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Sample records for hus contributed considerably

  1. Arne Jacobsens eget hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Beskrivelse og analyse af arkitekten Arne Jacobsens eget hus på Godfred Rodes Vej 2. Bogen er udgivet af Relea A/S, der ejer huset, og som i 2007 har restaureret det.......Beskrivelse og analyse af arkitekten Arne Jacobsens eget hus på Godfred Rodes Vej 2. Bogen er udgivet af Relea A/S, der ejer huset, og som i 2007 har restaureret det....

  2. hus + Teknik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    Sigtet med denne bog er at anskueliggøre samspillet mellem bygninger og deres tekniske installationer. Bogens tre dele analyserer udviklingen i forholdet mellem råhus og teknik. Den giver et bud på fremtidens kontorbygning, hvor decentrale facadeintegrerede føringsveje anvendes til at skabe innov...

  3. Eget hus - men hvilket?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, F.; Ranten, K

    Anvisningen er udarbejdet i tilknytning til Bygningsreglementet for småhuse, 1985. Den gennemgår forhold af betydning for boligens brugsværdi og indeholder oversigter over mål på inventar, almindelige møbler og friarealer. Anvisningen henvender sig til familier, der skal købe eller bygge eget hus...

  4. [Thrombotic microangiopathies: HUS/TTP. Physiopathological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Avalos, J C

    2000-01-01

    In thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and in the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) fibrin-platelet thrombi occlude arterioles and capillaries. The mechanism of endothelial cell injury and the mechanism of thrombosis are the most important physiopathological events in this pathology and are largely unknown. In HUS due to the Shiga toxin, the lesion of the endothelial cells is due to penetration of the toxin into the cell via the Gb3 receptor. Endothelial cell death is a consequence of altered protein synthesis at the ribosomal level. Cytokines released during the inflammatory process, possibly enhance the endothelial damage. Genetic and immunologic predisposing factors for the development of HUS have also been postulated. In idiopathic, secondary and familial HUS/TTP the mechanism of endothelial lesion is unknown, but multiple responsible factors have been advocated such as infections, drugs, pregnancy, autoantibodies, apoptosis inducing molecules, etc. and other genetic, hormonal or immunologic predisposing factors may also be involved. Factor H deficiency has been blamed in familiar cases. The most important cause of microcirculation thrombosis is the thrombogenic capacity of endothelial cell "activation" or injury induced by multiple mechanisms. The predominant source of plasma vW factor multimers is apparent in the altered endothelial cell. The unusually large vWF multimers are more effective at binding to platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX and IIb-IIIa complexes and inducing aggregation, as also occurred with the low weight multimers formed with excessive proteolysis, as described in the acute phase of HUS/TTP. The recent report of congenital deficiency of a vWF protease in familial TTP and its functional inhibition by autoantibodies in acquired cases is characteristic of TTP. This protease inhibition has never been described in HUS and might represent pathogenetic differences between TTP and HUS, and contribute to the differential diagnosis, but further

  5. Hospice, et levende hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Vibeke Østergaard

    Det er formålet med afhandlingen Hospice – et levende hus. En analyse af levet liv og omsorg på hospice som bidrag til forståelse af åndelig omsorg at skabe vi¬den om den oplevelse det uhelbredeligt syge menneske, der tilbringer den sidste del af livet på et hospice, har af omsorgspraksis og levet...... liv på hospice, og at bidrage til udvik¬ling af en ny forståelse af åndelig omsorg som sygeplejefagligt begreb. Undersøgelsen, der har en livsverdensfænomenologisk tilgang, gennem¬føres som et etnografisk feltstudie. I en periode på otte måneder, hvor jeg har været deltagende observatør på to hospicer......, der i første om¬gang er udført uden teoretisk indblanding og efterfølgende perspektiveret ved inddragelse af Medard Boss’ daseinsanalytiske tilgang til forståelse af menne¬ske og krop, sundhed og sygdom og af Kari Martinsens omsorgstænkning. Analysen viser, at den uhelbredeligt syge patient på hospice...

  6. HUS and the case for complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Edward M

    2015-10-29

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy that is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. Excess complement activation underlies atypical HUS and is evident in Shiga toxin-induced HUS (STEC-HUS). This Spotlight focuses on new knowledge of the role of Escherichia coli-derived toxins and polyphosphate in modulating complement and coagulation, and how they affect disease progression and response to treatment. Such new insights may impact on current and future choices of therapies for STEC-HUS.

  7. Om det moderne hus - og det klassiske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    I tekst og illustrationer beskrives det klassiske hus og den klassiske by, repræsenteret ved Andrea Palladio (1508-80) og det moderne hus, den moderne by og byggeopgave, repræsenteret ved Le Corbusier (1887-1965).......I tekst og illustrationer beskrives det klassiske hus og den klassiske by, repræsenteret ved Andrea Palladio (1508-80) og det moderne hus, den moderne by og byggeopgave, repræsenteret ved Le Corbusier (1887-1965)....

  8. Treatment and outcome of Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiring, Johanna; Andreoli, Sharon P; Zimmerhackl, Lothar Bernd

    2008-10-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in childhood and the reason for chronic renal replacement therapy. It leads to significant morbidity and mortality during the acute phase. In addition to acute morbidity and mortality, long-term renal and extrarenal complications can occur in a substantial number of children years after the acute episode of HUS. The most common infectious agents causing HUS are enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-producing Shiga toxin (and belonging to the serotype O157:H7) and several non-O157:H7 serotypes. D(+) HUS is an acute disease characterized by prodromal diarrhea followed by acute renal failure. The classic clinical features of HUS include the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS mortality is reported to be between 3% and 5%, and death due to HUS is nearly always associated with severe extrarenal disease, including severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Approximately two thirds of children with HUS require dialysis therapy, and about one third have milder renal involvement without the need for dialysis therapy. General management of acute renal failure includes appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, antihypertensive therapy if necessary, and initiation of renal replacement therapy when appropriate. The prognosis of HUS depends on several contributing factors. In general "classic" HUS, induced by EHEC, has an overall better outcome. Totally different is the prognosis in patients with atypical and particularly recurrent HUS. However, patients with severe disease should be screened for genetic disorders of the complement system or other underlying diseases.

  9. Appreciation of scientific achievements of Jozef Hus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spassov, S.; Geeraerts, R.

    2009-04-01

    In 2004, the Geophysical Centre of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) in Dourbes (south Belgium) celebrated its 50th anniversary. Fifty years of top research to which Jozef Hus contributed considerably. When he started his career in this governmental institution more than 40 years ago, palaeomagnetic research was absent at the RIMB. After finishing studies in condensed matter physics at Ghent University (Belgium) in 1963, he became an assistant at the RMIB and developed with Prof. Dr. A. De Vuyst, in charge of the geomagnetic observatory, a method for absolute measurements of all geomagnetic field elements with a proton magnetometer. Wishing to extend the record of geomagnetic field observations in time, Jozef began to set up a laboratory of his own and started to construct and develop instruments for palaeomagnetic research with competence, great enthusiasm and concentrated passion. This world-class laboratory was constructed between 1976 ad 1980. In 1981, he received the title Doctor of Sciences from the Free University of Brussels based on his thesis entitled "De indirecte meting van de seculaire verandering van het geomagnetisch veld". Palaeomagnetism of Quaternary sediments and archaeo- and rock magnetism have been Jozef's most important research fields. In fact, a short sojourn in Prof. E. Thellier's Laboratory of Geomagnetism at Saint-Maur-de-Fossés (Paris) in 1965, raised Jozef's interest in archaeomagnetism. He formed a solid basis for the detailed establishment of reference curves for declination and inclination for the Belgian territory for historical and archaeological times. He studied the suitability of burned archaeological materials to record the Earth's magnetic field as well as effects which influence accurate field registration in archaeological materials, such as magnetic refraction and magnetic anisotropy. During his career, Jozef promoted archaeomagnetism as a valuable dating tool and strengthened the cooperation with the

  10. Før Ee bygger eget hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankerstjerne, P. (red.); Brixen, J. (red.)

    At bygge eget hus er en stor opgave - større jo mindre huset skal være. I denne anvisning bringes en samlet oversigt over de problemer bygherren må tage stilling til før og under byggeriet. På alle trin af byggesagen - fra idé til regnskabets time efter indflytningen - gøres der i tekst og...

  11. Considerations on affectivity in teaching relations: Vygotsky's contributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raimundo Nonato de Oliveira Falabelo

    2015-01-01

    .... This research is theoretically based on studies conducted by L.S. Vygotsky. We also made use of contributions by some of his commentators or interpreters that addressed this theme specifically...

  12. A Contribution to Considerations of the Role of Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanić Josip

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embedded systems are a ubiquitous part of modern civilisation. Trends point to further intensification of their use. In this article we discuss long-term implications of that process, from the point of view of systems science. Objectives: On a general level, we relate embedded systems to a general class of objects and argue about their role in human life. On a somewhat more specific level, we consider in more details the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. Methods/Approach: In order to achieve the set objectives, we conducted inductive theoretical considerations and presented the results in this section. Results: The hierarchy of notions relating human civilization to environment is established, and embedded systems are positioned within it. Conclusions: Broadening and intensification of the use of embedded systems is a gradual process, heavily intertwined with societal changes. The case study of the development of the unmanned aerial vehicles reveals the potentials of the concept of embedded systems, also in the area of human resources management

  13. L-Arginine/NO Pathway Is Altered in Children with Haemolytic-Uraemic Syndrome (HUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Kirsten Kanzelmeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in childhood. We investigated L-arginine/NO pathway in 12 children with typical HUS and 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. Nitrite and nitrate, the major NO metabolites in plasma and urine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA in plasma and urine, and dimethylamine (DMA in urine were determined by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS techniques. Urinary measurements were corrected for creatinine excretion. Plasma nitrate was significantly higher in HUS patients compared to healthy controls P=0.021, whereas urine nitrate was borderline lower in HUS patients compared to healthy controls P=0.24. ADMA plasma concentrations were insignificantly lower, but urine ADMA levels were significantly lower in the HUS patients P=0.019. Urinary DMA was not significantly elevated. In HUS patients, nitrate R=0.91 but not nitrite, L-arginine, or ADMA concentrations in plasma correlated with free haemoglobin concentration. Our results suggest that both NO production and ADMA synthesis are decreased in children with typical HUS. We hypothesize that in the circulation of children with HUS a vicious circle between the L-arginine/NO pathway and free haemoglobin-mediated oxidative stress exists. Disruption of this vicious circle by drugs that release NO and/or sulphydryl groups-containing drugs may offer new therapeutic options in HUS.

  14. Hvite vegger, blanke ark : norske hjem i spanske hus

    OpenAIRE

    Løbach, Christin

    2007-01-01

    ”Hvite vegger, blanke ark” er en avhandling om norske hjem i spanske hus. Tittelen indikerer at noe sorteres bort og at noe nytt kan tre frem. Det å flytte til Spania kan være en måte å bevisstgjøre seg selv om hva man ønsker å bringe med seg videre i livet, slik er det også en mulighet til å realisere seg selv og sine drømmer. Jeg ser det å skape et hjem som målet ved flyttingen. Informantene betrakter og forholder seg til sine liv som åpne ved å bruke sin fortid til å utforske og realisere ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.72-8 - Effect of certain employer contributions with respect to premiums or other consideration paid or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of certain employer contributions with respect to premiums or other consideration paid or contributed by an employee. 1.72-8 Section 1.72-8...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-8 Effect of certain...

  16. Is it quinine TTP/HUS or quinine TMA? ADAMTS13 levels and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yara A; Hay, Shauna N; King, Karen E; Matevosyan, Karen; Poisson, Jessica; Powers, Amy; Sarode, Ravindra; Shaz, Beth; Brecher, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia with or without microangiopathy following quinine is often referred to as quinine "hypersensitivity." When schistocytes are present it is frequently termed "quinine-associated TTP/HUS." A severe deficiency of the vWF-cleaving protease, ADAMTS13, is associated with idiopathic TTP. A previous study of patients with "quinine-associated TTP/HUS" found that ADAMTS13 activities were not abnormal in 12/12 patients. A retrospective review of TTP patients with quinine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) for whom ADAMTS13 was measured before plasma exchange was performed. Six patients were identified. All were females (age range: 43 to 73, mean = 61.7 years) and had taken quinine for leg cramps. Four of the six experienced renal failure requiring dialysis. Five of the patients had D-Dimers levels measured, all were elevated. In four patients the levels were > or = 18 times the upper limit of normal. ADAMTS13 was normal in four patients and mildly decreased in two patients. We conclude that while thrombocytopenia and schistocytosis can be seen in quinine-associated TTP/HUS, the pathophysiology seems to be distinct from that seen in most cases of idiopathic TTP (i.e., severely decreased ADAMTS13 with an inhibitor). We recommend that a TMA in association with quinine be consistently referred to as quinine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (quinine-TMA) to better distinguish this entity from idiopathic TTP. The use of plasma exchange in quinine-TMA is called into question.

  17. Researching Social Capital in Education: Some Conceptual Considerations Relating to the Contribution of Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual considerations for social capital research in education from a social network perspective. Specifically, the article raises three key conceptual issues that call for further elaboration of concepts of social capital: redefining potential resources as accessible but un-utilized sources of social capital;…

  18. Researching Social Capital in Education: Some Conceptual Considerations Relating to the Contribution of Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual considerations for social capital research in education from a social network perspective. Specifically, the article raises three key conceptual issues that call for further elaboration of concepts of social capital: redefining potential resources as accessible but un-utilized sources of social capital;…

  19. Mellemrummets hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristine Annabell

    2016-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger hvilke arkitektoniske potentialer der er i en særlig boligtype, der i afhandlingen betegnet som dobbelthus. Et dobbelthus er i afhandlingen defineret ved, at en isoleret boligkerne er adskilt fra boligens klimaskærm ved hjælp af en uopvarmet mellemzone, hvori der kan tages...

  20. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Lyndaker

    Full Text Available The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1 complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling. In yeast, worms, and flies, the 9-1-1 complex is also required for meiotic checkpoint function and efficient completion of meiotic recombination; however, since Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 are essential genes in mammals, little is known about their functions in mammalian germ cells. In this study, we assessed the meiotic functions of 9-1-1 by analyzing mice with germ cell-specific deletion of Hus1 as well as by examining the localization of RAD9 and RAD1 on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I. Hus1 loss in testicular germ cells resulted in meiotic defects, germ cell depletion, and severely compromised fertility. Hus1-deficient primary spermatocytes exhibited persistent autosomal γH2AX and RAD51 staining indicative of unrepaired meiotic DSBs, synapsis defects, an extended XY body domain often encompassing partial or whole autosomes, and an increase in structural chromosome abnormalities such as end-to-end X chromosome-autosome fusions and ruptures in the synaptonemal complex. Most of these aberrations persisted in diplotene-stage spermatocytes. Consistent with a role for the 9-1-1 complex in meiotic DSB repair, RAD9 localized to punctate, RAD51-containing foci on meiotic chromosomes in a Hus1-dependent manner. Interestingly, RAD1 had a broader distribution that only partially overlapped with RAD9, and localization of both RAD1 and the ATR activator TOPBP1 to the XY body and to unsynapsed autosomes was intact in Hus1 conditional knockouts. We conclude that mammalian HUS1 acts as a component of the canonical 9-1-1 complex during meiotic prophase I to promote DSB repair and further propose that RAD1 and TOPBP1 respond to unsynapsed chromatin through an alternative mechanism that does not require RAD9 or HUS1.

  1. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndaker, Amy M; Lim, Pei Xin; Mleczko, Joanna M; Diggins, Catherine E; Holloway, J Kim; Holmes, Rebecca J; Kan, Rui; Schlafer, Donald H; Freire, Raimundo; Cohen, Paula E; Weiss, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling. In yeast, worms, and flies, the 9-1-1 complex is also required for meiotic checkpoint function and efficient completion of meiotic recombination; however, since Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 are essential genes in mammals, little is known about their functions in mammalian germ cells. In this study, we assessed the meiotic functions of 9-1-1 by analyzing mice with germ cell-specific deletion of Hus1 as well as by examining the localization of RAD9 and RAD1 on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I. Hus1 loss in testicular germ cells resulted in meiotic defects, germ cell depletion, and severely compromised fertility. Hus1-deficient primary spermatocytes exhibited persistent autosomal γH2AX and RAD51 staining indicative of unrepaired meiotic DSBs, synapsis defects, an extended XY body domain often encompassing partial or whole autosomes, and an increase in structural chromosome abnormalities such as end-to-end X chromosome-autosome fusions and ruptures in the synaptonemal complex. Most of these aberrations persisted in diplotene-stage spermatocytes. Consistent with a role for the 9-1-1 complex in meiotic DSB repair, RAD9 localized to punctate, RAD51-containing foci on meiotic chromosomes in a Hus1-dependent manner. Interestingly, RAD1 had a broader distribution that only partially overlapped with RAD9, and localization of both RAD1 and the ATR activator TOPBP1 to the XY body and to unsynapsed autosomes was intact in Hus1 conditional knockouts. We conclude that mammalian HUS1 acts as a component of the canonical 9-1-1 complex during meiotic prophase I to promote DSB repair and further propose that RAD1 and TOPBP1 respond to unsynapsed chromatin through an alternative mechanism that does not require RAD9 or HUS1.

  2. Contribution of prosthetic treatment considerations for dental extractions of permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Ángel; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual's history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled) for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior), group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars), upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment), in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total) were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions moderated such pattern.

  3. Contribution of prosthetic treatment considerations for dental extractions of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Fernández-Barrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual’s history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior, group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars, upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment, in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p < 0.001. Women (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05 were more likely to be in this situation, and molars (OR = 2.70, p < 0.001 were most at risk. As the total number of extractions increased, the risk of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons decreased (OR = 0.94, p < 0.05. Conclusions. A significant amount (21.5% of the extractions of permanent teeth were performed for prosthetic reasons in this dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions

  4. Note: Application of a novel 2(3HUS+S) parallel manipulator for simulation of hip joint motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X. L.; Cheng, G.; Liu, X. Z.

    2016-07-01

    In the paper, a novel 2(3HUS+S) parallel manipulator, which has two moving platforms, is proposed. The parallel manipulator is adopted to simulate hip joint motion and can conduct an experiment for two hip joints simultaneously. Motion experiments are conducted in the paper, and the recommended hip joint motion curves from ISO14242 and actual hip joint motions during jogging and walking are selected as the simulated motions. The experimental results indicate that the 2(3HUS+S) parallel manipulator can realize the simulation of many kinds of hip joint motions without changing the structure size.

  5. Function of von Willebrand factor in children with diarrhea-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+ HUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutor, A H; Thomas, K B; Prüfer, F H; Grohmann, A; Brandis, M; Zimmerhackl, L B

    2001-06-01

    Reports on von Willebrand factor (vWF) in hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) are not unequivocal. Because of potential pathogenic implications, we examined the ability of vWF to bind to collagen in vitro, which reflects its function. Plasma vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) and collagen-binding activity (vWF:CBA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children with (1) diarrhea-associated (D+) HUS (n = 27), (2) chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) (n = 8), (3) gastroenteritis (GE) not associated with HUS (n = 15), (4) immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) (n = 40) and from controls (n = 35). Structural vWF was evaluated by multimer analysis. Children with D+ HUS had vWF:Ag of 2.53 and vWF:CBA of 1.98 U/mL. The corresponding values for patients with ITP were 1.35 and 1.82 U/mL, with CRI 1.55 and 1.55 U/mL, and with GE 1.68 and 2.10 U/mL; all values were higher than in controls (1.04 and 1.16 U/mL). The mean ratio of vWF:CBA to vWF:Ag ratio in controls was 1.13; only children with HUS had a dysfunctional vWF, as indicated by a low ratio of 0.78; the ratio was elevated in children with ITP (1.36) and GE (1.27) and was normal in those with CRI (1.06). No ultralarge molecular multimers of vWF were detected in any group, including HUS. The very high concentration of plasma vWF:Ag in HUS probably reflects endothelial cell damage or irritation. In contrast to all other groups, only children with HUS had a dysfunctional vWF, caused either by a primary (due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) or secondary (due to consumption of functionally active vWF) process. This abnormality was not obvious as structural anomaly by multimer analysis.

  6. [The 2011 HUS epidemic in Germany. Challenges for disease control: what should be improved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G; Frank, C; Gilsdorf, A; Mielke, M; Schaade, L; Stark, K; Burger, R

    2013-01-01

    From May to July 2011 [corrected] the world's largest outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in northern Germany with dramatic consequences for the population, the health care system and the food industry. In the following we examine the detection of the outbreak, epidemic management and related public communication aspects based on scientific publications, media reports as well as own and new data analyses. The subsequent 17 recommendations concern issues such as participation in and implementation of existing and new surveillance systems particularly with respect to physicians, broad application of finely tuned microbiological typing, improved personnel capacity and crisis management structures within the public health service and evidence-based communication by administrations and scientific associations. Outbreaks of similar dimensions can inevitably occur again and result in costs which will far exceed investments needed for early detection and control. This societal balance should be taken into account in spite of limited resources in the public health sector.

  7. Some considerations about the contributions that social constructionism can offer to the study and intervention in workers` health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bonetti Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we search to weave some considerations about the Social Constructionism contributions to research and intervention on workers` health. The article begins with a brief passage over some of the main critical theories on health and work, and then it traces some considerations on this theme. We also present a research with workers who have got Repetitive Strain Injuries as an illustration of the importance of studying the process of production of senses in the scope of the relations between health and work. In this research, we could disentangle a historicity of the senses about repetitive strain injuries and coexisting with them, as an expression of the dialogic interanimations that the carriers of this disease construct in their everyday life (which also includes the researchers, whose discursive complexes were sometimes fighting, sometimes negotiating, sometimes adjusting different senses; promoting new discursive forms in time, as well as new materialities which promote new perspectives and possibilities of action in their lives.

  8. Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtrængning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    I nærværende undersøgelse anvendes radon-222, som er en naturligt forekommende radioaktiv gas, som sporgas for jordluftindtrængning til et hus, der er nabo til en forurenet renserigrund. Dette er muligt, da poreluftkoncentrationen af radon i jorden underhuset er omkring 1000 gange højere end...... udeluftens koncentration, og selv en meget lille indtrængning af jordluft til huset kan derfor have stor betydning for dets radonkoncentration. Undersøgelsen bygger bl.a. på kontinuerte målinger af radon,differenstryk, atmosfæretryk, og temperaturer i indeklimaet samt spotmålinger af radon under terrændækket...... indtrængning af radon (dvs. at radon trænger ind med en trykdreven luftstrøm) fra jorden under huset, når vakuumanlægget er slukket. Under en række simplificerende antagelser kan det beregnes, atindtrængningen af luft fra det kapillarbrydende lag (dvs. "jordluft") er omkring 1 m"3/h, når vakuumanlægget er...

  9. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M

    2010-06-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.

  10. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak.

  11. ATR, Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex regulate Chk1 and Cdc25A in the absence of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G; Lukas, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    The ATR and Chk1 kinases are essential to maintain genomic integrity. ATR, with Claspin and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex, activates Chk1 after DNA damage. Chk1-mediated phosphorylation of the Cdc25A phosphatase is required for the mammalian S-phase checkpoint. Here, we show that during physiological...... S phase the regulation of the Chk1-Cdc25A pathway depends on ATR, Claspin, Rad9, and Hus1. Human cells with chemically or genetically ablated ATR showed inhibition of Chk1-dependent phosphorylation of Cdc25A, and they accumulated Cdc25A without external DNA damage. Furthermore, si......RNA-mediated depletion of Claspin, Rad9 and Hus1 also stabilized Cdc25A. ATR ablation also inhibited the activatory phosphorylation of Chk1 on serine 345. Thus, the ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A pathway represents an integral part of physiological S-phase progression, and interference with this mechanism undermines viability...

  12. The Prediction of Students' Academic Performance With Fluid Intelligence in Giving Special Consideration to the Contribution of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Wang, Tengfei; Xu, Fen

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides a new account of how fluid intelligence influences academic performance. In this account a complex learning component of fluid intelligence tests is proposed to play a major role in predicting academic performance. A sample of 2, 277 secondary school students completed two reasoning tests that were assumed to represent fluid intelligence and standardized math and verbal tests assessing academic performance. The fluid intelligence data were decomposed into a learning component that was associated with the position effect of intelligence items and a constant component that was independent of the position effect. Results showed that the learning component contributed significantly more to the prediction of math and verbal performance than the constant component. The link from the learning component to math performance was especially strong. These results indicated that fluid intelligence, which has so far been considered as homogeneous, could be decomposed in such a way that the resulting components showed different properties and contributed differently to the prediction of academic performance. Furthermore, the results were in line with the expectation that learning was a predictor of performance in school.

  13. STEC:O111-HUS complicated by acute encephalopathy in a young girl was successfully treated with a set of hemodiafiltration, steroid pulse, and soluble thrombomodulin under plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Noritaka; Fujioka, Masayuki; Bennett, Charles L; Inoki, Kazuya; Miki, Toyokazu; Watanabe, Akihiko; Yoshida, Toshiko; Hayakawa, Masaki; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl, who developed shigatoxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-HUS complicated by encephalopathy. She was successfully treated with hemodiafiltration, high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and soluble recombinant thrombomodulin under plasma exchange. von Willebrand factor multimers analysis provides potential insights into how the administered therapies might facilitate successful treatment of STEC-HUS.

  14. Dal diario di una piccola comunista. Ricostruzione della vicenda umana nella Cecoslovacchia di Husák

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present Dal diario di una piccola comunista (From the diary of a young communist girl, the first novel by the Slovak writer Michaela Šebőková. Through the main character’s voice, the eleven-year-old Alžbeta, Šebőková portrays Czechoslovakian society in the years of “normalization” and also offers a deeper understanding of children’s ideological manipulation under the regime of Gustav Husák through to the Young Pioneers Organization. Growing up as a member of this organization, Alžbeta, initially driven by strong Communist ideals, ends up realizing the undeniable contradiction between Communist rhetoric and its actual behaviour. She will reach awareness that lies and pretence are the only values underpinning the communist system of those years.

  15. The return periods and risk assessment of severe dust storms in Inner Mongolia with consideration of the main contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng; Ji, Zhonghui

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a methodology for return period analysis and risk assessment of severe dust storm disaster. Meteorological observation data, soil moisture data, and remote sensing data from 30 meteorological stations in Inner Mongolia (western China) from 1985 to 2006 were used for the study. A composite index of severe dust storm disaster (Index I (SDS)) based on the influence mechanisms of the main contributing factors was developed by using the analytic hierarchy process and the weighted comprehensive method, and the hazard risk curves (i.e., the transcendental probability curves of I (SDS)) for the 30 stations were established using the parameter estimation method. We then analyzed the risk of the occurrence of severe dust storm under different scenarios of 5-, 10-, 20-, and 50-year return periods. The results show that the risk decreased from west to east across Inner Mongolia, and there are four severe dust storm occurrence peak value centers, including Guaizihu, Jilantai, Hailisu, and Zhurihe-Erenhot. The severity of dust storms in seven places will be intolerable in the 50-year return period scenario and in three places in the 20-year return period scenario. These results indicate that these locations should concentrate forces on disaster prevention, monitoring, and early warning. The I (SDS) was developed as an easily understandable tool useful for the assessment and comparison of the relative risk of severe dust storm disasters in different areas. The risk assessment was specifically intended to support local and national government agencies in their management of severe dust storm disasters in their efforts to (1) make resource allocation decisions, (2) make high-level planning decisions, and (3) raise public awareness of severe dust storm risk.

  16. Male circumcision and sexual risk behaviors may contribute to considerable ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence in Kenya: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.8 and 20.2% in Kenya's various ethnic groups. The reasons underlying these variations have not been evaluated before.We used data from seven national surveys spanning the period 1989 to 2008 to compare the prevalence of a range of risk factors in Kenya's ethnic groups. Spearman's and linear regression were used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable by ethnic group.The ethnic groups exhibited significant differences in a number of HIV related risk factors. Although the highest HIV prevalence group (the Luo had the highest rates of HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: 56.8%, 95% CI 51.0-62.5% and condom usage at last sex (Men 2008∶28.6%, 95% CI 19.6-37.6%, they had the lowest prevalence of circumcision (20.9%, 95% CI 15.9-26.0 the highest prevalence of sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (Men: 40.2%, 95% CI 33.2-47.1% and pre-marital sex (Men 2008∶73.9%, 95% CI 67.5-80.3% and the youngest mean age of debut for women (1989 SURVEY: 15.7 years old, 95% CI 15.2-16.2. At a provincial level there was an association between the prevalence of HIV and male concurrency (Spearman's rho = 0.79, P = 0.04. Ethnic groups with higher HIV prevalence were more likely to report condom use (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.62, P = 0.01 and having been for HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.47, P = 0.04.In addition to differences in male circumcision prevalence, variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence in Kenya's ethnic groups. To complement the prevention benefits of the medical male circumcision roll-out in several parts of Kenya, interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should continue to be promoted.

  17. Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial and cerebellar lesions (MERS type II) in a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlitza, Matthias; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The typical form of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion— called MERS type I—is characterized by a singular, reversible lesion in the midline of the splenium. Very rarely, additional lesions with similar signal characteristics can occur in other brain areas, which is then referred to as MERS type II. We present the case of a patient with a reversible splenial lesion and concomitant reversible cerebellar lesions within the scope of an atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

  18. Arne Jacobsens eget hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Beskrivelse og analyse af arkitekten Arne Jacobsens eget rækkehus på Strandvejen 413. Bogen er udgivet af Realea A/S, der ejer huset, og som i 2007 har restaureret det.......Beskrivelse og analyse af arkitekten Arne Jacobsens eget rækkehus på Strandvejen 413. Bogen er udgivet af Realea A/S, der ejer huset, og som i 2007 har restaureret det....

  19. János Kádár as an Economic Reformist And Gustáv Husák As An Antireformist

    OpenAIRE

    Horbulák Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with both political and economic history. The main task was to try to compare the attitude of Gustáv Husák and János Kádár about economic reforms in their own countries. The comparison was based on their lives, interests and personalities. Historical evaluation and biographical material was also used. Taking into account that the political circumstances were very similar, the root of the differences between the acts of these politicians had to be the result of individual fact...

  20. Abra esta carta após minha morte: escrita como testamento na correspondência entre Jan Hus e seu discípulo = Open this letter after my death: writing as testament in the correspondence between Jan Hus and his disciple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges de Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O clérigo e educador Jan Hus, morto em 1415 pela fogueira do Concílio de Constança, escreveu duas cartas para seu discípulo Martin de Volyně, nas quais deixou um conjunto de instruções de distribuição de seus bens materiais e um rol de ensinamentos espirituais. As cartas eram semelhantes, sendo que a primeira só deveria ser aberta caso Martin recebesse de fonte segura a notícia da morte de Hus. Este texto analisa o contexto e o conteúdo dessas cartas em busca de indícios (conceito baseado no historiador Carlo Ginzburg de uma ação educativa da parte do remetente e de uma transmissão de seu lugar de mestre para seu discípulo.The priest and educator Jan Hus, who was killed by fire in 1415 the Council of Constance, wrote two letters to his disciple Martin of Volyne, in which left a set of instructions for distribution of their material possessions and an list of spiritual teachings. The letters were similar, and the first should only be opened if Martin received from a reliable source news of the death of Hus. This paper examines the context and content of these letters for clues (concept based on historian Carlo Ginzburg from an educational activity on the part of the sender and the transmission of his place of master to his disciple.

  1. János Kádár as an Economic Reformist And Gustáv Husák As An Antireformist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horbulák Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with both political and economic history. The main task was to try to compare the attitude of Gustáv Husák and János Kádár about economic reforms in their own countries. The comparison was based on their lives, interests and personalities. Historical evaluation and biographical material was also used. Taking into account that the political circumstances were very similar, the root of the differences between the acts of these politicians had to be the result of individual factors. However, it cannot be denied that the difference between the development of Czechoslovakia and Hungary also played a significant role.

  2. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2016-12-19

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources.

  3. Energy, society and environment: considerations about the contribution of biofuels to sustainable development; Energia, sociedade e meio ambiente: consideracoes acerca da contribuicao dos biocombustiveis para o desenvolvimento sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Bruna de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2010-07-01

    The concept of development on the contemporary scene is limited to ideas of economic growth and consumption. In this context, arises the need for a new form of development, witch can be represented by the concept of sustainable development. The sustainability at the energy sector has a key role on mitigating environmental and social problems, and also contributes to security on energy supply. Therefore, the main purpose of the present paper is to understand the need for sustainable development at the contemporary scene and relate it to the energy context. To, then, analyze the prospect of biofuels on the three spheres of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. (author)

  4. [Peers contribution to mental health work: considerations on the relationship between formal and informal help. A case study in a mental health facility in Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila Gómez, Sara; Agrest, Martín; Abadi, Daniel; Cáceres, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Including peers to the mental health workforce has been part of a larger debate regarding specificity and incumbencies of peers' work, as well as their relationship with other workers. While some members of the workforce are proposing to train peers to have them help in different settings and interventions, others see them as unfair and underprepared competitors trying to replace them. Based on this debate, and from a Collective Health perspective on the concept of "care", this paper supports the idea that, since they put "care" as central to anything done by the mental health workforce, peers could be crucial to practices in Mental Health. An experience that took place in a Day Hospital in Buenos Aires City, conversed within a group dedicated to reflect on peers' support, is analyzed in order to unveil the relationship between peers and professionals, as well as peers' specificity. It is withstand that one of the main contributions of including peers is to help professionals think more about the relational dimension of their work and about the way they treat, call and refer to patients.

  5. Grib muligheden - i mulighedernes hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøttrup, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Metodeudvikling på Bostedet Orion, Hillerød. Et socialpsykiatrisk bosted for sindslidende med multiple problemstillinger. Støttet af SL´s udviklingsfond.......Metodeudvikling på Bostedet Orion, Hillerød. Et socialpsykiatrisk bosted for sindslidende med multiple problemstillinger. Støttet af SL´s udviklingsfond....

  6. Information about TTP-HUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Webmaster (email: Evaren-Page@ouhsc.edu), Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, OUHSC Dee Terrell, PhD, Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, OUHSC

  7. Consideration of modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of Operational Modal Analysis. A contribution of state monitoring of great structures; Erfassung modaler Struktureigenschaften mit Sensornetzwerken und den Methoden der Operational Modal Analysis. Ein Beitrag zur Zustandsueberwachung grosser Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, A.; Mayer, D.; Koch, M.; Kauba, M.; Melz, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A state monitoring of mechanical structures is possible based on the modal parameters natural frequency, self-oscillation form and modal damping. Beyond the damage recognition such a monitoring also can be used to the localization of damages. During the monitoring of large structures (such as blades or towers of wind power plants) problems arise with the instrumentation realization: However the execution of a unique data acquisition requires an expenditure which goes beyond logistic questions such as sensor assembly, grid connection and excitation. The presented solution covers two components whose combination can overcome the described problem definition. On the one hand a network of intelligent sensors will be used, on the other hand the received data are evaluated according to the methods of operational modal analysis. So the temporal development of the modal parameters can be supervised with a firmly installed sensor network based on the data received in the normal operation of the structure. The contribution under consideration contains a description of the Random Decrement Method used for the spectral estimation in the sensors. Subsequently, the function mode of the sensor network is presented from the data capture up to the modal dismantling with the help of a numeric system simulation. The realization of the sensor network at a mechanical, wind-excited test-structure is described. The results of the investigation of the test-structure with the sensor network are presented and compared with the results of conventional procedures. The innovation of the presented technology exists in the combination of known methods of random decrement and operational modal analysis with the possibilities of a network of intelligent sensors.

  8. No evidence of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain or enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC found in cattle faeces in northern Germany, the hotspot of the 2011 HUS outbreak area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieler Lothar H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruminants, in particular bovines, are the primary reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, but whole genome analyses of the current German ESBL-producing O104:H4 outbreak strain of sequence type (ST 678 showed this strain to be highly similar to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Strains of the EAEC pathotype are basically adapted to the human host. To clarify whether in contrast to this paradigm, the O104:H4 outbreak strain and/or EAEC may also be able to colonize ruminants, we screened a total of 2.000 colonies from faecal samples of 100 cattle from 34 different farms - all located in the HUS outbreak region of Northern Germany - for genes associated with the O104:H4 HUS outbreak strain (stx2, terD, rfbO104, fliCH4, STEC (stx1, stx2, escV, EAEC (pAA, aggR, astA, and ESBL-production (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV. Results The faecal samples contained neither the HUS outbreak strain nor any EAEC. As the current outbreak strain belongs to ST678 and displays an en-teroaggregative and ESBL-producing phenotype, we additionally screened selected strains for ST678 as well as the aggregative adhesion pattern in HEp-2 cells. However, we were unable to find any strains belonging to ST678 or showing an aggregative adhesion pattern. A high percentage of animals (28% shed STEC, corroborating previous knowl-edge and thereby proving the validity of our study. One of the STEC also harboured the LEE pathogenicity island. In addition, eleven animals shed ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions While we are aware of the limitations of our survey, our data support the theory, that, in contrast to other Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, cattle are not the reservoir for the O104:H4 outbreak strain or other EAEC, but that the outbreak strain seems to be adapted to humans or might have yet another reservoir, raising new questions about the epidemiology of STEC O104:H4.

  9. Einstein's cosmological considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Janzen, Daryl

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is not simply to present an historical overview of Einstein's cosmological considerations, but to discuss the central role they played in shaping the paradigm of relativistic cosmology. This, we'll show, was a result of both his actions and, perhaps more importantly, his inactions. Accordingly, discussion won't simply be restricted to Einstein's considerations, as we'll analyse relevant contributions to the relativistic expansion paradigm during the approximately twenty years following Slipher's first redshift measurements in 1912. Our aim is to shed some light on why we think some of the things we do, with the idea that a better understanding of the reasoning that fundamentally influenced the common idea of our expanding universe might help to resolve some of the significant problems that modern cosmology now faces; and we eventually use this knowledge to probe the foundations of the standard model. Much of the information we present, including many of the historical details, we e...

  10. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  11. The birth of schizophrenia or a very modern Bleuler: a close reading of Eugen Bleuler's 'Die Prognose der Dementia praecox' and a re-consideration of his contribution to psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatz, Anke; Hoff, Paul

    2014-12-01

    After Eugen Bleuler introduced 'schizophrenia' in 1908, the term was hotly debated but eventually led to the abandonment of Kraepelin's previous term 'dementia praecox'. Bleuler's contribution has subsequently been interpreted in two main ways. One tradition holds that Bleuler merely renamed 'dementia praecox' while conceptually continuing the Kraepelinian tradition. The other, focusing on Bleuler's characterization of 'dementia praecox' in terms of specific psychological alterations, accredits him with a genuine re-conceptualization. Based on a close reading of 'Die Prognose der Dementia praecox', the paper in which Bleuler first mentioned 'schizophrenia', we suggest a further interpretation of Bleuler's contribution and argue that the main motive for his re-conceptualization is to be found in his rejection of Kraepelinian nosology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002443.htm Celiac disease - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families. ...

  13. Consideration of genetic contributions to the risk for spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nutan; Franco, Ramon A

    2011-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia, a form of the neurologic condition known as dystonia, results from involuntary spasms of the larynx, producing interruptions of speech and changes in voice quality. The pathogenesis of spasmodic dysphonia is not well understood. However, several genetic mutations have been identified that cause different forms of dystonia. In some individuals, these genetic mutations result in spasmodic dysphonia, either with no other signs of dystonia or as part of a broader dystonia phenotype. Thus, research in the growing field of dystonia genetics may help to inform our understanding of the pathogenesis of spasmodic dysphonia.

  14. [Contributions of training in biomedical ethics. Investigations, considerations and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, M; Foppa, C

    2012-01-01

    The testimonies of healthcare professionals who have received introductory training in biomedial ethics show a perceived improvement in their competence in managing complex situations that involve ethical stakes. The resources acquired in this way should make it possible to prevent and reduce the appearance of moral distress, a phenomenon the consequences and persistence of which can lead to burnout and to giving up the profession. These observations encourage establishments to reinforce the resources intended for ethical awareness courses for their fellow workers.

  15. Õhus on sammast / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Mare Mikofi näitus "Ausambad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis kuni 14. XII, Juta Kivimäe koostatud väljapanek "Monument" Enn Roosi loomingust Hobusepea galeriis kuni 1. XII, Aadam Kaarma ja Kärt Ojavee näitus "Põhk ja piksel" ning Eesti Kunstiakadeemia kunstiüliõpilaste näitus (juhendaja Maarit Murka) SooSoo galeriis kuni 2. XII, Ehalill Halliste põimevaipade näitus "Loitsulilled" Vabaduse galeriis kuni10. XII ning Ana Sluga näitus "Aeglane puudutus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 12.-23. XI

  16. Velkommen til gældens hus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    De amerikanske professorer, Atif Mian og Amir Sufi, udgav i år den udmærkede og noget oversete bog »House of Debt«, der vender fortællingen om finanskrisen på hovedet. Anmeldelse af: Atif Mian og Amir Sufi: "House of Debt. How They (and You) Caused the Great Recession, and How We Can Prevent...

  17. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  18. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: technical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-jun TENG; Shi-cheng HE

    2005-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a relative new interventional technique, which is widely used in treatment of vertebral collapse caused by vertebral neoplasms and osteoporotic compression fractures. The general technical considerations of PVP techniques are discussed based on authors' experience obtained over 400 patients in the past years in this article, including preparation of PMMA, instrument of PVP, guidance and puncture approaches, and technique of the procedure, etc. The conclusion is that PVP is a safe procedure if the physicians handle it properly.

  19. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  20. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  1. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  2. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  3. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  4. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  5. Tryptophan oxygenation: mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, James H

    2012-06-01

    From a protein structural viewpoint, tryptophan is often considered an inert structural amino acid, playing a role as a hydrophobic anchor in membrane proteins or as part of the hydrophobic core of soluble proteins. However, tryptophan is the only polyaromatic amino acid and, from a chemical viewpoint, possesses unique reactivity owing to the electron-richness of the indole system. This reactivity is seen in the area of natural products and metabolites which have exquisite modifications of the indole ring system. Enzymes have evolved multiple strategies to break or modify the indole ring; one particular class is the IDO/TDO (indoleamine/tryptophan dioxygenase) superfamily. A new member of this family, PrnB, on the surface catalyses a very different reaction, but actually shares much of the early chemistry with the tryptophan dioxygenases. Studies on PrnB have contributed to our understanding of the wider superfamily. In the present mini-review, recent developments in our understanding of how the TDO class of enzymes use activated molecular oxygen to break the indole ring are discussed.

  6. Poster contributions; Contributions par affiches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegraud, K.; Gatilova, I.; Guaitella, O.; Ionikh, Y.; Roepcke, J.; Rousseau, A.; Aranchuk, L.E.; Larour, J.; Asad, S.; Tendero, C.; Tixier, C.; Jaoul, C.; Tristant, P.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Leniniven, C.; Assouar, M.B.; Jimenez Rioboo, R.J.; Aubert, X.; Rousseau, A.; Sadeghi, N.; Bekstein, A.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Bousquet, A.; Granier, A.; Cartry, G.; Calafat, M.; Escaich, D.; Raynaud, P.; Clergereaux, R.; Cardoso, R.P.; Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.; Sadeghi, N.; Cavarroc, M.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, I.; Celestin, S.; Guaitella, O.; Bourdon, A.; Rousseau, A.; Cernogora, G.; Szopa, C.; Cavarroc, M.; Boufendi, I.; Commaux, N.; Geraud, A.; Pegourie, B.; Clairet, F.; Gil, C.; Gros, G.; Gunn, J.; Joffrin, E.; Hertout, P.; Costin, C.; Choimet, J.B.; Minea, T.; Couedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, I.; Samarian, A.A.; Cousin, R.; Larour, J.; Gouard, P.; Raymond, P.; Curley, G.A.; Booth, J.P.; Corr, C.S.; Foldes, T.; Guillon, J.; Czarny, O.; Huysmans, G.; Daniel, A.; Belmonte, T.; Poucques, L. de; Imbert, J.C.; Teule-Gay, L.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Devaux, S.; Manfredi, G.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Dong, B.; Bauchire, J.M.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Magnier, P.; Hong, D.; Duluard, C.; Tillocher, T.; Mekkakia Maaza, N.; Dussart, R.; Mellhaoui, X.; Lefaucheux, P.; Puech, M.; Ranson, P.; Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Colas, L.; Fubiani, G.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Gatilova, L.; Allegraud, K.; Ionikh, Y.; Roepcke, J.; Cartry, G.; Rousseau, A.; Gauthier, J.C.; Fourment, C.; Schurtz, G.; Nicolai, Ph.; Peyrusse, O.; Feugeas, J.L

    2006-07-01

    This document gathers the poster contributions among which 11 are relevant for fusion plasmas or particle acceleration: 1) the spectral study of a micro plasma from an X-pinch explosion; 2) experiments with a plasma density greater than the Greenwald value via the injection of icicles in Tore-Supra; 3) Bezier's surfaces and finite elements method for non-linear MHD; 4) 2-dimensional simulation of the RF casings before the ICRF antennas in tokamaks; 5) negative ion sources for ITER; 6) experimental characterization of electron heat transport on the laser integration line; 7) comparison of fluctuation measurement methods of plasma density via reflectometry in mode-o and mode-x in Tore-Supra; 8) water-bag model applied to kinetics equations of magnetic fusion plasmas; 9) computerized simulation of electron acceleration in plasma waves generated in a capillary pipe through laser wakefield; 10) the slowing-down of an alpha particle in a strongly magnetized dense plasma; and 11) stochastic processes of particle trapping by a wave in a magnetized plasma. (A.C.)

  7. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  8. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  9. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  10. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  11. Plantar fasciitis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of inferior heel pain. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition can have a dramatic impact on physical mobility. The etiology of this condition is not clearly understood and is probably multi-factorial in nature. Weight gain, occupation-related activity, anatomical variations, poor biomechanics, overexertion, and inadequate footwear are contributing factors. Although plantar fasciitis is generally regarded as a self-limited condition, it can take months to years to resolve, presenting a challenge for clinicians. Many treatment options are available that demonstrate variable levels of efficacy. Conservative therapies include rest and avoidance of potentially aggravating activities, stretching and strengthening exercises, orthotics, arch supports, and night splinting. Other considerations include use of anti-inflammatory agents, ultrasonic shockwave therapy, and, in the most extreme cases, surgery. This article reviews plantar fasciitis, presents the most effective treatment options currently available, and proposes nutritional considerations that may be beneficial in the management of this condition.

  12. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  13. [Original contributions of Latin Americans to anesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A

    1998-10-01

    The original contributions of Latin American physicians to the science of anesthesiology are described. Many contributions have been unfairly ignored mainly because they were never published in English, but others have likewise been passed over even when published in the most prestigious journals in the field. Although many discoveries by Latin Americans have been made in the area of regional anesthesia, a considerable number of contributions have involved other aspects of anesthesia as well.

  14. Statistical properties of consideration sets

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, RT; Louviere, JJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The concept of a consideration set has become a central concept in the study of consumer behavior. This paper shows that the common practice of estimating models using only the set of alternatives deemed to be in the set considered by a consumer will usually result in estimated parameters that are biased due to a sample selection effect. This effect is generic to many consideration set models and can be large in practice. To overcome this problem, models of an antecedent ...

  15. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  16. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration.

  17. Counseling Considerations with Gay Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelpleck, Judy M.; Westfeld, John S.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the unique strengths of gay couples and major issues which need more consideration. Suggests guidelines for counselors and psychologists working with gay couples, based on a survey of homosexuals and professionals who work with them. Urges professionals to accept homosexuality and develop good counseling skills in this area. (Author/JAC)

  18. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  19. Speed limits in The Netherlands : a detailed consideration of the situation inside and outside built-up areas. Contribution to the International OECD symposium "The Effects of Speed Limits on Traffic Accidents and Transport Energy Use", Dublin, 6-8 October, 1981.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the international OECD symposium "the effect of speed limits on traffic accidents and transport energy use", held in Dublin on 6-8 October 1981. Outlined are the problems of actual speeds, how speed is influenced, speed restrictions etc. in the Netherlands. In additio

  20. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  1. Abuse against Women with Disabilities of Mexican Descent: Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Noreen M.; Reed, Bruce J.; Sanchez, Rubi

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been focused on violence against women with disabilities, environmental and cultural factors that contribute to this violence have received limited attention. This paper examines violence against women of Mexican descent with disabilities. Recommendations are offered to researchers, educators, and service…

  2. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property; Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtraengning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m{sup 3} corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m{sup 3}/h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m{sup 3} of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  3. Considerations of Quality in Phenomenographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers issues of quality in phenomenographic research. Research rigor, which is traditionally evaluated by validity and reliability criteria, ensures that research findings reflect the object of study. Quality in research subsumes rigor and extends considerably beyond satisfying the criteria for rigor. A piece of research has to convince readers of its quality when evaluated against criteria that have been developed through contributions and agreements within the research community. This paper tackles the quality issue in phenomenographic research in three steps. First, criteria for quality in qualitative research are discussed. Second and drawing on the literature, related issues when the criteria are applied to phenomenographic studies and the ways of addressing the issues are examined. Finally, the phenomenographic process is analyzed and suggestions are made for enhancing quality at each stage of the process. New phenomenographic researchers especially will find this paper as a useful guide.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS UPON ASSIMILATED ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the classic administrative courts know as object the acts against classic administrative acts, it should not be lost sight of the assimilated administrative acts, which also may be subject to acts in this litigation. Taking in consideration this category of acts, this study will examine the documents falling into this category and the impact that such acts have on public authorities. Given the significant increase of administrative cases that have as object assimilated administrative...

  5. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  6. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  7. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  8. [Hypertension In pregnancy: practical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Jaafar; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Ditisheim, Agnès

    2014-09-10

    Hypertension is the most frequent medical disorder of pregnancy. Whether in the form of a chronic hypertension or a pregnancy induced-hypertension, or preeclampsia, it is associated with major maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Improvement of prenatal care allowed a reduction in the number of poor outcomes. However, our partial understanding of the origin of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia limits the establishment of robust prediction models and efficient preventive interventions. This review discusses actual considerations on the clinical approach to hypertension in pregnancy.

  9. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  10. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel, Gregory

    2017-03-15

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel....

  12. The Bradford Hill considerations on causality: a counterfactual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler Michael

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bradford Hill's considerations published in 1965 had an enormous influence on attempts to separate causal from non-causal explanations of observed associations. These considerations were often applied as a checklist of criteria, although they were by no means intended to be used in this way by Hill himself. Hill, however, avoided defining explicitly what he meant by "causal effect". This paper provides a fresh point of view on Hill's considerations from the perspective of counterfactual causality. I argue that counterfactual arguments strongly contribute to the question of when to apply the Hill considerations. Some of the considerations, however, involve many counterfactuals in a broader causal system, and their heuristic value decreases as the complexity of a system increases; the danger of misapplying them can be high. The impacts of these insights for study design and data analysis are discussed. The key analysis tool to assess the applicability of Hill's considerations is multiple bias modelling (Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis; these methods should be used much more frequently.

  13. Librarian contributions to clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Peggy; Protzko, Shandra

    2014-01-01

    Librarians have become more involved in developing high quality systematic reviews. Evidence-based practice guidelines are an extension of systematic reviews and offer another significant area for librarian involvement. This column highlights opportunities and challenges for the librarian working on guideline panels and provides practical considerations for meaningful contributions to the guideline creation process.

  14. Surgical considerations about amyloid goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villanueva, Augusto; García Villanueva, María Jesús; García Villanueva, Mercedes; Rojo Blanco, Roberto; Collado Guirao, María Vicenta; Cabañas Montero, Jacobo; Beni Pérez, Rafael; Moreno Montes, Irene

    2013-05-01

    Amyloidosis is an uncommon syndrome consisting of a number of disorders having in common an extracellular deposit of fibrillary proteins. This results in functional and structural changes in the affected organs, depending on deposit location and severity. Amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland may occur in 50% and up to 80% of patients with primary and secondary amyloidosis respectively. Amyloid goiter (AG) is a true rarity, usually found associated to secondary amyloidosis. AG may require surgical excision, usually because of compressive symptoms. We report the case of a patient with a big AG occurring in the course of a secondary amyloidosis associated to polyarticular onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis who underwent total thyroidectomy. Current literature is reviewed, an attempt is made to provide action guidelines, and some surgical considerations on this rare condition are given.

  15. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, R

    1988-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: peter.lang@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  17. Õhus on nutikust... / Margit Argus, Maris Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Argus, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Taaskasutatavast mööblist, mille stiililiselt võib jagada antiik-, retro- ja taaskasutusmööbliks. Baltika Moetänava sisustamiseks valmistas grupp arhitekte, sisearhitekte ja disainereid mööbli taaskasutusmööblist. Kasutati ära vana mööbli detailid või leiti vanale mööblile uus funktsioon

  18. Gymnastikens Hus : Ett referenskoncept för anpassade gymnastikhallar

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    På Svenska Gymnastikförbundets begäran har detta projekt gjorts som ett koncept för dem att ha som utgångspunkt i diskussioner med såväl föreningar som politiker i frågan om gymnastikens behov av anpassade idrottsanläggningar. En användarstudie av gymnastiken, samt flera discipliner, har gjorts och stått som utgångspunkt för anläggningens utformning. Därtill har även en utvärdering av flertalet befintliga hallar som används för gymnastik gjorts för att motivera beslut gällande anpassningar so...

  19. En praksisundersøgelse af ungdommens hus i Aarhus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westersø, Per; Ehrenreich, Rikke

    Gennem et bredt undersøgelsesarbejde er behovet for og ønsker til Netværksstedet i Aarhus afdækket. Undersøgelsen viser, at der behov for Ungdommenshus, der både er et være-, lære- og væksthus for unge, og samtidig er en indgang til vejledning og støtte. Tilbuddet findes ikke i Aarhus i dag....

  20. Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R

    2008-09-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention.

  1. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  2. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  3. A new contribution to the conventional atmospheric neutrino flux

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are an important background to astrophysical neutrino searches, and are also of considerable interest in their own right. This paper points out that the contribution to conventional atmospheric $\

  4. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  5. Ethical considerations in adherence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nupur U; Moore, Blake A; Craver, Rebekah F; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient's adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient's rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding), informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception), and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  7. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such...

  8. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of...

  9. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 331.4... AND FACILITIES IN LABOR SURPLUS AREAS § 331.4 Special consideration. When an entire industry that... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the...

  10. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following...

  11. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements...

  12. 32 CFR 643.83 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.83 Section 643.83 National... Easements § 643.83 Consideration. Although the statutes authorizing grants of rights of way or easements do... consideration in an amount equal to the fair market value as established by recognized appraisal practices....

  13. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation...

  14. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements...

  15. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area...

  16. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value....

  17. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON ENTITY'S RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, because of the complexity of this topic, the purpose is to discuss the main aspects involved by risk analysis; starting with few conceptual approaches about risk and to outline the contributions about methods to assess different risks categories, especially methods to assess bankruptcy risk prediction (entity insolvency from economic literature. The methods used to estimate bankruptcy risk are based on the score function which helps to find if an entity is confronted with financial difficulties. The score functions are a diagnosis method elaborated relying on the discriminant analysis, allowing to assess and to predict the bankruptcy risk of the entity using a set of relevant financial ratios.

  19. Ethical considerations in adherence research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nupur U Patel,1 Blake A Moore,1 Rebekah F Craver,2 Steven R Feldman1,2 1Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Poor adherence to treatment is a common cause of medical treatment failure. Studying adherence is complicated by the potential for the study environment to impact adherence behavior. Studies performed without informing patients about adherence monitoring must balance the risks of deception against the potential benefits of the knowledge to be gained. Ethically monitoring a patient’s adherence to a treatment plan without full disclosure of the monitoring plan requires protecting the patient’s rights and upholding the fiduciary obligations of the investigator. Adherence monitoring can utilize different levels of deception varying from stealth monitoring, debriefing after the study while informing the subject that some information had been withheld in regard to the use of adherence monitoring (withholding, informed consent that discloses some form of adherence monitoring is being used and will be disclosed at the end of the study (authorized deception, and full disclosure. Different approaches offer different benefits and potential pitfalls. The approach used must balance the risk of nondisclosure against the potential for confounding the adherence monitoring data and the potential benefits that adherence monitoring data will have for the research subjects and/or other populations. This commentary aims to define various methods of adherence monitoring and to provide a discussion of the ethical considerations that accompany the use of each method and adherence monitoring in general as it is used in clinical research. Keywords: compliance, stealth monitoring, deception, adherence monitoring 

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  1. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  2. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  3. Some considerations about Sport Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a society in which the values are in constant alterations in the behaviour of each individual, identification of the same values in the young athletes is of vital importance in order that better the process is understood by which you link they take determined decisions, in athletic situations. The questions associated to the ethics in the sport, and more specifically than concern the athletic spirit and the tolerance, assume today an added importance. In fact, we cannot deny the importance, in several extents, of the practice and of the athletic show, it is necessary to recognize them to me also what they reveal themselves how special fields, in which the ends - to win - justify any ways - violence, the corruption, the fraud, to wanting to win to all and any cost, the doping, the disloyalty, the absence of athletic spirit, etc. The Sports Ethics appears like a moral structure that defines some limits for the behaviour of the sportsmen, of form to preserve an athletic civilized system. It is possible to compete respecting the adversary, recognizing his value and competence, seeing it like an essential opponent, without whom there is not competition. Several investigators defend that the participation, of the children and adolescents in physical activities contributes to a global and harmonious development of the same, because it will have to give attention to the importance of the athletic spirit like component of the process of development of the child and adolescents. With this work some reflections were intended to present on the acquisition of values and beginnings in the athletic context.

  4. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  5. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  6. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. (ed.) [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  7. Emotions and Motivation in Mathematics Education: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Rakoczy, K.; Pekrun, R.

    2017-01-01

    Emotions and motivation are important prerequisites, mediators, and outcomes of learning and achievement. In this article, we first review major theoretical approaches and empirical findings in research on students' emotions and motivation in mathematics, including a discussion of how classroom instruction can support emotions and motivation.…

  8. The Advertising of Toys. Considerations on the lack of values and contribution to gender inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Domínguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The toy has always existed. To state that it is ageless presupposes a sentimental regret typical of the adult who denies the inevitable gradual disappearance of the child within us. However it is expedient to take note of how, year after year, our society is losing the fundamental essence of what an object gives us. The essence which we refer to is imagination. It is through imagination that fantasy, enjoyment and perhaps ephemeral happiness are born. The toy has undergone a long journey on its way to the present: from stone figures, rough homemade wooden forms, scraps or lines traced on a surface which have become the attractive and simple pastime that we nowadays call board games. In this document we set out to analyse the major advertising catalogues from 2006 and 2007 paying particular attention to those pertaining to Christmas advertising campaigns. We consider the different types of toys and their potential market, along with the images, messages, slogans, colours and prices. The paper concludes by identifying stereotypes, roles and division of household tasks, drawing out the clearly consumer driven intentions of companies operating in the toy sector.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING EUROJUST'S CONTRIBUTION IN FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, MIHALCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the European Union enshrined in 67 alin.(1 (ex-art. 61 TCE and ex-art. 29 TUE of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union is to create a common European space of security and justice without internal frontiers, in which to ensure the free movement of people, corralated with appropriate measures on external border controls , asylum , immigration, and crime prevention and combating. This is a long term goal that requires active cooperation of Member States and multiple efforts by EU institutions. The institutional functioning practice has shown that the clasic forms of judicial cooperation do not have the ability to complete this objective and that is necessary to create specialized structures. In this context the First European institutional structure was established in 2002, a specialized agency of the European Union, named Eurojust, with the main objective to promote and improve coordination and cooperation between the judicial authorities of the Member States in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Tasks of Eurojust and relations with other European bodies, particularly the Council and Commission are established by Decision 2002/187 / JHA amended by Decision 2009/426 / JHA Council of 16 December 2008 It is exercised by College Eurojust or through its national members.

  10. The Contribution of Human Factors in Military System Development: Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    STD-1472 WDT Exhibit 57-8 1 Aug 57 WDT Exhibit 57-8 1 Ma 58 AFEM Exhibit 57-SA 1 Nov 58 ASMA OD 844 25 Mar 60SMIL-STD-03 5 o 58EFK Nov , [ASMASTD434...1Oct6 1 ASMA STD-434A 24 Apr 63 MIL-sTD-803A1 27 Jan 64 MILORD-1248 20JAn6 6 MIL-STD-803A2 1Dec64 L= -1248 NI 30Aug66 MIL-STD-803A3 19 May 67 MIL-STD...I USA wESEARCH OFC/ I NAFEc HUMAN ENGI4IERINO UNANC" I RAFTh-LLE-COLUMUUS LABORATORIES TACTICAL TECHNICAL OFC 1 USA oRCTIC TESI CEN AlrNI AMSTL-PL-TS

  11. Considerable contribution of the Montreal Protocol to declining greenhouse gas emissions from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Lehman, Scott J.; Godwin, David S.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Thoning, Kirk; Miller, John B.; Sweeney, Colm; Siso, Caroline; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Mondeel, Debra J.; Nance, David; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Mountain, Marikate; Fischer, Marc L.; Biraud, Sébastien C.; Chen, Huilin; Tans, Pieter P.

    2017-08-01

    Ozone depleting substances (ODSs) controlled by the Montreal Protocol are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), as are their substitutes, the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Here we provide for the first time a comprehensive estimate of U.S. emissions of ODSs and HFCs based on precise measurements in discrete air samples from across North America and in the remote atmosphere. Derived emissions show spatial and seasonal variations qualitatively consistent with known uses and largely confirm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national emissions inventories for most gases. The measurement-based results further indicate a substantial decline of ODS emissions from 2008 to 2014, equivalent to 50% of the CO2-equivalent decline in combined emissions of CO2 and all other long-lived GHGs inventoried by the EPA for the same period. Total estimated CO2-equivalent emissions of HFCs were comparable to the sum of ODS emissions in 2014, but can be expected to decline in the future in response to recent policy measures.

  12. Let's go back to Bled!: A contribution to considerations on praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielinska Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the categories of the epistemic and epistemological field of theory the author is trying to show on the basis of Bled presentations of Mihailo Marković and Milan Kangrga that their conceptions belong to two separated theoretical fields, which are incompatible with each other. Therefore even in that period we could not speak about a common praxis-philosophy nor a common vision of Marxism.

  13. Diversity of Inner Ears in Fishes: Possible Contribution Towards Hearing Improvements and Evolutionary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have evolved the largest diversity of inner ears among vertebrates. While G. Retzius introduced us to the diversity of the gross morphology of fish ears in the late nineteenth century, it was A. N. Popper who unraveled the large variety of the fine structure during the last four decades. Modifications of the basic inner ear structure-consisting of three semicircular canals and their sensory epithelia, the cristae and three otolithic end organs (utricle, saccule, lagena) including the maculae-mainly relate to the saccule and lagena and the respective sensory epithelia, the macula sacculi and macula lagenae. Despite the profound morphological knowledge of inner ears and the morphological variability, the functional significance of this diversity is still largely unknown. The aims of this review are therefore twofold. First it provides an update of the state of the art of inner ear diversity in bony fishes. Second it summarizes and discusses hypotheses on the evolution of this diversity as well as formulates open questions and promising approaches to tackle these issues.

  14. Classroom Activities Contributing to Increased Motivation for Learning : Three Psychological Needs to Be Taken Into Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    岩中, 貴裕; Takahiro, IWANAKA; 香川大学

    2011-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory posits 3 basic psychological needs which should be fulfilled for integrated and vital human functioning: the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. It is assumed that classroom environment which allows satisfaction of the 3 basic needs increases learners' motivation for learning. Nineteen students took part in the course which consisted of activities intended to satisfy the 3 basic needs. After taking the course, they increased their motivation for learning E...

  15. Contribution of oral habits to dental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, J; Hochman, N; Yaffe, A

    1992-04-01

    Oral habits or parafunction may contribute to dental, periodontal, or neuromuscular damage. Such habits, of which the patient is often unaware, may cause considerable damage. Habits may be occlusal or non-occlusal, and may affect the dentition and/or the oral soft tissues. Drawing a patient's attention to the damage caused by some habits of which he or she is unaware often leads to cessation, whereas with certain conscious habits, such as nail or finger biting, success is much more limited.

  16. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is...

  18. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army...

  19. Situation Variation in Consumers’ Media Channel Consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Wendel (Sonja); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, the authors investigate consumers’ consideration of media channels during different usage situations. They develop a model that explains consumers’ media channel consideration as a function of the media channel’s perceived benefits. In addition, they hypothesize that the

  20. Contributions to industrial statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about statistics' contributions to industry. It is an article compendium comprising four articles divided in two blocks: (i) two contributions for a water supply company, and (ii) significance of the effects in Design of Experiments. In the first block, great emphasis is placed on how the research design and statistics can be applied to various real problems that a water company raises and it aims to convince water management companies that statistics can be very useful to impr...

  1. First MARS Outpost: Development Considerations and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. This presentation highlights planning considerations and design concepts for establishing a first settlement on Mars. The outpost would support surface missions lasting up to about 500 days and would serve as the initial stage of a larger and continuously operational development which would utilize Mars resources to be less reliant on materials from Earth. Key elements of this first stage mission development sequence include a new heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle; a plasma- drive Mars transit vehicle; habitat modules for crews in transit to and from Mars; "hard" and "inflatable" surface habitats and laboratories; a mobile power unit; a spacecraft to assist orbital assembly; and vehicles to lift crews off the Mars surface and land them safely back on Earth from LEO. SICSA's space development approach differs in fundamental ways from conventional NASA-sponsored initiatives. First, virtually all baseline planning assumptions are influenced by the private sector-driven nature of an approach that aims to avoid all possible reliance upon government financing, agendas and schedules. In this regard, any involvements with NASA or the space agencies of other countries would be premised upon mutual public-corporate partnership benefits rather than upon federal contract awards, management and control. Another potential difference relates to program philosophy. Unlike Apollo Program "sprint" missions which culminated with footprints and flagpoles on the Moon, the aim is to realize sustainable and continuing planetary exploration and development progress. This goal can be advanced through approaches that

  2. Methodological and analytic considerations for blood biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Robert H; Duh, Show-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers typically evolve from a research setting to use in clinical care as evidence for their independent contribution to patient management accumulates. This evidence relies heavily on knowledge of the preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical characteristics of the biomarker's measurement. For the preanalytical phase, considerations such specimen type, acceptable anticoagulants for blood samples, biologic variation and stability of the biomarker under various conditions are key. The analytical phase entails critical details for development and maintenance of assays having performance characteristics that are "fit for service" for the clinical application at hand. Often, these characteristics describe the ability to measure minute quantities in the biologic matrix used for measurement. Although techniques such as mass spectrometry are used effectively for biomarker discovery, routine quantification often relies on use of immunoassays; early in development, the most common immunoassay used is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format. As biomarkers evolve successfully, they will be adapted to large main laboratory platforms or, depending on the need for speed, point-of-care devices. Users must pay particular attention to performance parameters of assays they are considering for clinical implementation. These parameters include the limit of blank, a term used to describe the limit of analytical noise for an assay; limit of detection, which describes the lowest concentration that can reliably be discriminated from analytical noise; and perhaps most importantly, the limit of quantitation, which is the lowest concentration at which a biomarker can be reliably measured within some predefined specifications for total analytical error that is based on clinical requirements of the test. The postanalytical phase involves reporting biomarker values, which includes reporting units, any normalization factors, and interpretation. Standardization, a process that

  3. Decrease of thrombomodulin contributes to the procoagulant state of endothelium in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, G.C.; Loo, D.M.W.M. te; Velden, T.J.A.M. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Palermo, M.S.; Monnens, L.L.

    2003-01-01

    The typical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy that causes acute renal failure in children. The etiology of this disease is a toxin called Shiga-like toxin (Stx), present in certain strains of gram-negative bacteria. Vascular endothelial cell (EC) injury appear

  4. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  5. Practical considerations for permanent total enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, M. [Amcec Adsorption Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper considers some of the practical consideration of Permanent Total Enclosures (PTEs) for gravure printing facilities. In particular the dispersion of fugitive losses from the presses by thermal air currents generated by heat from the press dryers.

  6. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  7. General considerations regarding the infections with the Escherichia coli pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Necşulescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the species of the genus Escherichia with the greatest epidemiological impact. Escherichia coli infections are found mainly in places with poor hygiene; the infants with ages between 1 and 3 years old are included in the category with the highest risk. It is a "fecal-oral" transmission mechanism as a result of consumption of contaminated food or water, or by "dirty hands". The foods most commonly implicated in the transmission of the infection are unpasteurized milk and milk products, beef, especially the one insufficiently cooked, unpasteurized fruit juice, lettuce and insufficiently washed vegetables. The disease has been reported worldwide, being described numerous episodes of infection with Escherichia coli that caused multiple illnesses and deaths. Escherichia coli has three types of antigens: antigen "O" (somatic, antigen "H" (flagella and antigen "K" (capsular. Clinical manifestations are present in the form of non-specific diarrhea, a dysentery form of enteritis, choleriform enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. The Escherichia coli infection diagnosis is made by identifying the etiologic agent and/or by highlighting the VTI toxin in the feces. The treatment consists in precautionary antibiotherapy, hydrodynamics and electrolyte rebalancing, blood transfusions and dialysis, if in the case of renal failure. The prevention of infections with Escherichia coli is achieved by personal hygiene, food hygiene and work hygiene.

  8. DigitalEthics: ‘Ethical’ considerations of post-research ICT impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    This contribution posits a supposition on the topic of ‘ethical’ consideration when advanced, engaging, and playful ICT, i.e. beyond that available to the public, is researched. In focus are participants without communicative competence - especially young children diagnosed with Profound and Mult......This contribution posits a supposition on the topic of ‘ethical’ consideration when advanced, engaging, and playful ICT, i.e. beyond that available to the public, is researched. In focus are participants without communicative competence - especially young children diagnosed with Profound...

  9. Contribution to contract theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom share the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2016, awarded to them by Sveriges Riksbank. They have been rewarded for their work in enhancing the design of contracts, i.e. arrangements connecting employers with employees or companies with clients, in other words, for their contribution to contract theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions. Hart is an expert in contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His contribution to contract theory is exquisite when it comes to designing contracts which cover eventualities that cannot be precisely specified in advance.

  10. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  11. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  12. Contributions to sampling statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Pier; Ranalli, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of the papers presented at the ITACOSM 2013 Conference, held in Milan in June 2013. ITACOSM is the bi-annual meeting of the Survey Sampling Group S2G of the Italian Statistical Society, intended as an international  forum of scientific discussion on the developments of theory and application of survey sampling methodologies and applications in human and natural sciences. The book gathers research papers carefully selected from both invited and contributed sessions of the conference. The whole book appears to be a relevant contribution to various key aspects of sampling methodology and techniques; it deals with some hot topics in sampling theory, such as calibration, quantile-regression and multiple frame surveys, and with innovative methodologies in important topics of both sampling theory and applications. Contributions cut across current sampling methodologies such as interval estimation for complex samples, randomized responses, bootstrap, weighting, modeling, imputati...

  13. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  14. Opening up education - some pedagogical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2016-01-01

    would we need universities? Libraries could do the job!” In order to open up education, we need to develop a pedagogical framework for knowledge building to supplement the tradition for knowledge acquisition in higher education. In this article we present our strategic considerations for organising...... at universities and university colleges, but also teachers at high schools and primary schools, and staff involved with informal learning at museums and/or educational planning in companies, plus prospective future students. The focus in this article is on the strategic pedagogical considerations, whereas...

  15. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  16. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  17. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  18. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  19. Physiological considerations in radionuclide urodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Fink, S.; Burger, R.H.; Netto, I.C.; Palmer, J.D. (V.A. Medical Center, Hamptom, VA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclear imaging of micturition (RNIM) (Nuclear Uroflowmetry, Voiding Nuclear Cystogram) measures bladder volumes, bladder emptying times, and urinary flow rates. These data help to differentiate normal subjects from those with obstructive uropathy or neuromuscular failure and to quantify the deficit. We discuss the physiological considerations of importance to physicians ordering and interpreting this convenient and noninvasive diagnostic procedure. 39 references.

  20. Visual Metadiscourse: Designing the Considerate Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpf, Eric P.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how visual metadiscourse provides design criteria for authors when considering the needs and expectations of readers. Notes the author's discussions of textual metadiscourse in technical writing classes since 1995. Notes an improvement in the cohesion and considerateness of student writing after rethinking their role as writers and the…

  1. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  2. 48 CFR 2944.202-2 - Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Considerations. 2944.202-2 Section 2944.202-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... the contracting officer, and included in the contract file....

  3. Some Considerations in Choosing Library Furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tish

    1999-01-01

    A library-furnishings consultant explains important factors to keep in mind when selecting furnishings: demographics; dimensions and budgets; how the interior should look (standard versus customized furnishings and best materials); and electrical considerations (wire management and safe electrical connections). (AEF)

  4. Surviving the Downsizing: Ethical and Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Gerri

    1997-01-01

    To reduce the psychological and economic costs of downsizing, school administrators need planning and procedural guidelines. Administrators should have clear reduction-in-force policies, performance standards, employee development guidelines, and alternatives to layoffs. In the layoff mode, administrators should give careful consideration to those…

  5. Strategic eclecticism in hypnotherapy: effectiveness research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Jon K; Nuttgens, Simon A

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is attempting to come to grips with the EST (Empirically Supported Therapy) revolution in mental health practice. However, there are ways to account for outcome outside of simple empirical validation of treatment models. In this light, strategic eclecticism as a broader research-based consideration is used to illustrate empirical principles within Eriksonian hypnotherapeutic approaches.

  6. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  7. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  8. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  9. Networked Learning: Design Considerations for Online Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2016-01-01

    The considerable increase in web-based knowledge networks in the past two decades is strongly influencing learning environments. Learning entails information retrieval, use, communication, and production, and is strongly enriched by socially mediated discussions, debates, and collaborative activities. It is becoming critical for educators to…

  10. Retrieving unobserved consideration sets from household panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new model to describe consideration, consisting of a multivariate probit model component for consideration and a multinomial probit model component for choice, given consideration. The approach allows one to analyze stated consideration set data, revealed consideration set

  11. Retrieving unobserved consideration sets from household panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new model to describe consideration, consisting of a multivariate probit model component for consideration and a multinomial probit model component for choice, given consideration. The approach allows one to analyze stated consideration set data, revealed consideration set (

  12. Retrieving unobserved consideration sets from household panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new model to describe consideration, consisting of a multivariate probit model component for consideration and a multinomial probit model component for choice, given consideration. The approach allows one to analyze stated consideration set data, revealed consideration set (

  13. Contributing to Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer......The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...

  14. Contributing from the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    /herself as a contributor to an investigated practice, as inextricably entangled with the conducts of life of the others in relation to the conditions in practice. Doing research in the kindergarten thus becomes a mutual and collective endeavor, to which pedagogues, parents, children, and the researcher contribute. Even...... empirical study, I focused on kindergarten children’s first-person perspectives on the electronic media technologies they deemed subjectively relevant for conducting everyday life in the practice of their kindergarten. The concept of the children’s perspectives opens possibilities for transcending...... the widespread, one-sided explanations of the relationship between a child and technology, which ascribe agency either to the child or to the technology. However, attempts to access these perspectives raises a number of epistemological and ethical-political challenges, most crucially regarding the concrete role...

  15. Proposed level of Member States' contributions as from 2006

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The document "The scientific activities of CERN and budget estimates for the years 2006-2009 and Projections for the year 2010" was presented to the Finance Committee in June. At its June Session, the Council requested the Management to prepare the Preliminary Draft Budget for 2006 on the basis of an income level corresponding to the 2005 contributions at 2005 prices, excluding the additional income resulting from the exceptional indexation of the two Host States. This document contains a proposal for a contribution level that takes account of these constraints, and expresses the need for a decision on the special cases of three Member States contributions. The Finance Committee is invited to recommend and the Council to approve the minimum level of contributions of 977.3 MCHF in 2006, with the consideration of possible transition measures for the contributions of Finland, Greece and Portugal. Additional voluntary contributions from the Host States and application of agreed transition measures will allow the ...

  16. A Profile of Corporate Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hayden W.

    The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

  17. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  18. Dyadic research in marriage and family therapy: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, Andrea K; Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Keiley, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    With training that emphasizes relationship systems, marriage and family therapists are uniquely attuned to interpersonal dynamics, interdependence, and the influence of relationships on individuals' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. While recent statistical advances have contributed to a proliferation of resources designed to introduce researchers to dyadic data analysis, guidelines related to the methodological aspects of dyadic research design have received less attention. Given the potential advantages of dyadic designs for examining couple and family relational and therapeutic processes, the purpose of this article is to introduce marriage and family therapy researchers to dyadic research methodology. Using examples from our own research, we discuss methodological considerations and lessons learned related to sampling, measurement, data collection, and ethics. Recommendations for future dyadic research are provided.

  19. Clinical considerations in restorative dentistry - A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Tumkur Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between periodontal health and the restoration of teeth is intimate and inseparable. Human teeth are designed in such a way that the individual tooth contributes significantly to their own support as well as collectively the teeth in the arch. Decay on the proximal surfaces occurs mainly due to the faulty interrelationship between the contact area, marginal ridge, the embrasures and the gingiva. An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure an adequate form, function, aesthetics and comfort of the dentition. For long-term survival of restoration, both functionally and esthetically, certain biological considerations are very critical to preserve the health of the periodontium and thus must be given due importance in clinical practice. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainly remains regarding specific concept such as biologic width and its maintainces.

  20. Experimental considerations for quantum-entanglement studies with relativistic fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen; Peck, Marius; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The QUEST (Quantum entanglement of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in Singlet and Triplet states) project is aimed at the determination of the electron spin correlation function at relativistic energies. Electron pairs are created through Moeller scattering, and polarization observables are planned to be measured in Mott scattering. The predicted spin correlation function is energy dependent with values of several per cent at energies of 10-20 MeV. The results of a first test experiment at the S-DALINAC were not sensitive enough to detect entangled and Mott-scattered electron pairs at the expected energies. Further steps are either to improve the former setup or design a new polarimeter for lower energies to improve statistics due to the higher scattering cross sections. This contribution presents general considerations, test results, and an outlook.

  1. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwry, Jonathan; Yaden, David B; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive "enhancement." We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS.

  2. International Programs in Schools: Considerations of Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Matthew S.

    2002-09-01

    (Intergenerational Programs in Schools: Considerations of Form and Function) - In recent years there has been a groundswell of intergenerational program activity occurring on an international scale. At an unprecedented level, new initiatives are emerging which aim to bring young people and older adults together in various settings - to interact, stimulate, educate, support, and provide care for one another. The focus of this paper is on intergenerational programs implemented in schools. Discussion centers primarily on how such initiatives enhance and reinforce the educational curriculum, contribute to student learning and personal growth, enrich the lives of senior adult participants, and have a positive impact on the surrounding communities. The paper concludes with a review of some key issues that need to be taken into account when developing and evaluating intergenerational programs.

  3. Education, ethics and democracy: philosophical considerations around citizenship building up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Orlando Vargas Montañez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at showing the analysis of society from a philosophical perspective and the contributions of the Illustration around education, ethics and politics. Taking into account hermeneutics and history, it pretends to highlight the individual’s autonomous learning and the critical pedagogy as means to abolish an authoritarian system in order to give way to an emancipating pedagogy. Besides, philosophical considerations such as education, ethics and democracy are remarked in order to reflect on education as a determining stuff of the individual’s development because it is focused on educating upstanding human beings for the social and political life, able to build up a fair society framed by principles like freedom, security and justice.

  4. Medical considerations for the master athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlis-Mayor, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    As the American population ages, older adults are likely to continue their active lifestyles including participation in high-level competitive sports. Physicians caring for the older athlete will need to guide activity and return-to-play to optimize the athlete's performance, as well as safely support their physical and mental health. Many medical concerns of the older athlete have the same etiology and treatment as those of their younger counterpart However, there are medical considerations of the mature athlete that are unique to this population. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the medical considerations that may arise in the care of the older athlete. For the purpose of this review, the mature athlete is de!ned as an individual over the age of 40, who participates in sport at a competitive level.

  5. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  6. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Ethical considerations in conducting pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Cline, Michelle; Gerson, Jason; Bright, Patricia; Lee, Catherine S; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The critical need for pediatric research on drugs and biological products underscores the responsibility to ensure that children are enrolled in clinical research that is both scientifically necessary and ethically sound. In this chapter, we review key ethical considerations concerning the participation of children in clinical research. We propose a basic ethical framework to guide pediatric research, and suggest how this framework might be operationalized in linking science and ethics. Topics examined include: the status of children as a vulnerable population; the appropriate balance of risk and potential benefit in research; ethical considerations underlying study design, including clinical equipoise, placebo controls, and non-inferiority designs; the use of data monitoring committees; compensation; and parental permission and child assent to participate in research. We incorporate selected national (USA) and international guidelines, as well as regulatory approaches to pediatric studies that have been adopted in the USA, Canada, and Europe.

  8. Acid gas injection : reservoir engineering considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study discussed reservoir engineering considerations related to acid gas injection, including the effects of pressure. A map of acid gas injection sites in Alberta was presented. The WASP Nisku acid gas project is a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project located in a dolomitized aquifer close to coal-fired power plants. Analytical solutions developed at the site include a multi-well injectivity procedure for infinite reservoirs. Analytical considerations at the site included low water compressibility, strong interference, and a lack of flow boundaries. Chromatographic separation techniques were used to address the compositional effects of the reservoir in relation to the injection wells. Techniques developed at the CO{sub 2} sequestration sites are being used to develop procedures for acid gas storage in depleted gas pools and beneath the ocean floor. tabs., figs.

  9. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

  10. Technology Considerations for Inclusion of Survivability in MDAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.

    2017-01-01

    Rising traffic density, along with autonomy and diversity of vehicles in the air, will fundamentally change the safety environment of the future air transportation system. The change in risk is two-fold: increasing chances of mid-air collisions with non-cooperative objects and increasing chances of crashes over highly populated areas. The changing nature of the vehicles populating the airspace means that civilian aircraft design must now explicitly include considerations of survivability in the event of collision with other vehicles, as well as prevention of damage to people, animals and property on the ground, to a much greater extent than today. This paper offers a preliminary perspective on how MDAO could contribute toward these goals. One of the conclusions is that, in contrast to traditional vehicle design, to accommodate the complexity of the future airspace safely and efficiently, vehicle design requirements, modeling, and design optimization must be closely connected to the properties of the airspace, including those of other vehicles in the air. Thus, the total measure of a vehicle's survivability should include the traditional survivability in malfunction scenarios, combined with new considerations of survivability in collisions and survivability of the public on the ground.

  11. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  12. Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Singh, Bahadur

    2016-04-01

    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.

  13. Local anesthesia in dentistry - Clinical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmraaj Subramaniam; Prasanna Neelakantan

    2013-01-01

    Local anaesthesia is commonly employed prior to most dental procedures. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms by which local anaesthetics work, so that their efficacy can be improved for painless dental care. Local anaesthesia also has major clinical implications in that it can precipitate emergencies in patients with an underlying systemic disease. It is imperative that a dentist have a thorough knowledge of the considerations one must take when administering local anaesthesia in pat...

  14. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:28184202

  15. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  17. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  18. EMSL Contribution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2

  19. Low back pain: considerations for rotary-wing aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Steven John

    2012-09-01

    Low back pain remains a significant issue among helicopter aircrew. There is a considerable body of scientific literature devoted to the problem, including epidemiologic and experimental studies addressing prevalence, characteristics, primary etiology, and contributing factors. It is endemic and multinational, with a prevalence ranging from 50-92%. Archetypal pain begins with flight or within hours of flight, is mostly targeted in the low back/lumbar region and/or buttocks, is transient, and is commonly described as dull and achy. A minority develop chronic, persistent pain that is variously described with dissimilar characteristics. The pernicious effects of back pain or discomfort while piloting may affect flight performance and safety, including reduced operational effectiveness and lost duty time, occupational attrition, curtailed or cancelled missions, compromised emergency egress, and performance deficits during critical phases of flight. The majority of etiologic studies have focused on the pathophysical posture adopted by pilots for aircraft control and exposure to whole body vibration. With more evidence for the former, it remains likely that both, as well as other factors, may have a contributory and perhaps integrative or concerted role. Corrective and mitigation strategies have addressed lumbar support, seat and cockpit ergonomic redesign, and improved aircrew health. Flight surgeons should be familiar with this prevalent issue and future research must address longitudinal cohort studies with clear definitions, relevant and valid exposure data, dose-response detail, and control for contributing factors and confounders.

  20. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  1. Design considerations for a ceramic fabric radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauley, K.A.; Webb, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klein, A.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    The design of an Advanced Ceramic Fabric (ACF) thermal management device for use in both interplanetary and near-earth space must consider several important aspects of the environment. First, the radiation field at various locations is dominated by a proton component which deposits its energy on the surface of the device. Second, the ACF materials, as well as pressure liner materials, must also be compatible with the working fluids selected for the system. Third, the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics of this device should be adequately characterized. With the proper consideration of materials and operating conditions, the Bubble Membrane Radiator (BMR) may be utilized for several advanced space missions. 17 refs.

  2. Team building: conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; McEwan, Desmond; Waldhauser, Katrina J

    2017-08-01

    Team building has been identified as an important method of improving the psychological climate in which teams operate, as well as overall team functioning. Within the context of sports, team building interventions have consistently been found to result in improvements in team effectiveness. In this paper we review the extant literature on team building in sport, and address a range of conceptual, methodological, and applied considerations that have the potential to advance theory, research, and applied intervention initiatives within the field. This involves expanding the scope of team building strategies that have, to date, primarily focused on developing group cohesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unmanned Surface Combatant Considerations for Concept Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the Journal of Field Robotics, August 2010. However, adapting this technology will have to take into consideration the larger size of the USC...at 55 ° C ~ 50 kW at 90 ° C 1 Energy efficiency ~ 82% Fire Protection 50 m 3 room size up to several 1,000 m 3 Energy Natural gas / biogas ...R.W.G. and Freire, P.E.M. “Unmanned cargo ships: a 2020 vision?” Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology: Part B: Proceedings of the IMarEST

  4. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  5. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species.Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  6. VELO aperture considerations for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Giovannozzi, M; Holzer, B; Neat, M

    2012-01-01

    In Long Shutdown 2 the VELO detectors will be replaced by new modules compatible with the LHCb Upgrade 40 MHz read-out system. A smaller inner radius of the VELO RF foil and of the silicon sensor active area will allow LHCb to considerably improve the impact parameter resolution. Here, a limit of the minimum VELO aperture during physics (Stable Beams) is discussed. A value of 3.5 mm for the nominal radius of the inner edge fo the RF foil seems acceptable.

  7. Strategic consideration on treatment of multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua; YI Qing; HOU Jian

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable neoplastic disease, although high-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cells, and the latest integration of several novel agents, including thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide, into each step of therapeutics have substantially improved the outcome of patients with MM.1-5 Herein, we gave our own considerations on some promising directions in the near future, aiming at further improving the survival and the quality of life of MM patients, and even achieving our final goal of the cure of MM, including highlighting stratified and individualized therapies, pursuing novel targets and strategies, unraveling the biological characteristics of myeloma initiation cells and strengthening post-transplant immunotherapies.

  8. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  9. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnally, Nelson R.; Shields, F. Douglas; Hynson, James

    1987-03-01

    Levees and floodwalls are used extensively throughout the United States for flood control. Levee projects often lack ecological, recreational, and aesthetic values, except for incidental fish and wildlife benefits derived from borrow pits and recreational facilities found in some urban settings. In recent years increased environmental concern within construction agencies and greater responsiveness to public opinion have resulted in increasing numbers of levee projects designed, built, and maintained with environmental objectives in mind. This paper reviews environmental concepts successfully employed on levee projects constructed in recent years by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Some of the most innovative concepts are described and illustrated and design considerations are discussed.

  11. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence).

  13. Modeling Unobserved Consideration Sets for Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method to model consumers' consideration and choice processes. We develop a parsimonious probit type model for consideration and a multinomial probit model for choice, given consideration. Unlike earlier models of consideration ours is not prone to the curse of

  14. Modeling Unobserved Consideration Sets for Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method to model consumers' consideration and choice processes. We develop a parsimonious probit type model for consideration and a multinomial probit model for choice, given consideration. Unlike earlier models of consideration ours is not prone to the curse of dimension

  15. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  16. Considerations for personal health record procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic illnesses require tools and resources to facilitate self-management. Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a promising option for delivering these tools and resources to patients with chronic illnesses. As such, many organizations are becoming interested in PHR procurement. However, traditional procurement methods may not ensure the system success and adoption. In this study a group of subject matter experts discussed the possibility of converting a paper-based PHR into an electronic tool. These discussions resulted in generation of several important criteria for assessing commercially available PHR solutions and other considerations related to PHR procurement. These considerations should be contemplated and discussed with stakeholders prior to PHR procurement. In order to realize the benefits PHRs, it is imperative that the appropriate selection is made. Prior to purchase commitment, a trial period can prove extremely useful for performing usability analyses and ensuring interoperability. Supplementing traditional procurement methods with these preliminary user evaluations will increase the likelihood that the selected system best matches the needs of users and purchasers. Moreover, the risk of system failure and the risk of limited adoption of the PHR by the public will be reduced as a result of adopting these methods.

  17. Ideological Considerations in Official Dubbing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khoshsaligheh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our globalizing world, audiovisual products are understandably considered tools that advertise their original language and culture. Most societies do not stand any interference from the outside, especially if it considerably opposes the socio-cultural norms. Translation is a practice of cross-cultural communication which most often complies with the socio-cultural guidelines and norms of the recipient society. However, translated products might face resistance as they can be regarded threatening and hostile by the ruling gatekeepers. Given the dramatic disparities between most languages and cultures, translators are not the only decision-makers and other agents have pivotal roles in the process of adapting the translated product to the dominant conventions and socio-cultural norms. This paper aims at shedding some light on the role which agents play in the process of dubbing, both for public access national television and for private home distribution. The study explores the effects of preliminary and operational norms, and cultural appropriation conducted at both textual and visual levels through a method including interview data and textual analysis. The results show that foreign movies dubbed into Persian in the religious context of the contemporary Iran are strictly controlled both before the process of dubbing and during and after the process of dubbing due to a number of socio-cultural, political, and ideological considerations.

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease: Genetic and epidemiologic considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judy H Cho

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have firmly established that many genomic loci contribute to inflammatory bowel disease, especially in Crohn's disease. These studies have newly-established the importance of the interleukin 23 and autophagy pathways in disease pathogenesis. Future challenges include: (1) the establishment of precisely causal alleles, (2) definition of altered functional outcomes of associated and causal alleles and (3) integration of genetic findings with environmental factors.

  19. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  20. Hyponatremia: Special Considerations in Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L. Soiza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is especially common in older people. Recent evidence highlights that even mild, chronic hyponatremia can lead to cognitive impairment, falls and fractures, the latter being in part due to bone demineralization and reduced bone quality. Hyponatremia is therefore of special significance in frail older people. Management of hyponatremia in elderly individuals is particularly challenging. The underlying cause is often multi-factorial, a clear history may be difficult to obtain and clinical examination is unreliable. Established treatment modalities are often ineffective and carry considerable risks, especially if the diagnosis of underlying causes is incorrect. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that correction of hyponatremia can improve cognitive performance and postural balance, potentially minimizing the risk of falls and fractures. Oral vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans are a promising innovation, but evidence of their safety and effect on important clinical outcomes in frail elderly individuals is limited.

  1. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  2. Ageing and Brugada syndrome: considerations and recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pieter G. Postema; Hanno L Tan; Arthur AM Wilde

    2013-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is an inherited disease associated with an increased risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Such arrhythmias stem from innate disruptions in cardiac electrophysiology. Typically, such arrhythmias occur in the third or fourth decade of life. However, Brugada syndrome may also affect geriatric patients. In this paper, we focus on the ageing patient with Brugada syndrome, and specifically, on the interaction between Brugada syndrome and the more usually acquired clinical problems that may occur with increasing age, such as the use of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular drugs, or the need for surgery. Such common conditions may also disrupt cardiac electrophysiology, thereby conferring added risk for Brugada syndrome patients. We present some considerations and recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities.

  3. Real estate, assets and taxes: some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PALADINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two propositions in Italy for which there is broad consensus among both scholars and among economic policy makers. The first is that, with respect to other countries, the tax burden is relatively low compared to the share of government expenditure, and therefore increase the levy is necessary, in addition to spending reductions. The second is that this increase in taxation should be done so as not to hit the incomes of middle-income workers, on which the tax burden is already high and has grown considerably in recent years. An increase in the taxes in the real estate sector is thus an attractive proposition and indeed reform in this area is one of the most debated issues in recent years. In the present work the author offers several observations to show how some of the choices related to this issue, however, should be framed in a broader view which invests more general options.

  4. Smallpox: clinical highlights and considerations for vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox virus has gained considerable attention as a potential bioterrorism agent. Recommendations for smallpox (vaccinia vaccination presume a low risk for use of smallpox as a terrorist biological agent and vaccination is currently recommended for selected groups of individuals such as health care workers, public health authorities, and emergency/rescue workers, among others. Information about adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine is based upon studies completed during the 1950s and 1960s. The prevalence of various diseases has changed over the last four decades and new disease entities have been described during this period. The smallpox vaccination may be contra-indicated in many of these conditions. This has made pre-screening of potential vaccines necessary. It is believed that at present, the risks of vaccine-associated complications far outweigh the potential benefits of vaccination in the general population.

  5. Narcissism and the self: psychoanalytic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the relation of narcissism to the concept of the self. Based on the concept of the self-as-person, distinction is drawn between the self as a substantial, relatively autonomous source of agency and of both conscious and unconscious mentation and action on one hand and the self as the object of narcissistic investment on the other. The argument presumes abandonment of both the concept of narcissism as libidinal drive cathexis of the self (the most common understanding of narcissism among analysts) and the converse proposition defining the self as derived from and reflecting narcissistic origins. It is proposed that development of self structure arises on the basis of other than narcissistic considerations, but once established it can become the object of narcissistic investment. As such the self cannot be reduced to or defined in terms of narcissistic derivation. Implications for the understanding of self-esteem are explored and clinical implications suggested.

  6. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  7. Pharmacogenetic considerations in the treatment of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rebecca L; Stamp, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common forms of arthritis and the prevalence is increasing. Management comprises rapid and effective control of the inflammation in acute gout and sustained urate lowering in the long term. Improving the outcomes for cheaper old drugs and for the increasing number of new, more expensive agents is an important clinical goal. The role of pharmacogenetics in predicting response and adverse events to gout therapies is of considerable interest. Currently, prospective screening is employed to detect HLA-B*5801 carriage and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, to minimize occurrence of allopurinol hypersensitivity and pegloticase-related hemolytic anemia. In the future it is likely that other genetic markers of drug response will make the transition to clinical practice to further improve the efficacy and safety of gout therapies. In this review, we will examine the potential clinical relevance of specific genetic variants in the management of gout.

  8. Practical Considerations for Simultaneous LDV & PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Stamatios; Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements are useful for validation experiments and when correlating high temporal resolution measurements with large structures of the flow. Performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements can be a challenging task due to the differences in temporal and spatial resolution of each technique, as well as requirements for adequate signal. Even so, simultaneous hot-wire and PIV measurements is even more difficult. Unlike hot-wire, LDV is a non-intrusive technique that is unaffected by PIV laser light-sheet heating. Furthermore, hot-wire measurements are adversely affected by seeding particles in the flow required for PIV. In the present study, we discuss several practical considerations for performing simultaneous LDV and PIV measurements. We completed two separate experiments, each with different seeding densities, flow velocities, and working fluids. With these data sets, we studied the effects of temporal and spatial interpolation, up/down sampling, PIV window size and overlap on the simultaneous signals.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment Consideration in Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia has a spectrum of varied manifestations and complications. Survival is associated with various multisystem complications primarily caused by chronic anemia, iron overload, adverse effects of chelation and transfusion associated infections. Thus, a disease that starts merely as hemolytic anemia attains the dimension of a chronic disease with multisystem involvement. The importance of thalassemia is masked by infections and nutritional deficiencies. Preventive strategies need to be developed, e.g. premarital screening, genetic counseling and antenatal diagnosis. Apart from early diagnosis, there is a need to increase the therapeutic facilities like blood transfusions, chelation therapy and bone marrow transplant. It is really a great challenge and needs an organized plan of action. This article reports the diagnosis and treatment consideration of a thalassemia patient.

  10. Power combining considerations for project Prometheus TWTAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komm, David S.; Smith, Scott K.; Menninger, William L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would be faced with the challenging data transmission task of sending a 50 Mbps stream of science data back to Earth over a distance of 6.2 A.U. (9.3x10^8 km). This high data rate will require a transmitter power of 1 kW at 32 GHz which greatly exceeds the highest powers available from any currently existing space-qualified RF amplifiers. Initially, consideration was given to developing a space-qualified klystron or EIK because of the relatively narrow bandwidths implied by this data rate, but neither of these device types have any significant history of use in space.

  11. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  13. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D A

    1978-01-01

    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods.

  14. Yoga for osteoarthritis: nursing and research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2012-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Current treatment guidelines recommend nonpharmacological approaches such as yoga for firstline treatment of OA. Yoga is a promising mind-body practice that includes physical postures, breathing practices, and meditative mental focus. This article presents the current evidence, as well as a proposed conceptual model for future research. Current research on yoga for OA is scant but promising, showing some evidence of reduced pain, sleep disturbance, and disability. The conceptual model described here proposes musculoskeletal effects (strengthening, flexibility, relaxation), reduction of autonomic arousal, and therapeutic cognitive patterns (distraction, mindfulness) as potentially important mechanisms of yoga. This article also describes considerations for patients and health care providers when evaluating the potential usefulness and safety of yoga programs: yoga style, instructor qualifications, and amount of time spent in yoga practice.

  15. Donor Considerations in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Danielle; Park, K T

    2017-03-01

    Tremendous acceleration has been made in understanding the gut microbiota in the past decade and, with it, further understanding of the pathologic role of dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as therapy. FMT has been studied in many disease states including the most common indication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though many questions regarding stool donor selection remain. Though traditionally, one donor has provided stool for one patient, research is underway to explore many donor selection considerations from the use of pooled donor stool to selection of a high diversity donor. It is well-known that dietary intake shapes the gut microbiota and the potential implications of this on FMT donor selection are being explored. Though further high-quality research is needed, optimizing the fecal microbiota inoculum holds great promise.

  16. Considerations about our approach to obstetric psychoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, R; Volpe, B; Sichel, M P; Sandri, M; Sbrignadello, C; Fede, T

    1983-01-01

    Usually the term "obstetric psychoprophylaxis" refers to a specific method or technique. We prefer to consider it as a procedure that involves on one side the woman, the child and its family, and on the other the services entitled to give pre- and post-natal assistance. In order to realize this, a reformation of our methodological parameters and a critical analysis of the results obtained are required. In the courses of obstetric psychoprophylaxis that are held in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Padua we take into consideration the following themes: - Methodological approach - Professional training of the staff - Significance of psychosocial culture in the management of the pregnancy by the health services.

  17. Nutritional considerations for the palliative care patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Clare; Eldridge, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Many palliative care patients experience nutritional problems as their conditions progress. This includes those with progressive neurological conditions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as advanced cancer. Nutritional issues not only impact patients physically but also psychologically and can also have an effect on those caring for them. It is important that patients are screened appropriately and that one identifies what symptoms are potentially affecting their intake. Decisions should always be patient-centred. Nutritional interventions range from food modification and nutritional supplements, to more intense methods such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, and these may have ethical and legal considerations. This article explores the nutritional issues faced by palliative patients, the ethical issues supporting decision-making and the methods of nutritional support available.

  18. Neonatal euthanasia: moral considerations and criminal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, M

    2001-02-01

    Despite tremendous advances in medical care for critically ill newborn infants, caregivers in neonatal intensive care units still struggle with how to approach those patients whose prognoses appear to be the most grim, and whose treatments appear to be the most futile. Although the practice of passive neonatal euthanasia, from a moral perspective, has been widely (albeit quietly) condoned, those clinicians and families involved in such cases may still be found legally guilty of child abuse or even manslaughter. Passive neonatal euthanasia remains both a moral dilemma and a legal ambiguity. Even the definition of passive euthanasia remains unclear. This manuscript reviews the basic moral and legal considerations raised by the current practice of neonatal euthanasia, and examines the formal position statements of the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The paper concludes by emphasising the need, at least in the United States, to clarify the legal status of this relatively common medical practice.

  19. Economic and developmental considerations for pharmacogenomic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Johnson, Scott J; Hughen, W Keener; Trujillo, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's core business is the innovation, development and marketing of new drugs. Pharmacogenetic (PG) testing and technology has the potential to increase a drug's value in many ways. A critical issue for the industry is whether products in development should be teamed with genetic tests that could segment the total population into responders and non-responders. In this paper we use a cost-effectiveness framework to model the strategic decision-making considerations by pharmaceutical manufacturers as they relate to drug development and the new technology of PG (the science of using genetic markers to predict drug response). In a simple, static, one-period model we consider three drug development strategies: a drug is exclusively developed and marketed to patients with a particular genetic marker; no distinguishing among patients based on the expression of a genetic marker is made (traditional approach); and a strategy whereby a drug is marketed to patients both with and without the genetic marker but there is price discrimination between the two subpopulations. We developed three main principles: revenues under a strategy targeting only the responder subpopulation will never generate more revenue than that which could have been obtained under a traditional approach; total revenues under a targeted PG strategy will be less than that under a traditional approach but higher than a naive [corrected] view would believe them to be; and a traditional [corrected] approach will earn the same total revenues as a price discrimination strategy, assuming no intermarket arbitrage. While these principles relate to the singular (and quite narrow) consideration of drug revenues, they may nevertheless partially explain why PG is not being used as widely as was predicted several years ago when the technology first became available, especially in terms of pharmaceutical manufacturer-developed tests.

  20. Design considerations for piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L F

    2000-01-01

    Much work has been published on the design of ultrasound transducers using piezoelectric ceramics, but a great deal of this work does not apply when using the piezoelectric polymers because of their unique electrical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and present new insight into seven important considerations for the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasound transducers: piezoelectric polymer materials selection, transducer construction and packaging requirements, materials characterization and modeling, film thickness and active area design, electroding selection, backing material design, and front protection/matching layer design. Besides reviewing these design considerations, this paper also presents new insight into the design of active piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic transducers. The design and fabrication of an immersible ultrasonic transducer, which has no adhesive layer between the active element and backing layer, is included. The transducer features direct deposition of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer onto an insulated aluminum backing substrate. Pulse-echo tests indicated a minimum insertion loss of 37 dB and -6 dB bandwidth of 9.8 to 22 MHz (71%). The use of polymer wear-protection/quarter-wave matching layers is also discussed. Test results on a P(VDF-TrFE) transducer showed that a Mylar/sup TM/ front layer provided a slight increase in pulse-echo amplitude of 15% (or 1.2 dB) and an increase in -6 dB pulse-echo fractional bandwidth from 86 to 95%. Theoretical derivations are reported for optimizing the active area of the piezoelectric polymer element for maximum power transfer at resonance. These derivations are extended to the special case for a low profile (i.e., thin) shielded transducer. A method for modeling the non-linear loading effects of a commercial pulser-receiver is also included.

  1. Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita

  2. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  3. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Part 1600 Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations AGENCY: Federal Retirement...), which was established by the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 (FERSA), Public Law 99-335...-79. The TSP is a tax-deferred retirement savings plan for Federal civilian employees and members...

  4. Rodeo medicine: considerations in event coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot J; Markey, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is an increasingly popular but dangerous sport, with injury rates higher than any other sport. While there are several organizations that oversee many of the rodeo competitions in the U.S., most events are non-sanctioned. Several factors contribute to the risk for injury, and medical coverage is usually volunteer-based. This article describes the common events that occur in most rodeo competitions, highlights the injuries most often documented in rodeo injury reporting, and suggests guidelines for preparation of medical coverage of a typical rodeo event.

  5. Myogenous temporomandibular disorders: diagnostic and management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James

    2007-01-01

    Myogenous temporomandibular disorders (or masticatory myalgia) are characterized by pain and dysfunction that arise from pathologic and functional processes in the masticatory muscles. There are several distinct muscle disorder subtypes in the masticatory system, including myofascial pain, myositis, muscle spasm, and muscle contracture. The major characteristics of masticatory myalgia include pain, muscle tenderness, limited range of motion, and other symptoms (eg, fatigability, stiffness, subjective weakness). Comorbid conditions and complicating factors also are common and are discussed. Management follows with stretching, posture, and relaxation exercises, physical therapy, reduction of contributing factors, and as necessary, muscle injections.

  6. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  7. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  8. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  9. Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, A R; Messina, V

    2001-06-01

    Appropriately planned vegan diets can satisfy nutrient needs of infants. The American Dietetic Association and The American Academy of Pediatrics state that vegan diets can promote normal infant growth. It is important for parents to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations when working with vegan families include composition of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supplements, type and amount of dietary fat, and solid food introduction. Growth of vegan infants appears adequate with post-weaning growth related to dietary adequacy. Breast milk composition is similar to that of non-vegetarians except for fat composition. For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants.

  10. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  11. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the "golden hour"; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMSto meet the "golden hour" requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services. It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

  12. Scanning Motion; Opto-Mechanical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Roger S.

    1988-11-01

    The field of electro-optics has grown enormously in the last 25 years. As a consequence, both optics and optical engineering have mushroomed. The mechanical engineer, during this period, has been patiently providing the necessary support technology to achieve precision instrument design. Within the last 5 years, the discipline of opto-mechanical engineering has been emerging as a driving force to channel information to the precision mechanical engineer. In an overview article, "Opto-Mechanical Instrument Design", one of the key subtopics is "Scanning Motion." This paper is about that subtopic, specifically directed to the precision mechanical engineer and his involvement with Mirror Scanning Motion Systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the mechanical engineer as to the many considerations necessary during the design and development of a precision instrument. The logical starting point will be the fundamentals for opto-mechanical engineering as established by Dan Vukobratovich. The glossary at the end is an attempt to define many of the terms in his notes, plus any others that have arisen. These definitions are not for the physicist, electrical engineer, or mathematician, but for the mechanical engineer. The body of this paper covers over fifty papers which can be located by using the key words "mirror" and "scanning" and limiting the search to the past 5 years.

  13. Geotechnical considerations in mine backfilling in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Sivakugan; R.M. Rankine; K.J. Rankine; K.S. Rankine [James Cook University, Townsville, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Mine backfilling can play a significant role in the overall operation of a mine operation. In the Australian mining industry, where safety is a prime consideration, hydraulic systems are the most common backfills deployed. Many accidents reported at hydraulic fill mines worldwide have mainly been attributed to a lack of understanding of their behaviour and barricade bricks. There are two basic types of backfilling strategies. The first, uncemented backfilling, does not make use of binding agents such as cement, and their characteristics can be studied using soil mechanics theories. A typical example of uncemented backfilling is the use of hydraulic fills that are placed in the form of slurry into the underground voids. The second category, cemented backfilling, makes use of a small percentage of binder such as Portland cement or a blend of Portland cement with another pozzolan such as fly ash, gypsum or blast furnace slag. This paper describes the findings from an extensive laboratory test programme carried out in Australia on more than 20 different hydraulic fills and several barricade bricks. A limited description of paste backfills is also provided, and the usefulness of numerical modelling as an investigative tool is highlighted. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Treating mood disorders during pregnancy: safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Eskild, Anne; Opjordsmoen, Stein

    2005-01-01

    Mood disorders in pregnancy may have a negative effect on self care and pregnancy outcome that affects the mother directly and the child indirectly. Thus, some women may require pharmacological treatment. Pharmacotherapy of mood disorders during pregnancy implies specific considerations. This paper presents an updated review of available studies on the treatment of mood disorders and present knowledge on teratogenicity, neonatal effects and long-term neurobehavioural effects for the different psychotropic drugs, including treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), other antidepressants, benzodiazepines, lithium, carbamazepine/valproic acid, lamotrigine and novel antipsychotics. However, the existing knowledge on the use of antidepressants and mood stabilising agents during pregnancy is hampered by a lack of results from randomised controlled trials.SSRIs and TCAs have not been associated with an increased risk of major malformations, but poor neonatal adaptation has been described. Benzodiazepines used in the first trimester have been associated with orofacial clefts. Mood stabilisers such as lithium, carbamazepine and valproic acid (sodium valproate) are associated with an increased risk of fetal malformations. Both benzodiazepines and lithium may cause adaptation problems in the newborn. In utero exposure to novel antipsychotics has not been associated with congenital malformations; however, the data are still limited. The knowledge about long-term neurobehavioural effects in the offspring is still limited for all agents and requires further investigation. Possible adverse effects of fetal exposure must be balanced against the adverse effects of an untreated maternal mood disorder.

  15. Neonatal euthanasia: moral considerations and criminal liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, M.

    2001-01-01

    Despite tremendous advances in medical care for critically ill newborn infants, caregivers in neonatal intensive care units still struggle with how to approach those patients whose prognoses appear to be the most grim, and whose treatments appear to be the most futile. Although the practice of passive neonatal euthanasia, from a moral perspective, has been widely (albeit quietly) condoned, those clinicians and families involved in such cases may still be found legally guilty of child abuse or even manslaughter. Passive neonatal euthanasia remains both a moral dilemma and a legal ambiguity. Even the definition of passive euthanasia remains unclear. This manuscript reviews the basic moral and legal considerations raised by the current practice of neonatal euthanasia, and examines the formal position statements of the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The paper concludes by emphasising the need, at least in the United States, to clarify the legal status of this relatively common medical practice. Key Words: Euthanasia • neonatal intensive care • defective newborns PMID:11233379

  16. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example.

  17. Biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder: Economic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Lakic, Dragana

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major psychiatric illness and it is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 with a lifetime prevalence of about 13%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly used therapeutic class for MDD. However, response to SSRI treatment varies considerably between patients. Biomarkers of treatment response may enable clinicians to target the appropriate drug for each patient. Biomarkers need to have accuracy in real life, sensitivity, specificity, and relevance to depression. Introduction of MDD biomarkers into the health care system can increase the overall cost of clinical diagnosis of patients. Because of that, decisions to allocate health research funding must be based on drug effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The assessment of MDD biomarkers should include reliable evidence of associated drug effectiveness, adverse events and consequences (reduced productivity and quality of life, disability) and effectiveness of alternative approaches, other drug classes or behavioral or alternative therapies. In addition, all the variables included in an economic model (probabilities, outcomes, and costs) should be based on reliable evidence gained from the literature-ideally meta-analyses-and the evidence should also be determined by informed and specific expert opinion. Early assessment can guide decisions about whether or not to continue test development, and ideally to optimize the process. Drug Dev Res 77 : 374-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Considerations on pancreatic exocrine function after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco; José; Morera-Ocon; Luis; Sabater-Orti; Elena; Muoz-Forner; Jaime; Pérez-Griera; Joaquín; Ortega-Serrano

    2014-01-01

    The pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) procedure may lead to pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. There are several types of reconstruction for this kind of operation. Pancreaticogastrostomy(PG) was introduced to reduce the rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Although some randomized control trials have shown no differences regarding pancreatic leakage between PG and pancreaticojejunostomy(PJ), recently some reports reveal benefits from the PG over the PJ. Some surgeons concern about the performing of the PG and inactivation of pancreatic enzymes being in contact with the gastric juice, and the detrimental results over the exocrine pancreatic function. The pancreatic exocrine function can be measured with direct and indirect tests. Direct tests have the highest sensitivity and specificity for detection of exocrine insufficiency but require tube placement. Among the tubeless indirect tests, the van de Kamer stool fat analysis remains the standard to diagnose fat malabsorption. The patient compliance and time consuming makes it not so suitable for its clinical use. Fecal immunoreactive elastase test is employed for screening of exocrine insufficiency, is not cumbersome, and has been used to study pancreatic function after resection. We analyze the FE1 levels in our patients after the PD with two types of reconstruction, PG and PJ, and we discuss some considerations about the pancreaticointestinal drainage method after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  19. Compression station anti-surge system considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; White, Robert C. [Solar Turbines Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Centrifugal compressor surge and its prevention have drawn significant attention in the literature. An important aspect of surge avoidance lies in the design of the compressor station and, in particular, the piping upstream and downstream of the compressor. Most anti-surge systems are perfectly capable of avoiding surge during normal operating conditions. However, unplanned emergency shutdowns present a significant challenge, and surge avoidance in these cases depends to a large degree on the station layout. Furthermore, the concepts used in the anti surge system (valves, piping, coolers) also impact the start-up of the station, or of individual units of the station. In this paper a simplified surge control system model is presented and used to develop simpler rules that help with proper sizing of upstream and downstream piping systems, as well as the necessary control element. Since the design of the surge control and recycle system also affects the start-up of units and stations, start-up considerations for stations with and without cooled recycle loops are discussed. (author)

  20. Perioperative considerations for patients with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas J; Shankar, Hariharan; Haake, Rachel M

    2006-09-01

    The anesthetic management of the MO patient requires an important focus on a number of issues beginning with a careful preoperative evaluation and synthesizing pre-existing disease processes with the anesthetic management plan. The common misperception that all MO patients are "full stomach" has been challenged and may be a nonissue. New approaches to pre-oxygenation to lessen the likelihood of desaturation during apnea may be a valuable tool if difficulty is encountered in tracheal intubation. In addition, promising results have been demonstrated with the use of the ILMA for ventilation and for blindly establishing tracheal tube placement. Proper patient positioning is essential to aid in successful intubation when a laryngoscope is employed. Intraoperative anesthetic management can be guided with a processed electroencephalogram monitor to help improve emergence and to enhance wakefulness in the PACU. Careful consideration must be given to postoperative analgesic needs by minimizing the use of opioids and employing nonopioid analgesics including NSAIDs, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and low doses of ketamine.

  1. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  2. Contaminants in fish: risk-benefit considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G

    2007-09-01

    Fish provide a healthful source of dietary protein and are high in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption in coronary heart disease, stroke, age-related macular degeneration, and growth and development. Yet, benefits may be offset by the presence of contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several other halogenated persistent organic pollutants. MeHg is a known developmental neurotoxicant, as evidenced by several animal studies and episodes of human intoxication in Japan and Iraq. Fish represent the main source of exposure to MeHg for the general population, and large predatory fish (swordfish, tuna) have the highest levels of MeHg contamination. Provisional tolerable weekly intakes of 0.7 microg kg(-1) to 1.6 microg kg(-1) have been set by regulatory agencies. Concern for contamination of fish with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs stems from their reported carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicities. Farmed and wild-caught fish appear to have similar levels of contaminants. Advisories are in place that recommend limited consumption of certain fish in children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Careful risk-benefit considerations should foster fish consumption while minimizing exposure to toxic contaminants.

  3. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  4. Optimization of the Actuarial Model of Defined Contribution Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the actuarial models of defined contribution pension plan. Through assumptions and calculations, the expected replacement ratios of three different defined contribution pension plans are compared. Specially, more significant considerable factors are put forward in the further cost and risk analyses. In order to get an assessment of current status, the paper finds a relationship between the replacement ratio and the pension investment rate using econometrics method. Based on an appropriate investment rate of 6%, an expected replacement ratio of 20% is reached.

  5. 75 FR 32659 - Contributed Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF28 Contributed Property AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... property to the partnership. In that regard, the anti- abuse rule of Sec. 1.701-2(b) provides that, if a... contribution of property to a partnership should be recast to avoid results that are inconsistent...

  6. Neuroanesthetic considerations for emergent extracranial surgeries: What to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroanaesthetic considerations in non neurosurgical cases are utmost important for the optimal management of such cases. These considerations become even more challenging in patients undergoing emergency surgeries. We have highlighted the neuroanesthetic considerations for three broad categories. The two most important considerations in this type of surgery will be the avoidance of secondary brain insult and maintenance of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure.

  7. Considerations for the design of Ada reusable packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nise, Norman S.; Giffin, Chuck

    1986-01-01

    Two important considerations that precede the design of Ada reusable packages (commonality and programming standards) are discuessed. First, the importance of designing packages to yield widespread commonality is expressed. A means of measuring the degree of applicability of packages both within and across applications areas is presented. Design consideration that will improve commonality are also discussed. Second, considerations for the development of programming standards are set forth. These considerations will lead to standards that will improve the reusability of Ada packages.

  8. Retrieving Unobserved Consideration Sets from Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Bronnenberg, Bart; Paap, Richard; Wedel, Michel; Franses, Philip Hans

    The authors propose a new model to capture unobserved consideration from discrete choice data. This approach allows for unobserved dependence in consideration among brands, easily copes with many brands, and accommodates different effects of the marketing mix on consideration and choice as well as

  9. 28 CFR 2.21 - Reparole consideration guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reparole consideration guidelines. 2.21....21 Reparole consideration guidelines. (a)(1) If revocation is based upon administrative violation(s... analogy with listed federal offense behaviors. (b) The guidelines for parole consideration specified at...

  10. Retrieving Unobserved Consideration Sets from Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Bronnenberg, Bart; Paap, Richard; Wedel, Michel; Franses, Philip Hans

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a new model to capture unobserved consideration from discrete choice data. This approach allows for unobserved dependence in consideration among brands, easily copes with many brands, and accommodates different effects of the marketing mix on consideration and choice as well as u

  11. 40 CFR 270.3 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 270... Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of... applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular permit conditions or requires the denial of...

  12. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular...

  13. 17 CFR 201.401 - Consideration of stays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of stays. 201... PRACTICE Rules of Practice Appeal to the Commission and Commission Review § 201.401 Consideration of stays... consideration. Where the action complained of has already taken effect and the motion for stay is filed...

  14. 48 CFR 750.7106-2 - Amendments without consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consideration. 750.7106-2 Section 750.7106-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-2 Amendments without consideration. (a) Where an... of performance, considerations of fairness may make appropriate some adjustment in the contract....

  15. 46 CFR 72.01-20 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 72.01-20 Section 72.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 72.01-20 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be given to...

  16. 46 CFR 190.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 190.01-15 Section 190.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 190.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration...

  17. 46 CFR 92.01-15 - Special consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 92.01-15 Section 92.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 92.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will...

  18. Retrieving Unobserved Consideration Sets from Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Bronnenberg, Bart; Paap, Richard; Wedel, Michel; Franses, Philip Hans

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a new model to capture unobserved consideration from discrete choice data. This approach allows for unobserved dependence in consideration among brands, easily copes with many brands, and accommodates different effects of the marketing mix on consideration and choice as well as u

  19. Musical Shaping Gestures: Considerations about Terminology and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine King

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulford and Ginsborg's investigation into non-verbal communication during music rehearsal-talk between performers with and without hearing impairments extends existing research in the field of gesture studies by contributing significantly to our understanding of musicians' physical gestures as well as opening up discussion about the relationship between speech, sign and gesture in discourse about music. Importantly, the authors weigh up the possibility of an emerging sign language about music. This commentary focuses on three key considerations in response to their paper: first, use of terminology in the study of gesture, specifically about 'musical shaping gestures' (MSGs; second, methodological issues about capturing physical gestures; and third, evaluation of the application of gesture research beyond the rehearsal context. While the difficulties of categorizing gestures in observational research are acknowledged, I indicate that the consistent application of terminology from outside and within the study is paramount. I also suggest that the classification of MSGs might be based upon a set of observed physical characteristics within a single gesture, including size, duration, speed, plane and handedness, leading towards an alternative taxonomy for interpreting these data. Finally, evaluation of the application of gesture research in education and performance arenas is provided.

  20. Immunotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Current and Future Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Rapidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC are at considerable risk for death, with 5-year relative survival rates of approximately 60%. The profound multifaceted deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity that persist in most patients after treatment may be related to the high rates of treatment failure and second primary malignancies. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy commonly have severe acute and long-term side effects on immune responses. The development of immunotherapies reflects growing awareness that certain immune system deficiencies specific to HNSCC and some other cancers may contribute to the poor long-term outcomes. Systemic cell-mediated immunotherapy is intended to activate the entire immune system and mount a systemic and/or locoregional antitumor response. The delivery of cytokines, either by single cytokines, for example, interleukin-2, interleukin-12, interferon-, interferon-, or by a biologic mix of multiple cytokines, such as IRX-2, may result in tumor rejection and durable immune responses. Targeted immunotherapy makes use of monoclonal antibodies or vaccines. All immunotherapies for HNSCC except cetuximab remain investigational, but a number of agents whose efficacy and tolerability are promising have entered phase 2 or phase 3 development.

  1. Biosimilars for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases: economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacsi, Laszlo; Pentek, Marta; Rencz, Fanni; Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Gecse, Krisztina B; Danese, Silvio; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Lakatos, Peter L

    2017-04-06

    Biological drugs revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, not all clinically eligible patients have access to biologicals, due to significant costs and budget impact. Biosimilars are highly comparable to their originator product in terms of clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilars are priced 15-75% lower than their reference product, which makes them a less costly alternative and is expected to offer better patients access to biologicals. The total projected cost savings are significant. If the achieved budget savings were used to cover more biological therapy, several additional IBD patients could be treated. Currently, the main barriers to the increasing uptake of biosimilars are the few incentives of the key stakeholders, while physicians' and patients' skepticism towards biosimilars seems to be changing. Over the coming years, biosimilars are expected to gain a growing importance in the treatment of IBD, contributing to a better access to treatment, improving population-level health gain and sustainability of health systems. This review summarizes the results of the literature on the economic considerations of biosimilars in IBD and the role of biosimilar infliximab in the treatment of IBD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Practical considerations when prescribing icodextrin: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Harel, Ziv; Perl, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Icodextrin is a peritoneal dialysis solution that is commonly used to increase ultrafiltration during the long dwell. The other major clinical benefit of icodextrin is that it is glucose-sparing, which may help preserve peritoneal membrane function. Since it has a different chemical composition than dextrose, and with its increasing use, there are several clinical considerations healthcare providers must familiarize themselves with prior to prescribing icodextrin. Failure to recognize these special properties of icodextrin can lead to adverse events reaching patients. This narrative review explores the hemodynamic, metabolic, and idiopathic effects of icodextrin to facilitate the safe use of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis. Hemodynamic effects include hypotension from enhanced ultrafiltration contributing to loss of residual kidney function. Metabolic effects include the chemical structure of icodextrin interfering with biochemical assays, resulting in misleading glucose readings on non-specific glucometers. Idiopathic adverse effects include a diffuse rash and sterile peritonitis. It is also important to remember that not all antibiotic combinations have undergone stability testing in icodextrin. This narrative review will help healthcare providers to confidently prescribe icodextrin to maximize its benefit in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  3. Design considerations for tropical forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Edward McRoberts

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute substantially to maintaining the global greenhouse gas balance, primarily because among the five economic sectors identified by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, only the forestry sector has the potential to remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere. In this context, development of national forest carbon accounting systems, particularly in countries with tropical forests, has emerged as an international priority. Because these systems are often developed as components of or in parallel with national forest inventories, a brief review of statistical issues related to the development of forest ground sampling designs is provided. This overview addresses not only the primary issues of plot configurations and sampling designs, but also to a lesser extent the emerging roles of remote sensing and uncertainty assessment. Basic inventory principles are illustrated for two case studies, the national forest inventory of Brazil with special emphasis on the state of Santa Catarina, and an inventory for Tanzania.

  4. Meridional Considerations of the Centrifugal Compressor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressor developments are interested in using optimization procedures that enable compressor high efficiency and wide operating ranges. Recently, high pressure ratio and efficiency of the centrifugal compressors require impeller design to pay attention to both the blade angle distribution and the meridional profile. The geometry of the blades and the meridional profile are very important contributions of compressor performance and structure reliability. This paper presents some recent studies of meridional impacts of the compressor. Studies indicated that the meridional profiles of the impeller impact the overall compressor efficiency and pressure ratio at the same rotational speed. Proper meridional profiles can improve the compressor efficiency and increase the overall pressure ratio at the same blade back curvature.

  5. Sexual violence interventions: Considerations for humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, David

    2017-07-01

    Sexual and gender based violence may result in a range of destructive consequences to the individual, their family and the wider community. Addressing such violence and its immediate aftermath in circumstances of civil turmoil requires a timely, planned and coordinated multidisciplinary response. Such interventions need to be cognisant of, and address a range of challenges which might include economic barriers, religious and cultural divides, a dearth of respect for human rights and limited access or capacity of medical, policing and legal services. In addition to addressing the immediate humanitarian prerogatives of health and safety issues, further objectives include the provision of support and justice for victims and the goal of ending impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence. Forensic medicine and its practitioners have the potential to make significant contributions in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  8. Impaired neutrophils in children with the typical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gabriela C; Gómez, Sonia A; Rubel, Carolina J; Bentancor, Leticia V; Barrionuevo, Paula; Alduncín, Marta; Grimoldi, Irene; Exeni, Ramón; Isturiz, Martín A; Palermo, Marina S

    2005-09-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggest that activated neutrophils (PMN) could contribute to endothelial damage in Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (D+HUS). Additionally, while PMN-activating cytokines and PMN-derived products have been found in D+HUS sera, we have demonstrated phenotypic alterations in D+HUS PMN compatible with a deactivation state. Here, we investigated whether D+HUS PMN were actually hyporesponsive, and explored some of the mechanisms probably involved in their derangement. Twenty-two D+HUS children were bled in the acute period, and blood samples from healthy, acute uremic and neutrophilic children were obtained as controls. We evaluated degranulation markers in response to cytokines, intracellular granule content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in circulating D+HUS and control PMN. The influence of D+HUS-derived plasma and the direct effects of Stx in vitro were evaluated on healthy donors' PMN. We found that D+HUS PMN presented reduced degranulatory capacity in response to cytokines and intracellular granule content, and decreased ROS generation. D+HUS plasma or Stx did not affect the phenotype and function of healthy donors' PMN. These results suggest that upon hospitalization D+HUS PMN are functionally impaired and show features of previous degranulation, indicating a preceding process of activation with release of ROS and proteases involved in endothelial damage.

  9. Special Considerations for Multiple Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Miller, Matthew; Carvalho, A J; Corcoran, Michael; Vandersea, James; Johnson, Elizabeth; Chen, Yin-Ting

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 1.6 million individuals in the United States have undergone at least one amputation. The literature abounds with research of the classifications of such injuries, their etiologies, epidemiologies, treatment regimens, average age of onset (average age of amputation), and much more. The subpopulation that is often overlooked in these evaluations, however, is comprised of individuals who have suffered multiple limb loss. The challenges faced by those with single-limb loss are amplified for those with multiple limb loss. Pain, lifestyle adjustment, and quality of life return are just a few key areas of concern in this population. Along with amputations resulting from trauma, many individuals with multiple amputations have endured them as a result of dysvascular disease. Over recent years, amputations as a result of dysvascular disease have risen to comprise more than 80 % of new amputations occurring in the United States every year. This compares to just 54 % of total current prevalence. Those with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease make up 74 % of those with dysvascular amputations, and these individuals with diabetes comorbid with dysvascular disease have a 55 % chance of enduring an amputation of their contralateral limb within 2-3 years of their initial amputation. With the well-documented aging of the nation's population and the similarly skyrocketing prevalence of dysvascular disease and diabetes, it can be expected that the number of individuals with multiple limb loss will continue to increase in the United States. This article outlines the recommended measures of care for this particular subpopulation, including pain management, behavioral health considerations, strategies for rehabilitation for various levels and variations of multiple limb loss, and the assistive technology and adaptive equipment that might be available for these individuals to best enable them to continue healthy, fulfilling lives following

  10. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  11. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  12. Numerical considerations in simulating the global magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models of the global magnetosphere are very good research tools for investigating the topology and dynamics of the near-Earth space environment. While these models have obvious limitations in regions that are not well described by the MHD equations, they can typically be used (or are used to investigate the majority of magnetosphere. Often, a secondary consideration is overlooked by researchers when utilizing global models – the effects of solving the MHD equations on a grid, instead of analytically. Any discretization unavoidably introduces numerical artifacts that affect the solution to various degrees. This paper investigates some of the consequences of the numerical schemes and grids that are used to solve the MHD equations in the global magnetosphere. Specifically, the University of Michigan's MHD code is used to investigate the role of grid resolution, numerical schemes, limiters, inner magnetospheric density boundary conditions, and the artificial lowering of the speed of light on the strength of the ionospheric cross polar cap potential and the build up of the ring current in the inner magnetosphere. It is concluded that even with a very good solver and the highest affordable grid resolution, the inner magnetosphere is not grid converged. Artificially reducing the speed of light reduces the numerical diffusion that helps to achieve better agreement with data. It is further concluded that many numerical effects work nonlinearly to complicate the interpretation of the physics within the magnetosphere, and so simulation results should be scrutinized very carefully before a physical interpretation of the results is made. Our conclusions are not limited to the Michigan MHD code, but apply to all MHD models due to the limitations of computational resources.

  13. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  14. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  15. Introducing and modeling inefficiency contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Kronborg, Dorte; Matthews, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the most commonly used non-parametric benchmarking approach, the interpretation and application of DEA results can be limited by the fact that radial improvement potentials are identified across variables. In contrast, Multi-directional Efficiency Analysis......-called inefficiency contributions, which are defined as the relative contributions from specific variables to the overall levels of inefficiencies. A statistical model for distinguishing the inefficiency contributions between subgroups is proposed and the method is illustrated on a data set on Chinese banks....

  16. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human

  17. ECN contributions to GLOBAL `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL `95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL).

  18. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  19. A CONSIDERATION OF THE PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF WILL DOWNS WITH A GENERAL CORRELATION OF CHINESE NEOGENE LOCALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis H. TAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    @@ William R. Downs, Ⅲ, known as Dong Weilin to many friends, died a relatively young man ( 1950 ~ 2002) at the height of his career in paleontology.His career began at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1975. One of his early tasks was the preparation of Triassic cynodonts from Antarctica for Edwin H.Colbert, then Curator Emeritus of the American Museum of Natural History and Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Museum of Northern Arizona (Colbert and Kitching, 1977). Will prepared the Early Jurassic armored ornithischian Scutellosaurus for Colbert (1981), and he collected and prepared a skull of Pentaceratops from the Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin (Rowe et al., 1981 ).One of his early ventures into screen-washing was near the Pentaceratops site in the San Juan Basin (Flynn, 1986) where mammals were poorly represented. In the mid-1980' s, Will left the Museum of Northern Arizona to become affiliated with Northern Arizona University, also in Flagstaff. In addition, he was briefly employed to revamp the fossil preparation laboratories at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, during which time he joined in excavations of a large series of small primitive ornithopods in Texas (Winkler et al.,1988). He maintained an office at the Bilby Research Center, and then the Department of Geology,at Northern Arizona University until the time of his death.

  20. What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Eric Bruckner

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…

  1. What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Eric Bruckner

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…

  2. Stuart Hall’ Contributions to CCCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2014-01-01

    Hall is the most prominent master of Birmingham school. To some extent, Hall just represents CCCS and makes outstanding contributions to establishment of this school. Hall’s cultural theory is characterized by the interdisciplinary ideology, cultural gaze of race diaspora, collective creation, academic openness, cultural politics, civilization of the talent and so on, so that displays his value and significance as a cultural theorists and critic, in addition demonstrates his contribution to the whole world.

  3. A computing system for LBB considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, K.; Miettinen, J.; Raiko, H.; Keskinen, R.

    1997-04-01

    A computing system has been developed at VTT Energy for making efficient leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations of piping components. The system consists of fracture mechanics and leak rate analysis modules which are linked via an interactive user interface LBBCAL. The system enables quick tentative analysis of standard geometric and loading situations by means of fracture mechanics estimation schemes such as the R6, FAD, EPRI J, Battelle, plastic limit load and moments methods. Complex situations are handled with a separate in-house made finite-element code EPFM3D which uses 20-noded isoparametric solid elements, automatic mesh generators and advanced color graphics. Analytical formulas and numerical procedures are available for leak area evaluation. A novel contribution for leak rate analysis is the CRAFLO code which is based on a nonequilibrium two-phase flow model with phase slip. Its predictions are essentially comparable with those of the well known SQUIRT2 code; additionally it provides outputs for temperature, pressure and velocity distributions in the crack depth direction. An illustrative application to a circumferentially cracked elbow indicates expectedly that a small margin relative to the saturation temperature of the coolant reduces the leak rate and is likely to influence the LBB implementation to intermediate diameter (300 mm) primary circuit piping of BWR plants.

  4. Forensic consideration of death in the bathtub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Naofumi; Chiba, Takashi; Yamauchi, Misa; Monma, Taeko; Yoshizaki, Katuaki

    2003-03-01

    About 100-120 cases of 'sudden death in bathroom' are reported every year in our prefecture, which is 8-10% of the total number of what is considered unnatural deaths. For reasons that are still unclear, the victims die while bathing in the bathtub. This baffling form of death occurs mostly in the winter season and 80-% of these are elderly persons. However, despite a full autopsy, it is sometimes still very difficult to determine the cause of death or the direct cause of drowning in the bathtub. To prevent others from this mysterious form of death and to determine the risk factors for the elderly while bathing, we examined several parameters such as physiological changes and biochemical blood analysis in a total of 54 volunteers during both the winter and summer seasons in Japan. We found that some of the elderly developed cardiac arrhythmia such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular extrasystole, supraventricular extrasystole, and bradycardia. Also, decreases of systolic blood pressure during bathing were observed during this experiment. We conclude that the development of extrasysytole or ventricular tachycardia can be a stress involved in bathing. These changes might contribute to cardiac arrest or to drowning in the bathtub. Moreover, a sudden decrease of blood pressure is considered to be a risk factor of cerebrovascular accident.

  5. UPR-inducible micro-RNAs contribute to stressful situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Nilesh; Pytel, Dariusz; Diehl, J. Alan

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) senses both extracellular and intracellular stresses that can disrupt its ability to facilitate the maturation of proteins destined for secretory pathways. The accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive signaling pathway coined the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). UPR activation contributes to cell adaptation by reducing the rate of protein translation, while increasing the synthesis of chaperones. Although we have gained considerable insight into the mechanisms that regulate gene expression and certain aspects of protein translation, the contribution of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) to UPR-dependent activities has only recently been investigated. Here, we highlight recent insights into the contribution of miRNAs to UPR-dependent cellular adaptive responses. PMID:23906563

  6. UPR-inducible miRNAs contribute to stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Nilesh; Pytel, Dariusz; Diehl, J Alan

    2013-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) senses both extracellular and intracellular stresses that can disrupt its ability to facilitate the maturation of proteins destined for secretory pathways. The accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive signaling pathway coined the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activation contributes to cell adaptation by reducing the rate of protein translation while increasing the synthesis of chaperones. Although we have gained considerable insight into the mechanisms that regulate gene expression and certain aspects of protein translation, the contribution of miRNAs to UPR-dependent activities has only recently been investigated. Here we highlight recent insights into the contribution of miRNAs to UPR-dependent cellular adaptive responses.

  7. 75 FR 34388 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...; ] FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD 5 CFR Part 1600 Employee Contribution Elections and... Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 (FERSA), Public Law 99-335, 100 Stat. 514. The TSP provisions of... retirement savings plan for Federal civilian employees and members of the uniformed services. The TSP...

  8. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Facing the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Contributions. Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnove, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines challenges to comparative and international education in the areas of epistemological approaches, research methodology, philosophical considerations, and dissemination of findings; the field's contributions in questioning assumptions about school-society relationships, identifying the benefits and dangers of "borrowing" educational…

  9. Consideration from a PBL perspective designing a virtual workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper is taking departure in considerations of the pedagogical and learning oriented approaches made in the process from design to evaluation of the virtual workshop; as part of the MVU tutor course. Our focus in this paper is on elaborating and discussing the pedagogical considerations...... assignments. The design has tight and clear standards concentrated within only one week, as to give the participants opportunity to generate experiences in a considerable focus of collaboration, group work and different media supporting the assignments. In this paper we will elaborate the considerations...

  10. Stuart Hall’ Contributions to CCCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂艳

    2014-01-01

    Hall is the most prominent master of Birmingham school.To some extent,Hall just represents CCCS and makes outstanding contributions to establishment of this school.Hall’s cultural theory is characterized by the interdisciplinary ideology,cultural gaze of race diaspora,collective creation,academic openness,cultural politics,civilization of the talent and so on,so that displays his value and significance as a cultural theorists and critic,in addition demonstrates his contribution to the whole world.

  11. Fairness overrides reputation: the importance of fairness considerations in altruistic cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Sule; Newell, Ben R

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral findings in several strategic games indicate that people punish others if they think they are being treated unequally, even at the cost of minimizing their own material payoff. We investigated the primary driving force behind such non-self-regarding behavior, so-called, altruistic cooperation. In all of our studies, a mini ultimatum game was played either one-shot (in Experiment 1a and 1b) or repeatedly (Experiment 2), and rejections of inequitable distribution were taken as a measure of altruistic cooperation. In Experiment 1a, we replicated previous findings indicating that the key mechanism contributing to the emergence of altruistic cooperation is fairness considerations. In Experiment 1b, we delved into the relative importance of two aspects of fairness considerations (i.e., outcome fairness and intentions) and showed that both aspects were effective in determining the level of altruistic cooperation, with the contribution of intentions being more important. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effect of the opportunity for reputation building and future interaction on altruistic cooperation. We found that these factors became influential only when fairness considerations were weakened, particularly, as a result of the removal of the possible intentions behind an offer.

  12. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip

  13. Contribution of thermal expansion and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I.Pursky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental results obtained for the isobaric thermal conductivity of rare gas solids (RGS. The isobaric thermal conductivity of RGS has been analysed within Debye approximation with regard to the effect of thermal expansion. The suggested model takes into consideration the fact that thermal conductivity is determined by U-processes while above the phonon mobility edge it is determined by "diffusive" modes migrating randomly from site to site. The mobility edge ω0 is determined from the condition that the phonon mean-free path restricted by the U-processes cannot be smaller than half of the phonon wavelength.

  14. Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Turner, Cameron R.; Deiner, Kristy; Klymus, Katy E.; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Murphy, Melanie A.; Spear, Stephen F.; McKee, Anna; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Laramie, Matthew B.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Lance, Richard F.; Pilliod, David S.; Strickler, Katherine M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Takahara, Teruhiko; Herder, Jelger E.; Taberlet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Species detection using environmental DNA (eDNA) has tremendous potential for contributing to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of aquatic species. Detecting species using eDNA methods, rather than directly sampling the organisms, can reduce impacts on sensitive species and increase the power of field surveys for rare and elusive species. The sensitivity of eDNA methods, however, requires a heightened awareness and attention to quality assurance and quality control protocols. Additionally, the interpretation of eDNA data demands careful consideration of multiple factors. As eDNA methods have grown in application, diverse approaches have been implemented to address these issues. With interest in eDNA continuing to expand, supportive guidelines for undertaking eDNA studies are greatly needed.Environmental DNA researchers from around the world have collaborated to produce this set of guidelines and considerations for implementing eDNA methods to detect aquatic macroorganisms.Critical considerations for study design include preventing contamination in the field and the laboratory, choosing appropriate sample analysis methods, validating assays, testing for sample inhibition and following minimum reporting guidelines. Critical considerations for inference include temporal and spatial processes, limits of correlation of eDNA with abundance, uncertainty of positive and negative results, and potential sources of allochthonous DNA.We present a synthesis of knowledge at this stage for application of this new and powerful detection method.

  15. The climate problem - how do economists contribute to its solution?; Klimaproblemet - hva er oekonomenes bidrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents some of the contributions from economics regarding the climate issue, and shows that the Kyoto Protocol deviates in a number of essential ways from recommendations based on economic theory. It also demonstrates that considerably greater emissions reductions than are required by the Kyoto Protocol are necessary to prevent significant temperature changes. Even with large emissions reductions we can expect considerable temperature change in the next century. Finally, it discusses how economists might play an important role in the future. (author)

  16. Gravitational contribution to fermion masses

    CERN Document Server

    Tiemblo, A; Tiemblo, Alfredo; Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2005-01-01

    In the context of a nonlinear gauge theory of the Poincar\\'e group, we show that covariant derivatives of Dirac fields include a coupling to the translational connections, manifesting itself in the matter action as a universal background mass contribution to fermions.

  17. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  18. Gravitational contribution to fermion masses

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemblo, Alfredo; Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2005-01-01

    In the context of a nonlinear gauge theory of the Poincar\\'e group, we show that covariant derivatives of Dirac fields include a coupling to the translational connections, manifesting itself in the matter action as a universal background mass contribution to fermions.

  19. Gravitational contribution to fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiemblo, A.; Tresguerres, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    In the context of a non-linear gauge theory of the Poincare group, we show that covariant derivatives of Dirac fields include a coupling to the translational connections, manifesting itself in the matter action as a universal background mass contribution to fermions. (orig.)

  20. The lunar exosphere: The sputtering contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Rohner, U.; Whitby, J. A.; Kolb, C.; Lammer, H.; Dobnikar, P.; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2007-11-01

    We have extended our Monte Carlo model of exospheres [Wurz, P., Lammer, H., 2003. Icarus 164 (1), 1-13] by treating the ion-induced sputtering process from a known surface in a self-consistent way. The comparison of the calculated exospheric densities with experimental data, which are mostly upper limits, shows that all of our calculated densities are within the measurement limits. The total calculated exospheric density at the lunar surface of about 1×10 m as result of solar wind sputtering we find is much less than the experimental total exospheric density of about 10 m. We conclude that sputtering contributes only a small fraction of the total exosphere, at least close to the surface. Because of the considerably larger scale height of atoms released via sputtering into the exosphere, sputtered atoms start to dominate the exosphere at altitudes exceeding a few 1000 km, with the exception of some light and abundant species released thermally, e.g. H 2, He, CH 4, and OH. Furthermore, for more refractory species such as calcium, our model indicates that sputtering may well be the dominant mechanism responsible for the lunar atmospheric inventory, but observational data does not yet allow firm conclusions to be drawn.

  1. Quantification of social contributions to earthquake mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, I. G.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; McCloskey, J.; Pelling, M.; Naylor, M.

    2013-12-01

    Death tolls in earthquakes, which continue to grow rapidly, are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as strong shaking, and the resilience of exposed populations and supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. While it is clear that the social context in which the earthquake occurs has a strong effect on the outcome, the influence of this context can only be exposed if we first decouple, as much as we can, the physical causes of mortality from our consideration. (Our modelling assumes that building resilience to shaking is a social factor governed by national wealth, legislation and enforcement and governance leading to reduced levels of corruption.) Here we attempt to remove these causes by statistically modelling published mortality, shaking intensity and population exposure data; unexplained variance from this physical model illuminates the contribution of socio-economic factors to increasing earthquake mortality. We find that this variance partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures and allows the definition of a national vulnerability index identifying both anomalously resilient and anomalously vulnerable countries. In many cases resilience is well correlated with GDP; people in the richest countries are unsurprisingly safe from even the worst shaking. However some low-GDP countries rival even the richest in resilience, showing that relatively low cost interventions can have a positive impact on earthquake resilience and that social learning between these countries might facilitate resilience building in the absence of expensive engineering interventions.

  2. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  3. New Considerations for Spectral Classification of Boolean Switching Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Rice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some new considerations for spectral techniques for classification of Boolean functions. These considerations incorporate discussions of the feasibility of extending this classification technique beyond n=5. A new implementation is presented along with a basic analysis of the complexity of the problem. We also note a correction to results in this area that were reported in previous work.

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.206-1 - General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206-1 General considerations. In determining requirements for... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General considerations. 101-27.206-1 Section 101-27.206-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  5. 20 CFR 366.5 - Consideration of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consideration of evidence. 366.5 Section 366... COLLECTION OF DEBTS BY FEDERAL TAX REFUND OFFSET § 366.5 Consideration of evidence. Evidence submitted by the... of such debt is past-due and legally enforceable will be made only by such officials or employees....

  6. 32 CFR 1662.4 - Consideration of requests for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of requests for information. 1662... SYSTEM FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) PROCEDURES § 1662.4 Consideration of requests for information. (a) Upon receipt of any request for information or records, the records manager will determine within...

  7. 49 CFR 216.23 - Consideration of recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of recommendation. 216.23 Section..., LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Emergency Order-Track § 216.23 Consideration of recommendation. Upon receipt of a... recommendation to the Administrator concerning the issuance of an Emergency order removing the affected...

  8. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Willeke, F J

    2016-01-01

    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. The article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  9. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected...

  10. 45 CFR 400.102 - Consideration of income and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of income and resources. 400.102... Consideration of income and resources. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, in considering financial eligibility of applicants for refugee medical assistance, the State agency...

  11. 32 CFR 147.8 - Guideline F-Financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline F-Financial considerations. 147.8... INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.8 Guideline F—Financial considerations. (a) The concern. An individual who is... raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) A history of not meeting financial...

  12. An Analysis of Ethical Considerations in Programme Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Elly

    2014-01-01

    Ethical considerations are inherent to programme design decision-making, but not normally explicit. Nonetheless, they influence whose interests are served in a programme and who benefits from it. This paper presents an analysis of ethical considerations made by programme design practitioners in the context of a polytechnic in Aotearoa/New Zealand.…

  13. 48 CFR 970.1100-2 - Additional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional considerations. 970.1100-2 Section 970.1100-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... considerations. (a) While it is not feasible to set forth standard language which would apply to every...

  14. Fairness Considerations: Increasing Understanding of Intentionality during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guroglu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of fairness considerations in decision making is not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that increased understanding of intentionality during adolescence underlies increased fairness considerations in social decision making. We conducted three experiments using an adapted version of the Ultimatum Game with participants…

  15. Ethical Dimensions of Diagnosing: Considerations for Clinical Mental Health Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hoffman, Rachel M.; Eriksen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous ethical considerations inherent within the process of assigning a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis. In this article, general ethics considerations such as informed consent and confidentiality, accuracy of diagnosis, and…

  16. 40 CFR 258.3 - Consideration of other Federal laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of other Federal laws... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS General § 258.3 Consideration of other Federal laws. The owner... rules, laws, regulations, or other requirements....

  17. 40 CFR 144.4 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 144... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.4 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these...

  18. 34 CFR 5.84 - Consideration on review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration on review. 5.84 Section 5.84 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Administrative Review § 5.84 Consideration on review. Review...

  19. 48 CFR 6101.28 - Full Board consideration [Rule 28].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.28 Full Board consideration . (a) Requests by... matter to be referred is one of exceptional importance. (2) A request for full Board consideration may be... Board, no later than the last date on which any party may file a motion for reconsideration or...

  20. Considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in research activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forero, Diego A; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    ... to the consideration of the key elements needed for scientific productivity. As academic mentoring might be useful at all levels of experience [5, 6], in this note we suggest several key considerations for higher efficiency and productivity in academic and research activities. 1. 1. Unnecessary meetings disrupt scientific productivity. Usually, the daily agenda...

  1. 49 CFR 1110.5 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... PROCEEDINGS § 1110.5 Consideration of comments received. All timely comments will be considered before...

  2. 14 CFR 404.15 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consideration of comments received. 404.15 Section 404.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Consideration of comments received. All timely comments are considered before final action is taken on...

  3. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from consideration. 733.103-73 Section 733.103-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... excluded from consideration. (a) Contract administration. Disputes between a contractor and USAID...

  4. 49 CFR 190.323 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 190.323 Section 190.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... SAFETY PROGRAMS AND RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 190.323 Consideration...

  5. Modeling Consideration Sets and Brand Choice Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L.K. Vroomen (Björn); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.E.M. van Nierop

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe concept of consideration sets makes brand choice a two-step process. House-holds first construct a consideration set which not necessarily includes all available brands and conditional on this set they make a final choice. In this paper we put forward a parametric econometric model f

  6. 17 CFR 201.500 - Expedited consideration of proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited consideration of proceedings. 201.500 Section 201.500 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Expedited consideration of proceedings. Consistent with the Commission's or the hearing officer's...

  7. Effective Assistive Technology Consideration and Implications for Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vita L.; Hinesmon-Matthews, Lezlee J.

    2014-01-01

    Often the consideration of assistive technology devices and services during the individualized education program (IEP) process is overlooked. Because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) authorized this consideration, IEP team members must be keenly aware of the importance they hold in providing this valuable input. Thus, IEP…

  8. Afterword: Considerations for Future Practice of Assessment and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2013-01-01

    This afterword offers challenges and considerations as the assessment movement continues to develop. The author offers some simple considerations for readers to ponder as they advance their evidence-based decision making processes, and encourages others to use these methods within the context of recent neuroscientific evidence that learning and…

  9. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Renormalon's Contribution to Effective Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H

    1998-01-01

    When an asymptotically non-free theory possesses a mass scale, the ultraviolet (UV) renormalon gives rise to non-perturbative contributions to dimension-four operators and dimensionless couplings, thus has a similar effect as the instanton. We illustrate this phenomenon in O(N) symmetric massive briefly compared with non-perturbative corrections in the magnetic picture of the Seiberg-Witten theory.

  11. Mead's contributions to learner's identities

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Suzanne; Puigdellívol, Ignasi; Molina Roldán, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Mead’s approach of symbolic interactionism is useful for explaining both how students learn and how learning environments can be improved. This article reviews Mead’s theoretical contributions, which serve as a base for successful educational actions in several countries. The interactionist view of learning is examined in depth, as well as the dialogical nature of the self, and the way that verbal language and gestures mediate interaction. These concepts are illustrated with examples from cas...

  12. Feller's Contributions to Mathematical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Baake, Ellen; Wakolbinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    This is a review of William Feller's important contributions to mathematical biology. The seminal paper [Feller1951] "Diffusion processes in genetics" was particularly influential on the development of stochastic processes at the interface to evolutionary biology, and interesting ideas in this direction (including a first characterization of what is nowadays known as "Feller's branching diffusion") already shaped up in the paper [Feller 1939] (written in German) "The foundations of a probabis...

  13. Changes in accounting for contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, S

    1992-03-01

    A proposed accounting change in the timing of income recognition for restricted contributions and pledges can greatly impact a hospital's excess of revenue over expenses (net income). The author addresses steps that administrators can take to lessen its impact. With this knowledge, nurse administrators and other hospital executives can plan alternatives to reduce the income recognition and prepare themselves to answer questions posed by patients and members of the community regarding increased hospital profits.

  14. A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, William Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-07-28

    Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.

  15. Methanotrophs Contribute to Peatland Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) fixation is potentially an important N input mechanism to peatland ecosystems, but the extent of this process may have been underestimated because of the methods traditionally used inhibit the activity of methanothrophs. We examined the linkage of methane (CH4) oxidation and N2 fixation using 15N2 technique. Dominant flark and hummock Sphagnum species were collected from twelve pristine peatlands in Siikajoki, Finland, which varied in age from 200 to 2,500 y due to the postglacial rebound. The mosses were incubated in a two-day field 15N2 and 13CH4 pulse labelling experiment and the incorporation of 15N2 and 13CH4 in biomass was measured with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The rates of Sphagnum-associated N2 fixation (0.1-2.9 g N m-2 y-1) were up to 10 times the current N deposition rates. Methane-induced N2 fixation contributed to over 1/3 of moss-associated N2 fixation in younger stages, but was switched off in old successional stages, despite active CH4 oxidation in these stages. Both the N2 fixation rates and the methanotrophic contribution to N2 fixation during peatland succession were primarily constrained by phosphorus availability. Previously overlooked methanotrophic N contribution may explain rapid peat and N accumulation during fen stages of peatland development. Reference. Larmola T., Leppänen S.M., Tuittila E.-S, Aarva M., Merilä P., Fritze H., Tiirola M. (2014) Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111 (2): 734-739.

  16. Ethnographic Contributions to Method Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2016-01-01

    of IR—Critical Security Studies. Ethnographic research works with what has been termed a “strong” understanding of objectivity. When this understanding is taken seriously, it must lead to a refashioning of the processes of gathering, analyzing, and presenting data in ways that reverse many standard......Contrary to common assumptions, there is much to be learned about methods from constructivist/post-structuralist approaches to International Relations (IR) broadly speaking. This article develops this point by unpacking the contributions of one specific method—ethnography—as used in one subfield...

  17. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  18. 26 CFR 25.2512-8 - Transfers for insufficient consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which, being without a valuable consideration, accord with the common law concept of gifts, but embrace..., section 2516 and the regulations thereunder with respect to certain transfers incident to a divorce....

  19. 49 CFR 37.147 - Considerations during FTA review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.147 Considerations..., when viewed in its entirety, provides for paratransit service comparable to the entity's fixed...

  20. Biological Considerations in Land Use Planning for a Federal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents biological considerations of land use planning for the United States Department of Agriculture Beltsville Agricultural Research Center and for...

  1. Inspection considerations for holes 0. 040 inch and smaller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The accurate inspection of hole size and location for holes smaller than 0.040 inch necessitates several considerations beyond those normally encountered for larger holes. The technical aspects are described herein.

  2. Prescription and Cost Consideration at a Diabetic Clinic in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    Prescription and Cost Consideration at a Diabetic Clinic in Ibadan,. Nigeria: A Report ... drugs with proven efficacy based on best evidence, the prevailing social ... pharmacy using the current hospital drug-pricing list calculated the cost of the ...

  3. Economic Considerations of "Appropriate" Education for Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    The author considers fundamental economic considerations which underlie decisions concerning individual education programs (IEPs) as mandated by P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) for handicapped students. (SB)

  4. 32 CFR 174.10 - Consideration for economic development conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration at least equal to the fair market value, as determined by the Secretary. (c) Any amount paid in... materials generated by demolition; (xi) Landscaping, grading, and other site or public improvements;...

  5. Medical considerations in the female football pla yer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the aerobic energy system.1 The game appears to be an ideal physical exercise to prevent disease.2 ... for good bone health, respectively. Adequate .... promoting activity for untrained men. ... Recommendations and considerations related.

  6. Restrictions on curved cosmologies in modified gravity from metric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsefors, Linda, E-mail: linsefors@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Barrau, Aurelien, E-mail: Aurelien.Barrau@cern.ch

    2015-09-02

    This study uses very simple symmetry and consistency considerations to put constraints on possible Friedmann equations for modified gravity models in curved spaces. As an example, it is applied to loop quantum cosmology.

  7. 33 CFR 332.1 - Purpose and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Guidelines at 40 CFR part 230. (2) Pursuant to these requirements, the district engineer will issue an... available and capable of being done after taking into consideration cost, existing technology, and logistics...

  8. 40 CFR 230.91 - Purpose and general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... these requirements, the district engineer will issue an individual section 404 permit only upon a... done after taking into consideration cost, existing technology, and logistics in light of overall...

  9. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  10. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  11. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tinoco Mesquita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15% studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16% laureates, and two (6% were women. Fourteen (42% were American, 15 (45% Europeans and four (13% were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  12. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg, E-mail: ronaldo@floralia.com.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  13. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  14. Husův odkaz na Jáchyma z Fiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Hlinka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to outline the major theological concepts of history by great medieval exegete Joachim of Fiore, it reflects his apocalyptic experience of that time and describes the main features and methodology of his exegesis. Moreover, the article documents, based on the description of Joachim, apocalyptic expressions in the writings of John Huss; it also examines the possible influence of prophecies and tries to answer the question whether it is possible to find any signs of the influence of Joachim of Fiore, or his disciples, on the John Huss’s work.

  15. Digital libraries philosophies, technical design considerations, and example scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, David

    1999-01-01

    An unparalleled overview of current design considerations for your digital library! Digital Libraries: Philosophies, Technical Design Considerations, and Example Scenarios is a balanced overview of public services, collection development, administration, and systems support, for digital libraries, with advice on adopting the latest technologies that appear on the scene. As a professional in the library and information science field, you will benefit from this special issue that serves as an overview of selected directions, trends, possibilities, limitations, enhancements, design principals, an

  16. Ethical considerations surrounding the response to Ebola: the Spanish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; García López, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, with 28,646 reported cases and 11,323 deaths, was declared a public health emergency of international interest by the World Health Organisation. In Spain, a single reported case triggered a public health crisis of a markedly media-centred nature. The approach to the first EVD epidemic has given rise to various ethical considerations around the world. We address the most relevant ethical considerations emanating from the management of E...

  17. Royalty rates, sub licensing considerations and joint ventures.

    OpenAIRE

    Elli Malki

    1997-01-01

    Technology transfer agreements between universities and industrial companies usually involve royalties, sublicensing considerations and allocation of equity. This article extends the analysis of my previous one ("The Economic Sense of Royalty Rates", ewp-fin/970903)to deal with sublicensing considerations and equity allocation. The complexity of the technology transfer deal is demonstrated by utilizing a simple finacial model that calculates different combinations of royalties, sublicensing c...

  18. Fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Aghdas, Farzaneh; Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Aryanpoor, Aryan; Inanloo, Hassan; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2006-08-01

    The exact mechanism of fever and urosepsis after percutaneous procedures has not been established. This research studied the frequency of fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the contributing factors. In a cross-sectional study, from September 2003 to March 2004, all 217 patients with nephrolithiasis treated with PCNL at the Labbafinegad Specialized Urology Center were studied. Data were collected before, during, and after surgery. The frequency of fever after PCNL was 25.8% (n=56) although in 62.2% of the cases (n=135), no prophylactic antibiotics had been administered. The mean durations of hospitalization in patients with and without fever were 5.4+/-2.3 and 3.4+/-1.7 days, respectively (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fever and female sex (p=0.005), positive urine culture (p=0.02), and nephrostomy tube insertion (p=0.041). Other variables did not prove to be significant. In logistic regression analysis, female sex and nephrostomy tube insertion were independently related to post-operative fever. Although a considerable proportion of our patients had not received prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of fever after PCNL was no higher than is reported in the literature. Use of only a short course of antibiotics before surgery for staghorn stones did not result in a higher rate of fever. Female sex created a higher risk for fever, probably because of the greater propensity to urinary tract infection. The significant relation of a nephrostomy tube to fever could be attributed to its role as a foreign body or to use in more complicated cases.

  19. Collegiality and commerce: The culture of consideration amongst engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Paul David

    This study is a participant observation ethnography of engineering relationships at a defense contracting plant that specializes in the design and manufacture of launch control systems for nuclear submarines. "Consideration" is presented as a unique mode of interaction enabling resource exchange and pivotal in developing and strengthening work relationships. Consideration differs from other modes of exchange such as markets, gift-giving, and charity primarily in that the bestowal of the resource involves little sacrifice. The manner in which consideration is enacted by the engineers, the structural and cultural conditions supporting consideration, and the social and economic consequences of consideration are presented. From these findings it is concluded that consideration is a unique form of economic exchange embedded in concrete relationships that forces us to rethink and extend current conceptualizations of trust, networks, social capital, and friendship in the workplace. The data for the analysis were drawn from twenty interviews and fieldnotes collected and transcribed over a twelve month period. Quotations from the interviews and exerpts from the fieldnotes are included to illustrate claims being made in the analysis as well as to familiarize the reader with the culture developed by engineers and managers in a defense contracting plant.

  20. Methodologic issues, theoretical considerations, and design criteria for experimental animal and cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, D F

    1997-12-01

    This article provides background information that is important when evaluating the relevance to humans of particular animal or in vitro experiments designed to assess the relations between fatty acids and cancer. Considerations in designing carcinogenesis studies to assess the relation between dietary fatty acids and human cancer include selection of the animal model and design of the experimental diets. Animal carcinogenesis models are generally best for evaluating the early phases of cancer development: the initiation and promotion of cancer. Transplantation protocols have been developed for evaluating the effect of diet on the growth and metastasis of partially or fully transformed cells. The variables that are important in such models are the origin and biology of the cell line, the animal host used for the implantation, the site of transplantation, whether the primary tumor is excised after a period of time to allow for metastasis, and when the diets are fed relative to the different phases of tumor growth and metastasis. Studies in cultured cells have been particularly useful for assessing the mechanisms by which fatty acids affect cancer. Considerations in designing studies with cultured cells include selection of the cell line, cell culture conditions, selection of biological endpoints that are relevant to human cancer, and in vivo confirmation of the mechanisms observed in vitro. Design considerations for each of these experimental approaches are discussed and the contributions of each approach are summarized.

  1. Some Contributions to Nonmonotonic Consequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhaohui; ZHANG Dongmo; CHEN Shifu; ZHU Wujia

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a non-Horn rule WRM which is a weak form of rational monotony. We explore the effects of adding this non-Horn rule to the rules for the preferential inference. In this paper, a relation |~ is said to be P + WRM iff it is a preferential inference and satisfies the rule WRM. We establish the representation theorem for P+WRM, and compare the strength of WRM with some non-Horn rules appearing in literatures. Moreover, we explore the relation between P+WRM and conditional logic, and demonstrate that P+WRM is equivalent to ‘flat' fragment of conditional logic CS4.2. Another contribution of this paper is to explore the relation between two special kinds of preferential models, i.e., PRC model and quasi-linear model. Main result reveals that the latter is a special form of the former.

  2. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.

  3. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  4. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman--Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cut-off) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can well be described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field th...

  5. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  6. Sharpening the cutting edge: additional considerations for the UK debates on embryonic interventions for mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Erica; Taylor, Ken

    2017-12-01

    In October 2015 the UK enacted legislation to permit the clinical use of two cutting edge germline-altering, IVF-based embryonic techniques: pronuclear transfer and maternal spindle transfer (PNT and MST). The aim is to use these techniques to prevent the maternal transmission of serious mitochondrial diseases. Major claims have been made about the quality of the debates that preceded this legislation and the significance of those debates for UK decision-making on other biotechnologies, as well as for other countries considering similar legislation. In this article we conduct a systematic analysis of those UK debates and suggest that claims about their quality are over-stated. We identify, and analyse in detail, ten areas where greater clarity, depth and nuance would have produced sharper understandings of the contributions, limitations and wider social impacts of these mitochondrial interventions. We explore the implications of these additional considerations for (i) the protection of all parties involved, should the techniques transfer to clinical applications; (ii) the legitimacy of focussing on short-term gains for individuals over public health considerations, and (iii) the maintenance and improvement of public trust in medical biotechnologies. We conclude that a more measured evaluation of the content and quality of the UK debates is important and timely: such a critique provides a clearer understanding of the possible, but specific, contributions of these interventions, both in the UK and elsewhere; also, these additional insights can now inform the emerging processes of implementation, regulation and practice of mitochondrial interventions.

  7. Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Groen, H.; Horemans, H.; Kingma, I.; Dieën, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it

  8. Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddington, C.L.; Carslaw, K.S.; Spracklen, D.V.; Frontoso, M.G.; Collins, L.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Hamburger, T.; Coe, H.; Kulmala, M.; Aalto, P.; Flentje, H.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Sonntag, A.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Jennings, S.G.; Dupuy, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.; Hansson, H.-C.; Tunved, P.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Boulon, J.; Putaud, J.-P.; Gruening, C.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Moerman, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Ždímal, V.; Zíková, N.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Duchi, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to understand the relative contribution of primary and secondary particles to regional and global aerosol so that models can attribute aerosol radiative forcing to different sources. In large-scale models, there is considerable uncertainty associated with treatments of particle forma

  9. The contributions of the ecosystem services paradigm to sustainability science, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.S.; Braat, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about the contribution of ecosystem processes and biodiversity to human welfare, and how human actions impact welfare through environmental change, has improved considerably with the introduction of the ecosystem services paradigm in the 1980s by Ehrlich and others (fo

  10. Perspective has a strong effect on the calculation of historical contributions to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie; Allen, Myles; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    The politically contentious issue of calculating countries’ contributions to climate change is strongly dependent on methodological choices. Different principles can be applied for distributing efforts for reducing human-induced global warming. According to the ‘Brazilian Proposal’, industrialized countries would reduce emissions proportional to their historical contributions to warming. This proposal was based on the assumption that the political process would lead to a global top-down agreement. The Paris Agreement changed the role of historical responsibilities. Whereas the agreement refers to equity principles, differentiation of mitigation efforts is delegated to each country, as countries will submit new national contributions every five years without any international negotiation. It is likely that considerations of historical contributions and distributive fairness will continue to play a key role, but increasingly so in a national setting. Contributions to warming can be used as a background for negotiations to inform and justify positions, and may also be useful for countries’ own assessment of what constitutes reasonable and fair contributions to limiting warming. Despite the fact that the decision from COP21 explicitly rules out compensation in the context of loss and damage, it is likely that considerations of historical responsibility will also play a role in future discussions. However, methodological choices have substantial impacts on calculated contributions to warming, including rank-ordering of contributions, and thus support the view that there is no single correct answer to the question of how much each country has contributed. There are fundamental value-related and ethical questions that cannot be answered through a single set of calculated contributions. Thus, analyses of historical contributions should not present just one set of results, but rather present a spectrum of results showing how the calculated contributions vary with a

  11. Educational Neuroethics: A Contribution from Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Meghan; Pollack, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, educational neuroscience has begun to move into the limelight, suggesting an increased importance on the ethical considerations of educational neuroscience work, or "educational neuroethics." In a departure from previous work on educational neuroethics, this article focuses on the ethical considerations that are applicable to…

  12. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa

    2016-06-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman-Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cutoff) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can be well described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field theories, require at least a perturbative treatment of inhomogeneity beyond a strict minisuperspace model. The new methods suggest a systematic extension of minisuperspace models by a canonical effective formulation of perturbative inhomogeneity.

  13. Quarkonium Contribution to Meson Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cincioglu, E; Ozpineci, A; Yilmazer, A U

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a molecular picture for the X(3872) resonance, this state and its J^{PC}=2++ HQSS partner [X2(4012)] are analyzed within a model which incorporates possible mixings with 2P charmonium states. Since it is reasonable to expect the bare chi_{c1}(2P) to be located above the D\\bar D* threshold, but relatively close to it, the presence of the charmonium state provides an effective attraction that will contribute to bind the X(3872), but it will not appear in the 2++ sector. Indeed in this latter sector, the chi_{c2}(2P) should provide an effective small repulsion, because it is placed well below the D*\\bar D* threshold. We show how the 1++ and 2++ bare charmonium poles are modified due to the D(*)\\bar D(*) loop effects, and the first one is moved to the complex plane. The meson loops produce, besides some shifts in the masses of the charmonia, a finite width for the 1++ dressed charmonium state. On the other hand, the X(3872) and X2(4012) start developing some charmonium content, which is estimated by...

  14. Nordic contributions to disability policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebbon, L

    1997-04-01

    The most spectacular contribution from the nordic countries to intellectual disability policy is probably the idea of normalization, but it is not the simplistic notion that can be inferred from international debate. Its major significance may have been to act as an inspiring catchword for the important trend away from institutions into integrated living. However, it is more fully understood when seen in the concrete context where it has successively developed, and been critically analysed and tested in operation. Scandinavian sociologists and psychologists--as well as politicians--were also among the first to use the concept of quality of life for analysis of social policy, including intellectual disability. The primary medium for implementation has been legislation, where the dominant difficulty is to find a balance between security and freedom, protection and self-determination. Through this process, the role of social engineering in the welfare state, based on humanistic ideas of solidarity, can be followed into today's emphasis on individual influence and participation.

  15. The microbial contribution to macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eBarberan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology.

  16. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...... for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment...... element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have...

  17. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively.

  18. Considerations for ceramic inlays in posterior teeth: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Christa D; Land, Martin F

    2013-01-01

    This review of ceramic inlays in posterior teeth includes a review of the history of ceramic restorations, followed by common indications and contraindications for their use. A discussion on the potential for tooth wear is followed by a review of recommended preparation design considerations, fabrication methods, and material choices. Despite the improved materials available for fabrication of porcelain inlays, fracture remains a primary mode of inlay failure. Therefore, a brief discussion on strengthening methods for ceramics is included. The review concludes with a section on luting considerations, and offers the clinician specific recommendations for luting procedures. In conclusion, inlay success rates and longevity, as reported in the literature, are summarized. PMID:23750101

  19. Pressure drop considerations in the retrofit of heat exchanger networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.T.; Panjeh Shahi, M.H.; Jegede, F.O. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)

    1990-05-01

    Process integration technology is now widely used in both energy saving retrofits and plant debottlenecks. However, in common with much of the developed technology, systematic consideration is only given to the thermal aspects of process design. This paper is a response to the above situation. The work started as an attempt to introduce flow considerations into retrofit targeting. It resulted in a general appreciation of how pressure drop should be used in networks. In some retrofit projects it is possible to reduce the amount of additional heat exchange area needed for debottlenecking (or, for energy saving) by making changes to the flow arrangement. (author).

  20. Peripheral contributions to visceral hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F

    1999-03-01

    and, along with activated mechanically insensitive receptors, increase the afferent barrage into the spinal cord, contributing to the development of visceral hyperalgesia.

  1. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift... solicitation or promotion or otherwise to secure the conclusion of a sale of defense articles or defense...

  2. Responding to and Supporting Students with Disabilities: Risk Management Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Anne; Shackelford, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Making the "right" risk management decisions involving students with significant psychological disabilities requires a clear and comprehensive understanding of the legal obligations and duties at issue. It also requires taking into consideration the best interests of these individual students. At the same time, decision makers must focus on the…

  3. Monitoring Conceptual Development: Design Considerations of a Formative Feedback tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Smithies, Alisdair; Braidman, Isobel; Wild, Fridolin

    2010-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Smithies, A., Braidman, I., & Wild, F. (2010, 15 September). Monitoring Conceptual Development: Design Considerations of a Formative Feedback Tool. Presentation at the Interactive Computer Aided Learning Conference (ICL 2010), Track on Computer-based Knowledge & Skill Assessment and

  4. Sexual Grooming of Children: Review of Literature and Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Samantha; Brown, Sarah; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The current review aims to outline the existing understanding of sexual grooming. Issues of poor definition, the adoption of the term "grooming" and the prevalence of sexual grooming will be discussed. Consideration will be given to how prominent theories of child sexual abuse often neglect sexual grooming. This will be followed by a detailed…

  5. American Indians: Presenting Concerns and Considerations for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Penny S.; Perry, Benjamin J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides marriage and family therapists with an overview of issues related to the treatment of clients of American-Indian descent. Discusses a rationale for studying the American-Indian population, presents concerns that therapists are likely to encounter, and identifies considerations when engaging in a therapeutic relationship with an…

  6. Lunar Module Electrical Power System Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and redesign considerations of the Apollo lunar module electrical power system. Included in the work are graphics showing the lunar module power system. It describes the in-flight failures, and the lessons learned from these failures.

  7. Ethical Considerations in Filing Personal Bankruptcy: A Hypothetical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research by legal studies scholars pertains to employment law, international law, and corporate governance, as well as other fields including ethics and international law. The fields typically addressed are very important and rightfully receive considerable attention in the scholarship and textbooks. However, bankruptcy as a…

  8. 20 CFR 322.4 - Consideration of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.4 Consideration of evidence. (a) Initial proof. A claimant's certification... remuneration is payable or has accrued to him or her with respect to such day, unless a base year employer reports that he or she worked on days claimed or received payments that constitute remuneration as...

  9. Distributed Computing: Considerations for Its Use within Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Emphasizing more effective use of existing equipment, this article highlights distributed computing design considerations applicable to educational environments; identifies potential roles of networking in the provision of adequate teaching aids; presents a networking model; and describes the development of a distributed computing configuration at…

  10. Probe interface design consideration. [for interplanetary spacecraft missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, E. K.

    1974-01-01

    Interface design between a probe and a spacecraft requires not only technical considerations but also management planning and mission analysis interactions. Two further aspects of importance are the flyby versus the probe trade-off, and the relay link design and data handling optimization.

  11. Developing Communication Skills: General Considerations and Specific Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Elizabeth Garner; Westphal, Patricia Barney, Ed.

    This practical book is designed for the classroom teacher of a second or foreign language at any level. The articles are grouped into two distinct but interdependent sections on general considerations and specific techniques. The contents of the first section are as follows: "Moi Tarzan, Vous Jane?: A Study of Communicative Competence" by P.B.…

  12. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 356 - Investment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spreads between bid and asked prices for inflation-protected securities than the bid-asked spreads for... While the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”) measures changes in prices for goods and services, movements in...) Pt. 356, App. C Appendix C to Part 356—Investment Considerations I. Inflation-Protected Securities A...

  13. Coaching Considerations: FAQs Useful in the Development of Literacy Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The National Advisory Board for the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse have identified a number of considerations that it believed needed further discussion as schools, districts, and states embrace literacy coaching. It negotiated and discussed a number of issues surrounding coaching and agreed on 10 key ideas that should be part of the discussions…

  14. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Some Additional Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement and some additional considerations. He states that the concept of negative reinforcement has caused confusion, and he believes that the difficulty stems from conventions of ordinary speech, in which the term "negative" usually denotes the opposite of…

  15. 5 CFR 1501.10 - Consideration of reports of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1501.10 Section 1501.10 Administrative Personnel THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD § 1501.10 Consideration of reports of investigation. (a) In all cases the Board shall consider the reports of investigation in the...

  16. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  17. Integrating climate change considerations into forest management tools and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Nagel; Christopher W. Swanston; Maria K. Janowiak

    2010-01-01

    Silviculturists are currently facing the challenge of developing management strategies that meet broad ecological and social considerations in spite of a high degree of uncertainty in future climatic conditions. Forest managers need state-of-the-art knowledge about climate change and potential impacts to facilitate development of silvicultural objectives and...

  18. Complex cooling water systems optimization with pressure drop consideration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop consideration has shown to be an essential requirement for the synthesis of a cooling water network where reuse/recycle philosophy is employed. This is due to an increased network pressure drop associated with additional reuse...

  19. The consideration of emergency management issues in spatial planning practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvel, J.M.M.; Brink, van den A.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planning can play an important role in increasing the possibilities for emergency response. Nevertheless, little research has been done that explicitly looks at the way emergency management issues are addressed in predisaster spatial planning. We explore the consideration of emergency manage

  20. An Instructional Satellite System for the United States: Preliminary Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMolin, James R.; Morgan, Robert P.

    Based on educational, social, political, and other considerations, an instructional satellite system, AVSIN (Ausio-Visual Satellite Instruction), is hypothesized which represents one possible organizational and administrative arrangement for delivering large amounts of quality software to schools and learning centers. The AVSIN system is conceived…

  1. Health Care Procedure Considerations and Individualized Health Care Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Avant, Mary Jane Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Teachers need to maintain a safe, healthy environment for all their students in order to promote learning. However, there are additional considerations when students require health care procedures, such as tube feeding or clean intermittent catheterization. Teachers must effectively monitor their students and understand their roles and…

  2. Postmodern Career Counselling, Theory and Training: Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuit, Wim; Watson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests a re-consideration of the way in which postmodern career counselling and theory could position counsellors in relation to their clients. It also poses ethical challenges and questions to developing career counsellors and their established educators. More specifically, the article explores the ethical dilemmas confronting…

  3. What Are the Safety Considerations for Insulin Control for Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Olson, Sara; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Athletes diagnosed with diabetes may have difficulty with their blood sugar levels fluctuating during intense exercise. Considerations for athletes with insulin concerns may range anywhere from exercise rehabilitation to the use of an automatic insulin pump. The automatic insulin pump is a small battery-operated device about the size of a pager.…

  4. Responding to and Supporting Students with Disabilities: Risk Management Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Anne; Shackelford, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Making the "right" risk management decisions involving students with significant psychological disabilities requires a clear and comprehensive understanding of the legal obligations and duties at issue. It also requires taking into consideration the best interests of these individual students. At the same time, decision makers must focus…

  5. Medical safety in boxing: administrative, ethical, legislative, and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael B

    2009-10-01

    The roles and responsibilities of the ringside physician are complex and have evolved into a unique specialty in sport medicine. In addition to the medical aspects of ringside medicine, the doctor is now responsible for many administrative, ethical, and legal considerations. This article reviews and details the numerous roles the ringside physician plays in the sport of boxing.

  6. 49 CFR 389.23 - Consideration of comments received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of comments received. 389.23 Section 389.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... PROCEDURES-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 389.23...

  7. Four Major Considerations of a Business English Curriculum Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jing

    2016-01-01

    Business English(BE)in China is developing in an amazing speed, yet no consensus on curriculum design is reached. This paper reviews the history of Business English development both in and out of China, and gives four major considerations of the curriculum design of Business English for BA level.

  8. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...

  9. The Design Consideration for Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Lee, Yuan-Zone; Chou, Wen-Shou

    2010-01-01

    The integration of game playing with online education has recently become one of the most discussed issues in the e-learning field for its potentially positive impact on the development of related industries and on the social lives of young people. In this article, the authors propose a set of design considerations to assist game-based learning…

  10. Considerations in designing an evaluation system for adaptive delta management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, L.M.; Maat, J.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    New planning approaches put new requirements on evaluation. A recent innovation in the water domain is adaptive delta management (ADM). ADM supports long-term planning in the face of uncertainty. This paper discusses the main considerations for the design of an evaluation system for ADM, departing f

  11. Quarkonium Contribution to Meson Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cincioglu, E.; Yilmazer, A.U. [Ankara University, Department of Physics Engineering, Ankara (Turkey); Nieves, J. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC) Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Ozpineci, A. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    Starting from a molecular picture for the X(3872) resonance, this state and its J{sup PC} = 2{sup ++} heavy-quark spin symmetry partner [X{sub 2}(4012)] are analyzed within a model which incorporates possible mixings with 2P charmonium (c anti c) states. Since it is reasonable to expect the bare χ{sub c1}(2P) to be located above the D anti D{sup *} threshold, but relatively close to it, the presence of the charmonium state provides an effective attraction that will contribute to binding the X(3872), but it will not appear in the 2{sup ++} sector. Indeed in the latter sector, the χ{sub c2}(2P) should provide an effective small repulsion, because it is placed well below the D{sup *} anti D{sup *} threshold. We show how the 1{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} bare charmonium poles are modified due to the D{sup (*)} anti D{sup (*)} loop effects, and the first one is moved to the complex plane. The meson loops produce, besides some shifts in the masses of the charmonia, a finite width for the 1{sup ++} dressed charmonium state. On the other hand, X(3872) and X{sub 2}(4012) start developing some charmonium content, which is estimated by means of the compositeness Weinberg sum rule. It turns out that in the heavy-quark limit, there is only one coupling between the 2P charmonia and the D{sup (*)} anti D{sup (*)} pairs. We also show that, for reasonable values of this coupling, leading to X(3872) molecular probabilities of around 70-90 %, the X{sub 2} resonance destabilizes and disappears from the spectrum, becoming either a virtual state or one being located deep into the complex plane, with decreasing influence in the D{sup *} anti D{sup *} scattering line. Moreover, we also discuss how around 10-30 % charmonium probability in the X(3872) might explain the ratio of radiative decays of this resonance into ψ(2S)γ and J/ψγ. Finally, we qualitatively discuss within this scheme, the hidden bottom flavor sector, paying a special attention to the implications for the X{sub b} and X

  12. The GMOS contributions to GEOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirrone N.

    2013-04-01

    oceans, and in the UTLS will support the validation of regional and global atmospheric mercury models for use in evaluating different policy options for reducing mercury pollution and its impacts on human health and ecosystems. The data sets, the validated models, and the interoperable system that is produced within this program, will support the policymaking process in the framework of UNEP Governing Council activities, and in the UNECE-LRTAP convention. The task builds upon contributions from, among others, the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, the UNEP Mercury Programme, the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants Task Force (TF HTAP, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP, the MercNet/AMNet initiative in the USA, the CAMNet in Canada, and other international monitoring and modelling efforts.

  13. 12 CFR 1291.2 - Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required annual AHP contributions; allocation... GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.2 Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions. (a) Annual AHP contributions. Each Bank shall contribute annually...

  14. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy...

  15. Should we ignore U-235 series contribution to dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Goulet, Richard; Mihok, Steve; Beresford, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) methodology for radioactive substances is an important regulatory tool for assessing the safety of licensed nuclear facilities for wildlife, and the environment as a whole. ERAs are therefore expected to be both fit for purpose and conservative. When uranium isotopes are assessed, there are many radioactive decay products which could be considered. However, risk assessors usually assume (235)U and its daughters contribute negligibly to radiological dose. The validity of this assumption has not been tested: what might the (235)U family contribution be and how does the estimate depend on the assumptions applied? In this paper we address this question by considering aquatic wildlife in Canadian lakes exposed to historic uranium mining practices. A full theoretical approach was used, in parallel to a more realistic assessment based on measurements of several elements of the U decay chains. The (235)U family contribution varied between about 4% and 75% of the total dose rate depending on the assumptions of the equilibrium state of the decay chains. Hence, ignoring the (235)U series will not result in conservative dose assessments for wildlife. These arguments provide a strong case for more in situ measurements of the important members of the (235)U chain and for its consideration in dose assessments.

  16. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  17. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  18. Framing Entrepreneurial Ecosystem on Campus: Conceptual and System Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Andersen, Maj Munch; Murdock, Karen

    collective entrepreneurial culture and action at all university dimensions. The paper argues that applying systems thinking to university based entrepreneurship allows achieving a better understanding of universities as entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper contributes to conceptual developments...

  19. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives...

  20. 75 FR 19431 - Union Electric Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION Union Electric Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U... amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's ] regulations in...

  1. 75 FR 33653 - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards; Consideration Determination, and Opportunity... hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code of Federal...

  2. 75 FR 11202 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a... significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code of...

  3. Considerations on VoIP Throughput in 802.11 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POTORAC, A. D.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Voice data packets have to arrive at the destination in time, with a defined cadence and with low and constant delay in order to allow the real time voice reconstruction. From this point of view, transmitting voice over IP networks is the most sensitive category of applications, especially when wireless medium is involved. The paper discusses the possibilities of transmitting the maximum number of simultaneous voice streams over 802.11 wireless networks considering the main factors which impact with VoIP throughput, in a basic scenario. Starting from a proposed communication model, the number of simultaneous possible VoIP sessions is calculated, taking into consideration the contribution of the protocol overheads, the security overheads, the PHY level timings and the CODEC proprieties. Numerical results are generated and compared.

  4. Exercise and Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M. Hooghiemstra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although studies show a negative relationship between physical activity and the risk for cognitive impairment and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, studies concerning early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD are lacking. This review aims to justify the value of exercise interventions in EOAD by providing theoretical considerations that include neurobiological processes. Methods: A literature search on key words related to early-onset dementia, exercise, imaging, neurobiological mechanisms, and cognitive reserve was performed. Results/Conclusion: Brain regions and neurobiological processes contributing to the positive effects of exercise are affected in EOAD and, thus, provide theoretical support for exercise interventions in EOAD. Finally, we present the design of a randomized controlled trial currently being conducted in early-onset dementia patients.

  5. Physician to investigator: clinical practice to clinical research--ethical, operational, and financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Physicians who participate in clinical research studies gain benefits for themselves, their practice, and their patients. Historically, private practice physicians have chosen to defer to their counterparts in academic medicine when it comes to contributing to scientific advancement through clinical studies. A growing number of private practice physicians are now taking a serious second look and deciding that there are unique benefits for both the practice and the patient. Physicians who decide to participate in clinical research should give serious consideration to the time and resources that are required to meet both federal regulations and industry standards. In addition, ethical and scientific principles for assuring the protection of human research subjects must be a paramount commitment.

  6. Switching clotting factor concentrates: considerations in estimating the risk of immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matino, D; Lillicrap, D; Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Kessler, C; Lambert, T; Makris, M; O'Donnell, J; Pipe, S; Santagostino, E; Saint-Remy, J-M; Schramm, W; Iorio, A

    2014-03-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of therapy for haemophilia A. There is now excellent documentation that a large number of both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of FVIII inhibitor incidence. One of the environmental factors that has been proposed as an influence on this complication is the occurrence of FVIII product switching. There are only a small number of clinical studies that have addressed this question, and thus, the amount of objective information available to assess this association is limited. In this review, in addition to summarizing past evidence pertinent to this subject, we present the results of a complementary strategy, a Delphi analysis, to add to the considerations of product switching and FVIII immunogenicity. With the imminent arrival in the clinic of several new FVIII products, the haemophilia community must be prepared to collect prospectively controlled data to better address this important management issue.

  7. Will considerations of environmental sustainability revitalise the policy links between the urban environment and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores when and how considerations of population health have influenced the creation, planning and management of cities. Cities--now the dominant human habitat--must be planned and managed sustainably in a world that is manifestly experiencing increasing environmental and social strains. Early industrialisation entailed crowding, squalor and industrial environmental blight; the two great associated public health hazards were infectious diseases and air pollution. These hazards have been largely controlled in rich countries. Today's main urban health hazards are obesity (with its life-shortening health consequences) and the huge contribution of cities to climate change with the resultant risks to population health. These and other health issues in urban environments need to be understood and addressed at the community or population level. This is an ecological challenge, crucial to attaining real sustainability.

  8. Solid organ transplant recipients: clinical considerations in the application of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, K-J L; McKenzie, D C; Yoshida, E M

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 000 solid organ transplants are performed worldwide each year and this has a significant impact on physical function and quality of life. However, the capacity for exercise in solid-organ recipients is reduced. Regular physical activity improves most of the indices of fitness in these patients but, with few exceptions, they do not reach the values seen in healthy controls. The reason for the 40-60% reduction in maximal exercise capacity is not clear; the disease process, need for life long immunosuppression and sedentary lifestyle all contribute. The interaction between exercise and immunosuppressing medication merits research as does the specifics of the exercise prescription for these patients. This paper reviews important features of this rapidly expanding group of patients and suggests clinical considerations in the application of exercise in this population.

  9. Considerations about the Modeling of Software Defined Radio for Mobile Communications Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Morgos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the modeling of a software definedradio - SDR. The digital radios are base on ADCinterfaces that convert the base band signal in a digitalformat and a DSP that accomplish the demodulationaccording to a suitable digital processing algorithm. Totest the model the authors chosen a radio signal with aWeibull distribution quadrature amplitude modulationQAM that pass through a scattering medium till the RFfront end of the SDR. The fading effect was also takeninto consideration. The results of the demodulation usingthe proposed model of SDR were compared with aRayleigh distribution. The simulation results made by thehelp of MATLAB program emphasize the effects of thequantization levels of the ADC circuit.

  10. Testing the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model to simulate contributing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, S. G.; Spence, C.

    2016-06-01

    A dry climate, the prevalence of small depressions, and the lack of a well-developed drainage network are characteristics of environments with extremely variable contributing areas to runoff. These types of regions arguably present the greatest challenge to properly understanding catchment streamflow generation processes. Previous studies have shown that contributing area dynamics are important for streamflow response, but the nature of the relationship between the two is not typically understood. Furthermore, it is not often tested how well hydrological models simulate contributing area. In this study, the ability of a semidistributed hydrological model, the PDMROF configuration of Environment Canada's MESH model, was tested to determine if it could simulate contributing area. The study focused on the St. Denis Creek watershed in central Saskatchewan, Canada, which with its considerable topographic depressions, exhibits wide variation in contributing area, making it ideal for this type of investigation. MESH-PDMROF was able to replicate contributing area derived independently from satellite imagery. Daily model simulations revealed a hysteretic relationship between contributing area and streamflow not apparent from the less frequent remote sensing observations. This exercise revealed that contributing area extent can be simulated by a semi-distributed hydrological model with a scheme that assumes storage capacity distribution can be represented with a probability function. However, further investigation is needed to determine if it can adequately represent the complex relationship between streamflow and contributing area that is such a key signature of catchment behavior.

  11. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  12. Spectrum analysis on quality requirements consideration in software design documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Umemura, Masahiro; Ogata, Shinpei; Kaijiri, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Software quality requirements defined in the requirements analysis stage should be implemented in the final products, such as source codes and system deployment. To guarantee this meta-requirement, quality requirements should be considered in the intermediate stages, such as the design stage or the architectural definition stage. We propose a novel method for checking whether quality requirements are considered in the design stage. In this method, a technique called "spectrum analysis for quality requirements" is applied not only to requirements specifications but also to design documents. The technique enables us to derive the spectrum of a document, and quality requirements considerations in the document are numerically represented in the spectrum. We can thus objectively identify whether the considerations of quality requirements in a requirements document are adapted to its design document. To validate the method, we applied it to commercial software systems with the help of a supporting tool, and we confirmed that the method worked well.

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING RFID WITH CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Boeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID has recently garnered significant interest in the area of customer relationship management by tagging consumers wirelessly and automatically identifying them at a distance. Through a descriptive meta-analysis, this article provides results that indicate that the use of RFID technology in consumer applications raises relatively important ethical and moral concerns, particularly in terms of privacy. The results of our descriptive meta-analysis reveal little empirical research and therefore highlight the need to deepen our knowledge on the ethical considerations brought forth from using RFID. The most important ethical considerations were in terms of privacy, which includes capturing shopping habits, consumer demographic information, and tracking of a person's movements. Literature emphasized technological solutions to counter RFID ethical issues, leaving industry normative procedures and regulatory frameworks in the background.

  14. EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This "EVA Physiology and Medical Considerations Working in the Suit" presentation covers several topics related to the medical implications and physiological effects of suited operations in space from the perspective of a physician with considerable first-hand Extravehicular Activity (EVA) experience. Key themes include EVA physiology working in a pressure suit in the vacuum of space, basic EVA life support and work support, Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspections and repairs, and discussions of the physical challenges of an EVA. Parazynski covers the common injuries and significant risks during EVAs, as well as physical training required to prepare for EVAs. He also shares overall suit physiological and medical knowledge with the next generation of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) system designers.

  15. ADHD and giftedness: a neurocognitive consideration of twice exceptionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budding, Deborah; Chidekel, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Current models of cognition and behavioral diagnosis emphasize categorical classification over continuous considerations of function and promote the "differential diagnosis" of various conditions according to observational criteria. However, an overemphasis on a purely behavioral, categorical approach to understanding human function fails to address the comorbidity of different disorders and does not include a consideration of overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal," to "gifted" or exceptional. The frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is thus difficult to understand from a corticocentric and purely behavioral and observational point of view. This article reviews "giftedness" in relation to the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, coexistence of which is termed "twice exceptional." It additionally considers problems in assessing these functions using current neuropsychological tests and methodologies that are presumably based upon a corticocentric model of cognition.

  16. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking.

  17. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.

  18. Introducing Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonya E.Pritzker; Ka-Kit Hui

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the document,Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why theConsiderations is necessary, the speciifcity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and speciifc issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-speciifc language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.

  19. Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion) require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  20. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethics and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities.

  1. Telecommuting: Occupational health considerations for employee health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M L

    2000-06-01

    1. Information technology has moved "work" out of a centralized location. Employees who telecommute pose significant challenges and considerations for the practice of occupational health nursing. 2. Employer and employee benefits associated with telecommuting are reportedly associated with high levels of job satisfaction. However, the occupational health and safety risks of this new work environment need to be fully assessed and understood. 3. The ergonomic controls to minimize the risk of repetitive motion injuries are the same for both office and home locations. Additional attention need to be paid to implementing risk controls for other physical hazards and psychosocial considerations, as well as personal safety and security issues. 4. The scope of occupational health nursing practice needs to remain dynamic, recognizing the impact new technologies have on the workplace, to continue to meet the needs of the changing workplace.

  2. NIF ReShock/Shear Photometrics Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, Kirk Adler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The design of the photometrics for the NIF Shock/Shear campaign was driven by three linked considerations: the backlighter (BL) material had to be chosen such that it’s He-α emission line gave high enough contrast to measure mix width and see the shock propagation in the target wall, the BL beam geometry had to give sufficient BL spot dimensions and intensity to produce a uniform He-α radiograph of the target, and the BL/pinhole system had to have a high enough resolution and signal to be able to measure the quantities of interest. The design considerations are linked such that the required contrast determines the BL material, the BL material determines what laser intensity range is need for He-α emission, and the resulting He-α emission intensity helps determine whether or not there will be sufficient signal for analysis.

  3. Considerations for ceramic inlays in posterior teeth: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopp CD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Christa D Hopp,1 Martin F Land2 1Section of Operative Dentistry, 2Section of Fixed Prosthodontics, Southern Illinois University, Alton, IL, USA Abstract: This review of ceramic inlays in posterior teeth includes a review of the history of ceramic restorations, followed by common indications and contraindications for their use. A discussion on the potential for tooth wear is followed by a review of recommended preparation design considerations, fabrication methods, and material choices. Despite the improved materials available for fabrication of porcelain inlays, fracture remains a primary mode of inlay failure. Therefore, a brief discussion on strengthening methods for ceramics is included. The review concludes with a section on luting considerations, and offers the clinician specific recommendations for luting procedures. In conclusion, inlay success rates and longevity, as reported in the literature, are summarized. Keywords: inlays, ceramic, posterior, review, CAD/CAM, leucite reinforced, lithium disilicate, longevity, esthetics, luting, wear, stress, selection

  4. Design considerations and operational performance of Anaerobic Digester: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ahmad Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the decline in fossil fuel reservoirs, the researchers emphasized more on the production of biogas from organic waste. Producing the renewable energy from biodegradable waste helps to overcome the energy crisis and solid waste management, done by anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is controlled breakdown of organic matter into methane gas (60%, carbon dioxide (40%, trace components along with digested used as soil conditioner. However there is vast dearth of literature regarding the design considerations. The batch digestion system yields a cost-effective and economically viable means for conversion of the food waste to useful energy. It is therefore recommended that such process can be increasingly employed in order to get and simultaneously protect the environment .This paper aims to draw key analysis and concern about the design considerations, analysis of gas production, substrates and inoculums utilization, uses and impacts of biogas.

  5. Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Popham, Frank

    2016-12-28

    Life course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpretation in terms of total, direct and indirect effects and highlight the causal assumptions required for conclusions as to the most effective timing of interventions.

  6. Design Considerations for Hydropower Development In a Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavidP.Chamberlain; EdStewart; Fei-FanYeh; MichaelT.Stift

    2004-01-01

    Installation of a hydraulic turbine in a water distribution system involving long pipeline reaches requires several unique design considerations. For a fixed speed unit, the selection of design points for head and flow needs to be optimized to provide an operating envelope that would maximize the return on the investment given the widely varied flow and pressure conditions imposed by the water distribution system. The selection of a turbine design speed is essential in facilitating runner design, which must minimize the hydraulic pressure transients on turbine runaway that may result in overstressing the existing pipelines. Method and approach to evaluate these considerations are outlined. Relevant results for the selected design are presented using the 4.3 MW Rancho Penasquitos Pressure Control/Hydroelectric Facility as an illustrative example. Licensing requirements for small inline hydroelectric facilities are also briefly discussed.

  7. Seismic considerations in sealing a potential high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richardson, A.M.; Lin, Ming [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The potential repository system is intended to isolate high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. One subsystem that may contribute to achieving this objective is the sealing subsystem. This subsystem is comprised of sealing components in the shafts, ramps, underground network of drifts, and the exploratory boreholes. Sealing components can be rigid, as in the case of a shaft seal, or can be more compressible, as in the case of drift fill comprised of mined rockfill. This paper presents the preliminary seismic response of discrete sealing components in welded and nonwelded tuff. Special consideration is given to evaluating the stress in the seal, and the behavior of the interface between the seal and the rock. The seismic responses are computed using both static and dynamic analyses. Also presented is an evaluation of the maximum seismic response encountered by a drift seal with respect to the angle of incidence of the seismic wave. Mitigation strategies and seismic design considerations are proposed which can potentially enhance the overall response of the sealing component and subsequently, the performance of the overall repository system.

  8. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  9. Interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines: immunological considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.; Robertson, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly set the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by the year 2000. Substantial progress has been made, and 143 countries reported no poliomyelitis cases associated with the wild virus in 1993. This article reviews the immunological considerations relevant to interrupting the transmission of wild polioviruses with vaccines. Although serum immunity prevents poliomyelitis in the individual, it is local immunity that is important in preventing the transmission of...

  10. Smart Shutdown Guidebook: Considerations for a Successful Shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    facility. Considerations for facility disposition include: • Is the facility leased or owned? • Is there an MOA with another government agency that needs...fit” the program needs. The briefing usually is presented to the PM and his designated leadership team by DAU subject matter experts ( SMEs ) and...SmartShutDownPS@DAU.mil for response by the DAU support SMEs . 22 5. Guidebook Summary Transferring or truncating a program will be a trying

  11. Fundamentals and considerations of the canine endometrial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Agronomía, Universidad de Las Américas, Viña del Mar; Arias Ruiz, Francisco; Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Agronomía, Universidad de Las Américas, Viña del Mar

    2017-01-01

    The study of reproductive diseases is of great importance for clinical and medical approach. The aim of this article was to conduct a literature search on the grounds and considerations of canine endometrial pathology, with emphasis on endometrial cystic hyperplasia and pyometra, seeking support or refute the established concept or dogma, about the existing conditionality between them, which has been called cystic endometrial hyperplasia pyometra complex. According to the evidence, it is note...

  12. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    OpenAIRE

    Christine DiStefano; Min Zhu; Diana Mindrila

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  13. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine DiStefano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s. This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  14. Electrochemical kinetics and dimensional considerations, at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the consideration of the density of states variation in nanoscale electrochemical systems yields modulations in the rate constant and concomitant electrical currents. The proposed models extend the utility of Marcus-Hush-Chidsey (MHC) kinetics to a larger class of materials and could be used as a test of dimensional character. The implications of the study are of much significance to an understanding and modulation of charge transfer nanostructured electrodes.

  15. Electrochemical kinetics and dimensional considerations, at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yamada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consideration of the density of states variation in nanoscale electrochemical systems yields modulations in the rate constant and concomitant electrical currents. The proposed models extend the utility of Marcus-Hush-Chidsey (MHC kinetics to a larger class of materials and could be used as a test of dimensional character. The implications of the study are of much significance to an understanding and modulation of charge transfer nanostructured electrodes.

  16. A STRATEGIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL WITH RISK AND RETURN CONSIDERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Aull-Hyde, Rhonda L.; Tadesse, Solomon

    1994-01-01

    Decision support systems are generally geared to short-term tactical decision making. As an alternative, this paper develops a mathematical programming model to evaluate long-term strategic alternatives in the context of farm-level agricultural production where a broiler farm considers long-term implications of diversification into commercial aquaculture. The model considers a ten-year strategic planning horizon, incorporates financial risk and return considerations, and accommodates capacity...

  17. Electrochemical kinetics and dimensional considerations at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the consideration of the density of states variation in nanoscale electrochemical systems yields modulations in the rate constant and concomitant electrical currents. The proposed models extend the utility of Marcus-Hush-Chidsey (MHC) kinetics to a larger class of materials and could be used as a test of dimensional character. The implications of the study are of much significance to an understanding and modulation of charge transfer nanostructured electrodes.

  18. Structural Considerations in Defining the Non-profit Sector Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Kraleva

    2013-01-01

    After the beginning of the democratic changes the number of civil organizations in this country has increased considerably, causing a heightened scientific interest in the forming non-commercial sector. The variegated character of the organizations constituting it, however, renders the unequivocal determination of its scope difficult and creates conditions for conducting studies with low rate of validity. In this context the differentiation of the various concepts, which have entered the lite...

  19. Waste oil: Technology, economics, and environmental, health, and safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The current status of environmental information on the waste oil industry is reviewed. The sources, properties, and availability of waste oil are summarized. The topics of waste oil collection, utilization, and disposal, energy and economic considerations, and regulatory constraints are discussed, based upon the most recent data available at this time. The health and safety implications of the resource through end-use waste oil system are also presented.

  20. Deflections of Nanowires with Consideration of Surface Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI He; YANG Zhou; ZHANG Yi-Min; WEN Bang-Chun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The elementary beam model is modified to include the surface effects and used to analyze the deflections of nanowires under different boundary conditions.The results show that compared to deflections of nanowires without consideration of surface effects,the surface effects can enlarge or reduce deflections of nanowires,and nanowire buckling occurs under certaJn conditions.This study might be helpful for design of nanowire-based nanoelectromechanical systems.

  1. Environmental effects consideration: A case study - Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance for serious consideration of environmental effects and associated risks by management early in the development cycle of a facility. A case study on the Space Shuttle provides information with regard to some of the environmental effects issues encountered and the lesson learned. The importance of early management action to enable the acceptance of known environmental risks, or to make program adjustments to avoid their potential consequences, is emphasized.

  2. Biomechanics of injury prediction for anthropomorphic manikins - preliminary design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, A.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The anthropomorphic manikins are used in automobile safety research as well as in aerospace related applications. There is now a strong need to advance the biomechanics knowledge to determine appropriate criteria for injury likelihood prediction as functions of manikin-measured responses. In this paper, three regions of a manikin, namely, the head, knee joint, and lumbar spine are taken as examples to introduce preliminary design considerations for injury prediction by means of responses of theoretical models and strategically placed sensing devices.

  3. Mistake, Failure of Consideration and the Planning Theory of Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, D.

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of mistaken payments in the law of restitution is often justified by reference to a vitiated intention and that of payments where there is a failure of consideration by reference to a qualified intention. This paper aims to investigate whether this is a misleading characterisation and suggests that both causes of action should be understood in terms of conditions affecting our intentions. Specifically we should look at the failure of our planning agency, and Michael Bratman’s theory ...

  4. Strategic Considerations for Customer Relationship Management in the Telecommunications Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Benjamin Philip Edward

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores the concept of Customer Relationship Management and considers the various strands of strategic consideration that affect how firms in the telecommunications industry conduct business with their customers. Included is a literature review, which attempts to introduce and synthesise conceptual CRM constructs, followed by a Methodology and subsequent case-study analysis of Vodafone. The Methodology ensures that the techniques employed are adequately accounted for. The i...

  5. Ethical Consideration in Wound Treatment of the Elderly Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prachi; Aung, Thet Han; Ferguson, Richard; Ortega, Gerardo; Shah, Jayesh

    2014-12-01

    Today, an advance in clinical medicine and public health has given patients the opportunity to live longer and more productive lives despite progressive illnesses. For some patients, however, this progress has resulted in prolonged dying which is associated with huge emotional and financial expenses. A review article is written based on proceedings of panel discussion on Ethical Consideration in wound treatment of the elderly patient on July 25, 2015, Baptist Wound Symposium at Marriot Northwest, San Antonio, Texas.

  6. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  7. Architecture Considerations of Time Sensitive Targeting and NATO TST Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Architecture Considerations of Time Sensitive Targeting and NATO TST Tool Orhan Cetinkaya, PhD Yakup Yildirim, PhD NCI Agency, 19-21 June 2013...SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified...8217’_’ _’ •_· __ ~==============================================~--0-~ __ is-ta_r_~ ~ NATO UNCLASSIFIED 18 Questions? Orhan Cetinkaya, PhD Principal Scientist

  8. Contribution of arginase to manganese metabolism of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keni, Sarita; Punekar, Narayan S

    2016-02-01

    Aspects of manganese metabolism during normal and acidogenic growth of Aspergillus niger were explored. Arginase from this fungus was a Mn[II]-enzyme. The contribution of the arginase protein towards A. niger manganese metabolism was investigated using arginase knockout (D-42) and arginase over-expressing (ΔXCA-29) strains of A. niger NCIM 565. The Mn[II] contents of various mycelial fractions were found in the order: D-42 strain niger mycelia harvested from acidogenic growth media contain substantially less Mn[II] as compared to those from normal growth media. Nevertheless, acidogenic mycelia harbor considerable Mn[II] levels and a functional arginase. Altered levels of mycelial arginase protein did not significantly influence citric acid production. The relevance of arginase to cellular Mn[II] pool and homeostasis was evaluated and the results suggest that arginase regulation could occur via manganese availability.

  9. Soil Organic Nitrogen and Its Contribution to Crop Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-xiu; WANG Zhao-hui; MIAO Yan-fang; LI Shi-qing

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and crop production depend to a large extent on soil N supplying capacity (SNSC):The higher the SNSC, the higher the dependence of crops on soil and the lower the N fertilizer recovery. Of the SNSC, soil organic N (ON) played a key role in supplying N nutrient to crop production and still does in many subsistence and low-input farming systems. In this paper, soil ON contents, types, chemical components and its contribution to plant production are reviewed up to date in details, the characteristics of ON in dryland soils discussed together with its chemical components, and the mineralization and availability to plants of some important chemical components are emphasized at the last part for practical considerations.

  10. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advances and design considerations in capping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, G.J.; Monteleone, M.J. [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Capping systems for solid and hazardous waste management facilities and remedial applications have changed significantly over the years. Early designs were virtually monolithic, with little specification of functional properties. The evolution of capping systems has continued and was hastened by the application of geosynthetics and the diligence of those working in the industry in understanding the design considerations for and performance of various capping materials. Capping systems continue to evolve particularly with respect to the application and understanding of the geosynthetic components. Today the design of an effective cap with a total thickness of two feet, or even less as is discussed further below, is possible. Yet much more work remains in various areas such as more precise means of assessing stability, the effects of strain softening, design using seismic considerations, and the like. This paper describes various recent advances in cap design. Three of these advances are covered in some detail; namely, geosynthetic clay layers, subdrainage design using high capacity geonets, and a thin cap section using direct asphalt overlay of geosynthetics for industrial site applications. Several other advances and design considerations are more briefly addressed to illustrate the breadth of the evolution of capping systems.

  12. Simple and multiple linear regression: sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James A

    2016-11-01

    The suggested "two subjects per variable" (2SPV) rule of thumb in the Austin and Steyerberg article is a chance to bring out some long-established and quite intuitive sample size considerations for both simple and multiple linear regression. This article distinguishes two of the major uses of regression models that imply very different sample size considerations, neither served well by the 2SPV rule. The first is etiological research, which contrasts mean Y levels at differing "exposure" (X) values and thus tends to focus on a single regression coefficient, possibly adjusted for confounders. The second research genre guides clinical practice. It addresses Y levels for individuals with different covariate patterns or "profiles." It focuses on the profile-specific (mean) Y levels themselves, estimating them via linear compounds of regression coefficients and covariates. By drawing on long-established closed-form variance formulae that lie beneath the standard errors in multiple regression, and by rearranging them for heuristic purposes, one arrives at quite intuitive sample size considerations for both research genres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epistemological considerations on neuroimaging--a crucial prerequisite for neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Huber, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description are involved, especially when experiments are designed to answer questions pertaining to broad concepts like the self, empathy or moral intentions. Interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are needed to integrate findings from the life sciences and the humanities and to translate between them. While these epistemological issues are not specific for neuroimaging, there are some reasons why they are of special importance in this context: Due to their inferential proximity, 'neuro-images' seem to be self-evident, suggesting directness of observation and objectivity. This has to be critically discussed to prevent overinterpretation. Additionally, there is a high level of attention to neuroimaging, leading to a high frequency of presentation of neuroimaging data and making the critical examination of their epistemological properties even more pressing. Epistemological considerations are an important prerequisite for neuroethics. The presentation and communication of the results of neuroimaging studies, the potential generation of new phenomena and new 'dysfunctions' through neuroimaging, and the influence on central concepts at the foundations of ethics will be important future topics for this discipline.

  14. Environmental considerations in physical planning in Norway and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P.; Saglie, I.L.; Glowacki, W.; Dunin-Woyseth, H.

    1997-12-31

    As a part of an agreement on environmental cooperation between Norway and Eastern Europe, a comparative case study was carried out of environmental considerations in physical planning since 1968 in the Norwegian municipality of Sandefjord and the Polish municipality of Myslenice. This report discusses the final results. Land use planning is surprisingly similar in the two countries. In both, the plans emphasize the protection of farmland and scarce biotopes as well as sewage management. In Myslenice, a major concern has been cultural heritage and cultural landscapes while in Sandefjord attention was paid more to natural areas for outdoor recreation. In both cases there has been little focus on energy conservation and the concept of sustainable development has hardly been discussed. The plans have been considerably influenced by national environmental policies. The type of political system, capitalism vs. state socialism, has indirectly influenced the amount of construction and hence the pace of conversion of undeveloped land, but does not appear to have had much impact on the environmental content of the plans. The emphasis laid on various environmental issues in part reflects the actual local challenges, but also cross-national cultural differences and the fact that during the period the environmental agenda has been widened in both municipalities, most clearly seen in the case of Sandefjord. The plans seem to have been considerably influenced by professional ideals, knowledge and methods common among planners across national boundaries. 52 refs., 1 figure, 2 tabs.

  15. Importance of configurational contributions to the free energy of nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Posselt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective simulation method based on the Wang-Landau Monte Carlo algorithm is used in order to demonstrate the significance of the configurational contributions to the free energy of embedded nanoclusters. Starting from the most stable cluster configuration the simulation provides all geometrically different, but simply connected and sufficiently compact configurations of a nanocluster of a given size and the respective formation energies. The knowledge of these data allows the calculation of the free formation and free binding energy of the cluster at T ≠ 0. The method is applied to coherent Cu clusters in bcc-Fe. It is shown that even at moderate temperatures the configurational contributions to the free formation and binding energy must not be neglected. The dependence of the monomer free binding energy on clusters size is found to change significantly with increasing temperature which has a considerable effect on the pathway of cluster evolution. Therefore, present investigations provide an essential contribution to the improvement of the input parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and rate theory used in multi-scale simulations of the nanostructure evolution. The calculation scheme developed in this work is rather general and applicable to many types of embedded nanoclusters. Compared to the method of overlapping distributions hitherto used in some cases to determine the configurational part of the free energy the new method has major advantages. Various tests are performed in order verify the presented approach and to compare with the results of the other calculation procedure. A roadmap is proposed to include the vibrational contributions to the free energy of the clusters within the framework of the method employed in this work.

  16. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 22. Nuclear considerations for repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/22, ''Nuclear Considerations for Repository Design,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. Included in this volume are baseline design considerations such as characteristics of canisters, drums, casks, overpacks, and shipping containers; maximum allowable and actual decay-heat levels; and canister radiation levels. Other topics include safeguard and protection considerations; occupational radiation exposure including ALARA programs; shielding of canisters, transporters and forklift trucks; monitoring considerations; mine water treatment; canister integrity; and criticality calculations.

  17. IDENTIFYING KEY CONTRIBUTIONS TO INFORMATION SCIENCE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several alternative approaches were examined to determine how one might identify some of the key (written) contributions to ’ information science ’. The...references. The unclear selective patterns in current bibliographies in the information science field also present problems. It is suggested that in...identifying key contributions we are far from common agreement on the conceptual, methodological or practical contributions to the information science field

  18. groundwater contribution to crop water requirement groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Groundwater, water table, capillary rise, soil type, waterleaf, ... GROUNDWATER CONTRIBUTION TO WATERLEAF (TALINUM TRIANGULARE) IN OXISOLS, I. J. ... Nutritionally, ... information to facilitate increased crop production,.

  19. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  20. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-11-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.