osborn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa OsbornDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Entecavir is a cyclopentyl deoxyguanosine analog that was approved for the treatment of the hepatitis B virus (HBV in 2005. In Phase III trials, it showed potent HBV suppression with drops of 6- to 7-log copies/mL in HBV DNA at 1 year. In addition, rates of genotypic resistance in nucleos(tide-naïve patients are low, reaching only 1.2% after 6 years. Safety and efficacy have been established in compensated cirrhosis and HIV-coinfected patients. Studies in decompensated cirrhosis also show efficacy. Because of potent viral suppression and a large genetic barrier to resistance, entecavir is now a first-line choice in most HBV treatment guidelines and has become an integral part of the HBV treatment armamentarium.Keywords: hepatitis B, therapy, entecavir

  8. Benson R. Wilcox--industry, genius, judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gordon F

    2010-09-01

    The 29th President of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Benson R. Wilcox, MD, died at his home in Fearington Village Center, NC, on May 11, 2010. In 2 weeks, he would have been 78 years old, and the focus of a birthday celebration for his wife, Patsy Davis, his 4 children, Adelaide, Sandra, Melissa, and Reid, 11 grandchildren, and many loved ones. With his death, caused by brain cancer, the University of North Carolina lost one of its most prolific and loyal sons, and the profession of thoracic surgery, one of its wisest leaders. Two facts are certain: Ben will be remembered forever by his students, residents, and colleagues, and our sky is, indeed, Carolina blue.

  9. Isolation and identification of toxigenic and non-toxigenic fungi in samples of medicinal plants from the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. PEREIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The consumption of preparations of medicinal plants has been increasing during the last decades in occidental societies. The presence of toxigenic fungi in a plant product may represent a potential risk of contamination, because of aflatoxins and ochratoxins. In this study, 12 samples of medicinal plants were analyzed in relation to the level of fungal contamination, and the presence of producers of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins was assessed by visualization of fungi using a cromatovisor in coconut milk. Most of the species found belong to the genus Cladosporium, Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Species producing ochratoxin A were present in 2 samples (16.7%, Melissa and Hibiscus. Species producing aflatoxin were found in samples of Jacaranda decurrens (8.33%. This study suggests that herbs, if stored improperly, can provide the growth of fungi and should be examined before consumption.

  10. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g(-1) of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .

  11. Insecticidal activity of some essential oils against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2005-12-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were tested for insecticidal activity (fumigation or topical application) against larvae Spodoptera littoralis. Twenty essential oils applied by fumigation were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae. Two essential oils Nepeta cataria and Thuja occidentalis were highly toxic, with LC50Mentha pulegium were toxic with LC50 between 10.1 and 20.0 l ml/m3. Twenty-three essential oils were highly toxic to the third instar of S. littoralis larvae after topical application. Eight essential oils Mentha citrata, N. cataria, S. sclarea, O. vulgare, O. compactum, Melissa officinalis, T. mastichina, and Lavandula angustifolia were highly toxic with LD50 < or =0.05 microl/larvae.

  12. Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Yanikoglu, Atila; Gokceoglu, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Ethanol extracts of the aerial parts from five Labiatae (Lamiaceae) species, obtained from Antalya, Turkey, were tested for larvicidal activity against the house mosquito Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Third and fourth instar mortality from six concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of each plant extract were compared against the organophosphorus insecticide, temephos which is currently used for larval control. All plant extracts showed high larvicidal activity in 24 h exposure tests. Teucrium divaricatum Sieber was the most toxic, followed by Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., Melissa officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L. and Mentha pulegium L. with LC(50) values of 18.6, 26.8, 39.1, 62.7 and 81.0 ppm, respectively. This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of these five plant species against C. pipiens.

  13. Insight into the radiotolerance of the life support bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H by means of phenotypic and transcriptomic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Monsieurs, Pieter; Leys, Natalie

    The MELiSSA life support system from the European Space Agency is targeting the produc-tion of oxygen, water and food by recycling organic waste. Among different types of pro-cesses, MELiSSA uses several interconnected bioreactors inhabited by microorganisms and higher plants (Hendrickx et al., 2006; Mergeay et al., 1988). Because this loop is foreseen to be functional in space where it will be exposed to higher doses and different spectra of ionizing radiation, it was decided to screen the radiotolerance of the organisms used. In this study, the radiotolerance (i.e. tolerance to ionizing radiation) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rho-dospirillum rubrum S1H was investigated. In this test, first the effect of low energy Cobalt-60 gamma rays, were tested. To assess the radiotolerance of bacterium S1H, the survival rate after increasing exposure was determined. R. rubrum S1H appeared relatively radiosensitive, as the radiation dose at which 90% of the population was killed (D10 value) was 4 times lower than the model bacterium Escherichia coli. It was demonstrate that the culture medium has an impact on radiation tolerance. This survival curve also permitted to select a number of sub-lethal ionizing radiation doses (¡ D10 ), that were used to analyze the gene expression response of R. rubrum S1H after gamma irradiation. The microarray transcriptome analysis results ob-tained from different doses and different culture medium showed a significant response of the bacterium to sublethal doses. Potential marker genes for ionizing radiation stress in R. rubrum S1H were identified. By quantitative PCR, it was shown that the expression of these marker genes increased with the recovery time after exposure to ionizing radiation. In other words, the radiation tolerance and the response of R. rubrum S1H to low energy Cobalt-60 gamma ionizing radiation was characterized. Therefore to ensure MELiSSA process robustness during extended space exploration mission, it is advised that

  14. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer′s disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Obulesu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer′s disease (AD is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree, Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree, Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod, Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium, Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm, and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage.

  15. Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C; Sousa, M J; Ferreira, M F; Leão, C

    2003-04-01

    The essential oils from aerial parts of Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Salvia officinalis, and Mentha piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated against five food spoilage yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Pichia membranifaciens, Dekkera anomala, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a reference. The oils were preliminarily screened by a disc diffusion technique, with the most active being the oil from M. officinalis. MICs were determined by the broth dilution method, and the main components of the oils were also tested by this method. The essential oil of M. officinalis at 500 microg/ml completely inhibited the growth of all yeast species. The main component of the oil of M. officinalis is citral (neral plus geranial) (58.3%), which showed a marked fungitoxic effect, contributing to its high activity.

  16. In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, J; Harkenthal, M; Steverding, D; Reichling, J

    2000-05-01

    The effect of different essential oils as well as of isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on the viability of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, promastigotes of Leishmania major and human HL-60 cells was evaluated using the Almar Blue assay. Of the 12 essential oils and 8 terpenes investigated, only three essential oils, Melissa officinalis (balmmint) oil, Thymus vulgaris (thyme) oil, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil were about 50-fold and 80-fold more toxic to bloodstream forms of T. brucei than to HL-60 cells, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the Australian tea tree oil, was even 1000-fold more toxic to trypanosomes than to the human cells. On the other hand, none of the essential oils and terpenes tested were more toxic to promastigotes of L. major than to HL-60 cells.

  17. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of golimumab, a TNF-alpha inhibitor, in the treatment of the psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Michelon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Melissa A Michelon1, Alice B Gottlieb1,21Tufts University School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis that affects many psoriasis patients and can often have a debilitating disease progression. Golimumab is a new tumor necrosis factor (TNF antagonist recently approved by the FDA for controlling signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with PsA, patients receiving golimumab showed significant improvement in the signs and symptoms of disease. It was usually well tolerated, but adverse events generally occurred more in patients receiving golimumab compared to placebo. Golimumab has also recently shown efficacy in slowing structural damage in PsA. This new biologic therapy provides physicians with another option in the treatment of this inflammatory arthritis while offering patients certain advantages over other TNF antagonists.Keywords: golimumab, psoriatic arthritis, TNF-alpha inhibitor

  19. 利用植物提取物防止猪蛔虫感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲清(译); 竺亚(校)

    2009-01-01

    此项研究在荷兰瓦格宁根大学动物科学研究小组完成,其目的是检测可用于预防和控制生长一肥育猪温和型猪蛔虫感染的药草替代品。试验时向饲料中添加3%的药草混合物,即日粮中添加1%的百里香(Thymus vulgaris)、1%柠檬香蜂草(Melissa officinalis,又名柠檬香水薄荷、蜜蜂花)和1%松果菊(Echinacea purpurca),或4%的药草混合物,

  20. An Exchange on Theory and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The following exchange grew out of a series of posts to the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia discussion list.1 As a talking point leading into a regular meeting for early career cultural studies researchers in Brisbane, Melissa Gregg, Jean Burgess and Joshua Green quoted a passage from Simon During’s recent Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction (Routledge, 2005 in the hope of provoking a wider debate about the current state of Australian cultural studies. Various members of the list were duly provoked, and the ensuing discussion was later picked up in a paper by John Frow and continued in private correspondence and then in invited responses to the developing exchange.

  1. 大杀伤力女人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟民

    2008-01-01

    <正>三个女人一台戏,二十三个女人,而且每个唱家班,怎会不是件大杀伤力武器?而能够驾驭Anastacia、Angelique Kidjo、Beth Gibbons、Beth Orton、Beverly Knight、Bonnie Raitt、Céline Dion、Dido、Faith Hill、Fengie、GladysKnight、Isobel Campbell、Joss Stone、k.d.lang、KT Tunstall、Madonna、Martha Wainwright、Melissa Etheridge、Pink、Sarah McLachlan、Shakira、Shingai Shoniwa和Sugababes,将每个巨星变成自己的和唱小歌女,相信只有Annie Lennox。

  2. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  3. Afrikaanse vryheidsliedjies as herkonstruksie van Afrikaneridentiteit: ’n ideologies-kritiese perspektief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lambrechts

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Afrikaans freedom songs as a reconstruction of Afrikaner identity Media polemics that centred on Afrikaner identity and language proliferated in Afrikaans newspapers of the early 2000s. It illustrates that although more than a decade has passed since democratisation, identity politics are still an important South African topic and renegotiation therefore continues. This article discusses the role of Afrikaans freedom songs as a reconstruction of white Afrikaner identity with the specific aim of establishing a point of departure for an ideology-critical theorising of the topic. In this regard, the interpretative tools of metaphor analysis and ideology critique of Johann Visagie (1996 are applied within the broader framework of the so-called Critical Theory. The five dominant postapartheid narratives recorded by Melissa Steyn (2001 serve as starting point for this study. The selection of freedom songs is related to specific constructions of “whiteness” portrayed in the mentioned narratives.

  4. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  7. 博士后的技能转化论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kendall Powell

    2015-01-01

    Melissa Ramirez发现,位于亚特兰大的美国疾病预防与控制中心的传染病研究员岗位不适合自己时,她选择了其他的博士后机会,并学会了撰写经费申请、辅导学生和教学技能。她的最后一站是罗利市北卡罗莱纳州立大学的博士后教学岗位。在那里,她完全沉浸在微生物学的本科生教学工作和课程开发之中。

  8. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  9. The mutillid wasps of the Dasymutilla paradoxa species-group (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, David R; Williams, Kevin A; Bartholomay, Pedro R

    2016-11-15

    The Dasymutilla paradoxa species-group is newly proposed to include taxa formerly included in the genera Dasymutilla Ashmead, 1899, Traumatomutilla André, 1901 and some previously incertae sedis. This species-group now includes the following eight species: D. fasciventris Mickel, D. guanacaste Manley & Pitts, D. naranjo Manley & Pitts, D. paradoxa (Gerstaecker), comb. nov., D. paraparadoxa, sp. nov., D. phya (Cameron), comb. nov., D. relata (Cameron), and D. sliepniri Manley & Pitts. Dasymutilla paraparadoxa Luz, Bartholomay & Williams, sp. nov. (Mexico, Guatemala) is described and illustrated. New synonymy is proposed (valid names are first) for: Dasymutilla fasciventris Mickel, 1938 (=Dasymutilla citromaculosa Manley & Pitts, 2007, syn. nov., =Dasymutilla chamela Manley & Pitts, 2007, syn. nov.); Mutilla paradoxa Gerstaecker, 1874 (=Sphaerophthamla [sic!] icaris Cameron, 1895, syn. nov.); Sphaerophthalma [sic!] phya Cameron, 1895 (=Sphaerophthalma [sic!] melissa Cameron, 1895, syn. nov.). The key to species is given.

  10. From the Renaissance to the Modern World—Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Iver Kaufman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 11 and 12, 2011, a symposium held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill honored John M. Headley, Emeritus Professor of History. The organizers, Professor Melissa Bullard—Headley’s colleague in the department of history at that university—along with Professors Paul Grendler (University of Toronto and James Weiss (Boston College, as well as Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, coordinator of the Program in Medieval and Early Modern Studies—assembled presenters, respondents, and dozens of other participants from Western Europe and North America to celebrate the career of their prolific, versatile, and influential colleague whose publications challenged and often changed the ways scholars think about Martin Luther, Thomas More, the Habsburg empire, early modern Catholicism, globalization, and multiculturalism. [...

  11. Ichneumonid wasps from Madagascar. VI. The genus Pristomerus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Seyrig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pristomerus species of Madagascar are revised. We report 15 species, of which 12 are newly described: P. guinness sp. nov., P. hansoni sp. nov., P. kelikely sp. nov., P. keyka sp. nov., P. moramora sp. nov., P. melissa sp. nov., P. patator sp. nov., P. ranomafana sp. nov., P. roberti sp. nov., P. vahaza sp. nov., P. veloma sp. nov. and P. yago sp. nov. Pristomerus albescens (Morley and P. cunctator Tosquinet are newly recorded from Madagascar and new host and/or distribution records are provided for this species. A dichotomous key to all species is provided. The zoogeographical relation of the Malagasy fauna of Pristomerus with respect to mainland Africa is discussed: only three of the 15 species are reported to occur outside of Madagascar, suggesting a high level of endemism in Madagascar which was not unexpected.

  12. New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    statistics and facts. This was followed by a discussion of main reasons for these alarming developments, such as inappropriate use in agriculture and medicine, insufficient precautions, lack of education, climate change, travel behavior, insufficient collaboration and funding of R&D, scientific complexities...... on March 7, 2014 at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The presentation was followed by a discussion moderated by US patent attorney Melissa Hunter-Ensor, Partner at Saul Ewing, Boston I started out by emphasizing increasing problems of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on a global level, providing new......, increased public awareness, and better hygiene, but also reactive push & pull strategies, such as increased investments, new collaborative models for R&D in antibiotics, prizes, “sui generis” IP-related incentives, regulatory responses and new pathways for approval. Recognizing that both global & local (i...

  13. Release of rosmarinic acid from semisolid formulations and its penetration through human skin ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmakienė Ada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of rosmarinic acid (RA from the experimental topical formulations with the Melissa officinalis L. extract and to evaluate its penetration through undamaged human skin ex vivo. The results of the in vitro release study showed that higher amounts of RA were released from the emulsion vehicle when lemon balm extract was added in its dry form. An inverse correlation was detected between the released amount of RA and the consistency index of the formulation. Different penetration of RA into the skin may be influenced by the characteristics of the vehicle as well as by the form of the extract. The results of penetration assessment showed that the intensity of RA penetration was influenced by its lipophilic properties: RA was accumulating in the epidermis, while the dermis served as a barrier, impeding its deeper penetration.

  14. [Efficacy of plant products against herpetic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Reichling, J

    2011-12-01

    Essential oils from various aromatic medicinal plants are highly active against some viral infections, e.g. labial herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 1. Balm oil, tea tree oil and peppermint oil demonstrate in vitro a significant antiherpetic activity, mainly related to a direct drug-virus particle interaction, some essential oils also act directly virucidal. Interestingly, these essential oils are also highly active against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus strains. In clinical studies, tea tree oil has been shown to possess antiherpetic, anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, as well as to accelerate the healing process of herpes labialis. Applying diluted essential oils three to four times daily for the antiherpetic treatment of affected areas is recommended. Some companies have marketed plant products, e.g. from Melissa, for the treatment of recurrent herpetic infections.

  15. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATION AT THE JEJUNUM LEVEL GENERATED BY INTRODUCING MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN BROILERS FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and extracts including in monogastric animals feeding represents a current practice because phyto-additives can represent an alternative to antibiotics using. In this way, in Nutrition and animals feeding discipline was been performed an experiment on 6 weeks, respectively from hatching to 42 days of age, on 120 broiler chickens, divided on three experimental variants (LEU, LEP and LM with 40 individuals each of them. The used hybrid was Ross 308. In LEU group were incorporated essential oils of Coriandri fructus, Satureja hortensis, Hipophae rhamnoides, 250 mg at 1 kg combined fodder. In LEP group were included in combined fodder structure a plants premix (Mentha piperita, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis in 2% proportion.. Microscopic studies showed, in the case of experimental groups, a hypertropic process of intestinal mucous membrane, emphasized by villousities and glandular apparatus development, through capilar system extending and leucocytar infiltrate development on all mucous chorion thickness.

  17. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena from Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miglio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.

  18. From traditional European medicine to discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The leading Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics to date involves inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which should, in principle, elevate cholinergic signaling and limit inflammation. In spite of the effectiveness in 20%-30% of AD patients, more attention has been paid to find new anti-AChE agents from medicinal plants. Galanthamine, contained in the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus and related genera like Narcissus, represents a good example. The aim of this study is to review the role of possible AChE inhibitors (AChEI) present in plants traditionally used in European medicine for improving memory. Starting from Galanthamine, properties of Melissa species, Salvia officinalis, Arnica chamissonis and Ruta graveolens are discussed to point to the role of these plants as potential sources for the development of therapeutic agents for AD.

  19. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  20. The psychopharmacology of European herbs with cognition-enhancing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-01-01

    Extensive research suggests that a number of plant-derived chemicals and traditional Oriental herbal remedies possess cognition-enhancing properties. Widely used current treatments for dementia include extracts of Ginkgo biloba and several alkaloidal, and therefore toxic, plant-derived cholinergic agents. Several non-toxic, European herbal species have pan-cultural traditions as treatments for cognitive deficits, including those associated with ageing. To date they have not received research interest commensurate with their potential utility. Particularly promising candidate species include sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia/officinalis), Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In the case of sage, extracts possess anti-oxidant, estrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and specifically inhibit butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase. Acute administration has also been found to reliably improve mnemonic performance in healthy young and elderly cohorts, whilst a chronic regime has been shown to attenuate cognitive declines in sufferers from Alzheimer's disease. In the case of Melissa officinalis, extracts have, most notably, been shown to bind directly to both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human brain tissue. This property has been shown to vary with extraction method and strain. Robust anxiolytic effects have also been demonstrated following acute administration to healthy humans, with mnemonic enhancement restricted to an extract with high cholinergic binding properties. Chronic regimes of aromatherapy and essential oil respectively have also been shown to reduce agitation and attenuate cognitive declines in sufferers from dementia. Given the side effect profile of prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors, and a current lack of a well tolerated nicotinic receptor agonist, these herbal treatments may well provide effective and well-tolerated treatments for dementia, either alone, in combination, or as an adjunct to conventional

  1. La conservazione e l'innovazione nella rigenerazione urbana. Un caso studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Passarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo prioritario del lavoro progettuale qui presentato è la definizione di un master plan, teso ad offrire idee ed ipotesi progettuali al fine di riqualificare dal punto di vista ambientale e urbanistico l’area costiera di Torre Melissa, comune facente parte dell’alto Ionio Crotonese in Calabria. Il progetto è formulato sull’idea d'organizzazione spaziale e funzionale del litorale la cui zona é stretta fra il litorale e la rete ferroviaria, con particolare attenzione alle relazioni e alle modalità di integrazione del progetto con il tessuto urbano circostante.Il progetto intende perseguire obiettivi di qualità, sia nella sua globalità che nei suoi dettagliati “esercizi progettuali” (definiti progetti pilota, caratterizzati per una forte sensibilità progettuale, tanto quella architettonica, che quella urbanistica, in riferimento all’ accessibilità, alla tutela del paesaggio, al riuso funzionale degli spazi aperti e degli elementi fisici del territorio.Nell’ultimo decennio diversi motivi hanno compromesso la fruibilità del litorale, facendo perdere quel carattere identitario che lo connotava, determinando un’urbanizzazione disorganica con la conseguenza inevitabile di un degrado fisico, sociale, ambientale e quindi urbanistico oggi visibilmente presente su tutta l’area costiera di Torre Melissa. Ulteriormente, le cause erosive determinatesi negli ultimi anni, hanno minacciato quasi irreversibilmente le condizioni di crescita e di sviluppo che, nonostante tutto, ancora persistono, anche se riscontrabili solo in pochi ed isolati esempi, grazie alla sua naturale vocazione e consentono di guardare al futuro con fiducia e ottimismo.

  2. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    and size classes and the transition between these classes. Body size in amphibians is strongly positively linked with the probability of breeding (Semlitsch et al. 1988, Smith 1987), fecundity (Howard 1980, Berven 1981, Berven and Gill 1983), and survival (Altwegg and Reyer 2003, Chelgren et al. 2006). Thus, growth of individuals is an important component of population change. Estimates of demographic rates for one gender are often used to infer population growth rates or population viability (Caswell 2001). However, in anurans such as Ranid frogs, gender is thought to affect survival rate (Wood et al. 1998, Lyapkov et al. 2004), probability of dispersal (Austin et al. 2003, Palo et al. 2004), age at sexual maturation (Lyapkov et al. 2004), and breeding probability (Muths et al. 2006). Moreover, males and females differ in energetic costs associated with breeding (Feder and Burggren 1992) and in growth rate (Lyapkov et al. 2004). Differences in demographic rates between genders will generally affect population growth rate for small populations (Engen et al. 2003, Si??ther et al. 2004, Husby et al. 2006), so it is important to distinguish these differences during monitoring. For example, it has been hypothesized that differences in the frequency at which male and female western toads (Bufo boreas) visit breeding sites have led to differential mortality from Chytridiomycosis, resulting in highly skewed sex ratios and diminished reproductive output (Muths et al. 2003). We examined sex- and size-specific demography at Dilman Meadow with particular focus on a priori hypotheses regarding survival, movement, and growth. It is generally no longer defensible to use captures or sightings of individuals to estimate demographic rates when numbers are uncorrected for differences in the probability of capture. Instead, capture, survival, and movement probabilities are modeled simultaneously to reduce bias in estimates of demographic rates (Williams et al. 2001). The missin

  3. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  4. 日光温室方位角对植物生长影响的实验研究%Experimental Study of Sunlight Greenhouse Azimuth Influenced on Plants Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程瑞; 余克强; 王双喜

    2014-01-01

    Light is the major source of energy for the sunlight greenhouse .Different azimuth of sunlight greenhouse have different effects on crops in greenhouse with light income .It can directly stimulate the growth of crops in greenhouse by determining the correct towards of greenhouse according to the climate and geographical conditions in different areas .Azi-muth of greenhouse has a direct impact on greenhouse crop growth .This paper designs an experiments .It shows the influ-ence of light on plant growth by observation test on two groups of Shanxi Agricultural University .It indirectly validates that greenhouse azimuth by west has a promoting on plant growth in the northern high latitudes .%光照是日光温室获取能量的主要来源,不同的温室方位角对温室内作物的受光量有不同的影响。根据不同地区的气候地理条件,确定正确的温室朝向,可以直接促进温室内作物的生长。为此,通过设计实验,对山西农业大学的两组植物的生长情况进行观察测试,阐明了光照对植物生长的影响,间接验证了在北方高纬度地区,温室方位角偏西有利于促进植物生长。

  5. Progress in bismuth molybdenum composite oxide%铋钼复合氧化物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程琳; 李榕; 甄强

    2013-01-01

    In this work,a variety of the preparation methods of bismuth molybdenum composite oxides have been summarized,such as solid state reaction,precipitation,sol-gel,hydrothermal method,spray-drying and so on.The advantages and disadvantages of these methods were also commented.Then,the application of bis-muth molybdenum composite oxides were introduced,including oxidation catalysts,photocatalysts and electro-lyte materials,as well as the effect of structure,morphology,composition on the properties of the material. The development direction of the preparation techniques,components,structure and morphology were pointed out,in view of its application field.%综述了多种铋钼复合氧化物的制备方法:固相反应法、沉淀法、溶胶-凝胶法、水热法以及喷雾干燥法等,分析了这些方法的优缺点。同时综述了铋钼复合氧化物在氧化反应催化、光催化、电解质材料等领域的应用以及材料的结构、形貌对于其性能的影响。针对铋钼复合氧化物不同的应用领域提出了制备技术、材料组分和结构与形貌的发展方向。

  6. Facing off with Scylla and Charybdis: a comparison of scalar, partial, and the novel possibility of approximate measurement invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Rens; Kluytmans, Anouck; Tummers, Lars; Lugtig, Peter; Hox, Joop; Muthén, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a pre-requisite for comparing latent variable scores across groups. The current paper introduces the concept of approximate MI building on the work of Muthén and Asparouhov and their application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) in the software Mplus. They showed that with BSEM exact zeros constraints can be replaced with approximate zeros to allow for minimal steps away from strict MI, still yielding a well-fitting model. This new opportunity enables researchers to make explicit trade-offs between the degree of MI on the one hand, and the degree of model fit on the other. Throughout the paper we discuss the topic of approximate MI, followed by an empirical illustration where the test for MI fails, but where allowing for approximate MI results in a well-fitting model. Using simulated data, we investigate in which situations approximate MI can be applied and when it leads to unbiased results. Both our empirical illustration and the simulation study show approximate MI outperforms full or partial MI In detecting/recovering the true latent mean difference when there are (many) small differences in the intercepts and factor loadings across groups. In the discussion we provide a step-by-step guide in which situation what type of MI is preferred. Our paper provides a first step in the new research area of (partial) approximate MI and shows that it can be a good alternative when strict MI leads to a badly fitting model and when partial MI cannot be applied.

  7. Facing off with Choosing between Scylla and Charybdis: A comparison of scalar, partial, and the novel possibility of approximate measurement invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens eVan De Schoot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement invariance (MI is a prerequisite for comparing latent variable scores across groups. The current paper introduces the concept of approximate measurement invariance building on the work of Muthén and Asparouhov and their application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM in the software Mplus. They showed that with BSEM exact zeros constraints can be replaced with approximate zeros to allow for minimal steps away from strict MI, still yielding a well-fitting model. This new opportunity enables researchers to make explicit trade-offs between the degree of MI on the one hand, and the degree of model fit on the other. Throughout the paper we discuss the topic of approximate MI, followed by an empirical illustration where the test for MI fails, but where allowing for approximate MI results in a well-fitting model. Using simulated data, we investigate in which situations approximate MI can be applied and when it leads to unbiased results. Both our empirical illustration and the simulation study show approximate MI outperforms full or partial MI In detecting/recovering the true latent mean difference when there are (many small differences in the intercepts and factor loadings across groups. In the discussion we provide a step-by-step guide in which situation what type of MI is preferred. Our paper provides a first step in the new research area of (partial approximate MI and shows that it can be a good alternative when strict MI leads to a badly fitting model and when partial MI cannot be applied.

  8. The Study of Positioning Technology of the Model of Sunˊs Shadow Based on the Curve Fitting%基于曲线拟合法太阳影子定位技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲; 杨鹏辉; 谢文; 吴春艳

    2016-01-01

    本文主要研究太阳影子定位技术,以太阳高度角为切入点,借助天文三角形知识,探究太阳高度角、太阳方位角、太阳时角、太阳赤纬与经纬度、日期、地方时的关系,结合曲线拟合、联立方程式的方法,建立太阳影子定位的优化模型,运用MATLAB、EXCEL软件研究出太阳影子的变化规律、基于影子顶点坐标条件下物体的定时、定位,并将研究结果推广到视频数据分析领域对视频进行定位、定时。%The thesis majors in the positioning of sunˊs shadow,in our study,solar height angle is breakthrough,by means of the knowledge of the astronomical triangle,we analysed the quantitative relationship between sun elevation angle,solar azi-muth,solar hour,solar declination angle and longitude,latitude,date,local time. Combining with the method of curve fitting and simultaneous equations,we set up the sun’s shadow positioning optimizing model. By using MATLAB and EXCEL soft-ware,we worked out the laws for the change of sun’s shadow,and ascertained the location and date. Finally we promoted our research result to the field of video data analysis.

  9. A New Maximum Entropy Estimation of Distribution Algorithm to Solve Uncertain Information Job-shop Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA is a new kinds of colony evolution algorithm, through counting excellent information of individuals of the present colony EDA construct probability distribution model, then sample the model produces newt generation. To solve the NP-Hard question as EDA searching optimum network structure a new Maximum Entropy Distribution Algorithm (MEEDA is provided. The algorithm takes Jaynes principle as the basis, makes use of the maximum entropy of random variables to estimate the minimum bias probability distribution of random variables, and then regard it as the evolution model of the algorithm, which produces the optimal/near optimal solution. Then this paper presents a rough programming model for job shop scheduling under uncertain information problem. The method overcomes the defects of traditional methods which need pre-set authorized characteristics or amount described attributes, designs multi-objective optimization mechanism and expands the application space of a rough set in the issue of job shop scheduling under uncertain information environment. Due to the complexity of the proposed model, traditional algorithms have low capability in producing a feasible solution. We use MEEDA in order to enable a definition of a solution within a reasonable amount of time. We assume that machine flexibility in processing operations to decrease the complexity of the proposed model. Muth and Thompson’s benchmark problems tests are used to verify and validate the proposed rough programming model and its algorithm. The computational results obtained by MEEDA are compared with GA. The compared results prove the effectiveness of MEEDA in the job shop scheduling problem under uncertain information environment.

  10. Factor and item response theory analysis of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. de Bruin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The concepts of the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career show potential as frameworks for research and practice in the contemporary world of work. Briscoe, Hall and DeMuth (2006 developed the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales, which consist of the Self-Directed Career Management, Values Driven, Boundaryless Mindset and Mobility Preference subscales. However, the standardisation and replication studies conducted by Briscoe et al., left some questions unanswered in terms of the psychometric properties of the subscales.Research purpose: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales with the aim of clarifying the structure of the scales, examining the quality of the items and evaluating the measurement precision of the scales.Research design, approach and method: Responses of adults to the items of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales were analysed with factor analytic and Rasch item response model techniques.Main findings: Factor and Rasch analyses revealed that three of the four postulated dimensions were replicated, but the Values Driven dimension split into two factors. Misfitting items were identified and sources of their misfit were uncovered. The Rasch analysis showed that three of the four subscales provide most of their psychometric information at the lower ends of their respective latent traits (where relatively few persons are located. Hence, the trait estimates of persons with low scores are more precise than those of persons with high scores.Practical/managerial implications: Overall, the quality of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales is satisfactory, but some aspects that may be improved are identified. Researchers may use at least three of the four subscales with confidence, but more work is possibly needed on the Values Driven subscale.Contribution/value-add: The study provides researchers with information on the

  11. Simulated microgravity allows to demonstrate cell-to-cell communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    Through the MELiSSA project, the European Space Agency aims to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forth-coming long term space exploration missions. This production is based on the recycling of the missions organic waste, including CO2 and minerals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospir-illum rubrum S1H is used in MELiSSA to degrade organics with light energy and is the first MELiSSA organism that has been studied in space related environmental conditions (Mastroleo et al., 2009). It was tested in actual space flight to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as in ground simulations of ISS-like ionizing radiation and microgravity. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in liquid medium in 2 devices simulating microgravity conditions, i.e. the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). The re-sponse of the bacterium was evaluated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels using respectively a dedicated whole-genome microarray and high-throughput gel-free quantitative proteomics. Both at transcriptomic and proteomic level, the bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity. The response to low fluid shear modeled microgravity in RWV was different than to randomized microgravity in RPM. Nevertheless, both tests pointed out a change in and a likely interrelation between cell-to-cell communica-tion (i.e. quorum sensing) and cell pigmentation (i.e. photosynthesis) for R. rubrum S1H in microgravity conditions. A new type of cell-to-cell communication molecule in R. rubrum S1H was discovered and characterized. It is hypothised that the lack of convection currents and the fluid quiescence in (simulated) microgravity limits communications molecules to be spread throughout the medium. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated micro-gravity has showed new properties of this well know bacterium

  12. 利用电导率法测定六种芳香植物的耐热性%Measurement of Thermal Resistance of Six Aromatic Plants with Electrical Conductivity Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚萍; 王健

    2011-01-01

    Six aromatic plants (Melissa officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L.,Ocimum basilicum L., Lavandula spica L.,Rosmarinus officinalis L.,Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.)were treated with high temperature; and their heat resistance were measured by electrical conductivity method. Results showed that their cells were injured by gradient high temperature and showed sigmoid response to temperature. According to significance testing, the Logistic equation was adopted to determine the semilethal temperatures hy spotting the turning points of the inflexion phase of the curve. The semi-lethal temperature of M. officindis, S. officinalis, O. basilicum, L. spica, R. officinalis and P. amaryllifolius was 57.00 ℃, 58.55 ℃, 59.80 ℃, 59.55 ℃,59.19 ℃, and 65.25 ℃ respectively.%运用电导率法对香蜂草(Melissa officinalis L.)、苹果鼠尾草(Salvia officinalis L.)、丁香罗勒(Ocimum basilicum L.)、阔叶薰衣草(Lavandula sptca L.)、匍匐迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis L.)、香露兜(Pandanuts amaryllifolius Roxb.)等6种芳香植物进行了耐热性测定.结果显示,叶片在梯度高温处理后,温度与细胞伤害率之间呈现"S"形曲线关系.通过显著性检验,结合Logistic方程拐点确定半致死温度,测得6种芳香植物的高温半致死温度分别为香蜂草57.00℃、苹果鼠尾草58.55℃、丁香罗勒59.80℃、阔叶薰衣草59.55℃、匍匐迷迭香59.19℃、香露兜65.25℃.

  13. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  14. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  15. The Development of Multi-dimensional Workbench for Solar Radiaometer Verification%太阳辐射计检定用多维工作台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 苏拾; 王凌云; 张国玉; 陈曦

    2013-01-01

    For the verification needs of solar radiation measuring instruments, a multidimensional workbench with four degrees of freedom movement was proposed. In conjunction with a solar simulator,it can simultaneously test parameter errors of the two instruments to be seized for verification. Based on the study of the solar altitude angle and the azi-muth angle. elaborateing the design process about the table’s rotation mechanism, lifting mechanism and the transfer arm mechanism tilt mechanism, and the control system of the table has been described. The test results show that the rotation control error of the dimensional table at all levels are less than 0.05°. The mesa composed of inclinometer,op-tical encoder and stepper motor,whose horizontal control error is within ±10′. The above errors that can meet the de-sign requirements.%针对太阳辐射计量仪表进行检定的需要,提出了一种具有四个自由度功能动作的多维检定工作台。工作台在与太阳模拟器联合,可同时对两块待检仪表的参数误差进行检定。在对太阳高度角和方位角的研究基础上,阐述了工作台旋转机构、升降机构、俯仰机构和转臂机构的设计过程,并对工作台的控制系统进行了说明。测试结果表明多维工作台各级转动误差小于0.05°,由倾角仪和步进电机组成的台面水平控制误差在±10′以内,满足设计指标要求。

  16. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  17. Effect of distillation waste water and plant hormones on spearmint growth and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess

    2011-04-01

    Distillation waste water (DWW) is a by-product from steam distillation of essential-oil crops; and currently, it is discharged into streams and rivers. The effects of DWW from 13 essential-oil crops, extracts from two alkaloid-containing species, and three plant hormones (methyl jasmonate, MJ; gibberellic acid, GA3; and salicylic acid, SA) were evaluated on productivity, essential-oil content and composition of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) cv. 'Native'. Spearmint plant height was increased by the application of GA3 and Melissa officinalis DWW but suppressed by the application of Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida DWW. Generally, MJ, GA3 and M. officinalis and Mentha arvensis DWW increased dry yields. The concentration of L-carvone in the oil ranged from 550 g kg(-1) (with Monarda citriodora DWW) to 670 g kg(-1) (with T. lucida DWW). M. citriodora DWW reduced the concentration of L-carvone in the oil by 23% relative to the control. Results suggest that DWW from essential-oil crops may affect monoterpene synthesis in M. spicata and, hence, may have a direct effect on the essential oil composition. DWW from essential-oil crops may be used as a growth promoter and modifier of the essential oil composition of spearmint. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Adverse Effects of Plant Food Supplements and Plants Consumed as Food: Results from the Poisons Centres-Based PlantLIBRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüde, Saskia; Vecchio, Sarah; Sinno-Tellier, Sandra; Dopter, Aymeric; Mustonen, Harriet; Vucinic, Slavica; Jonsson, Birgitta; Müller, Dieter; Veras Gimenez Fruchtengarten, Ligia; Hruby, Karl; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) are products of increasing popularity and wide-spread distribution. Nevertheless, information about their risks is limited. To fill this gap, a poisons centres-based study was performed as part of the EU project PlantLIBRA. Multicentre retrospective review of data from selected European and Brazilian poisons centres, involving human cases of adverse effects due to plants consumed as food or as ingredients of food supplements recorded between 2006 and 2010. Ten poisons centres provided a total of 75 cases. In 57 cases (76%) a PFS was involved; in 18 (24%) a plant was ingested as food. The 10 most frequently reported plants were Valeriana officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Paullinia cupana, Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata, Mentha piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ilex paraguariensis, Panax ginseng, and Citrus aurantium. The most frequently observed clinical effects were neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal symptoms. Most cases showed a benign clinical course; however, five cases were severe. PFS-related adverse effects seem to be relatively infrequent issues for poisons centres. Most cases showed mild symptoms. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some severe adverse effects and the increasing popularity of PFS require continuous active surveillance, and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    C’est reparti pour une nouvelle coupe d’automne Samedi 27 août, plus de soixante coureurs sont venus au rendez-vous de la première étape de la coupe dans la forêt de Grange Malval. Certains rentraient juste de la grande semaine O’Festival de Chambéry, courses en parallèle des championnats du monde de CO, et ne manquaient pas d’entrainement. Les 6 parcours proposés par les organisateurs du club de CO du CERN ont été remportés par: Facile court (1,7 km, dénivelé 50 m, 10 postes) 1er Melissa Assfalo (19:23), 2e Elliot Dannecker (26:44), 3e Ulysse Dannecker (26:51) Facile moyen (2,7 km, dénivelé 80 m, 13 postes) 1er Julien Vuitton (22:28), 2e Carlos Vidal (49:04), 3e Clément Genot (1:03:20) Facile long (3,9 km, dénivelé 100 m, 10 postes) 1er Tony/Joan Cass/Brooks (1:23:30), 2e Anna Lip...

  20. Modelled microgravity cultivation modulates N-acylhomoserine lactone production in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H independently of cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Atkinson, Steve; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2013-12-01

    The photosynthetic alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H is part of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project that is aiming to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forthcoming long-term space exploration missions. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV), simulating partial microgravity conditions on Earth. The bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity at the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic levels. In simulated microgravity conditions three N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (C10-HSL, C12-HSL and 3-OH-C14-HSL) were detected in concentrations that were twice those detected under normal gravity, while no differences in cell density was detected. In addition, R. rubrum cultivated in modelled microgravity showed higher pigmentation than the normal gravity control, without change in culture oxygenation. When compared to randomized microgravity cultivation using a random positioning machine, significant overlap for the top differentially expressed genes and proteins was observed. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated microgravity showed new properties of this well-known bacterium, including its first, to our knowledge, complete quorum-sensing-related N-acylhomoserine lactone profile.

  1. Time for Decarbonization of Conservation and Development Projects? The Political Ecology of Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre L. Ibisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The globe's first carbon projects were designed and implemented approximately 20 years ago following scientific insights that emissions of greenhouse gases needed to be mitigated. Visible in some of these early projects were the important aspects of social governance and local benefit sharing. The projects promised to be a panacea to environmental, social and economic problems in remote rural areas of developing countries. However, it took another decade before a wave of hundreds of carbon projects were launched. Many of the projects were offered under the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, plus the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement, as well as under a variety of voluntary schemes and national programs, public-private partnerships, and forestry-based investment initiatives. As decision-makers prepare the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change in Paris (COP21, Earthscan has released a book entitled `Carbon conflicts and forest landscapes in Africa', edited by Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones. According to the editors, the focus of the book is on what happens on the ground when carbon forestry projects arrive, what types of projects work, and, equally important, what doesn’t work.

  2. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Ferrari, Federico; Giannakou, Ioannis; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2010-07-14

    Eight essential oils (EOs) as well as 13 single terpenes were studied for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , for three immersion periods (24, 48, and 96 h). The EOs were isolated from eight Greek Lamiaceae species: Melissa officinalis , Sideritis clandestina , Origanum dictamnus , Ocimum basilicum , Mentha pulegium , Origanum vulgare , Vitex agnus castus , and Salvia officinalis . The EOs nematicidal activity was correlated to their chemical composition as well as to the pure terpenes' activity tested individually. Clear dose and time response relationships were established. The EOs of O. vulgare, O. dictamnus, M. pulegium, and M. officinalis exhibited high nematicidal activity against M. incognita, and the EC(50) values (96 h) were calculated at 1.55, 1.72, 3.15, and 6.15 muL/mL, respectively. The activity of the nematicidal terpenes was found to decrease in the order l-carvone, pulegone, trans-anethole, geraniol, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, and the respective EC(50) values (24 h) were calculated in the range of 115-392 mug/mL. Terpenes tested individually were more active than as components in EO, implementing antagonistic action.

  3. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

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    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review will indicate the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for psychiatric and neurological disorders. Method: We conducted a review of literature to understand the biochemical and evidential bases for the use of herbs in psychiatric and neurological disorders as follow: 1 Alzheimer’s disease, 2 Depression, 3 Anxiety, 4 Insomnia, 5 Substance use disorders, 6 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 7 Migraine. Results: Evidences support use of Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A, Galantamine, Melissa officinalis,and Salvia officinalis for Alzheimer’s disease; St. John’s wort, Lavender, and Saffron for depression; Passionflower, and Kava, for anxiety disorders; Valerian, and English Lavender for sleep disorders; Hypericum for substance related disorders; Ginkgo biloba, and Passionflower for ADHD; and feverfew, and Butterbur root for migraine. The highest level of confidence derives from well-designed, randomized, double blind controlled studies. Conclusion: Herbs may have beneficial effects in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorder; however we must consider their potential side effects and drug-drug interactions.

  4. The Effects of Powdered Fertilized Eggs on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of fertilized egg powder (Young Tissue Extract; YTE®) intake on outcome measures for depression. Fifty-five patients with depression were randomly assigned to receive YTE, YTE plus Melissa officinalis, or placebo for 12 weeks. At baseline, there were no significant differences in scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) or Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among the 3 groups. At 12 weeks, the HAM-D scores in groups treated with YTE or YTE with M. officinalis were both significantly lower than those in the placebo group. In addition, both treatment groups showed a significant improvement in depression as measured by the change in HAM-D scores from baseline to 12 weeks, whereas the placebo group showed no significant change. There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment groups. The study indicates that the fertilized egg powder has an antidepressive effect and may be an alternative or adjunct to antidepressive medication for some patients, but further research is necessary. PMID:21631360

  5. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  6. ATR-IR fingerprinting as a powerful method for identification of traditional medicine samples: a report of 20 herbal patterns

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    A. Sakhteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Attenuated total reflectance-inferared (ATR-IR spectra can be used as a non-invasive fingerprinting approach in quality control of herbal samples. Methods: Twenty versatile herbal samples were subjected to attenuated total reflectance-inferared (ATR-IR spectroscopy followed by different clustering methods in order to determine by which method more reasonable classifications would be obtained. Results: All classification methods (K-means, HCA, PCA and SOM were able to discriminate the two medicinal seeds, Hyocyamus niger and Peganum harmala from other herbal samples. Similarly, the starch samples were clustered in a reasonable method. In HCA, one cluster included three types of starch samples: Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Triticum aestivum. All the four classification methods were able to separate Solanum tuberosum starch from other starch samples. HCA and SOM, were able to classify leaf samples Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis belonging to Lamiaceae family, in one category. Crocus sativus and its adulterant Carthamus tinctorius flowers were identified by PCA, HCA and SOM as different categories. Conclusion: The result of this study can be utilized for identification and quality control of traditionally used medicinal plant samples in an unknown sample powder. Such data could be the basis for preparing a data bank on Iranian medicinal samples which in turn is used as a simple, fast and reliable method for characterization of herbal powders in Pharmacopoeias.

  7. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

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    Sthéfane G. Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  8. Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  9. The Economic Analysis of Semi-mechanised Harvesting of Lemon Balm

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    Vladimír Mašán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years area for cultivation of Melissa officinalis is ranged around 40 ha. Low production could be also caused by less intensive use of machinery. Aerial parts could be fully harvested by mechanisation, but in case of small growers using of special machinery is not economic. The majority of growers harvest manually and this type of harvest represents up to 80% of the costs associated with the cultivation. The less expensive alternative of harvest by a hedge trimmer is evaluated in this article. The goal is to compare two ways of harvest (manual harvest and hedge trimmer harvest of lemon balm aerial parts in production practise. According to results of experiments were calculated and determined boundaries of effective use of hedge trimmer in production of lemon balm in comparision to manual harvest and fully mechanised harvest. Obtained data shown an increase of harvest performance in case of hedge trimmer (0.0425–0.0525 ha.hr−1 compared to manual harvest (0.0185–0.0216 ha.hr−1. According to calculations, we can say that effective use of hedge trimmer (including purchase price is from 0.37 ha at planting surface and 0.48 ha at planting rows. Results could also be used for other MAP crops with similar harvest technology as for lemon balm (for example Mentha spp., Origanum spp., Achillea spp..

  10. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew; Gibbs, Amy; Neale, Chris; Perry, Naomi; Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Bilog, Vanessa; Kras, Marni; Scholz, Claudia; Sass, Mathias; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF) administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix. PMID:25360512

  11. Effects of host plants on digestive enzymatic activities and some components involved in intermediary metabolism of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardani-Talaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper is a serious pest that causes devastating damages in infested areas to many fruits, vegetables, ornamental crops and weeds. In the current study, effects of three host plants including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; corn (Zea mays L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. were determined on digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism of C. chalcites larvae. The highest activities of α-amylase, glucosidases and specific proteases were observed in the larvae fed on dill. Our results showed that C. chalcites larvae had the highest TAG-lipase activity on corn in comparison with other host plants. Significant differences were found among enzymatic activities of acid (ACP and alkaline phosphatases, aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the haemolymph of C. chalcites larvae reared on lemon balm, corn and dill, respectively, although activity of alanine aminotransferase showed no statistically significant differences among different host plants. The enzymatic activity of ACP significantly decreased on dill in comparison with lemon balm and corn. The activity of LDH significantly increased on dill compared with other host plants. These results revealed that dill (A. graveolens is the most appropriate host plant for larvae of C. chalcites as evidenced by the highest digestive enzyme activities and intermediary metabolism.

  12. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  13. A review study on the effect of Iranian herbal medicines against in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus

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    Mohammad-Taghi Moradi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are a number of published data indicating in vitro anti-HSV activity of some of Iranian herbal extracts with no systematic review to discuss these results. Therefore, this article was aimed to review and discuss the methods carried out and the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the extracts used and also conclusions provided in these publications. Materials and Methods: Published articles both in English (from Medline, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Pro Quest, Google scholar, Cochrane Library and in Persian (from SID, Iran Medex and Magiran databases, from 1966 to October 2014 were incorporated in this review. The in vitro studies that lacked CC50, IC50, were excluded. Results: Only 42 published reports were found to examine Iranian herbs against HSV replication in vitro. Seventeen out of 42 studies in which 23 kinds of medicinal plants were subjected to crude extraction were included. The review of data showed that some of the herbal extracts including Hyssopus officinalis methanolic extract, Melissa officinalis aqueous extract, Quercus persica L. hydroalcoholic extract and Securigeras ecuridaca methanolic extract with selective index (SI of 234, 877, >778 and 250, respectively were highly effective against HSV in vitro. Conclusion: More comprehensive studies using more advanced methods are needed to be done to achieve promising anti-HSV agents from the bioactive compounds isolated from these herbs.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils of lemon balm, manuka and tansy to the causative agents of otomycosis

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    Jovanović Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otomycosis is a superficial fungal infection of the external ear canal. One of the therapeutic approaches that became topical in treatment of otomycosis is the application of essential oils, which is shown to have different biological properties, including the antimicrobial effect. Aim: The objective of the research is to examine antimycotic effects of essential oils of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, manuka (Leptospermum scoparium and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare on the causative agents of otomycosis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of 20 randomly selected strains of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from swabs taken from the external ear canal of patients with signs and symptoms of otitis externa. Antifungal activity of essential oils of lemon balm, manuka and tansy was tested by using the microdilution method by determining the value of the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. Results: MIC values of lemon balm were in the range of 0.39- 50 μl/ml, manuka of 0.39-50 μL/mL and tansy of 1.56-50 μL/mL. The MFC values were 2-4 times higher than the MIC values, except in the case of a strain of Aspergillus niger, which was tolerant of the lemon balm essential oil. Conclusion: The investigation has shown that essential oil activities of lemon balm, manuka and tansy to the strains of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp, using the microdilution method, have antifungal effect.

  15. Breeding of a high yielding chamomile variety (Matricaria recutita L. with improved traits for machine harvesting

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    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A more productive variety of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., which is more efficient in machine processing with consistent quality traits, will benefit the viability of german products in the global market. Breeding of an enhanced chamomile variety is part of a german multi-network project called KAMEL whose research aims on Matricaria recutita L., Valeriana officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L. The agronomic and qualitative improvement of these speciality crops are the basis for further economic prosperity of medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation in Germany. The main breeding goals of a new variety of chamomile are the increase of blossom product yield (Matricariae flos to 6 dt/ha in up to three harvest stages through a homogenous flower horizon (pick height, an even flowering time, large flower heads and a high regeneration rate after each harvest stage. The upgrade of the content of essential oil content to a minimum of 0.8 % with its compostion according to Ph. Eur. and a chamazulene content of min. 25 % are further objectives of the breeding process. In addition to these quality traits, high tolerances against common fungal diseases are of particular interest. Development of an innovative chamomile variety is realized over nine years in three stages (2010 - 2019.

  16. Effects of PAR and UV-B radiation on herbal yield, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity of some medicinal plants under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukyan, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation are among the main environmental factors acting on herbal yield and biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of biologically effective UV-B light (280-315 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) on herbal yield, content and composition, as well as antioxidant capacity of essential oils and polyphenols of lemon catmint (Nepeta cataria L. f. citriodora), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) under controlled greenhouse cultivation. Intensive UV-B radiation (2.5 kJ m(-2)  d(-1) ) influenced positively the herbal yield. The essential oil content and composition of studied herbs were mainly affected by PAR and UV-B radiation. In general, additional low-dose UV-B radiation (1 kJ m(-2) d(-1) ) was most effective for biosynthesis of polyphenols in herbs. Analysis of major polyphenolic compounds provided differences in sensitivity of main polyphenols to PAR and UV-B radiation. Essential oils and polyphenol-rich extracts of radiated herbs showed essential differences in antioxidant capacity by the ABTS system. Information from this study can be useful for herbal biomass and secondary metabolite production with superior quality under controlled environment conditions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Stress-induced changes of growth, yield and bioactive compounds in lemon balm cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Krisztina; Radácsi, Péter; Rajhárt, Péter; Ladányi, Márta; Németh, Éva

    2017-07-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of water deficiency on five Melissa officinalis genotypes. For three months water supply of 70% (control) and 40% (stress) of soil water capacity treatments have been adjusted in a pot experiment. Considering the morphological data, the different genetic potentials of cultivars were manifested only under optimum water regimes while under drought they merged into one homogeneous basic population representing the species. The biomass data decreased for all cultivars under drought stress, but the degree of loss was genotype specific. Genotype dependence of the change in essential oil accumulation was clearly proved by the data. Three of the cultivars ('Gold Leaf', 'Lorelei' and 'Quedlinburger Niederliegende') showed the same essential oil content both in control and stress treatments. Under drought stress the cultivar 'Lemona' produced only 35% of its essential oil content, however cv. 'Soroksár' reacted with 58% increase of essential oil accumulation to drought treatment. Considering the non-volatile bioactive compounds a unique response of the investigated accessions to drought stress was demonstrated. Cultivar 'Lorelei' showed an increased accumulation of total hydroxicinnamic acid derivatives content while cv. 'Gold Leaf' and 'Soroksár' clearly reacted with higher accumulation of total flavonoid fraction. In the case of cv. 'Quedlinburger Niederliegende' the remarkable decline in total flavonoid content is the most obvious stress reaction. The rosmarinic acid content of all genotypes showed lower accumulation level in consequence of lower water supply. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Authenticity control of essential oils containing citronellal and citral by chiral and stable-isotope gas-chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu-Trang, Tran-Thi; Casabianca, Hervé; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2006-12-01

    Enantioselective capillary GC on a Supelco beta-DEX 225 column (heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin SPB 20poly--20% diphenyl, 80% dimethylsiloxane) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, coupled online with capillary GC on an HP5 column have been used for origin-specific analysis and authenticity control of essential oils, for example lemon (Citrus limon), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon flexuosus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.--Ceylon type and Cymbopogon winterianus--Java type), Litsea cubeba, Lippia citriodora, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), and, especially, precious lemon balm oil (Melissa officinalis L.). Isotope data (delta13C(PDB) and delta2H(V-SMOW)) for citral (neral + geranial) and citronellal from on-line GC-C/Py-IRMS and chiral data for citronellal in these essential oils are reported. The possibility of using these data to determine the origin of these essential oils and to detect adulteration is discussed. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of specific compounds in two essential oils of lemongrass and Litsea cubeba was performed as a practical statistical method for distinguishing between these two types of oil.

  19. In vitro anti-diabetic effect and chemical component analysis of 29 essential oils products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Yen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine commercial essential oil (EO products that were purchased from the Taiwan market, including three different company-made Melissa officinalis essential oils, were assayed on their glucose consumption activity and lipid accumulation activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The EOs of M. officinalis were significantly active in both model assays. By contrast, EOs of peppermint, lavender, bergamot, cypress, niaouli nerolidol, geranium-rose, and revensara did not increase glucose consumption activity from media, but displayed inhibited lipid accumulation activity (65–90% of lipid accumulation vs. the control 100%. Because of the promising activity of M. officinalis EOs, three different products were collected and compared for their gas chromatography chemical profiles and bioactivity. The Western blot data suggest that the key factors of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase pathway can be mediated by M. officinalis EOs. Together with biodata, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles suggested mixtures of citrals and minor compounds of M. officinalis EOs may play an important role on effect of antidiabetes.

  20. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.