WorldWideScience

Sample records for hurt work drivers

  1. It Hurts to Ignore Work Injury Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    The author was talking with a friend not long ago about one of the hottest political topics in California these days--the high cost of the workers compensation system. "But libraries don't have to worry about that, do they?" asked her friend. "Aha!" I said. "Another stereotype! In fact, library work is very physical. And she is not just talking…

  2. Work engagement: drivers and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Schelvis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of work engagement fits into the tradition of positive psychology, a recent paradigm shift in psychology which focuses on mental health rather than mental illness. This article gives an introduction to the concept of work engagement. Different definitions and viewpoints of the work engag

  3. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  4. Why HURT?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buse, Dawn C; Sollars, C Mark; Steiner, Timothy J;

    2012-01-01

    in primary care, where most people with headache receive medical care. In support, LTB is developing a range of headache management aids for primary care. Presently, no single instrument covers the range of assessment and decision-making necessary for successful headache management, and few make......The Global Campaign against Headache, directed by the non-governmental organization Lifting The Burden (LTB) in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO), aspires to reduce the global burden of headache. Ultimately this calls for improvements in headache management, largely......, perceptions of headache "control" and knowledge of diagnosis. This instrument is intended not only to evaluate current headache outcomes and assess the need for and response to treatment, but also to provide guidance on appropriate actions towards treatment optimization. The first draft of the HURT...

  5. Work patterns, sleeping hours and excess weight in commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, M K; Hege, A; Perko, M; Sönmez, S; Apostolopoulos, Y

    2015-12-01

    Work and sleep patterns for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often include long working hours, shift work and diminished sleep duration and quality, which have been linked to overweight, obesity and other problems. To explore possible connections between work, sleep and obesity among CMV drivers. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from male long-haul CMV drivers in central North Carolina, USA, over a period of 6 months. Drivers' body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of total body obesity and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a measure of central adiposity. Among the 260 study subjects, mean BMI was 33.1 (64% were obese or morbidly obese) and mean SAD was 32.3cm, classifying 89% of drivers as being at high or very high cardiometabolic risk. About 83% of drivers worked an irregular daily schedule, 64% worked irregular total daily hours, 32% worked irregular days of the week and 46% reported getting work nights. Significant predictors of BMI included the number of hours worked daily (P work (P Work and sleep configurations appear to affect the weight status of CMV drivers. Shift work and sleep duration are both associated with the weight status of CMV drivers, and both appear to function as indicators of their sleep quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Work-related violence experienced by urban taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary C

    2014-12-01

    This study measured violence (physical assault, robbery, or weapon confrontation) in taxi drivers, and determined socio-demographic/work factors associated with violence. In 2010, 130 taxi drivers, working in a large city in the Western US, were administered a survey evaluating workplace violence events. The study population was male (94%), mean age 45, married (54%), foreign-born (55%), with 24% speaking Arabic at home. Drivers drove at night (51%), for an average of 9.7 years and 41 hr/week. Almost half reported a history of violence during their driving careers: physical assault, weapon confrontation, or robbery. In the prior 12 months, 12% were physically assaulted, 8% robbed, and 6% confronted with a weapon. Night drivers reported more assaults over their lifetime compared to day drivers (mean = 1.64 [sd 4.29] vs. mean = 0.53 [sd 1.05], P = 0.047). Taxi drivers experience violence at work. Strategies are needed to prevent violence especially in night drivers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [The dynamics of physical work capacity among ageing truck drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurtsilava, O G; Bashkireva, A S; Khavinson, V Kh

    2013-01-01

    The studies of biological age, ageing rate, physical work capacity in professional lorry drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions, which determine the physical work capacity levels. Dynamics of the ageing process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age on physical work capacity model. The results point at the premature decrease of the physical work capacity in professional drivers. There was revealed premature contraction of the range of cardio-vascular system adaptive reactions on submaximum physical load in the drivers as compared with control group. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the ageing process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating ageing was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. There was demonstrated the expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated ageing prevention among working population.

  8. Reincentivizing – a new theory of work and work absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. Methods We used classic grounded theory for analyzing data from >130 interviews with people working or on sick leave, physicians, social security officers, and literature. Several hundreds of typed and handwritten memos were the basis for writing up the theory. Results In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. We suggest that work disability can be seen as hurt work drivers or people caught in mode traps. Work drivers are specified as work capacities + work incentives, monetary and non-monetary. Also, people can get trapped in certain modes of behavior through changed capacities or incentives, or by inertia. Different modes have different drivers and these can trap the individual from reincentivizing, ie from going back to work or go on working. Hurt drivers and mode traps are recognized by driver assessments done on several different levels. Mode driver calculations are done by the worker. Then follows employer, physician, and social insurance officer assessments. Also, driver assessments are done on the macro level by legislators and other stakeholders. Reincentivizing is done by different repair strategies for hurt work drivers such as body repair, self repair, work-place repair, rehumanizing, controlling sick leave insurance, and strengthening monetary work incentives. Combinations of these driver repair strategies also do release people from mode traps. Conclusion Reincentivizing is about recognizing hurt work drivers and mode traps followed by repairing and releasing the same drivers and traps. Reincentivizing aims at explaining what is going on when work absence is dealt

  9. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  10. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline

  11. Inemisest / Jakob Hurt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hurt, Jakob, 1839-1907

    2005-01-01

    Ilm.: Tarto Kalender 1868, lk. 21-37 ; Tarto Kalender 1869, lk. 21-32 ; Tarto Kalender 1870, lk. 21-34 ; Tarto Kalender 1873, lk. 41-48 ; J. Hurt. Inemisest. Tartu, 1868 ; J. Hurt. Inemisest. Faksiimiletrükk. Tallinn, 1990

  12. Psychosocial work factors and low back pain in taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Elshatarat, Rami A

    2017-08-01

    Taxi drivers are at high risk for low back pain (LBP). Identify the association between psychosocial-work factors (Job strain, Iso-strain, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], unfairness, and mental exertion) and LBP in taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was done with 129 taxi drivers. Approximately 63% reported LBP in the prior 12 months. Chi square or t-test analyses identified the associations between demographic, work, health, and psychosocial work factors, and self-report of LBP in the prior 12 months. Depression, perceived physical exertion, dispatcher and manager support, unfair treatment at work, and unfair treatment due to nationality were significantly associated with LBP in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was done to identify the predictors of LBP. High dispatcher support remained the sole significant predictor for lower prevalence of LBP (OR = 0.66, P = 0.017). Greater understanding of psychosocial work factors may aid in developing interventions to prevent LBP in taxi drivers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  14. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  15. Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  16. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  17. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  18. DRIVER IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF JOINTLY WORK ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ISABELA BEDOYA ROJAS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article systematizes information of a research project developed during the year of 2002 which had the purposeto describe and analyze discourses of a group of operators of Bogotá’s massive transportation system TransMilenio.Discourses are part of cultural repertoires that construct their work identity. A group of eight drivers of an operatingcompany which led the proposal of Associated Work Organizations- OTAS- as a contracting alternative, were interviewed.The discourse was analyzed having constructionism as a theoretical background; this orientation implies three essentialaspects: language, culture and relationships (Gergen, 1996. It was also necessary to deepen into the EconomicalSolidarity Model. A qualitative ethnographic focus and discourse analysis was adopted (Potter and Weterell, 1996.

  19. Does Working Help or Hurt College Students? The Effects of Federal Work-Study Participation on Student Outcomes. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Adela; Long, Bridget Terry

    2016-01-01

    Due to rising costs and declining affordability, many students have to work while attending college. The federal government takes a major role in subsidizing the wages of college students and spent over $1 billion on the Work-Study program in 2010-11 (College Board, 2011), yet little is known about how working during the school year impacts…

  20. Being Mindful May Not Make You a Team Player: Does Meditation Help or Hurt Online Group Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yunzi; Molinari, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, more and more students take part in online courses that require them to engage in virtual work groups. Research has shown that online learners are likely to experience information overload and considerable challenges associated with online learning environments. These challenges are exacerbated when learners have to work as…

  1. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were specific to train drivers: high emotional and mental demands, small amount of autonomy and skill discretion. No evidence of a high emotional workload, a high mental workload or short-term stress reactivity was found. In general, the drivers' fatigue complaints and recovery needs after work were comparable to that of other workers. However, severe sleepiness and high need for recovery did affect a substantial proportion of train drivers. The ability to stay aware, to anticipate, to remain attentive and to cope with fatigue are psychological and cognitive skills that are required to adequately and safely perform the train drivers' job. Including these requirements in periodic assessments of train drivers is recommended. A systematic literature search was performed, aimed at assessing the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers. Based on this information and interviews with experts, a list of psychological and cognitive requirements that needed to perform the train drivers’ job adequately and safely was proposed.

  2. Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 615–624. doi: 10.1002/acp.1730.

  3. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  4. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  5. Fitness-for-work assessment of train drivers of Yazd railway, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Z; Zare, Z; Mehrparvar, A H; Mirmohammadi, S J; Mostaghaci, M

    2013-07-01

    National Transport Commission (NTC) classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job. To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran. We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines. 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively. Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  6. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Ulhôa, Melissa Araújo; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively). The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively) than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively) (p physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively) than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p physical activity.

  7. Drivers׳ merging behavior data in highway work zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been growing research interests in finding a suitable work zone layout to improve work zone safety and traffic efficiency. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload (Shakouri et al., 2014 [1]. A full factorial experiment was conducted to compare the efficiency of two work zone configurations by using a driving simulator with two levels of work zone configuration, two levels of traffic density and three levels of sign placement as fixed factors. Seven female and 23 male participants completed the experiment. In this paper we present the data relating to demographic information of participants, driving simulator data and subjective workload evaluation of participants for each work zone.

  8. The work of bus drivers and their contribution to excellence in public transportation

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    Claudio Marcelo Brunoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of a survey aimed at analyzing the work of bus drivers for a collective urban transportation company that is considered a benchmark. The research sought to understand how the company could maintain a policy capable of reconciling the quality of public transportation with working conditions that are compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of the workers. The ergonomic work analysis methodology was adopted as a guide. The results show that one of the pillars of excellence achieved by this company is the quality of the work performed by their drivers, which is guided by the organizational values that permeate the organization. The driver plays a role in regulating the system by serving the population and providing mobility. Their activity is controlled by a series of interdependent variables, such as the demands for conducting the vehicle and the relationship with others.

  9. Too individualistic for safety culture? Non-traffic related work safety among heavy goods vehicle drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine; Shibuya, Hitomi; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article reports on a study of non-traffic related work safety among drivers of heavy goods vehicles in Denmark. In the heavy goods vehicle transport (HGV) sector only 6.4% of workplace accidents involving drivers are traffic related. HGV work is characterised by solitary work...... values and attitudes as well as organisational and technical aspects in relation to how individualist or collectivist understandings of risk and safety influence the working environment in HGVs. Method The study applied a mixed methods approach and in this article the qualitative interviews conducted...... their understandings and attitudes towards hazards and safety practices. The analysis points to risk-taking and unsafe practices as prevalent among HGV drivers, who often refer to risk as trivial and the management of such risks as one's own responsibility. Knowledge of how to manage risks in everyday practice...

  10. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  11. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  12. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  13. Work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities in Australia, 2000-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the nature and mechanisms of a case series of Australian work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities. The study used existing population-based mortality data on non-crash work-related heavy vehicle (gross vehicle mass >4.5 t) driver fatalities reported to Australian coroners between 2000 and 2009. There were 47 fatalities with a mean age of 46.5 years. Available toxicology detected that six of 16 drivers consumed illegal drugs or alcohol. The most frequent task was attending to cargo (n=22, 47%); 31 (66%) fatalities occurred when the driver was working alone. Brake issues (n=21, 45%) were the most frequent contributing factor, and crushing the most common mechanism (n=33, 70%), particularly between the vehicle and another object (n=22, 47%). Fatalities occurred in most jurisdictions averaging 4.7 per year overall. A large number of truck drivers die performing non-driving tasks. Crushing following vehicle rolling accounts for almost 50% of fatalities. Considering this pathway may provide prevention opportunities.

  14. Modifying behaviour to reduce over-speeding in work-related drivers: an objective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Warmerdam, Amanda

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to utilise an objective measurement tool, via an on-board Diagnostic tool (OBDII), to explore the effectiveness of a behaviour modification intervention designed to reduce over-speed violations in a group of work-related drivers. It was predicted that over-speed violations would be decreased following participation in a behaviour modification intervention where drivers received weekly feedback on their speeding performance and goal setting exercises. The final analysis included the on-road behaviour of 16 drivers, all of whom completed each stage of the intervention programme. As predicted, over-speed violations significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test, after controlling for kilometres driven. These findings offer practical guidance for industry in developing interventions designed to improve work-related driving behaviour.

  15. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

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    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  16. Study on Large Power Tractor Driver's Heart Rate and Fatigue in Sowing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Degang; ZHAO Yongchao; ZHU Zhenying; ZHANG Shuai; ZHU Lei

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the driving fatigue in sowing work, this paper based on heart rate (HR) as the main indicator to survey, tested and analyzed the fatigue condition of the drivers of three imported tractors and one domestic tractor in sowing work. The results showed that when driving the imported tractors in sowing work, the HR increasing rate was 10.4%-14.3%, labor intensity belonged to the light level;when driving domestic tractor in sowing work, the HR increasing rate was 23.4%-33.0%, it was remarkably bigger than that of driving imported tractors (P<0.05), labor intensity belonged to the middle level. The main effects on driving fatigue included the control methods, tractors' cab environment, processing time, operating content, and so on. Finally, we proposed the concrete measures and suggestions to reduce driving fatigue and improve drivers' work condition.

  17. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  18. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  19. Fitness-for-Work Assessment of Train Drivers of Yazd Railway, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mostaghaci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Transport Commission (NTC classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job.Objective: To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran.Methods: We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines.Results: 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively.Conclusion: Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  20. Professional shift-work drivers who adopt prophylactic naps can reduce the risk of car accidents during night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio; Mascialino, Barbara; Penco, Maria Antonietta; Squarcia, Sandro; De Carli, Fabrizio; Nobili, Lino; Beelke, Manolo; Cuomo, Gianni; Ferrillo, Franco

    2004-11-01

    Night work can be dangerous because both circadian sleep propensity (process C) and sleep pressure due to the prolonged wakefulness (process S) contribute to the reduction of vigilance levels. As naps are a countermeasure to sleepiness, this study evaluates the role they play in preventing sleep-related accidents in Italian shift-working police drivers. The study concerns highway car accidents that occurred to Italian shift-working police drivers; it was performed in 2 steps: a retrospective analysis of the overall number of accidents that occurred during the years 1993--1997 (n, 1195), followed by a validation analysis of a smaller cohort of accidents prospectively collected during 2003 (n, 84). N/A. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: The influence of process S, process C, driver characteristics, and context conditions on accident risk, estimated by means of Cox hazard regression, revealed that nighttime accident risk was mainly influenced by process S levels. Consequently, an experimental mathematical model linking the hourly observed number of accidents to process S levels was designed. Its generalization to the theoretical case of drivers omitting naps showed an increase of about 38% of accidents. PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: In order to validate our results, we compared retrospective and prospective sleep patterns: no statistical difference was found. Again, the hourly number of accidents increased with homeostatic sleep pressure; the theoretical efficacy of napping was quantified in 48% accidents decrease. Our data seem to confirm that napping before working a night shift is an effective countermeasure to alertness and performance deterioration associated with night work. Moreover, this self-initiated behavior could have a prophylactic efficacy in reducing the number of car accidents.

  1. [Representation of self-care of health at work among urban bus drivers in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Solis, Mercedes Gabriela; Colunga-Rodríguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, María de Lourdes; Ángel-González, Mario; Vázquez-Colunga, Julio César; Colunga-Rodríguez, Bertha Alicia

    2017-04-03

    This study aimed to analyze the social representations of health self-care at work among urban bus drivers in Guadalajara, Mexico. The methodology was qualitative, with a multi-method design based on the theory of social representations. The first stage involved active observation sessions with the information recorded in field notes; in the second stage, the associative letter technique and successively hierarchized trees technique were applied to 20 drivers, submitting the data to a classical analysis of the free associations; a third stage involved semi-structured interviews with 4 drivers, submitted to content analysis. The results indicate that structurally, the representation is centered on alimentation, presenting the concepts rest and corrective health care at peripheral levels. Procedurally, the represeentation centers in the psychosocial factors derived from the working conditions, while the rest of the work characteristics are seen as low risk to health. The self-care actions mentioned by the participants only focus on the workinging conditions perceived as risky. The social representation of health self-care at work is a collective mental construction, developed and modified through social interactions, which influences self-care measures used against the risks perceived in the workplace.

  2. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Truck Drivers and Official Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mozafari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are common among drivers and official workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are frequent causes of absenteeism in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors associated with these symptoms. A total of 346 workers and truck drivers were participated in this case-control study. All the participants were interviewed using a self- administered questionnaire containing demographic data and a Nordic questionnaire about presence site and characteristics of pain. Then the data were gathered, and the prevalence of the mentioned parameters and the relationship between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed statistically. The results of this study revealed that 78.6% out of truck drivers and 55.5% out of official workers had musculoskeletal disorders in on-year and there was a significant difference between two groups in this regard (PP<0.001. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the musculoskeletal troubles have a high frequency among the drivers and official workers. Both groups usually remain on a prolonged uncomfortable postures and high static muscle load which may imply a risk for development of the troubles.

  3. Postural sway, working years and BMI in healthy truck drivers: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Troebs, Paul; Lenk, Andreas; Wanke, Eileen; Natrup, Jörg; Groneberg, David

    2017-07-12

    The following study analyses the influence of risk factors among the occupational group of truck drivers on postural control and body mass index (BMI). Observational study. One motorway station close to several highways in Germany. 180 truck drivers (177 male/3 female), aged 21-65 years old, took part in this study. Postural control was examined using a pressure plate. In order to examine the influence of body weight (BMI) and working years on postural control, subjects were divided into samples of five and three groups, respectively. Furthermore, it was evaluated whether the subjects suffered from back pain. For data analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used as the data were not normally distributed. Once the p value of the Kruskal-Wallis test was p≤0.05, the Conover-Iman comparison and afterwards the Bonferroni-Holm correction were used. The significance level was set at α ≤0.05. Regarding the number of working years, a significant increase of frontal (p≤0.04) and sagittal (p≤0.001) sway were observed. The correlation of the five BMI groups with the number of working years demonstrates that an increase of the working years leads to an increase of BMI (p≤0.03). Furthermore, the majority of truck drivers participating in this study suffered from back pain (61.7%). BMI and musculoskeletal impairment are indicators of health risk factors. In this study, it is shown that an increasing number of working years and an increasing BMI lead to a decrease in frontal and sagittal postural sway. In addition, the number of working years correlates with body weight and back pain. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Engaged work teams in healthy companies: drivers, processes, and outcomes of team work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Torrente Barberà, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis analyses work engagement in the context of work teams taking a collective, psychosocial perspective. Throughout this thesis, the following topics will be addressed: 1) the state-of-the-art in the topic of team work engagement, 2) the measurement of team work engagement, 3) the association of team work engagement with other relevant individual-level constructs and how it fits in traditional research models in the field of Positive Occupational Health Psychology, 4) the antecede...

  5. [The influence of ergonomic characteristics of the work place on the prevalence of pain syndrome in vocational drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, I V; Bobokha, M A

    2015-01-01

    The study of features of the working posture pattern of bus and trucks drivers showed the inconsistency to their optimal criteria. Deviations of goniometric indices of working posture pattern of drivers are noted for most brands of studied cars, that is caused by constructive disadvantages of the driving seat both of well buses and trucks. The study of the health state of drivers have shown the prevalence of dorsalgia in the group of bus and truck drivers reached 40.8 ± 4.75, and in truckers drivers--15.6 ± 2.96 cases per 100 employees. The largest share in the structure of the pathology in both groups is occupied by lumbodynia. Significantly more frequent pathology of musculoskeletal system in bus drivers is related with the long-term presence in the fixed uncomfortable position. There is emphasized the importance of design changes of the driver's seat, adapted with taken account of the individual anthropometric parameters, for the prevention of the disorders of the musculoskeletal system.

  6. Beyond a man's world: contributions from considering gender in the study of bus drivers' work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Liliana; Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Bus driving is a typically male occupation undergoing a process of feminization. Although men remain a majority, women's integration has raised some questions, namely, related to work organization or its impact on health. This paper focuses on the contributions of assuming a gender perspective in the analysis of the bus driving occupation and the conditions under which it is performed. Twenty female and 158 male bus drivers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined. Ergonomic work analysis and individual interviews were used, as well as INSAT (Work and Health Questionnaire). Difficulties inherent to the work activity were highlighted, in terms of working hours and management of "peripheral tasks", with implications for the balance between professional and personal life. These difficulties were reported differently by men and women, although both made themselves clear about the impact on their career and health. Taking gender into consideration has enabled an enrichment of the questions that guide the analysis of this work activity, and contributed to a new perspective on the work performed by this occupational group as well as a new approach to study the history of the transport industry by proposing as focus of analysis issues related to "gender mobility".

  7. Contributions of ergonomics to the construction of bus drivers health and excellence in public transport and at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; Bolis, Ivan; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article is the product of research that analyzed the work of bus drivers of a public transportation company that is considered a benchmark reference in its field of operations, in which it strives to achieve operating excellence. Within this context, the authors sought to understand how such a company has managed to maintain a policy that is capable of reconciling quality public transport while also providing working conditions compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of its workers. Ergonomic work analysis and activity analysis were the guiding elements used in this study. Initial analyses indicate that the activity of drivers includes serving a population and providing mobility for it, which depends on driving the vehicle itself and on relationships with colleagues, users, pedestrians, drivers and others.

  8. Patterns and perceptions of physical activity and sedentary time in male transport drivers working in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; Bush, Robert A; Brown, Wendy J

    2014-08-01

    To objectively measure physical activity (PA) patterns and sedentary time, and explore perceptions of workplace PA opportunities in regional male transport workers. A multi-method study involving 28 drivers (52.4±9.69 years) working at a bus company in South-East Queensland, Australia. PA was measured using accelerometers (n=23) to determine the proportion of time spent in sedentary (work/non-work time (n=15). Interviews were conducted with 28 drivers and six managers to explore perceptions and ideas relating to workplace PA opportunities. Sedentary time was significantly higher on off-work (64% of wear time) than work (52%) days (pworking (44%) than when not working (60%; pwork and irregular driving routines), tended to preclude some drivers from engaging with these opportunities. Findings contest the notion that a sedentary occupation such as driving necessitates an inactive work environment. This research informs ongoing intervention efforts to target inactive drivers who are struggling to take advantage of existing workplace-related PA opportunities. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Operating styles, working time and daily driving distance in relation to a taxi driver's speeding offenses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Ming

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the determinant factors of taxi drivers' speeding violations in Taiwan. Data were gathered from a nation wide survey and included 6923 professional taxi drivers in 2006. The results indicated that 96.6% were males and 92.5% had less than a college level education. Daily working hours were from 2.5 h to 15 h with a mean of 10.12 h. The data also indicated that taxi drivers worked approximately 27.35 days and only took 2.65 days rest per month. Of the observed taxi drivers, 25.6% reported at least one speeding violation in a one-year period. The results of a generalized linear model (GLM) revealed that the determinant factors associating with a taxi driver's speeding violation were not related to gender or educational level. However, age, job experience, operating styles, kilometers driven daily, driving late at night, and monthly off duty days were significantly associated with committing the speeding violations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-07-13

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  13. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed.

  14. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  15. Physical activity overcomes the effects of cumulative work time on hypertension prevalence among Brazilian taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo C; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity profile of taxi drivers and its relationship with hypertension prevalence in this group of workers. Cross sectional exploratory study. Between November 2008 and April 2009, 491 taxi drivers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, answered a questionnaire focusing on previous hypertension diagnosis, occupational characteristics and physical activity habits. Two logistic models were developed to determine risk factors related to hypertension and to find variables associated with a higher probability of sedentarism. Hypertension prevalence was 22.6%. The workload of the group investigated was high. Results indicate that 'age', 'Body Mass Index', 'physical activity', and 'years as a taxi driver' are related to the probability of hypertension. Physical activity was shown to be a protection factor for hypertension, even considering the deleterious effect of time as a taxi driver. Our results also determined that the practice of physical activity is influenced by age, level of education and workload. It is recommended that programs to combat sedentary lifestyles as well as measures to reduce workloads be developed as strategies to prevent hypertension.

  16. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  17. 基于 VxWorks 的网卡驱动程序开发%Programming of Network Adapter Driver Based on VxWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇坤; 袁冬莉; 黄鑫鑫; 姚建勋

    2013-01-01

      VxWorks 是一种运行在目标机上的可剪裁的高性能嵌入式实时操作系统,集成了标准 TCP/ IP 网络功能。但其支持的网卡型号有限,限制了网络资源的使用,网络驱动开发就显出其重要性。 VxWorks 特有的增强网络驱动(END)包含有一个多路复用层模块(MUX)将驱动程序细化,这个模块赋予了驱动独立性,使得开发者专注于驱动本身的开发,因此选择使用这种驱动模式为 intel82567网卡成功实现驱动。这种特有的驱动模式在应用的过程中确实体现出其高效性,不用关心底层的转换和协议处理,对需要进行短周期 END 型网络驱动的开发有参考价值。%VxWorks is a scalable embedded real-time operating system with great performance,which is run in the target. And the stand-ard TCP/ IP protocol is integrated within the system. As only a few network adapters support the system,which limits the use of cyber source,the designing of network driver in VxWorks systems becomes vital. The MUX included in END is able to refine the driver pro-gram,which helps the designer to focus on developing the driver and gives the drive independence,so use this driving mode for successful implementation of intel82567 NIC driver. This special driving mode reflects the efficiency in the application process with no care about the underlying drive conversion and protocol processing,and may have a reference value for the short period designing of END.

  18. The West Perfecting Its Techniques To Hurt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spanish Website Rebellion published an article titled The West Perfecting Its Techniques to Hurt China by U.S. writer, filmmaker and journalist Andre Vltchek on November 12, 2010. Excerpts from the article follow:

  19. Work engagement as a key driver of quality of care: a study with midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeney, Yseult; Fellenz, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of increased work intensification within maternity hospitals, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of work engagement in the quality of care delivered to patients and in general health of the midwives delivering care, as reported by midwives and nurses. Quantitative questionnaires consisting of standardised measures were distributed to midwives in two large maternity hospitals. These questionnaires assessed levels of work engagement, supervisor and colleague support, general health and quality of care. Structural equation modelling analysis revealed a best-fit model that demonstrated work engagement to be a significant partial mediator between organisational and supervisor support and quality of care, and as a significant predictor of self-reported general health. Together, supervisor support, social support and organisational resources, mediated by work engagement, explained 38 per cent of the variance in quality of care at the unit level and 23 per cent of variance in general health among midwives (chi2(67) = 113; p engagement and both health and self-reports of unit level quality of care. The results support the importance of health services organisations and managers deploying organisational resources to foster employee work engagement. The results also highlight the significant role of the immediate nurse manager and suggest training and development for such roles is a valuable investment. These results are the first to link work engagement and performance in health care contexts and point to the value of work engagement for both unit performance and for individual employee well-being in health organisations.

  20. Column Generation for a Multitrip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows, Driver Work Hours, and Heterogeneous Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Povlovitsch Seixas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a vehicle routing problem with time windows, accessibility restrictions on customers, and a fleet that is heterogeneous with regard to capacity and average speed. A vehicle can perform multiple routes per day, all starting and ending at a single depot, and it is assigned to a single driver whose total work hours are limited. A column generation algorithm is proposed. The column generation pricing subproblem requires a specific elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints algorithm to address the possibility for each vehicle performing multiple routes per day and to address the need to set the workday’s start time within the planning horizon. A constructive heuristic and a metaheuristic based on tabu search are also developed to find good solutions.

  1. Civil-engineering work for Linac 4 and related roadworks - information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The civil-engineering work for the construction of the Linac 4 accelerator has started on 22 October on the Mont Citron, the mound just opposite Restaurant No. 2 between the Computer Centre and the PS complex. Initially the work will involve excavating the mound and transporting the spoil to the area in front of Building SM18. This first phase of work will last for about five months until April 2009. The large number of lorries will cause disruption to traffic on the Route Rutherford, part of the Route Einstein and in the transfer tunnel between the two sites. Traffic lights for alternating traffic will be in operation at each end of the tunnel since there is insufficient room for two lorries travelling in opposite directions to use it at the same time. Consequently, users are strongly recommended not to use the tunnel except for transporting equipment between the two sites. Users not transporting equipment are strongly recommended ...

  2. Employee voice and work engagement : Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Bora; Farndale, E.; Park, Jong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Direct forms of individual employee voice are potentially important yet underexplored antecedents of work engagement. Based largely in job demands-resources theorizing, we develop a conceptual multi-level framework that explores how individual employee perceptions of voice practices affect their

  3. Employee voice and work engagement : Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Bora; Farndale, E.; Park, Jong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Direct forms of individual employee voice are potentially important yet underexplored antecedents of work engagement. Based largely in job demands-resources theorizing, we develop a conceptual multi-level framework that explores how individual employee perceptions of voice practices affect their lev

  4. Employee voice and work engagement : Macro, meso, and micro-level drivers of convergence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Bora; Farndale, E.; Park, Jong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Direct forms of individual employee voice are potentially important yet underexplored antecedents of work engagement. Based largely in job demands-resources theorizing, we develop a conceptual multi-level framework that explores how individual employee perceptions of voice practices affect their lev

  5. Consumer demand as a driver of improved working conditions: the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W Patrick; Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin

    2014-01-01

    This article develops and explores the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition, which posits that consumers may prefer to buy goods that are made under good working conditions (GWCs). This preference would enhance a differentiation strategy for companies, thereby fostering the application of ergonomics in production. This proposition is developed in the context of a narrative review of the literature on 'ethical consumerism'. This is supplemented with a survey study, conducted in both Canada and Sweden (n = 141) to explore this proposition. Results indicate that consumers would prefer goods made under GWCs, but not unconditionally as quality and price concerns were ranked higher. Access to information on the working conditions in production was seen as a barrier. Nevertheless, the Ergo-Brand concept may be a viable avenue in promoting attention towards ergonomics in companies - particularly if consumer habits are subject to intervention by advertising. Further research on this strategy is warranted.

  6. Civil-engineering work for Linac 4 and related roadworks - information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The civil-engineering work for the construction of the Linac 4 accelerator will start on 22 October on the Mont Citron, the mound just opposite Restaurant No. 2 between the Computer Centre and the PS complex. Initially the work will involve excavating the mound and transporting the spoil to the area in front of Building SM18. This first phase of work will last for about five months until April 2009. The large number of lorries will cause disruption to traffic on the Route Rutherford, part of the Route Einstein and in the transfer tunnel between the two sites. Traffic lights for alternating traffic will be in operation at each end of the tunnel since there is insufficient room for two lorries travelling in opposite directions to use it at the same time. Consequently, users are strongly recommended not to use the tunnel except for transporting equipment between the two sites. Users not transporting equipment are strongly recommended to use Gates A and B. In parallel, a temporary roundabout will be installed ...

  7. It Comes With the Job: Work Organizational, Job Design, and Self-Regulatory Barriers to Improving the Health Status of Train Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Chapman, Janine; Allan, Matthew; Trigg, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impacts of key barriers to improving the occupational health status of Australian train drivers. From May to June, 2015, five semi-structured qualitative focus groups were conducted with 29 train drivers from South Australian, Victorian, and New South Wales-based rail organizations in Australia. Occupational health was impeded by multiple barriers regarding sleep (patterns/fatigue), diet (planning/context), mental health (occupational stress), rostering (low autonomy), sedentary time, low fitness motivation, and family/social life conflicts. Work organizational barriers included communication issues, low organizational support, and existing social norms. Job design barriers included rostering, fatigue, stimulant reliance, and family/social life imbalances. Self-regulatory barriers included dietary and exercise patterns habits and patterns. Occupational health interventions for Australian train drivers must address work organizational, job design, and self-regulatory barriers to healthier lifestyle behaviors.

  8. Safety-at-work competences as a driver of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górny Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to operate effectively in a continuously changing and frequently turbulent markets, companies must account for the needs and expectations of both their management and lower-ranking employees. To that end, it is essential that business organizations identify ways to adopt changes that will guarantee their success. One way to improve the market position of a company is to employ the principles of corporate social responsibility. A key requirements as well as a key area of such responsibility is occupational health and safety, whose guidelines fall within the scope of the overall practices enshrined in labor law. A prerequisite for the effective fulfillment of such requirements is to secure competent contractors who will undertake all measures associated with this field. The article notes the issue and examines it against the standards set forth in ISO 26000. The author demonstrates the need to acquire competences that will enable the concerned company to ensure the safe performance of work and the fulfillment of occupational health and safety requirements in conformity with the principles of corporate social responsibility. Only by embracing the rules of CSR under such an approach will a business be able to achieve the desired outcomes.

  9. Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well...... associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings....

  10. In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Technology and teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technology is likely to affect young drivers more than others. The distraction potential of infotainment technology stresses the same vulnerabilities that already lead young drivers to crash more frequently than other drivers. Cell phones, text messaging, MP3 players, and other nomadic devices all present a threat because young drivers may lack the spare attentional capacity for vehicle control and the ability to anticipate and manage hazards. Moreover, young drivers are likely to be the first and most aggressive users of new technology. Fortunately, emerging technology can also support safe driving. Electronic stability control, collision avoidance systems, intelligent speed adaptation, and vehicle tracking systems can all help mitigate the threats to young drivers. However, technology alone is unlikely to make young drivers safer. One promising approach to tailoring technology to teen drivers is to extend proven methods for enhancing young driver safety. The success of graduated drivers license programs (GDL) and the impressive safety benefit of supervised driving suggest ways of tailoring technology to the needs of young drivers. To anticipate the effects of technology on teen driving it may be useful to draw an analogy between the effects of passengers and the effects of technology. Technology can act as a teen passenger and undermine safety or it can act as an adult passenger and enhance safety. Rapidly developing technology may have particularly large effects on teen drivers. To maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects will require a broad range of industries to work together. Ideally, vehicle manufacturers would work with infotainment providers, insurance companies, and policy makers to craft new technologies so that they accommodate the needs of young drivers. Without such collaboration young drivers will face even greater challenges to their safety as new technologies emerge.

  12. The TRAIN-project: railway safety and the train driver information environment and work situation. A summary of the main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, L. [MTO Psychology and Swedish National Rail Administration (Sweden); Ingre, M.; Kecklund, G.; Soederstroem, M.; Aakerstedt, T. [National Inst. for Psychosocial Factors and Health (Sweden); Lindberg, E. [Swedish National Rail Administration (Sweden); Jansson, A.; Olsson, E.; Sandblad, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Human-Computer Interaction; Almqvist, P. [Swedish State Railways (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    The TRAIN project investigates traffic safety related risks, focusing in particular on the train driver work situation, use of information but also on the supporting safety organisation. It is an on-going project funded and managed by Swedish National Rail Administration and carried out by independent researchers. The project provides a multi-disciplinary investigation by use of a man-technology-organisation (MTO) perspective. Activities performed are task analysis, evaluation of the drivers use of information and interaction with the ATP system as well as analyses of stress, mental workload and work hours. Several methods are being used such as interviews, questionnaires, diaries, activity monitoring and videotapes. This paper gives an overview of the project as well as a short summary of the main results. Detailed results are presented in separate reports as started in the reference list. Some of the main results are that the drivers report severe problems concerning sleepiness on early morning shifts, problems with maintenance on vehicles, lack of information supporting the planning task as well as problems in understanding ATP functions. Two groups of drivers having a feed-back related as opposed to a feed-forward driving style could be identified. In conclusion there is a great need to perform more scientific studies of human factors and railway safety as well as to implement safety management programs including professional human factors competence in the railway industries. (orig.)

  13. Determinants of personality and risky road behaviors at work in drivers of medical transport vehicles in the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cybulski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality determinants are an important predicator of road behaviors in drivers. The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between personality determinants (neuroticism, extraversion, level of anxiety – features and distinguishable risky behaviors of drivers of medical transport vehicles. Material and Methods: The study covered 106 male drivers from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship, working in health care, having a license to drive emergency vehicles. To achieve the research objectives a questionnaire was developed and applied. It concerned risky road behaviors among drivers of medical transport. The personality suitability was determined using the questionnaire methods on self-assessment: Polish versions of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire. Results: It was shown that drivers with introverted characteristics declare driving vehicles of reduced technical efficiency more often than extroverts. The level of the anxiety as a trait A-characteristic affects the display of distracting behaviors, making decisions about driving a vehicle that is inefficient, driving in a bad psychophysical condition, as well as maintaining too small distance from the preceding vehicle. The higher the intensity of anxiety characteristics, the higher the intensity of given behaviors. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it can be assumed that there is a relationship between determinants of personality and the display of risky behaviors of drivers of medical transport vehicles. Thus it can be concluded that the level of extraversion and anxiety as a trait are the differentiating characteristics of respondents. Med Pr 2014;65(4:485–496

  14. Using Appraisal Theory to Predict Emotional and Coping Responses to Hurtful Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Bippus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on appraisal theory (Lazarus 1991; 1999, this study examined the degree to which primary and secondary cognitive appraisals of hurtful messages predict the amountof hurt individuals feel, and the coping behaviors they enact. This study presents a significant step forward in its operationalization of both primary and secondary appraisal variables by treating hurt as an outcome, rather than an antecedent, of the appraisal process, and considers an extensive range of coping responses. We surveyed participants (N = 217 about hurtful messages they received within an array of relationship types. The results revealed that fours types of appraisals predicted the amount of hurt recipients experienced. All coping behaviors except positive reappraisal were significantly predicted by the primary appraisals (categories of risk and secondary appraisals (perceived intentionality and frequency of hurtful messages. The findings explicate appraisal theory’s potential in explaining individuals’ responses to hurtful communication.

  15. The Headache Under-Response to Treatment (HURT) Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Ls; Steiner, Timothy J; Macgregor, E Anne

    2013-01-01

    to change induced by effective management. We administered HURT on three occasions to 159 consecutive patients seeking non-urgent care from centres in Denmark and the United Kingdom: the first before the initial visit to the centres; the second at the initial visit; and the third when the specialist judged...

  16. Hurtful Cyber-Teasing and Violence: Who's Laughing out Loud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.; Westerman, David

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to specifically examine the affect of teasing by way of technology (cyber-teasing) and the importance of the redressive component of a tease. A triangulated approach was used here to gain better insight into the concept of "hurtful" cyber-teasing between romantic partners. A pretheoretical model was developed highlighting…

  17. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  18. Road rage behaviour and experiences of rickshaw drivers in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among rickshaw drivers in Rawalpindi, Pakistan to study their road rage behaviour and experiences. Cumulatively 318 male drivers participated in this study. The most common forms of road rage reported were: having been shouted at; and having experienced rude gestures from other drivers (78.9% each). Least common forms of road rage reported were: threats of physical hurt or having actually been physically hurt ( rage experiences than those who had been driving for more than 10 years (P < 0.01). There is a need for nationally representative surveys to study road age in commercial vehicle drivers so as to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  19. What Works May Hurt: Side Effects in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Medical research is held as a field for education to emulate. Education researchers have been urged to adopt randomized controlled trials, a more "scientific" research method believed to have resulted in the advances in medicine. But a much more important lesson education needs to borrow from medicine has been ignored. That is the study…

  20. What Works May Hurt: Side Effects in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Medical research is held as a field for education to emulate. Education researchers have been urged to adopt randomized controlled trials, a more "scientific" research method believed to have resulted in the advances in medicine. But a much more important lesson education needs to borrow from medicine has been ignored. That is the study…

  1. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  2. Solidarity, community and the political economy of hurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers whether as anti-racist activists we can form a community of solidarity. Critiquing the issue of ‘whiteness’, I consider whether such a community reflects or actually confronts the structures of a political economy of whiteness. Using both academic literature and narrative research I reflect on my own experiences of racism and hurt. These emotional and important issues are then intertwined within the political economy of whiteness.

  3. Does Generic Advertising Help or Hurt Brand Advertising?

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Daeseok; Chung, Chanjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the generic advertising helps or hurts the brand advertising within the differentiated product environments. We develop an analytical model that includes both generic and brand advertising expenditures considering vertical product differentiation. Then the analysis is devoted to examine how marginal effects of expenditure affect each other under product differentiation. To help examine the relationship, we also include a new variable, the de...

  4. The Necessity for Smart Power: How a SWIFT Kick Hurts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of consolidating financial transactions to provide good oversight, regulations and effective monitoring. In the spring of 2012, the BRIC nations...transfers. It is not the system that is faulty but the influence of the U.S. over it that is the danger to the BRIC nations. The BRICs discussed the...U.S. could hurt them considerably with this action. The question that the BRIC nations asked was, “Must we be subject to the financial will of the

  5. Condições de trabalho e saúde de motoristas de transporte coletivo urbano Work and health conditions of urban public bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Battiston

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar as condições de trabalho e saúde de motoristas de transporte coletivo urbano da cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, tendo como suporte principal as contribuições oriundas da Psicologia Ambiental, da Psicologia do Trabalho e da Ergonomia. Foram realizadas observações do local de trabalho, das linhas e do comportamento do motorista durante o percurso na linha. Foram entrevistados 21 motoristas e as falas serviram de recurso para a análise qualitativa organizada em categorias analíticas. Pôde-se concluir que a atividade de dirigir é desgastante, causa fadiga e sua eficácia está relacionada principalmente a fatores ambientais do local de trabalho e a forma como os motoristas lidam com esses fatores. Há a incidência de distúrbios orgânicos (dores na cabeça, nas pernas e problemas auditivos e psíquicos (como estresse, irritabilidade e fadiga, que afetam não só a atividade de dirigir mas também a vida social e coletiva desse profissional.The purpose of this study was to characterize work and health conditions of urban bus drivers of Florianópolis, Brazil, using as principal support the contributions derived from Environmental Psychology, Working Psychology and Ergonomics. Observations were made at work site, routes and of driver's behavior throughout the route. Twenty-one drivers were interviewed and the lines were used as a resource for the qualitative analysis organized in analytical categories. It was concluded that the driving activity is consuming, causes fatigue and its efficacy is mainly related to environmental factors from the work site and the way the drivers deal with it. Organic (head soreness, leg soreness and hearing problems and psychic (as stress, irritability and fatigue disturbs affect not only the driving activity but also the social and community life of this professional.

  6. Psychological mindsets affect consumption: How different mindsets help (hurt) portion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Derek D; He, Sharlene

    2016-08-01

    The present work discusses how psychological mindsets-orientations that affect how consumers encode, interpret, and respond to information- can help, as well as hurt, portion control. To this end, the current article first provides an overview of the general idea of psychological mindsets. Subsequently, evidence from three distinct areas of mindset research is reviewed: power and powerlessness; fixed and growth; promotion and prevention. For each literature, the relevant mindsets are discussed, and their implications for consumer behavior generally and portion control specifically are illuminated. The paper also provides a discussion of gaps in mindset research with consideration given to how to bridge the theoretical development on mindsets to practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Driver support systems and traffic safety : theoretical considerations. On behalf of the Directorate-General of Public Works and Water Management, Transport Research Centre AVV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, M.J. & Heijer, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of possible approaches, when considering driver support and traffic safety. The assessment of driver support systems should address potential problems in relation to the environment, the driver, and the driving task. Assessment procedures should focus on potential er

  8. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this topic was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Topic last reviewed: March 2015 For ... see Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Older Population. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Crashes Down Among Older Drivers Fortunately, ...

  9. [Working conditions on public buses and common mental disorders among drivers and fare collectors: Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Silva, Luiz Sérgio da

    2013-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) contribute to overall burden of disease. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of CMD among a sample of bus drivers and fare collectors in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigate whether traffic conditions and conditions inside buses were associated with the outcome. This non-probabilistic sample of 1,607 workers was estimated from the size of the effective workforce (n = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews used a digital questionnaire with online data processing. Overall prevalence of CMD was 23.6%. Bad traffic conditions lost statistical significance in the multivariate analysis, while higher income and adverse working conditions and inadequate safety remained associated with the outcome. Harmful behavior and vulnerable health situations were associated with CMD. This study of urban bus workers' health is a unique contribution that can provide backing for public policies targeting metropolitan populations.

  10. Stay Safe at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common type of workplace injury. You are at risk of getting hurt at work if you: Lift or carry heavy objects. This ... tips: Sit or stand up straight while you work. If you sit, adjust the chair or desk to your height. If you use tools or equipment, put them ...

  11. Exploration in American Archaeology: Essays in Honor of Wesley R. Hurt. edited by Mark G. Plew, University Press of America, Lanham, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This volume contains a short 6 page history of the contributions ofWesley Robert Hurt, Jr., to Americanist archaeology,along with a 4 page 'selected' list of his publications. The review starts with his career in the Southwest, traces the shift in his research to the Plains, and especially South Dakota, and then turns to his later change of interest to South America (especially Colombia, Brazil and Uru­guay. Hurt was born September 20, 1 9 1 7 in New Mexico, and got into archaeology through his cousin, Reginald Fisher, who was working for Dr. Edgar L. Heweu. Hurt started out taking Heweu's Chaco Canyon Field School, and began working on the Jemez Archaeological project as a high school student in the 1930s. After graduating from the University of New Mexico in 1938, he worked from 1938 to 1940 as a WPAArchaeology Project supervisor on Southwest projects, and in 1941 served as the Na­tional Park Service archaeologist at Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

  12. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie's Load theory) which implies that people with higher WM capacity are less susceptible to distractor interference. This study investigated the interaction between verbal WM load and WM capacity on driving performance to determine whether individuals with higher WM capacity were less affected by verbal WM load, leading to a smaller deterioration of driving performance. Driving performance of 46 young novice drivers (17-25 years-old) was measured with the lane change task (LCT). Participants drove without and with verbal WM load of increasing complexity (auditory-verbal response N-back task). Both visuospatial and verbal WM capacity were investigated. Dependent measures were mean deviation in the lane change path (MDEV), lane change initiation (LCI) and percentage of correct lane changes (PCL). Driving experience was included as a covariate. Performance on each dependent measure deteriorated with increasing verbal WM load. Meanwhile, higher WM capacity related to better LCT performance. Finally, for LCI and PCL, participants with higher verbal WM capacity were influenced less by verbal WM load. These findings entail that completely eliminating distraction is necessary to minimize crash risks among young novice drivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivation, values, and work design as drivers of participation in the R open source project for statistical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Patrick; Hofmann, Eva; Gruber, Kathrin; Hatzinger, Reinhold; Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt

    2015-12-01

    One of the cornerstones of the R system for statistical computing is the multitude of packages contributed by numerous package authors. This amount of packages makes an extremely broad range of statistical techniques and other quantitative methods freely available. Thus far, no empirical study has investigated psychological factors that drive authors to participate in the R project. This article presents a study of R package authors, collecting data on different types of participation (number of packages, participation in mailing lists, participation in conferences), three psychological scales (types of motivation, psychological values, and work design characteristics), and various socio-demographic factors. The data are analyzed using item response models and subsequent generalized linear models, showing that the most important determinants for participation are a hybrid form of motivation and the social characteristics of the work design. Other factors are found to have less impact or influence only specific aspects of participation.

  14. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  15. Alte Harfe. Vollständige Sammlung alter estnischer Volkslieder : Vorrede / Jakob Hurt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hurt, Jakob, 1839-1907

    2005-01-01

    Eessõna rmt. : Hurt, Jakob. Vana kannel. 1. kogu : täieline kogu vanu eesti rahvalaulusid = Alte Harfe : vollständige Sammlung alter estnischen Volkslieder. Tartu, 1875-1886. - (Eesti Kirjameeste Seltsi toimetised ; 3)

  16. Alte Harfe. Vollständige Sammlung alter estnischer Volkslieder : Vorrede / Jakob Hurt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hurt, Jakob, 1839-1907

    2005-01-01

    Eessõna rmt. : Hurt, Jakob. Vana kannel. 1. kogu : täieline kogu vanu eesti rahvalaulusid = Alte Harfe : vollständige Sammlung alter estnischen Volkslieder. Tartu, 1875-1886. - (Eesti Kirjameeste Seltsi toimetised ; 3)

  17. Many Adults Unaware That Using E-Cigarettes Can Hurt Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161620.html Many Adults Unaware That Using E-Cigarettes Can Hurt Kids Indoor use promotes harmful nicotine ... nicotine deposits on surfaces, a new survey shows. "E-cigarettes primarily emit a toxic aerosol, not harmless water ...

  18. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  19. Forgiveness and Its Determinants Depending on the Interpersonal Context of Hurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents encounter different hurtful experiences in school settings. How these events are processed (e.g., whether they think that the transgressor was hostile) is likely to depend on the relationship with the transgressor. In this study, we examined how adolescents (58 girls and 35 boys, mean age = 14.03 years, SD = 0.60) dealt…

  20. When News Hurts. The promise of participatory storytelling for urban problem neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costera-Meijer, I.C.

    2012-01-01

    A content analysis of more than 3400 news items published in national and regional Dutch (quality) newspapers, in combination with ethnographic audience and production research, has allowed us to explain when, how and why news can hurt. A longitudinal ethnographic case study of two highly mediatized

  1. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a foll...

  2. 基于GPU FPGA芯片原型的VxWorks下驱动软件开发%Development of Driver Software for GPU Based on FPGA in VxWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马城城; 田泽; 黎小玉

    2013-01-01

    为满足日益复杂的应用需求、减轻CPU日益繁重的图形处理任务,促使图形处理器GPU产生、应用和不断发展.驱动软件作为GPU的重要组成部分,与GPU硬件的契合程度直接影响整个图形系统性能的发挥,出于各种原因高端GPU配套的图形驱动软件对外不公开或价格昂贵,对图形应用系统的开发带来不便.文中基于自研GPU芯片FPGA原型图形系统,讲述了VxWorks下GPU驱动软件的设计与实现,该驱动软件为用户提供3D处理和2D处理接口.其中3D处理实现完整的OpenGL1.3基本库及GLU、GLUT辅助库;2D处理使用VxWorks操作系统的WindML组件实现.较好实现了图形处理软件与硬件的配合,对自主GPU芯片应用开发意义重大.%In order to meet the complicated application demand and reduce the increasingly graphic task on CPU,the Graphic Process Unit (GPU) has developed continually.The driver is an important part of GPU that affects the performance of whole system by cooperating with GPU hardware.It's difficult to create graphic applications on GPU because the driver is not opened for many reasons.It introduces the design and implementation of self-design GPU driver based on VxWorks.The driver offers 3D operation and 2D operation.The 3D operation achieves OpenGL1.3 kernel library,GLU library and GLUT library.2D operation is realized by WindML in VxWorks.The driver does well in the cooperation between graphic hardware and graphic software.It provides a useful reference for application on GPU chip.

  3. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  4. Is an urban legend true in the teaching hospital that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoki; Abe, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-02-01

    An urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year" is in circulation, because people in general suppose that inexperienced newcomers start to work at clinical practice during that time period. We tried to determine whether this urban legend was true or not by using data from our operation management system. We retrospectively conducted a study to investigate whether the number of cannulation failures, which was used as an index of patient disadvantages at clinical practice, could be affected by the volume of residents in clinical participation. The number of insertion trials per case was not prominent in the first month of the fiscal year. However, the number of insertion trials per case increased in proportion to the average number of residents per day. It seems that there was no evidence to support the urban legend that "you will get hurt if you go to hospital at the beginning of the fiscal year." However, our results suggest that rather than an urban legend, we are now confronting the fact that patients may suffer from medical disadvantages in the teaching hospitals.

  5. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  6. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    (2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.37), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.33), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.30); emotional balance of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.47), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.33), freight trains drivers(R(2) = 0.31). ERI, psychological needs, work responsibilities, job roles, work conflict, and physical environment were important occupational stress factors of train drivers; social support was pivotal mitigating factors; different train drivers had different occupational stress status, high speed rail drivers were the highest, and freight trains drivers passenger train drivers or passenger shunting train drivers were the lowest.

  7. Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on Children's Helpful and Hurtful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reveals that playing prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions, positive affect, and helpful behaviors [Gentile et al., 2009; Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2009, 2010, 2011]. These results are consistent with the social-cognitive models of social behavior such as the general learning model [Buckley and Anderson, 2006]. However, no experimental studies have examined such effects on children. Previous research on violent video games suggests that short-term effects of video games are largely based on priming of existing behavioral scripts. Thus, it is unclear whether younger children will show similar effects. This research had 9-14 years olds play a prosocial, neutral, or violent video game, and assessed helpful and hurtful behaviors simultaneously through a new tangram measure. Prosocial games increased helpful and decreased hurtful behavior, whereas violent games had the opposite effects.

  8. Oppositionality and sympathetic skin response in adolescents: specific associations with the headstrong/hurtful dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nanucha Teixeira da; Schestatsky, Pedro; Winckler, Pablo Brea; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Petroceli, Alana Wypyszynski; Heldt, Elizeth Paz da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Oppositionality encompasses distinct dimensions, and few studies have investigated the validity of such distinctions from a pathophysiological perspective. Our aim was to investigate the association between sympathetic skin responses (SSR) and distinct oppositional dimensions in a community sample of adolescents. Forty adolescents aged 13.84±1.46 years participated in this study. Oppositionality was measured by externalizing behavior and bullying scores (dependent variables), while SSR was recorded by electrical changes at the skin level (independent variables). Results showed that increased SSRs were associated with oppositionality; however, these associations were specific to the headstrong/hurtful dimension. Further exploratory analyses demonstrated that increased SSRs were associated with several types of headstrong/hurtful behaviors and underscore the importance of the first aversive stimuli to differentiate groups with low and high headstrong/hurtful behaviors. There were no differences between groups regarding time until habituation. This study provides insights about how dysfunctions in autonomic balance may contribute to the emergence of oppositional behavior among adolescents.

  9. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  10. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...... that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts....

  11. Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  12. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  13. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  14. Do demanding conditions help or hurt self-regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.; Baumann, N.

    2012-01-01

    Although everyday life is often demanding, it remains unclear how demanding conditions impact self-regulation. Some theories suggest that demanding conditions impair self-regulation, by undermining autonomy, interfering with skilled performance and working memory, and depleting energy resources.

  15. Trabalho e saúde em motoristas de caminhão no interior de São Paulo Work and health of truck drivers in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Zanella Penteado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar alguns aspectos de saúde e de trabalho de caminhoneiros, identificando possíveis relações, determinantes e/ou agravantes, de impactos negativos na sua qualidade de vida. MÉTODO: foram entrevistados 400 caminhoneiros do interior de São Paulo, na Rodovia SP-330. Utilizou-se um questionário fechado, que aborda aspectos da percepção dos motoristas sobre a sua saúde e trabalho. RESULTADOS: 59,5% dos trabalhadores são autônomos e 58,5% viajam em rota curta (no limite do Estado, trabalham em média 12,7 horas diárias e tem entre 5 a 8 horas de sono. Referiram problemas constantes ou ocasionais de postura (67,75%, auditivos (37,75%, estomacais (57,5%, resfriados/gripes (70%, sentimentos negativos como medo, estresse e depressão (58,5%, tonturas (23%, rouquidão (30,75%, pigarro (36,5%, tosse (53,5%. Quanto aos hábitos de consumo e comportamentos, ingerem café (87,75%, alimentos gordurosos (84,5%, bebidas alcoólicas (43%, energéticos (19,5%; fumam (32% e usam outras drogas (2%. CONCLUSÃO: Diversos aspectos das condições de trabalho, hábitos e comportamentos de motoristas de caminhão exercem impactos negativos sobre sua saúde, com prejuízos para a comunicação e a qualidade de vida.The aim of the present study is to assess some aspects of health and work of truck drivers and to identify possible relationships, determining and/or aggravating factors of negative impacts in their quality of life. METHOD: 400 truck drivers in a city of SP in SP330 Highway were interviewed. A closed questionnaire was used approaching aspects of the drivers' perception of their health and work. RESULTS: 59.5% of workers are self-employed, and 58.5% do only short travels (within the limits of the State, they work an average 12.7 hours/day and have from 5-8 hours of sleep. Regarding health, they reported constant or occasional postural (67.75%, auditory (37.75%, and stomach problems (57.5% as well as colds (70

  16. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  17. CMOS Law-jitter Clock Driver Design

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Design of a low-jitter, low-phase noise clock driver in 40 nm CMOS technology. The work is in the field of analog integrated circuit (IC) design in nanometer CMOS technologies. [CASTELLÀ] Diseño de un circuito integrado "clock driver" de bajo jitter y bajo ruido de fase en tecnología CMOS 40 nm. El trabajo se contextualiza en el campo del diseño de circuitos integrados analógicos en tecnologías CMOS nanométricas. [CATALÀ] Disseny d'un circuit "clock driver" de baix jitter i bai...

  18. LC Oscillator Driver for Safety Critical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Horsky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS harmonic signal LC oscillator driver for automotive applications working in a harsh environment with high safety critical requirements is described. The driver can be used with a wide range of external components parameters (LC resonance network of a sensor). Quality factor of the external LC network can vary two decades. Amplitude regulation of the driver is digitally controlled and the DAC is constructed as exponential with piece-wise-linear (PWL) approximation. Low current consumption for high quality resonance networks is achieved. Realized oscillator is robust, used in safety critical application and has low EMC emissions.

  19. Cold Remedies: What Works, What Doesn't, What Can't Hurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking in warm liquids, such as chicken soup, tea, or warm apple juice, might be soothing and ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  20. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  1. Driver drowsiness detection using multimodal sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena O.; Aarabi, Parham; Philiastides, Marios G.; Mohajer, Keyvan; Emami, Majid

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a multi-modal sensor fusion algorithm for the estimation of driver drowsiness. Driver sleepiness is believed to be responsible for more than 30% of passenger car accidents and for 4% of all accident fatalities. In commercial vehicles, drowsiness is blamed for 58% of single truck accidents and 31% of commercial truck driver fatalities. This work proposes an innovative automatic sleep-onset detection system. Using multiple sensors, the driver"s body is studied as a mechanical structure of springs and dampeners. The sleep-detection system consists of highly sensitive triple-axial accelerometers to monitor the driver"s upper body in 3-D. The subject is modeled as a linear time-variant (LTV) system. An LMS adaptive filter estimation algorithm generates the transfer function (i.e. weight coefficients) for this LTV system. Separate coefficients are generated for the awake and asleep states of the subject. These coefficients are then used to train a neural network. Once trained, the neural network classifies the condition of the driver as either awake or asleep. The system has been tested on a total of 8 subjects. The tests were conducted on sleep-deprived individuals for the sleep state and on fully awake individuals for the awake state. When trained and tested on the same subject, the system detected sleep and awake states of the driver with a success rate of 95%. When the system was trained on three subjects and then retested on a fourth "unseen" subject, the classification rate dropped to 90%. Furthermore, it was attempted to correlate driver posture and sleepiness by observing how car vibrations propagate through a person"s body. Eight additional subjects were studied for this purpose. The results obtained in this experiment proved inconclusive which was attributed to significant differences in the individual habitual postures.

  2. Do demanding conditions help or hurt self-regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.; Baumann, N.

    2012-01-01

    Although everyday life is often demanding, it remains unclear how demanding conditions impact self-regulation. Some theories suggest that demanding conditions impair self-regulation, by undermining autonomy, interfering with skilled performance and working memory, and depleting energy resources. Oth

  3. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of ado

  4. Text traffic signs size in expressway work zone based on driver's visual characteristics%基于驾驶人视认特性的高速公路作业区文字类交通标志尺寸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭余华; 吕纪娜

    2016-01-01

    针对高速公路作业区文字类交通标志在不同行驶速度、道路条件及标志的多信息量条件下对驾驶人视认特性的影响,及其尺寸规格不统一对驾驶人形成的非一致性视觉感受,基于《道路交通标志和标线》(GB 5768-2009,简称“国标”)的文字高度模型,结合高速公路作业区文字类交通标志信息特性,以驾驶人的视认特性为出发点构建车辆行驶模型,设计了多文字标志信息视认试验;通过改进传统文字高度算法,提出了综合考虑行车速度、驾驶人视认特性以及标志牌信息量等因素的汉字高度优化模型.研究结果表明:“国标”对汉字的感知、阅读理解时间的取值是以单个汉字的视认时间为基础的,通过多文字标志信息视认试验发现,当标志牌字数m≥6时,难以反映当前作业区多字数标志信息视认特性;优化的文字高度模型充分考虑了标志牌多信息量时驾驶人的视认特性,文字高度取值比“国标”更合理全面;在此基础上对标志尺寸进行了优化设计,即先采用优化的文字高度算法计算汉字高度,再利用“国标”的汉字排版方式设计,这样既能保证视认性的要求,又能最大限度地利用标志牌版面,进而给出了高速公路作业区文字类标志尺寸的设计标准.%Text traffic signs in expressway work zone have effects on the characteristics of driver's visibility under the conditions of different speed,road conditions and the sign's multiinformation,and different traffic signs sizes will cause the dimensions of freeway work zone driver's visual experience of non-conformance.Therefore,this paper combined with freeway work zone traffic sign writing class message feature and took visibility characteristics of driver as a starting point to build the vehicle model based on the text height model of "road traffic signs and markings",and designed the multi-word mark information visibility tests

  5. Rosalind Driver studentships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  6. Drivers 65 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see, hear, and feel in relation to other cars and drivers, traffic signs and signals, conditions of the highway, and the performance of your car. These decisions are usually made close to other ...

  7. Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polsky Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with certain comorbid conditions have a higher risk of pneumonia than the overall population. If treatment of pneumonia is more costly in certain predictable situations, this would affect the value proposition of populations for pneumonia prevention. We estimate the economic impact of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP for adults with asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF in a large U.S. commercially-insured working age population. Methods Data sources consisted of 2003 through 2007 Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Thomson Reuters Health Productivity and Management (HPM databases. Pneumonia episodes and selected comorbidities were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. By propensity score matching, controls were identified for pneumonia patients. Excess direct medical costs and excess productivity cost were estimated by generalized linear models (GLM. Results We identified 402,831 patients with CAP between 2003 through 2007, with 25,560, 32,677, 16,343, and 5,062 episodes occurring in patients with asthma, diabetes, COPD and CHF, respectively. Mean excess costs (and standard error, SE of CAP were $14,429 (SE=44 overall. Mean excess costs by comorbidity subgroup were lowest for asthma ($13,307 (SE=123, followed by diabetes ($21,395 (SE=171 and COPD ($23,493 (SE=197; mean excess costs were highest for patients with CHF ($34,436 (SE=549. On average, indirect costs comprised 21% of total excess costs, ranging from 8% for CHF patients to 27% for COPD patients. Conclusions Compared to patients without asthma, diabetes, COPD, or CHF, the excess cost of CAP is nearly twice as high for patients with diabetes and COPD and nearly three times as high for patients with CHF. Indirect costs made up a significant but varying portion of excess CAP costs. Returns on prevention of pneumonia would therefore be higher in adults with these comorbidities.

  8. Proactive driver training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossler, W. [Kinetic Safety Consulting Inc., Grande Prairie, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Skid avoidance training is a recent approach to driver training and has been employed in various countries with a high degree of success. Among top ranked countries, motor vehicle incidents trends indicate higher incident rates among drivers are often due to lack of knowledge, experience and risk awareness. If lowered age limit experience is attained under direct supervision and in safe training conditions, it was suggested, incident frequency is reduced. A Norway study confirmed an increase in vehicle incident rates after drivers had received skid control training. The drivers were unable to maintain skill levels needed to react to critical driving tasks and had unrealistic expectations of skill after training. However, a skid avoidance training program launched in Sweden in 1999 has resulted in a 50 per cent reduction of vehicle incidents in the last 2 years. Details of the Skidcar System were presented, including details of the driving simulator, where simulation of actual driving situations is achieved by simply adjusting the amount of grip the vehicle has with the driving surface. Instructors modify driving behaviors based upon the driver's ability to maintain grip. There are over 200 units in North America. In addition, a Proactive Light Vehicle Driver Training/ Heavy Vehicle Assessment Program was initiated in 2003, with a motor vehicle incident rate reduction of 50 per cent at the end of 2004. Various examples of situations in which drivers have used their skid avoidance skills to avoid incidents were included. It was noted that the trend among driver training professionals has been towards decision-based rather than skills-based training, as skills-based training will diminish over time, and requires frequent re-training periods. Cognitive and perceptual skills were examined, as well as cognitive, associative and autonomous learning phases. It was concluded that skid avoidance is largely a decision-based skill. tabs, figs.

  9. Older drivers, crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Bohensky, Megan; Langford, Jim; Taranto, David

    2011-10-01

    This article aimed to identify the main features of older driver casualty crashes, including detailed descriptions of injury outcomes. Data were obtained from the Transport Accident Commission insurance claims database for 2 groups of drivers: aged 41 to 55 years (middle-aged drivers) and aged 65 years and older (older drivers). In terms of crash circumstances, the majority of crashes involved a collision with another vehicle (70.0% of middle-aged drivers and 68.7% of older drivers). The 2 main maneuvers at the time of crash were driving straight ahead (44.6% of middle-aged drivers and 42.8% of older drivers) and turning right (equivalent of left turn in North America; 15.2% of middle-aged drivers and 17.6% of older drivers). In terms of injury outcomes, older drivers sustained a significantly higher proportion of injuries to the thorax (30.9% compared to 18.5% of middle-aged drivers). Conversely, a significantly higher proportion of middle-aged drivers sustained some form of injury to the neck (30.6% compared to 12.1% of older drivers). These findings highlight the situations that are particularly risky for older drivers and provide important insights for developing solutions to reduce older driver crash and injury risk.

  10. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  11. The Construction of Moral Agency in Mother-Child Conversations about Helping and Hurting across Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Wainryb, Cecilia; Bourne, Stacia; Pasupathi, Monisha

    2014-01-01

    This study examined mother-child conversations about children's and adolescents' past harmful and helpful actions. The sample included 100 mothers and their 7-, 11-, or 16-year-old children; each dyad discussed events when the child (a) helped a friend and (b) hurt a friend. Analyses suggested that conversations about help may serve to…

  12. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau

    2002-01-01

    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  13. 适应锚机工况要求的开关磁阻电机调速系统的研究%On Switched Reluctance Driver System to Meet Anchor Machine Working Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芊; 胡猛; 李元栋

    2012-01-01

    The components of switched reluctance driver system are described in this essay. The SRD system hardware is required under the anchor machine conditions. Control strategies at differents stages of the system are described according to the anchor machine working requirements. The application of STD in marine anchor machine control system can achieve automotive control of anchor machine, so that ship electrical automation, ship intelligence, information level are raised to some extent.%介绍了开关磁阻电机调速系统(SRD)的基本组成。根据锚机工作条件提出SRD系统硬件要求,针对锚机工况要求阐述了在不同阶段系统的控制策略。将SRD用于船用锚机控制系统有助于实现锚机的自动控制,并在一定程度上提升了船舶电气自动化、智能化和信息化水平。

  14. Important information for drivers in France

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  15. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  16. The war on prevention: bellicose cancer metaphors hurt (some) prevention intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Cancer health information is dominated by enemy and war metaphors intended to motivate the public to "fight" cancer. However, enemy metaphoric framing may influence understanding of, and responses to, cancer. Cancer prevention benefits from avoiding risk increasing behaviors, yet self-limitation is not closely associated with fighting enemies. If so, the metaphor may hurt prevention intentions involving self-limitation. Participants read messages with minute wording variations that established different metaphoric frames. Results show that metaphorically framing cancer as an enemy lessens the conceptual accessibility of (Study 1) and intention for self-limiting prevention behaviors while not increasing intention for monitoring and treatment behaviors (Studies 2 and 3). Framing self-limiting prevention behaviors in terms of fighting an enemy increases their appeal, illustrating the benefits of metaphor matching (Study 3). Overall, these results suggest that enemy metaphors in cancer information reduce some prevention intentions without increasing others, making their use potentially harmful for public health.

  17. When it hurts (and helps) to try: the role of effort in language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Lee, Taraz; Kraus, Allison; Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2014-01-01

    Compared to children, adults are bad at learning language. This is counterintuitive; adults outperform children on most measures of cognition, especially those that involve effort (which continue to mature into early adulthood). The present study asks whether these mature effortful abilities interfere with language learning in adults and further, whether interference occurs equally for aspects of language that adults are good (word-segmentation) versus bad (grammar) at learning. Learners were exposed to an artificial language comprised of statistically defined words that belong to phonologically defined categories (grammar). Exposure occurred under passive or effortful conditions. Passive learners were told to listen while effortful learners were instructed to try to 1) learn the words, 2) learn the categories, or 3) learn the category-order. Effortful learners showed an advantage for learning words while passive learners showed an advantage for learning the categories. Effort can therefore hurt the learning of categories.

  18. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  19. Really Scary Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莲花

    2005-01-01

    A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...

  20. Clinical evaluation of the deadline of healing of the ulcer of Buruli hurts of diameter lower or equal to 10 centimeters in pobe (Benin)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Koudoukpo; Félix Atadokpede; Laouali Salissou; Françoise Assogba; Fabrice Akpadjan; Bérénice Degboe; Nadège Agbessi; Hugues Adégbidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcer of Buruli is a skin disorder due to Mycobacterium ulcerans. The objective was to estimate the deadline of healing of the hurts of the ulcer of ulcer of Buruli of diameter ≤ 10 cm...

  1. Associations between hurtful weight-related comments by family and significant other and the development of disordered eating behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-10-01

    Research has found that weight-teasing is associated with disordered eating in adolescents. This study expands on the existing research by examining associations between hurtful weight comments by family and a significant other and disordered eating in young adults. Data come from 1,902 young adults (mean age 25) who completed surveys in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Correlations were examined between receiving hurtful comments from family and significant others, and four disordered eating behaviors in young adulthood, adjusting for prior disordered eating and prior teasing. Disordered eating behaviors were common in young adulthood, and were associated with hearing hurtful weight-related comments from family members and a significant other, for both females and males. Disordered eating prevention activities, which include messages about the potential harm associated with hurtful weight-related comments, should be expanded to address young adults, and programs may want to target relationship partners.

  2. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  3. What Are Drivers for Informal Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Eva; Beausaert, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of informal learning at work has received increasing attention in the past years. The purpose of this study is to explore in which informal learning activities employees engage and what are the drivers for informal learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews were taken from ten human resources (HR) and ten…

  4. Exploration in American Archaeology: Essays in Honor of Wesley R. Hurt. edited by Mark G. Plew, University Press of America, Lanham, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a short 6 page history of the contributions ofWesley Robert Hurt, Jr., to Americanist archaeology,along with a 4 page 'selected' list of his publications. The review starts with his career in the Southwest, traces the shift in his research to the Plains, and especially South Dakota, and then turns to his later change of interest to South America (especially Colombia, Brazil and Uru­guay). Hurt was ...

  5. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  6. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  7. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequ

  8. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  9. [Analysis of risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers on different shifts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuxiao; Yan, Fengfeng; Wei, Xiaomin; Yu, Sufang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers working different shifts. Using the cluster sampling method, 415 day-shift and 304 night-shift taxi drivers in Jinan, China were selected and investigated. The influencing factors for hypertension were analyzed. The incidence of hypertension in all taxi drivers was 33.2%. The incidence of hypertension in night-shift drivers was significantly higher than that in day-shift drivers (37.8% vs 29.9%, Ptaxi drivers vary with different shifts.

  10. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries.

  11. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm

  12. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  13. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  14. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  15. Lead Distance Model of Mobile Variable Message Signs in Expressway Work Zone Considering Driver's Cognitive Process%考虑驾驶员认知过程的高速公路施工区MVMS前置距离计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彪; 许洪国; 戴彤焱; 王君祥

    2013-01-01

    为提高高速公路施工区移动式可变信息标志设置的有效性,从认知心理的角度分析驾驶员对移动式可变信息标志的视认性.根据交通信息调查统计数据,分析驾驶员养护施工信息需求;基于驾驶员认知特性,建立高速公路施工区移动式可变信息标志的认知模型,推导出施工区移动式可变信息标志前置距离计算模型.研究结果表明,高速公路施工区移动式可变信息标志的最小安全前置距离约为330 m.%In order to improve the validity of mobile variable message signs setting in expressway work zone, the driver's observation features of mobile variable message signs were analyzed from cognitive psychology. According to the result of traffic information investigation, the demand of driver's maintenance construction information was developed. Based on the characteristics of driver's cognition, the models on driver's cognition and lead distance of mobile variable message signs were presented in expressway work zone. Results of this study show the minimum lead distance of mobile variable message signs is about 330 meters in expressway work zone.

  16. A pneumatic driver for shock wave production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Megan; Mejila-Alvarez, R.; Prestridge, K.

    2011-11-01

    We are presenting a novel technique to generate shock waves in shock tube experiments. Typically this is done with a high pressure driver section that is separated from the low pressure driven section by a physical membrane. The membrane is burst at a specific pressure and a shock wave is formed. This process limits the repetition of experiments, and membrane particles must be removed from the shock tube after each experiment. The driver presented here does not contain a membrane. Instead, it uses a series of high pressure chambers and fast-acting pistons to create the pressure jump between the high pressure driver section and low pressure driven section. The entire system is controlled remotely and requires no insertion or cleanup of membranes between experiments. The system is designed to achieve shock waves exceeding Mach 3 with air as the working fluid (higher Mach numbers can be generated with other working fluids). It will allow high repetition rates, even in challenging experimental environments (such as a vertical shock tube configuration). We present results from the initial characterization of this driver system.

  17. Why does my shoulder hurt? A review of the neuroanatomical and biochemical basis of shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Gwilym, Stephen Edward; Carr, Andrew Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    If a patient asks 'why does my shoulder hurt?' the conversation will quickly turn to scientific theory and sometimes unsubstantiated conjecture. Frequently, the clinician becomes aware of the limits of the scientific basis of their explanation, demonstrating the incompleteness of our understanding of the nature of shoulder pain. This review takes a systematic approach to help answer fundamental questions relating to shoulder pain, with a view to providing insights into future research and novel methods for treating shoulder pain. We shall explore the roles of (1) the peripheral receptors, (2) peripheral pain processing or 'nociception', (3) the spinal cord, (4) the brain, (5) the location of receptors in the shoulder and (6) the neural anatomy of the shoulder. We also consider how these factors might contribute to the variability in the clinical presentation, the diagnosis and the treatment of shoulder pain. In this way we aim to provide an overview of the component parts of the peripheral pain detection system and central pain processing mechanisms in shoulder pain that interact to produce clinical pain.

  18. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  19. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Lyons

    Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  20. Closing the RN engagement gap: which drivers of engagement matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Reynaldo R; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Boyle, Suzanne M

    2011-06-01

    This study focused on the relationship between RNs' perceptions of drivers of engagement and their workplace engagement. In multiple studies, mostly not in healthcare, researchers found that employees engaged in their work are in the minority. This phenomenon is referred to as the engagement gap. Drivers of engagement and levels of nurse engagement were measured among 510 RNs from a large urban academic university center. The greatest difference between engaged and not-engaged nurses was in the manager action index; the smallest difference was in the salary and benefits index. The passion-for-nursing index was the only significant driver related to RN levels of engagement when controlling for all the other drivers. Nurse managers play a critical role in promoting employee engagement. The nurses' passion for nursing is an important dimension of engagement. Salary and benefits were not primary drivers in employee engagement. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  1. Numerical simulation of vehicular traffic for non-ideal drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Laura; Amador, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Numerical simulations of vehicular traffic based on cellular automatae have provided a description of the more relevant experimentally observed properties of the system. Rules for drivers behaviour, though, are highly idealized. In this work we have included rules to mimic the different personalities of drivers: lane changers, passers, over-cautious drivers, tail-gaters, etc. Also we have adopted rules specific to the behaviour of drivers in Mexico City. The whole space of parameters is studied and conclusions are drawn for the effect of this variability on overall vehicular flow. As a further application of the model we study the effect of "shoulder of the road" drivers (who pass congested traffic and return to the main road afterwards) on overall vehicular flow.

  2. PTSD in railroad drivers under the Federal employers' liability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Farrell, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Railroad and subway drivers can experience psychological trauma when trains strike or nearly miss other trains, motor vehicles, or persons or become instruments of death. Derailments, collisions, and suicides on the tracks can induce feelings of helplessness, horror, guilt, and anxiety in the drivers. Although some drivers experience acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their conditions are not always acknowledged within the occupational setting. The world literature suggests that PTSD has been an increasing focus of concern, giving rise to detailed intervention protocols. In the United States, the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) governs the adjudication of work-related injuries among railroad employees. In practice, it is difficult for railroad drivers with PTSD to receive benefits if there was no "direct impact" linked to the employer's negligence. In this article, the authors review the literature on PTSD among railroad drivers, discuss relevant case law, and explain how the FELA militates against some employees with PTSD.

  3. Can We Model Driver Perceptions? An In-Situ Experiment in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Tawfik, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that perceptions play a significant role in traveler decisions. Consequently, traveler perceptions are a corner stone in the feasibility of traveler information systems; for traveler information systems are only valuable if the drivers are incapable of accurately acquiring the provided information on their own, and if the provided information is relevant for the drivers' decision criteria. Accuracy of traveler perceptions has been repeatedly researched in public transportation, and has been found to vary according to different reasons. However, in spite of the clear significance of traveler perceptions, minimal effort has been put into modeling it. Almost all travel behavior models are based on traveler experiences, which are assumed to reflect traveler perceptions via the addition of some random error component. This works introduces an alternative approach: instead of adding an error component to represent driver perceptions, it proposes to model driver perceptions. This work is based on a real-world route choice experiment of a sample of 20 drivers who made more than 2,000 real-world route choices. Each of the drivers' experiences, perceptions, and choices were recorded, analyzed and cross examined. The paper demonstrates that: i driver experiences are different from driver perceptions, ii driver perceptions explain driver choices better than driver experiences, iii it is possible to model and predict driver perceptions of travel distance, time and speed.

  4. Counter-driver shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  5. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  7. Dextromethorphan in Wisconsin drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, Amy; Harding, Patrick; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-05-01

    Dextromethorphan is a synthetic analogue of codeine used in hundreds of over-the-counter medications for its antitussive effects. There have been numerous reports of dextromethorphan abuse by young adults. Dextromethorphan can produce psychoactive effects similar to that of marijuana, and higher doses will produce dissociative effects, including sensory enhancement and hallucinations. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene examined data from blood samples submitted from January 1999 through December 2004 to determine the incidence of dextromethorphan in suspected impaired drivers. A total of 108 samples were found to be positive for dextromethorphan during this time. Dextromethorphan concentrations in these cases ranged from less than 5 to 1800 ng/mL (mean 207 ng/mL), compared to an expected therapeutic concentration range of 0.5-5.9 ng/mL. Overall, the highest dextromethorphan concentrations observed were in males aged 16-20 years. Ninety-six percent of the specimens included in this study were also found to be positive for drugs other than dextromethorphan. A review of police and drug recognition expert reports from several of these cases showed that dextromethorphan-impaired drivers exhibited poor psychomotor performance on standardized field sobriety tests, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and overall signs of central nervous system depression.

  8. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...

  9. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván G. Daza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  10. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-09

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  11. An integrated systems model for heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R O; Faltens, A; Meier, W R

    1998-09-02

    A source-to-target computer model for an induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and used to define a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design. Key features of the model are discussed, and the design parameters of the reference case design are described. Examples of the systems analyses leading to the point design are given, and directions for future work are noted.

  12. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  13. Driver Behavior Modeling: Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah AbuAli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication schemes, mobile cloud and fog computing, and context-aware services boost a growing interest in the design, development, and deployment of driver behavior models for emerging applications. Despite the progressive advancements in various aspects of driver behavior modeling (DBM, only limited work can be found that reviews the growing body of literature, which only targets a subset of DBM processes. Thus a more general review of the diverse aspects of DBM, with an emphasis on the most recent developments, is needed. In this paper, we provide an overview of advances of in-vehicle and smartphone sensing capabilities and communication and recent applications and services of DBM and emphasize research challenges and key future directions.

  14. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  15. Development drivers for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies six broad groups of drivers for development in waste management. Public health led to the emergence of formalized waste collection systems in the nineteenth century, and remains a key driver in developing countries. Environmental protection came to the forefront in the 1970s, with an initial focus on eliminating uncontrolled disposal, followed by the systematic increasing of technical standards. Today, developing countries seem still to be struggling with these first steps; while climate change is also emerging as a key driver. The resource value of waste, which allows people to make a living from discarded materials, was an important driver historically, and remains so in developing countries today. A current trend in developed countries is closing the loop, moving from the concept of 'end-of-pipe' waste management towards a more holistic resource management. Two underpinning groups of drivers are institutional and responsibility issues, and public awareness. There is no, one single driver for development in waste management: the balance between these six groups of drivers has varied over time, and will vary between countries depending on local circumstances, and between stakeholders depending on their perspective. The next appropriate steps towards developing a sustainable, integrated waste management system will also vary in each local situation.

  16. Six reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend......, because a truck driver's work is unpredictable and independent, but the regulation is action-defining and inflexible. Thus the regulations provoke violations because they counteract with the reality of truck drivers´ work conditions. The fifth reason is that the regulation counteracts with a general...

  17. Health and safety strategies of urban taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara Jean; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary Castle

    2012-08-01

    This study describes health and safety concerns and self-care strategies of San Francisco taxi drivers. Focus groups and a written cross-sectional survey were done in a convenience sample of taxi drivers working in San Francisco. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed in English, and independently coded to identify major health and safety themes, using thematic content analysis. Strategies to manage health and safety issues are the focus of this analysis. Five focus groups were held in 2009 with 36 participants. Major health and safety themes included stress, body pain, danger, vulnerable employment status, and concerns related to unhealthy working conditions. Self-care strategies included diffusion/decompression to manage stress, maintaining a positive attitude, maintaining power and control, and practicing proactive self-care. Creative self-care strategies were described by taxi drivers to keep healthy and safe at work. These data will inform future self-care interventions to reduce health and safety risks of taxi driving.

  18. Estilo de vida, aspectos de saúde e trabalho de motoristas de caminhão Estilo de vida, aspectos de la salud y trabajo de los conductores de camiones Life style, health aspects and work among truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Aparecida Masson

    2010-08-01

    and life style, amongst truck drivers were applied to 105 drivers from supply center of Campinas (fruit, vegetable, product wholesale market. The outcomes showed that all drivers interviewed were men, the majority were married, had kids, low study level and more than 30 years old. 54,2% reported abuse psychoactive drugs. The majority was aware of the importance of using condoms with casual partners; 47,5% reported relationship with casual partners and 86 always used condoms. Although the small sample analyzed, the results suggests that must be implemented health promotion actions and illness prevention public politics, including the development of customized educational interventions with in this professional group.

  19. Ambient particulate matter may affect lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hara, Kunio; Mahasandana, Suwisa

    2017-07-26

    The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM10 and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. The findings of the Thailand Pollution Control Department were used to estimate the annual ambient PM10 concentration levels in the metropolis. Pulmonary functions of motorcycle taxi drivers and enclosed vehicle taxi drivers were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the effects of PM10 exposure on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers. A total of 1,283 motorcycle taxi drivers and 600 taxi drivers were investigated. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of the motorcycle taxi drivers was significantly lower than that of the taxi drivers (p taxi drivers exposed to ? 50 µg/m3 PM10 was statistically lower (-2.82%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -4.54 to -1.09) and the mean FVC% of those exposed to 40-49.9 µg/m3 PM10 was statistically lower than that of motorcycle taxi drivers exposed to taxi drivers were directly exposed to air pollution in their working environment. As a result, their lung function might decrease more than that of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. With the possible exposure to ? 50 µg/m3 PM10, the vehicular emission standards should be vigorously enforced. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the effect of lung dysfunction on the work and lifestyle of motorcycle taxi drivers. Implication Statement Motorcycle taxi drivers are directly exposed to air pollution in their work environment; therefore, their lung function might decrease more than that of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers

  20. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  1. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from par...

  2. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  3. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  4. An epidemiological study of low back pain in professional drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Rui, Francesca; Negro, Corrado; D'Agostin, Flavia; Angotzi, Giuliano; Bianchi, Sandra; Bramanti, Lucia; Festa, GianLuca; Gatti, Silvana; Pinto, Iole; Rondina, Livia; Stacchini, Nicola

    2006-12-01

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) was investigated in 598 Italian professional drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and ergonomic risk factors (drivers of earth moving machines, fork-lift truck drivers, truck drivers, bus drivers). The control group consisted of a small sample of 30 fire inspectors not exposed to WBV. Personal, occupational and health histories were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on representative samples of the machines and vehicles used by the driver groups. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of vibration dose were estimated for each subject. Daily vibration exposure, expressed in terms of 8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration, A(8), averaged 0.28-0.61 (range 0.10-1.18) m s -2 rms in the driver groups. Duration of exposure to WBV ranged between 1 and 41 years. The 7-day and 12-month prevalence of LBP was greater in the driver groups than in the controls. In the professional drivers, the occurrence of 12-month LBP, high intensity of LBP (Von Korff pain scale score ⩾5), and LBP disability (Roland & Morris disability scale score ⩾12) significantly increased with increasing cumulative vibration exposure. Even though several alternative measures of vibration exposure were associated with LBP outcomes, nevertheless a more regular trend of association with LBP was found for vibration dose expressed as ∑ a vit i (m s -2 h), in which the frequency-weighted acceleration, a v, and lifetime exposure duration, t, were given equal weight. In multivariate data analysis, individual characteristics (e.g. age, body mass index) and a physical load index (derived from combining manual materials handling and awkward postures) were significantly associated with LBP outcomes, while psychosocial work factors (e.g. job decision, job support) showed a marginal relation to LBP. This study tends to confirm that professional driving in industry

  5. [Influencing factors for job satisfaction in train drivers in a railway bureau: an analysis of 1413 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors for job satisfaction in train drivers. Methods: In March 2012, cluster sampling was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey in 1413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 350 passenger shunting train drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a locomotive depot of a railway bureau. The occupational stress instruments, job content questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to analyze job satisfaction, occupational stress factors, stress reaction, individual characteristics, coping strategies, and social support. Results: There were significant differences in job satisfaction score between the drivers with different posts, working years, ages, smoking status, and drinking status (Ptrain drivers.

  6. Johan Heyns and the class of '51 � prolegomena to a story of people who got hurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Landsman

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Johan Heyns� and� the� class� of� '51� - prolegomena� to� a� story� of people who got hurt This� article consists of� three parts.� In� the first part a story� is� told of� Johan Heyns and some of� the men who shared with him the� final year of� theologi-cal� training� at� the� University� of Pretoria� in� 1951.� In� the� second� part prolegomena� to� the� telling� of� a� new story� of� Johan� Heyns� are� explained. Finally� this� new story� is� told by� using� the� voices� of� six people� - students, colleagues andfamily� - who� interrupt� each� other's� voice� on� Johan� Heyns, thereby undermining� the popular ideal amongst local church historians that religion� biography� can� and� should� recreate� a� complete� and� consistent image of� a person's� (moral� reality.

  7. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  8. Hipertensão arterial e obesidade em motoristas profissionais de transporte de cargas Hipertensión arterial y obesidad en choferes profesionales de transporte de cargas Hypertension and obesity among professional drivers who work transporting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cesira Cavagioni

    2010-01-01

    : Odds ratio, IC: intervalo de confianza de 95% con: aumento del índice de masa corporal (OR=1,183 IC 1,065-1,314; glucemia (OR=1,039 IC 1,004-1,076; y hábito de ingerir medicamentos para inhibir el sueño (OR= 0,322 IC 0,129-0,801. CONCLUSIÓN: Entre los profesionales fue expresiva la presencia de hipertensión arterial, sobrepeso y obesidad.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among professional freight truck drivers and associate them with studied variables. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study covering a sample of 258 professional freight truck drivers, traveling on the highway BR-116, on the Regis Bittencourt portion, in Sao Paulo state. RESULTS: Drivers were young adults (37.5±10 years, 19% were smokers, 55% reported drinking alcohol, 74% were sedentary, 57% used sleep-inhibiting drugs; they traveled an average of 800 km/day and drove 10 hours/day. The prevalence of hypertension was 37%, 46% were overweight, 36% were obese and 58% had high waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis indicated that hypertension was associated (OD: Odds ratio, CI: confidence interval 95% with: increased body mass index (OR = 1.183 CI 1.065 to 1.314; blood glucose (OR = 1.039 CI 1.004 to 1.076; and habit of using drugs that inhibit sleep (OR = 0.322 CI 0.129 to 0.801. CONCLUSION: Among professionals was significant the presence of hypertension, overweight and obesity.

  9. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  10. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Javier Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  11. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  12. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  13. Neurological symptoms and syndromes in municipal transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Sińczuk-Walczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way the municipal transport drivers perform their job contributes to varied burdens linked with the body posture at work, stress, shift work, vibration, noise and exposure to chemical agents. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the nervous system (NS in municipal transport drivers. Material and Methods: The study covered 42 men, aged 43.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 8.3, employed as bus drivers in the municipal transport enterprise. The duration of employment was 11.8 years on average (SD: 8.6. The condition of the nervous system was assessed on the basis of clinical neurological examinations. Results: Chronic lumbosacral syndrome was found in 54.8% of the subjects. A significant relationship between the incidence of lumbosacral syndrome and the duration of employment (p = 0.032 was observed; significantly higher in drivers employed for 11–15 years (90.9% in comparison to the remaining groups. Nervous system functional disorders were niejedcharacterized by the increased emotional irritability (47.6%, sleep disorders manifested by excessive sleepiness (33.3% or insomnia (28.6% and headaches (3%, mostly tension headaches. Excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly age-dependent (p = 0.038. Conclusions: The evidenced NS disorders indicate the need to undertake preventive measures tailored for the occupational group of bus drivers. Med Pr 2015;66(3:333–341

  14. Understanding the health of lorry drivers in context: A critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A

    2017-01-01

    This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.

  15. 78 FR 64179 - Hours of Service of Drivers; Amendment of the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...; Amendment of the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... of Service of Drivers'' to provide an exception from the 30- minute rest break requirement for short...). The final rule included a new provision requiring drivers to take a rest break during the work day...

  16. The Impact of Domestic Drivers and Barriers on the Entrepreneurial Start-up Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberink, R.J.B.; Blok, V.; Ophem, van J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the family network on the start-up decision byidentifying domestic drivers and barriers to entrepreneurship. For this, we used anadjusted model of work-family conflict theory, with special attention to the family lifecycle stages. In order to identify the drivers an

  17. The case for driver science in motorsport: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkanowicz, Edward S; Mendel, Ronald W

    2013-07-01

    stressors; second, to examine variables/stressors that are more representative of the changing driver demographics; third, to measure drivers in real-time during actual race events; lastly, to work to develop training programs that more accurately apply to the driver and the stresses experienced. In uncovering this information, there is an opportunity to contribute to racing becoming that much safer, that much more competitive, and that much more comprehensive for the driver, the team, and the sport.

  18. Math on the Job. Tractor-Trailer Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of tractor-trailer drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…

  19. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  20. TwinDrivers: Semi-Automatic Derivation of Fast and Safe Hypervisor Network Drivers from Guest OS Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In a virtualized environment, device drivers are often run inside a virtual machine (VM) rather than in the hypervisor. Doing so protects the hypervisor from bugs in the driver, and also allows the reuse of the device driver and its support infrastructure in the VM. Unfortunately, this approach results in poor performance for I/O intensive devices such as network cards. The alternative approach is to run device drivers directly in the hypervisor. Although this approach results in better perfo...

  1. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  2. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…

  3. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik;

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  4. SLEEPINESS AMONG IRANIAN LORRY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sadeghniiat Y. Labbafinejad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS denotes a propensity to doze off or fall asleep unintentionally during the day, particularly in passive situations. There is cumulative evidence pointing to an association between sleepiness and probability of involvement in motor vehicle crashes. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sleepiness in a group of Iranian lorry drivers and its association with accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in lorry drivers of Tehran goods transportation terminal in 2005. This study used a questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic features, professional data, sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 386 male drivers, aged 43.23 ± 9.72 years were included in the study. ESS was higher than 10 points in 9.1% of the interviewees; 50.8% never have driven drowsy, although 36% rarely, 7.3% half of the times, 4.9% almost always and 1% always have driven drowsy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that EDS, age and job satisfaction were associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness is a prevailing symptom in lorry drivers and is probably related to accidents.

  5. Truck drivers' perceptions on wearable devices and health promotion: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rama; Busink, Ellen; Wong, Cybele P; Riboli-Sasco, Eva; Greenfield, Geva; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Wark, Petra A

    2016-07-30

    Professional truck drivers, as other shift workers, have been identified as a high-risk group for various health conditions including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, sleep apnoea and stress. Mobile health technologies can potentially improve the health and wellbeing of people with a sedentary lifestyle such as truck drivers. Yet, only a few studies on health promotion interventions related to mobile health technologies for truck drivers have been conducted. We aimed to explore professional truck drivers' views on health promotion delivered via mobile health technologies such as wearable devices. We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study, consisting of four semi-structured focus groups with 34 full-time professional truck drivers in the UK. The focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. We discussed drivers' perceptions of their health, lifestyle and work environment, and their past experience and expectations from mobile health technologies. The participants viewed their lifestyle as unhealthy and were aware of possible consequences. They expressed the need and wish to change their lifestyle, yet perceived it as an inherent, unavoidable outcome of their occupation. Current health improvement initiatives were not always aligned with their working conditions. The participants were generally willing to use mobile health technologies such as wearable devices, as a preventive measure to avoid prospect morbidity, particularly cardiovascular diseases. They were ambivalent about privacy and the risk of their employer's monitoring their clinical data. Wearable devices may offer new possibilities for improving the health and wellbeing of truck drivers. Drivers were aware of their unhealthy lifestyle. They were interested in changing their lifestyle and health. Drivers raised concerns regarding being continuously monitored by their employer. Health improvement initiatives should be aligned with the

  6. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Nasiri, Saleh; Kazerooni, Farshid Khodaparast; Oliaei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver's task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC) in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS) was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05). Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB) in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz). The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up some interventions

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  8. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  9. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  10. Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long-distance truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A T; Rohrbaugh, J W; Hammer, M C; Fuller, S Z

    2000-07-01

    Data on the prevalence and hypothesized predictors of falling asleep while driving were gathered through face-to-face interviews with 593 long-distance truck drivers randomly selected at public and private rest areas and routine roadside truck safety inspections. Hypothesized predictor variables related to drivers' typical work and rest patterns, extent of daytime and night-time drowsiness, symptoms of sleep disorder, measures of driving exposure, and demographic characteristics. A sizeable proportion of long-distance truck drivers reported falling asleep at the wheel of the truck: 47.1% of the survey respondents had ever fallen asleep at the wheel of a truck, and 25.4% had fallen asleep at the wheel in the past year. Factor analysis reduced the large set of predictors to six underlying, independent factors: greater daytime sleepiness; more arduous schedules, with more hours of work and fewer hours off-duty; older, more experienced drivers; shorter, poorer sleep on road; symptoms of sleep disorder; and greater tendency to night-time drowsy driving. Based on multivariate logistic regression, all six factors were predictive of self-reported falling asleep at the wheel. Falling asleep was also associated with not having been alerted by driving over shoulder rumble strips. The results suggest that countermeasures that limit drivers' work hours and enable drivers to get adequate rest and that identify drivers with sleep disorders are appropriate methods to reduce sleepiness-related driving by truck drivers.

  11. Towards Driver's State Recognition on Real Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rigas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology for detecting drivers' stress and fatigue and predicting driving performance is presented. The proposed methodology exploits a set of features obtained from three different sources: (i physiological signals from the driver (ECG, EDA, and respiration, (ii video recordings from the driver's face, and (iii environmental information. The extracted features are examined in terms of their contribution to the classification of the states under investigation. The most significant indicators are selected and used for classification using various classifiers. The approach has been validated on an annotated dataset collected during real-world driving. The results obtained from the combination of physiological signals, video features, and driving environment parameters indicate high classification accuracy (88% using three fatigue scales and 86% using two stress scales. A series of experiments on a simulation environment confirms the association of fatigue states with driving performance.

  12. Loss of hearing in drivers of mine locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanish, R.

    1982-02-01

    One of the most dangerous factors in railroad transport is noise. Drivers of locomotives are exposed to the noise of engines and cars on rails, transporting workers to their places of work; coupling of cars and emptying cars by overturning them; and the transport of fire cars. To determine the amount of noise drivers are subjected to, the Zavodski Institute for National Public Health conducted studies on noise in underground mines. By means of portable noisemeters worn by drivers measurement of the noise of cars running on rails, passing over joints of railroad tracks, and reflected from the rock walls of the drift was made. Mine ventilators added a constant source of noise. At the Zavodski Institute, 64 drivers were examined in the otorhinolaryngology department. Thresholds of hearing were measured by means of tonal audiometry. Combining results of this examination with measurements of noise in the uranium mines, it was determined that the hearing of drivers of mine locomotives deteriorated on the average of 1 dB per year at a frequency of 4000 Hz. (6 refs.) (In Russian)

  13. The Emotional Hurt from Divorce and Its Compensation%离婚情感伤害及其补偿探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周媛媛

    2011-01-01

    With the increase of divorce rate, the emotional hurt from divorce is growing but has been ignored. The subjects of the emotional hurt aroused by divorce include the spouse, the children and the other people. This article attempts to analyze the specific performance of emotional hurt by divorce and then puts forward some pertinent compensation measures. It is desirable that more concrete compensation measures can be improved in legislation and in practice.%随着离婚率的上升,离婚导致的情感伤害也在增加,而目前这种情感伤害往往被人们忽视。文章试图分析离婚导致的配偶一方、儿童以及其他人的情感伤害的具体表现,并针对性地提出了一些补偿措施,希望更多的具体补偿措施能在立法和实践中得到完善。

  14. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic perspecti

  15. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic perspecti

  16. [Effects of occupational stress and related factors to the mood of speed train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-04-01

    To explore the effect of occupational stress and related factors to the mood of speed train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 352 speed train drivers (including 291 passenger train drivers, 640 freight trains drivers, 342 passenger shunting train drivers, and 79 High Speed Rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included mood, individual factors, occupational stress factors, personality factors and mitigating factors. The mood status was evaluated by mood scale, and the occupational stress factors, personality factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Correlation analysis showed that the mood score was negative correlated with age(r = -0.07, P = 0.01), working age (r = -0.07, P = 0.01), ERI(r = -0.53, P extrinsic effort(r = -0.41, P intrinsic effort(r = -0.39, P rewards(r = 0.42, P rewards, intrinsic effort, self-esteem, extrinsic effort and coping strategy were the predictors, which could explain the 74.36% of total variance. Most occupational stress factors may cause negative mood, but rewards, self-esteem, social support and coping strategy were the protection factors of mood; different train drivers had different mood status, High Speed Rail drivers were the worst, and passenger train drivers were the best.

  17. Driver fatigue through nightshifts in succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabbott, N.; Lloyd, B. [ARRB Group Ltd., Leederville, WA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Coal Services (Health and Safety Trust) funded ARRB Transport Research Ltd. to investigate fatigue and performance of truck drivers over consecutive shifts. The main questions were to assess: What is the most important contributor to acute fatigue in mining? Is it length of shift or is it time of day? What is the limit of successive day or night shifts before chronic fatigue affects operator performance in open cut mines? The project methodology included utilising ARRB Fatigue Monitoring Devices in eight haul trucks, testing 24 subjects over several weeks. Each subject filled in a Fatigue Risk Questionnaire on lifestyle and health. Operators worked a 14 night, 1 day off, 13 day roster of 12-hour shifts in a fly-in, fly-out operation with excellent opportunities for restorative sleep between shifts. A total of 3,500 hours of real-time data was collected, representing the first set of objective, real-time driver performance data for Australian mining. The major finding within this study is the combined influence of circadian rhythms and individual variability on performance. The lifestyle habits and the health of individuals have a profound effect on operator performance as shown by the strong positive correlation between high fatigue risk scores from the Fatigue Risk Questionnaire and poor performance. An individualistic approach would appear to have the best chance of reducing high potential incidents due to fatigue through successive nightshifts. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  18. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  19. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  20. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  1. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  2. Food consumption trends and drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health co...

  3. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  4. The drivers of tropical speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian Tilston; McCormack, John E; Cuervo, Andrés M; Hickerson, Michael J; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Burney, Curtis W; Xie, Xiaoou; Harvey, Michael G; Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Prejean, Jesse; Fields, Samantha; Brumfield, Robb T

    2014-11-20

    Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological diversification. This process is referred to in biogeography as vicariance. In the most species-rich region of the world, the Neotropics, the sundering of populations associated with the Andean uplift is ascribed this principal role in speciation. An alternative model posits that rather than being directly linked to landscape change, allopatric speciation is initiated to a greater extent by dispersal events, with the principal drivers of speciation being organism-specific abilities to persist and disperse in the landscape. Landscape change is not a necessity for speciation in this model. Here we show that spatial and temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in Neotropical birds are highly discordant across lineages and are not reconcilable with a model linking speciation solely to landscape change. Instead, the strongest predictors of speciation are the amount of time a lineage has persisted in the landscape and the ability of birds to move through the landscape matrix. These results, augmented by the observation that most species-level diversity originated after episodes of major Andean uplift in the Neogene period, suggest that dispersal and differentiation on a matrix previously shaped by large-scale landscape events was a major driver of avian speciation in lowland Neotropical rainforests.

  5. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Mukesh Suresh; Srivastav, Manissha

    2013-09-01

    Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers' health. The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. [corrected] The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive) study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59%) of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1%) was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%), too many speed breakers (41%), rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42%) and bad weather (36%). Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  6. Excessive sleepiness, sleep hygiene, and coping strategies among night bus drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Uma Maheswari; Chhabria, Mamta S.; Rao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disruption and excessive sleepiness are the known consequences of shift work. The recent spate of night-time road and air accidents, with some being directly attributed to driver sleepiness prompted us to undertake this study. Aims: To screen for excessive sleepiness, coping practices, and post-shift sleep hygiene in night bus drivers. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out on night bus drivers of a public transport organization in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Bus drivers driving for ≥8 h at night were screened with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a prevalidated shift work questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the compiled data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: One hundred and eighty bus drivers aged 22–63 years were screened. Excessive Sleepiness: Although only 2 (1.1%) drivers scored above the cutoff on ESS, 10 (5.6%) and 103 (57.2%) drivers admitted to feeling sleepy during daytime and night driving respectively. None of the drivers admitted to causing accidents related to sleepiness. The coping strategies for nocturnal sleepiness included consuming coffee/tea (16.7%), chewing tobacco (12.8%), smoking (6.1%), and walking (3.9%). Post-Shift Sleep Practices: Post-shift sleep duration ranged between 1 h and 10 h. Twenty-six (14.4%) and 16 (8.9%) drivers had difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, respectively, while 9 (5%) reported frequent awakening during daytime sleep. Conclusion and Implications: This study has demonstrated a high incidence of nocturnal sleepiness and daytime sleep disruption among night bus drivers, thus necessitating the need for education about shift work and alertness testing among shift workers in critical professions. PMID:28194081

  7. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver′s task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05. Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz. The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up

  8. 多模态话语分析2009年奥斯卡最佳影片《拆弹部队》海报%Multimodal Discourse Analysis on 2009 Oscar Best Picture "The Hurt Locker" Poster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜爱萍; 车艳超

    2011-01-01

    Based mainly on Halliday s systemic functional grammar and Kress Van Leeuwen's visual social semiotics,this contribution attempts to adopt a multimodal analysis to a movie poster— " The Hurt Locker",2009 Oscar winner,Through the analysis of the representational meaning,the interpersonal meaning and the compositional meaning of the poster,we can find how images and words work together to create a synergy effect,and consequently achieve the propaganda goal of movie posters.%本文以Halliday的系统功能语法和Kress&Van Leeuwen的视觉语法框架为理论基础,通过对获得2009年奥斯卡最佳影片的《拆弹部队》的电影海报进行了社会符号学分析,文章通过解读图像的再现意义互动意义和构图意义,帮助读者了解电影海报如何通过社会符号和语言作为符号如何共同作用,实现表意功能,提高读者的多模态话语识读能力。

  9. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  10. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  11. [Social support and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1 413 train drivers in a railway bureau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the social support status of train drivers. Methods: Using cluster sampling, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 85 guest scheduling train drivers, 265 cargo adjustable drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a railway bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, social support, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, and coping strategy using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. We compared the difference in social support scores between different drivers, who were divided according to job type and age. Additionally, the correlation between social support score and job strain-related factors was analyzed. The influence of depressive symptoms and job satisfaction were analyzed using a non-conditional logistic multivariate model. Results: The overall average age P(50) (P(25),P(75)) of 1 413 train drivers was 33.92 (27.83,43.58) years. The overall average length of service 12.25 (5.25,22.75) years. A significant difference in social support scores was observed according to job type (H=23.23, Ptrain driver (26 (22,30)), guest scheduling driver (27 (24,30)), cargo adjustable driver (26 (22,31)), and high-speed train driver (30 (26,36)) (P(50)(P(25),P(75))). Additionally, social support scores among different age groups were significantly different (H=6.64, P=0.036). The specific scores were ≤30 years (26 (22,31)), 30-40 years (27 (23,33)), and >40 years (27 (22,31)). Correlation analysis revealed that the social support score was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r=-0.43), reward (r=-0.22), working stability (r=-0.23), promotion opportunities (r=-0.12), positive affectivity (r=-0.31), esteem (r=-0.21), and self-esteem (r=-0.20) scores (PTrain drivers obtained various levels of social support. Social support greatly affected occupational stress. High social support was

  12. Steering disturbance rejection using a physics-based neuromusculoskeletal driver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Naser; Sharif Razavian, Reza; McPhee, John

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive yet practical driver model to be used in studying driver-vehicle interactions. Drivers interact with their vehicle and the road through the steering wheel. This interaction forms a closed-loop coupled human-machine system, which influences the driver's steering feel and control performance. A hierarchical approach is proposed here to capture the complexity of the driver's neuromuscular dynamics and the central nervous system in the coordination of the driver's upper extremity activities, especially in the presence of external disturbance. The proposed motor control framework has three layers: the first (or the path planning) plans a desired vehicle trajectory and the required steering angles to perform the desired trajectory; the second (or the musculoskeletal controller) actuates the musculoskeletal arm to rotate the steering wheel accordingly; and the final layer ensures the precision control and disturbance rejection of the motor control units. The physics-based driver model presented here can also provide insights into vehicle control in relaxed and tensed driving conditions, which are simulated by adjusting the driver model parameters such as cognition delay and muscle co-contraction dynamics.

  13. Relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases risk factors in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad

    2016-11-18

    Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901.

  14. Precise Characterization of a Laser Current Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin

    2009-10-01

    I will be presenting a characterization of our unique low-noise laser current driver. Our current driver improves on the typical model used in laboratories, giving extra current stability and lower noise. I will discuss our techniques for measuring the noise and drift and the results we obtained. The current driver has a lower noise and drift than any other current driver with a published value, so it has value in making precision measurements. Many other labs have expressed interest in our design as there is a need for this type of current driver in many applications. The current driver demonstrates some interesting applications of electronics principles and uses of electric components, as well as practical considerations in designing circuitry.

  15. Driver models for personalised driving assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Stéphanie; Carvalho, Ashwin; Gao, Yiqi; Tseng, H. Eric; Borrelli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    We propose a learning-based driver modelling approach which can identify manoeuvres performed by drivers on the highway and predict the future driver inputs. We show how this approach can be applied to provide personalised driving assistance. In a first example, the driver model is used to predict unintentional lane departures and a model predictive controller is used to keep the car in the lane. In a second example, the driver model estimates the preferred acceleration of the driver during lane keeping, and a model predictive controller is implemented to provide a personalised adaptive cruise control. For both applications, we use a combination of real data and simulation to evaluate the proposed approaches.

  16. Teaching about Worlds of Hurt through Encounters with Literature: Reflections on Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judith P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses (1) knowledge teachers are trying to teach when they ask children to read stories about incidences of pain and horror; (2) how preservice elementary teachers experience the dangers and the possibilities involved in using such literature; (3) principles literary practitioners call upon to assist readers in working through the psychic…

  17. Modelling Driver Assitance Systems by Optimal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Arem, B.

    2012-01-01

    Driver assistance systems support drivers in operating vehicles in a safe, comfortable and efficient way, and thus may induce changes in traffic flow characteristics. This paper put forward a receding horizon control framework to model driver assistance systems. The accelerations of automated vehicles are determined to optimise a cost function, assuming other vehicles driving at stationary conditions over a prediction horizon. The flexibility of the framework is demonstrated with controller d...

  18. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Suresh Bawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers′ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59% of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1% was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%, too many speed breakers (41%, rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42% and bad weather (36%. Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  19. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  20. Driver fatigue alarm based on eye detection and gaze estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinghua; Xu, Lu; Yang, Jingyu

    2007-11-01

    The driver assistant system has attracted much attention as an essential component of intelligent transportation systems. One task of driver assistant system is to prevent the drivers from fatigue. For the fatigue detection it is natural that the information about eyes should be utilized. The driver fatigue can be divided into two types, one is the sleep with eyes close and another is the sleep with eyes open. Considering that the fatigue detection is related with the prior knowledge and probabilistic statistics, the dynamic Bayesian network is used as the analysis tool to perform the reasoning of fatigue. Two kinds of experiments are performed to verify the system effectiveness, one is based on the video got from the laboratory and another is based on the video got from the real driving situation. Ten persons participate in the test and the experimental result is that, in the laboratory all the fatigue events can be detected, and in the practical vehicle the detection ratio is about 85%. Experiments show that in most of situations the proposed system works and the corresponding performance is satisfying.

  1. "Are We hurting ourselves?" What is the prevalence of back pain in anesthesia providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Jonathan A; Mets, Elbert J; Vaida, Sonia J; King, Tonya S; Ochoa, Tim; Gordin, Vitaly

    2016-11-01

    Back injuries are a highly reported category of occupational injury in the health care setting. The daily clinical activities of an anesthesia provider, including lifting, pushing stretchers, transferring patients, and bending for procedures, are risk factors for developing low back pain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of work related low back pain in anesthesia providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of anesthesia providers at an academic institution. The target population included all 141 clinical anesthesia providers employed by the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center Department of Anesthesia. A survey study was conducted using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), a validated scoring system for low back pain. Additional questions related to the daily activities of clinical anesthesia practice were also asked. The survey instrument underwent pretesting and clinical sensibility testing to ensure validity and consistent interpretation. The primary self-reported measures were the prevalence of low back pain in anesthesia providers and an assessment of disability based on the ODI. Secondary functional measures included the impact of low back pain on work flow. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents suffer from low back pain attributed to clinical practice. In this subset of respondents, 70.1% reported not having back pain prior to their anesthesia training. Of those with low back pain, 44% alter their work flow, and 9.8% reported missing at least one day of work. Six providers (5.3%) required surgical intervention. Using the ODI score interpretation guidelines, 46% of respondents had a "mild disability" and 2% had a "moderate disability." Respondents reporting feeling "burned out" from their job had a significantly higher average ODI score compared to those who did not (6.8 vs 3.3, respectively; P=.01). Nearly half of all anesthesia providers sampled suffer from low back pain subjectively attributed to their clinical

  2. Bigfoot or Big Mistake: Is CBP’s Expanding Footprint Helping or Hurting Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    traveler books a ticket to travel to the U.S. a Passenger Name Record (PNR) and Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) entry is generated in the...receives advanced passenger information identifying potential risks at the earliest time possible. CBP then works in concert with the host nations...airlines’ reservations system . This information includes itineraries, co-travelers, changes to the reservation, and payment information . This

  3. Low back pain among taxi drivers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yu, J; Liu, N; Liu, Z; Wei, X; Yan, F; Yu, S

    2017-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common occupational problem for drivers all over the world. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated LBP among taxi drivers. To investigate the prevalence of LBP and associated work-related factors among Chinese taxi drivers. A cross-sectional survey was administered to all participants. Using cluster sampling, questionnaires were collected from taxi drivers of three major taxi companies in Jinan, China. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among participants. A total of 800 taxi drivers were invited to take part, with a participation rate of 90%. The 1-year period prevalence of LBP was 54%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that longer daily driving duration (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.9), night shifts (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) and increasing work years as a taxi driver (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) were associated with increased risk of reporting LBP; while increased rest days per month (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), longer sleep duration (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and more physical activity (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) were significantly associated with decreased risk of reporting LBP. The prevalence of LBP among professional taxi drivers in China was associated with a number of occupational features.

  4. Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Kreußlein, Maria; Augusto, Bruno; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2016-10-01

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the influence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical traffic situations impairing traffic safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  5. Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Pesonen, Amanda D; Smittick, Amber L; Seigel, Michael L; Clark, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which motherhood status predicts being a target of workplace incivility and moderates the relationship between incivility and negative outcomes among employed women. Participants included a nationwide sample of law school faculty members (N = 1,234; 48% female, 85% White) who completed measures of workplace incivility, parenting status, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and depression. Results showed that mothers with 3 children were treated more uncivilly than women with fewer children and that mothering mitigated negative outcomes associated with being the target of incivility. Exploratory analyses examining fatherhood status as a predictor of workplace incivility and moderator of incivility and outcomes showed that fathers reported experiencing more workplace incivility than nonfathers, but being a father did not attenuate the negative outcomes of incivility. In addition, mothers reported more incivility than fathers and childless women reported more incivility than childless men. Childless women were also the most negatively affected by incivility at work. This study advances our understanding of how motherhood status affects women's experiences at work.

  6. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  7. Names will never hurt me: racially distinct names and identity in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2008-09-01

    Recent researchers (Fryer Jr., R.G., Levitt, S.D., 2004. The causes and consequences of distinctly black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3); Figlio, D.N., 2003. Names, expectations, and black children's achievement. Working Paper; Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., 2004. Are Emily and George more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94 (4); Hess, G., Aura, S., 2004. What's in a name? Working Paper) have shown that people with racially identifiable names tend to have worse economic outcomes, and have tried to explain why. This paper extends this recent literature by deepening the psychological underpinnings of possible answers to this question in the context of undergraduate grades. Using a rich student-level administrative data set, I explore the effects on performance of both first and last name racial identifiability. I test for the presence of effects from either black or Asian names due to differential teacher expectations (Figlio, 2003), conventional teacher discrimination (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004), or differences in unobserved ability or racial identity that are correlated with name type and directly affect performance (Fryer and Levitt, 2004; Hess and Aura, 2004). A conceptual and empirical distinction is drawn in the paper between unobserved ability effects and racial identity effects. Name type is found to have little direct influence on performance via any channel. Mild evidence suggests that racial identity may be salient in predicting undergraduate grades. The paper contributes to the literatures in social effects, discrimination, and the burgeoning subfield of economics and identity.

  8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Naseri Esfahani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency.Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features.Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license.Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  9. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  10. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informative...

  11. Switched mode piezo-panel driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slakhorst, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The subject of this thesis is the design of a system which can drive piezo-panels. This system is called the piezo driver. The piezo-panels are used for an Active Noise Cancelling (ANC) system which is being developed to be used inside the cabin of airplanes. The piezo driver fills the gap

  12. Developing Linux kernel space device driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Wang Qinruo; Wu Naiyou

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces how to develop kernel level device drivers on Linux platform in detail. On the basis of comparing proc file system with dev file system, we choose PCI devices and USB devices as instances to introduce the method of writing device drivers for character devices by using these two file systems.

  13. Should Passengers Be Responsible For Drunk Drivers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In late September, China’s Ministry of Public Security expanded its nationwide campaign against drunk driving by releasing a document suggesting that passengers sharing a car with a drunk driver be punished together with the driver and that passengers who do not prevent drunk driving be fined.

  14. Frictional Dermatosis in a Courier Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Frictional hypermelanosis is an uncommon finding in Caucasians. We report the unusual case of 56-year-old male courier driver who developed linear and patchy hypermelanosis of the back caused by the driver's seat. Histology has included other pathologies. Treatment of the asymptomatic hyper pigmentation was not warranted.

  15. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  16. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  17. 49 CFR 177.816 - Driver training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver training. 177.816 Section 177.816... Information and Regulations § 177.816 Driver training. (a) In addition to the training requirements of § 177... employee who will operate a motor vehicle has been trained in the applicable requirements of 49 CFR...

  18. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  19. The drivers of plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann

    In this thesis we use a “big data” approach to describe and explain large-scale patterns of plant diversity. The botanical data used for the six papers come from three different databases covering the New World, North America, and Europe respectively. The data on plant distributions were combined...... and beta diversity over time for woody forest communities in North America, using a 20 year forest plot dataset from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory and Analysis program. To assess functional diversity, we combined the plot data with data on four functional traits. Over time...... with environmental data on climate, soil, topography, and disturbance to identify the drivers of macroecological plant diversity patterns. Unless otherwise stated, the botanical data used in the papers come from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network. Paper I describes how we compiled a new plant growth form...

  20. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  1. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  2. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  3. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  4. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  5. Romance and help-seeking among college women: "it hurts so much to care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E

    1991-01-01

    Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations.

  6. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Claypool, Heather M

    2012-02-01

    Some research indicates that social exclusion leads to increased emotional- and physical-pain sensitivity, whereas other work indicates that exclusion causes emotional- and physical-pain numbing. This research sought to examine what causes these opposing outcomes. In Study 1, the paradigm used to instantiate social exclusion was found to moderate the social exclusion-physical pain relation: Future-life exclusion led to a numbing of physical pain whereas Cyberball exclusion led to hypersensitivity. Study 2 examined the underlying mechanism, which was hypothesized to be the severity of the "social injury." Participants were subjected to either the standard future-life exclusion manipulation (purported to be a highly severe social injury) or a newly created, less-severe version. Supporting our hypothesis, the standard (highly severe) future-life exclusion led to physical-pain numbing, whereas the less-severe future-life exclusion resulted in hypersensitivity. Implications of these results for understanding the exclusion-pain relation and other exclusion effects are discussed.

  7. Sometimes it does hurt to ask: the constructive role of articulating impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee C; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-10-01

    Decisions can sometimes have a constructive role, so that the act of, for example, choosing one option over another creates a preference for that option (e.g., Ariely & Norton, 2008; Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1993; Sharot, Velasquez, & Dolan, 2010; Sherman, 1980). In this work we explore the constructive role of just articulating an impression, for a presented visual stimulus, as opposed to making a choice (specifically, the judgments we employ are affective evaluations). Using quantum probability theory, we outline a cognitive model formalizing such a constructive process. We predict a simple interaction, in relation to how a second image is evaluated, following the presentation of a first image, depending on whether there is a rating for the first image or not. The interaction predicted by the quantum model was confirmed across three experiments and a variety of control manipulations. The advantages of using quantum probability theory to model the present results, compared with existing models of sequence order effects in judgment (e.g., Hogarth & Einhorn, 1992) or other theories of constructive processes when a choice is made (e.g., Festinger, 1957; Sharot et al., 2010) are discussed.

  8. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann

    2016-10-08

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  9. 23 CFR 630.1108 - Work zone safety management measures and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... highway project can affect driver behavior, helping to maintain appropriate speeds and improve driver... that may be mitigated by improved driver behavior and awareness of the work zone; (vi) Work zone... by improving road user behavior and awareness. (2) Costs associated with the provision of...

  10. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior at Unsignalized Crosswalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Bastian J; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2011-07-01

    This research explores factors associated with driver yielding behavior at unsignalized pedestrian crossings and develops predictive models for yielding using logistic regression. It considers the effect of variables describing driver attributes, pedestrian characteristics and concurrent conditions at the crosswalk on the yield response. Special consideration is given to 'vehicle dynamics constraints' that form a threshold for the potential to yield. Similarities are identified to driver reaction in response to the 'amber' indication at a signalized intersection. The logit models were developed from data collected at two unsignalized mid-block crosswalks in North Carolina. The data include 'before' and 'after' observations of two pedestrian safety treatments, an in-street pedestrian crossing sign and pedestrian-actuated in-roadway warning lights.The analysis suggests that drivers are more likely to yield to assertive pedestrians who walk briskly in their approach to the crosswalk. In turn, the yield probability is reduced with higher speeds, deceleration rates and if vehicles are traveling in platoons. The treatment effects proved to be significant and increased the propensity of drivers to yield, but their effectiveness may be dependent on whether the pedestrian activates the treatment.The results of this research provide new insights on the complex interaction of pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersections and have implications for future work towards predictive models for driver yielding behavior. The developed logit models can provide the basis for representing driver yielding behavior in a microsimulation modeling environment.

  11. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  12. A Driver Behavior Learning Framework for Enhancing Traffic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Maria Paven

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic simulation provides an essential support for developing intelligent transportation systems. It allows affordable validation of such systems using a large variety of scenarios that involves massive data input. However, realistic traffic models are hard to be implemented especially for microscopic traffic simulation. One of the hardest problems in this context is to model the behavior of drivers, due the complexity of human nature. The work presented in this paper proposes a framework for learning driver behavior based on a Hidden Markov Model technique. Moreover, we propose also a practical method to inject this behavior in a traffic model used by the SUMO traffic simulator. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method we present a case study involving real traffic collected from Timisoara city area.

  13. Android Based Rush And Drunk Driver Alerting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy D. Goswami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rush driving and driving after consumption of alcohol is a major cause of road accident worldwide. In this paper we proposed an idea to alert rush and drunk driver at early stage before actual accident take place. Complete system works on a cell phone having software installed in it with some sensor. The program calculates the sensor reading and matches with the pattern already present in system, if match found then an alert will give to driver and also a text message will send to the relative asking for help with location details. This system will design on an android based cell phone. Our proposed system will prevent many accidents to occur and save lives.

  14. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured by...... driving behaviors, and vice versa. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, and to devise differential interventions targeting specific problematic groups of the population in the attempt to improve road safety nationwide....

  15. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  16. Risk drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2017-01-02

    Violation of traffic rules is a major contributing factor in both crashes and fatalities in the United States. This study aims at quantifying risk that drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules. Crash data from 2010 to 2013 were gathered for the state of North Carolina. Descriptive analysis was carried out to identify frequent traffic violations and who were committing the traffic violations that resulted in crashes. A multinomial logit model was then developed to examine the relation between different traffic violations and driver injury severity. Additionally, odds ratios were estimated to identify the likelihood (probability) of severe or moderate injury to the driver and other drivers due to a driver violating a traffic rule that led to a crash. Exceeding the speed limit is more likely to result in severe injury compared to disregarding traffic signals. However, going the wrong way is more likely to result in severe injury to other drivers when compared to any other traffic violation. Driving under the influence of alcohol is 2 times more likely to result in severe injury than driving under the influence of drugs. These 2 traffic violations by a driver are almost equally likely to result in severe injury to other drivers. Drivers often perceive that violating traffic rules will not result in a crash or severe injury. However, the results from this study show that a majority of the traffic violations lead to severe injury to the violator as well as to other drivers. The findings from this study serve as documented evidence to educate drivers about the risk they pose to themselves and to other drivers by violating traffic rules and encourage the adaptation of safe driving behavior in order to contribute toward reaching the "zero traffic deaths" vision. They also help make policy changes pertaining to penalty points and fines for violating a traffic rule.

  17. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  18. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  19. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance...... improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  20. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...... mirrored the self-reported frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident...

  1. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...

  2. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kuidas on kõige parem tähtsad põhimõtted töötajateni viia? / Kaarel Oja, Reet Roos, Martin Hurt... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Teater NO99 tegevjuht Kaarel Oja, meediaagentuuri Inspired, tööõigusbüroo ja trükikoja Digiprint omanik Reet Roos, kaitseministeeriumi asekantsler Martin Hurt, SOL Eesti personalijuht Evely Ellert ning investeerimis- ja varahalduslahendusi pakkuva Sampo Life juhatuse liige Erkki Sadam

  3. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Kuidas on kõige parem tähtsad põhimõtted töötajateni viia? / Kaarel Oja, Reet Roos, Martin Hurt... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Teater NO99 tegevjuht Kaarel Oja, meediaagentuuri Inspired, tööõigusbüroo ja trükikoja Digiprint omanik Reet Roos, kaitseministeeriumi asekantsler Martin Hurt, SOL Eesti personalijuht Evely Ellert ning investeerimis- ja varahalduslahendusi pakkuva Sampo Life juhatuse liige Erkki Sadam

  4. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system’s efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate.

  5. Design of a Driver of Two-phase Hybrid Stepper Motor Based on THB6064H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Stepper motor is a kind of motor which can change electric pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement, usually; it must have a driver in order to work effectively. A driver of two-phase hybrid stepper motor based on THB6064H and single-chip of STC89C52 is designed and proposed. The driver is with the function of driving the motor to start and stop, forward and reversal, adjusting the speed of the motor and realizing the step angle subdivided control. Moreover, the maximum output current of the proposed driver achieves 5 amperes which can drive 57 series stepper motor well. Touch keys are used to input the preset data and controlling instructions of the motor, and a 1602LCD display is also adopted to show the basic parameters of the stepper motor in operation.

  6. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  7. Food consumption trends and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, John

    2010-09-27

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the 'nutrition transition' that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment.

  8. DriverNet: uncovering the impact of somatic driver mutations on transcriptional networks in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Ali; Haffari, Gholamreza; Ding, Jiarui; Ha, Gavin; Lui, Kenneth; Rosner, Jamie; Huntsman, David G; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel A; Shah, Sohrab P

    2012-12-22

    Simultaneous interrogation of tumor genomes and transcriptomes is underway in unprecedented global efforts. Yet, despite the essential need to separate driver mutations modulating gene expression networks from transcriptionally inert passenger mutations, robust computational methods to ascertain the impact of individual mutations on transcriptional networks are underdeveloped. We introduce a novel computational framework, DriverNet, to identify likely driver mutations by virtue of their effect on mRNA expression networks. Application to four cancer datasets reveals the prevalence of rare candidate driver mutations associated with disrupted transcriptional networks and a simultaneous modulation of oncogenic and metabolic networks, induced by copy number co-modification of adjacent oncogenic and metabolic drivers. DriverNet is available on Bioconductor or at http://compbio.bccrc.ca/software/drivernet/.

  9. Quality engineering tools focused on high power LED driver design using boost power stages in switch mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, Ioan; Risteiu, Mircea; Marc, Gheorghe

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a part of our research dedicated to high power LED lamps designing. The boost-up selected technology wants to meet driver producers' tendency in the frame of efficiency and disturbances constrains. In our work we used modeling and simulation tools for implementing scenarios of the driver work when some controlling functions are executed (output voltage/ current versus input voltage and fixed switching frequency, input and output electric power transfer versus switching frequency, transient inductor voltage analysis, and transient out capacitor analysis). Some electrical and thermal stress conditions are also analyzed. Based on these aspects, a high reliable power LED driver has been designed.

  10. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program leverages on our extensive expertise in developing high-performance driver ASICs for deformable mirror systems and seeks to expand the capacities of the...

  11. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  12. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  13. DSP-Based Stepping Motor Drivers for the LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, A; Losito, R; Martino, M

    2008-01-01

    The control electronics of the LHC collimators stepping motors will be located in radiation safe zones up to 800 meters far from the motors. With such cable lengths the standard chopping drivers do not work properly because of the voltage losses on the cable and even more because of the high cable capacitance. The capacitance in fact produces a ringing phenomenon on the driver feedback current that limits the control chopping frequency to the point of being incompatible with the tight EM emissions requirements of the LHC tunnel. In some cases the feedback loop may even become unstable and the driver would fail. The problem was solved by accurately modeling the overall motor-cable system taking into account non-linearities due to hysteresis and eddy currents and by designing an adaptive digital controller, self-tuning to the real cable length. The controller will aim at increasing the chopping frequency to reduce the spectral density of the emissions and at damping the oscillations of the feedback current to a...

  14. Drivers for and against municipal wastewater recycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2016-01-01

    The reclamation, treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater can provide important environmental benefits. In this paper, 25 studies on this topic were reviewed and it was found that there are many (>150) different drivers acting for and against wastewater recycling. To deal with the challenge of comparing studies which entailed different research designs, a framework was developed which allowed the literature to be organized into comparable study contexts. Studies were categorized according to the level of analysis (wastewater recycling scheme, city, water utility, state, country, global) and outcome investigated (development/investment in new schemes, program implementation, percentage of wastewater recycled, percentage of water demand covered by recycled water, multiple outcomes). Findings across comparable case studies were then grouped according to the type (for or against recycling) and category of driver (social, natural, technical, economic, policy or business). The utility of the framework is demonstrated by summarizing the findings from four Australian studies at the city level. The framework offers a unique approach for disentangling the broad range of potential drivers for and against water recycling and to focus on those that seem relevant in specific study contexts. It may offer a valuable starting point for building hypotheses in future work.

  15. Drivers of desertification and their impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, S.; Van Lynden, G. V. L.; Karavitis, C. A.; Kosmas, C.; Van der Werff ten Bosch, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Drivers of desertification and their impact An inventory was made of drivers of desertification and how they impact on the degradation process. The major drivers of desertification were analysed and compared between 16 sites around the globe. For each of these sites factors were scored with a perceived influence on desertification. Most of these factors, from the socio-cultural, environmental, and economic dimensions, appeared to be related to land management and planning and to (de-)population. They cause a number of temporary or permanent changes in the landscape, which, by themselves or in combination, lead to degradation of vegetation and soils. Most sites have several forms of land degradation occurring in and around their study area of which erosion by water is the dominant one. Other degradation types occurring in sites were: wind erosion, soil salinization, seawater intrusion in the groundwater, vegetation and biodiversity decline, groundwater depletion, decreased productivity/ carrying capacity, soil fertility decline, water logging and water pollution. As a first step, data and information was gathered on policies, desertification status and processes and on socio-economic conditions. The DPSIR framework (Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) provides a structure for assessment of the impact of past measures on the status of the environment or to formulate effective measures. In analysing the data, the different data items were structured in and formulated to elements fitting the DPSIR chain. Then possible connections between these different aspects were analysed. In our analysis nine major drivers were reported for the various sites, of which one was environmental, three drivers were related to land management, one driver was related to planning and policies, three drivers were related to socio-economic conditions, and one driver related to legal land status. Depending on the specific desertification process, factors may be positively or

  16. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  17. Words Can Hurt Forever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James; deLara, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Describes research on the harmful effects students suffer from bullying, verbal harassment, and psychology maltreatment, including isolation, fear, and corruption. Discusses adult responsibility to protect students victimized by such treatment and describes essential components of intervention efforts based on adult supervision of student…

  18. Crash risk of older drivers after attending a mature driver education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasvadi, Glenyth E; Vavrik, John

    2007-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine if the crash rate of aging drivers can be mitigated by post-license driver education. This study of 884 older drivers who attended the 55 Alive/Mature Driving program was conducted in three phases. Phase 1, which examined self-selection bias of seniors attending the driver education program, and Phase 2, which examined changes in crash rate after attending the program, were carried out through analysis of driving records before and after attending the course. In Phase 3, the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies by older male drivers who attended 55 Alive/Mature Driving was addressed through focus group interviews. Findings showed a self-selection bias among older drivers who attended 55 Alive/Mature Driving. Results also showed attendance at the program was associated with an increased number of crashes for men aged 75 years and older, but no effect on subsequent crashes of younger men and women of all ages. Focus group sessions suggested older men who attended the program used fewer strategies to cope with their declining skills. Recognizing and understanding characteristics and behaviors of older drivers who attend remedial driver education is essential to the design and delivery of successful driver safety programs.

  19. Health and wellness programs for commercial motor-vehicle drivers: organizational assessment and new research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Michael; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos

    2015-02-01

    The workplace is an invaluable venue for health protection and promotion interventions, particularly for truck drivers due to their overreliance on their work environments, a plethora of work-related stressors, and their morbidity rates. Extant efforts of trucking companies to address driver health through worksite health and wellness programs have been inadequate, producing unsustainable results. The Driver Health and Wellness Program Survey was designed for and disseminated to 46 trucking companies to assess the current state of health and wellness programs in the trucking industry, including program participation rates and longevity, program evaluation procedures, and program activities and resources. Findings indicate that programmatic efforts in trucking companies continue to fall short, and health and wellness programs are insufficient to improve health outcomes in a sustainably positive direction. A new integrated, systems-based paradigm is proposed as a conceptual and methodological framework with the potential to meaningfully advance interventions in blue-collar work settings.

  20. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  1. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  2. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  3. 49 CFR 391.53 - Driver investigation history file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver investigation history file. 391.53 Section... QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Files and Records § 391.53 Driver investigation history file. (a) After October 29, 2004, each motor carrier must maintain...

  4. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Langdon, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  5. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject.

  6. Periodic psychological examination of train drivers' fitness in Belgium: deficits observed and efficacy of the screening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, Elke; Smeekens, Ludo; Vantrappen, Luc

    2015-04-01

    We report on a procedure for early detection of individual psychological deficits that adversely influence cognitive driving abilities in train drivers. Records of 1266 train drivers sent for recertification examination in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. Performance on attention and memory tests in the first step of the procedure, and results of extended psychological examination for those not succeeded, are described. Nine percent of train drivers were referred for extended psychological examination; 1.5% was considered unfit for driving. Most frequently, the background was a sleep disorder, intolerance for irregular working hours, psychosocial stress, and depression. Periodic psychological examinations allow the detection of relevant deficits in functioning in a substantial portion of train drivers. The stepwise procedure adds to the feasibility of such examinations in large groups of professional drivers.

  7. Validation of selected temperament and personality questionnaires for diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving. A Polish study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczak, Anna; Tarnowski, Adam

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at validating psychological questionnaires evaluating temperamental and personality features. It discusses their usefulness in diagnosing drivers' aptitude for safe driving and working as professional drivers. Three psychological questionnaires were validated: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised and Short Scale (EPQ-R (S)) and the Impulsiveness Questionnaire (IVE). Three groups of drivers (n=246) aged 19-75 participated in the study. Group I (professional drivers; n=96) and Group II (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) had never been involved in road crashes, whereas Group III (nonprofessional drivers; n=75) were offenders involved in fatal injury road crashes. Criterion-related validity, Cronbach's alpha and Guttman split-half reliability coefficient were in assessing the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. There were some significant differences between Groups II and III for most traits. However, contrary to expectations, higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration and lower Endurance as well as higher Neuroticism, Impulsiveness and Venturesomeness were determined for Group II than for Group III. Additionally, the temperament and personality profile of Group II turned out to be less fitted to the profile of safe drivers than that of Group III, whose profile was actually similar to that of Group I. This seems to result from a high tendency for a positive self-presentation among Group I and Group III (a significantly higher result on the Lie scale in comparison with Group II). The results suggest that if psychological tests are to decide on whether a person may be a professional driver or may drive vehicles, the three questionnaires (FCB-TI, EPQ-R(S) and IVE) do not provide a valid diagnosis of professional drivers' aptitude because of drivers' high tendency for positive self-presentation. However, they can be used in job

  8. Toward best practice in Human Machine Interface design for older drivers: A review of current design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K L; Koppel, S; Charlton, J L

    2017-09-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population. While there is a strong emphasis for older people to maintain their mobility, the safety of older drivers is a serious community concern. Frailty and declines in a range of age-related sensory, cognitive, and physical impairments can place older drivers at an increased risk of crash-related injuries and death. A number of studies have indicated that in-vehicle technologies such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) may provide assistance to older drivers. However, these technologies will only benefit older drivers if their design is congruent with the complex needs and diverse abilities of this driving cohort. The design of ADAS and IVIS is largely informed by automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) guidelines. However, it is unclear to what extent the declining sensory, cognitive and physical capabilities of older drivers are addressed in the current guidelines. This paper provides a review of key current design guidelines for IVIS and ADAS with respect to the extent they address age-related changes in functional capacities. The review revealed that most of the HMI guidelines do not address design issues related to older driver impairments. In fact, in many guidelines driver age and sensory cognitive and physical impairments are not mentioned at all and where reference is made, it is typically very broad. Prescriptive advice on how to actually design a system so that it addresses the needs and limitations of older drivers is not provided. In order for older drivers to reap the full benefits that in-vehicle technology can afford, it is critical that further work establish how older driver limitations and capabilities can be supported by the system design process, including their inclusion into HMI design guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in this self-administered questionnaire survey, with height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns and sleep profile; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk factors related to fatigue among the taxi drivers. A high proportion of the taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of the quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. We hope that the findings of the present study will improve the awareness regarding the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward the effort to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving will lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all.

  11. Effects of driver behavior style differences and individual differences on driver sleepiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyong Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving sleepiness is still a major causes of traffic accidents. Individual drivers, under various conditions, act and respond in different manners. This article presents the attempt of a straight-line driving simulator study that examined the effects of driver behavior style differences and individual differences on driver sleepiness detection which is based on driving performance measures. A total of 15 drivers who were classified into two categories through subjective assessment based on a Driver Behavior Questionnaire participated in driving simulator experiments. A total of 18 detection models, including 15 SE models for each subject, an A model for the aggressive drivers, an NA model for the non-aggressive drivers, and a G model for all experiment participants, were developed using support vector machine method based on driving performance characteristic parameters. The results show that the G model is not suitable for all drivers due to its lower mean accuracy of 69.88% (standard deviation = 7.70% and higher standard deviation. The SE models for each subject show the best detection accuracy performance of 84.26% (standard deviation = 5.38%; however, it is impossible to set up a special detection model for every individual driver. The SD models on different style categories show an accuracy value of 77.54% (standard deviation = 5.78%. The results demonstrate that driver style differences as well as individual differences have great effects on driver sleepiness detection (F = 19.148, p < 0.000.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  13. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015 in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours.

  14. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Staddon, Zoe; Sheridan, Judith; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-05-01

    High levels of psychological distress in fulltime employees are prevalent (4.5% per month). Symptoms of impaired mental health include difficulties with attention, concentration, motivation, decision-making, visuo-motor control, and psychomotor reaction times. There is limited research on the impact these symptoms have on heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers' performance. In this study 1324 HGV drivers were surveyed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire (HPQ). Depression, anxiety and stress had little effect on driver absenteeism rates or self-rated driving performance. However, severe (1.5% of drivers) and very severe (1.8% of drivers) depression was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near miss in the past 28 days. This odd ratio is akin to driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. Given the number of HGV vehicles and the prevalence of depression this equates to 10,950 HGV drivers with an increased statistical risk of an accident or near miss. As the impact of HGV accidents is potentially large, including loss of life, it would be sensible to extend the research findings here into an action plan.

  15. A Logic Architecture for 360 ADAS-Alerts for Hazards Detection Based in Driver Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo-Reyes Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a novel approach for passive safety in vehicles by Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS alert emission in 360° around driver to notify about hazards nearby the vehicle depending on the actions taken by driver per the context. This proposal would create a more robust system compared to current passive ADAS systems since the feedback to driver is in the same direction that hazard is detected (Punctual Sound Source Alert, compared with most assistance systems that emits sounds from the monitor or from the dashboard provoking distractions when emits alerts unnecessarily. The increase of security by this method will allow the driver to be aware of their surroundings even in a very quiet cabin or in a noisy environment. Also, it would detect the steering wheel angle, speed of movement and the activation of turning lights among other alerts, which would allow us to define a critical action during driving; apart from using sensors and cameras aimed at the driver to detect patterns of movement during these critical actions and have a prediction of a possible turn or manoeuvre when driving, refer to Figure 1. It will be necessary a reconfiguration of the alert in frequency, time of action depending upon the level of risk to prevent an accident or to reduce the consequences in an imminent accident.

  16. GNU/Linux driver development for embedded data acquisition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iglesias-Benitez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the development of a driver to handle a data acquisition system controlled by the MINI2440 single board computer based on the S3C2440 RISC processor from Samsung and equipped with an ARM920T 32 bits kernel, in which an embedded GNU/Linux operating system is executed. A global vision of the system is presented and the hardware and software components are described. Emphasis is made in the use of structures, functions and blocking and synchronization primitives GNU/Linux offers to solve problems of the producer´s/consumer´s kind.

  17. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  18. Assisting Driver Sovereignty: A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the alar

  19. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving.

  20. Assisting Driver Sovereignty: A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the alar

  1. Assessing driver's ability to estimate compliance rates to in-car, advisory driver support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In-car support systems focus increasingly on improving traffic flow and throughput. Advisory systems allow for fast market penetration, advising drivers how to drive in order to improve general flow. By following the advice, drivers cannot create a beneficial effect by themselves but rely o

  2. Passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection using advanced sensor signal acquisition and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Allalou, Amin; Pettersson, Håkan

    2017-04-03

    The research objective of the present investigation is to demonstrate the present status of passive in-vehicle driver breath alcohol detection and highlighting the necessary conditions for large scale implementation of such a system. Completely passive detection has remained a challenge mainly because of the requirements on signal resolution combined with the constraints of vehicle integration. The work is part of the DADSS (driver alcohol detection system for safety) program aiming at massive deployment of alcohol sensing systems which could potentially save thousands of American lives annually. The work reported here builds on earlier investigations, in which it has been shown that detection of alcohol vapor in the proximity of a human subject may be traced to that subject by means of simultaneous recording of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the same location. Sensors based on infrared spectroscopy were developed to detect and quantify low concentrations of alcohol and CO2. In the present investigation, alcohol and CO2 were recorded at various locations in a vehicle cabin while human subjects were performing normal in-step procedures and driving preparations. A video camera directed to the driver position was recording images of the driver's upper body parts including the face, and the images were analyzed with respect to features of significance to the breathing behavior and breath detection, such as mouth opening and head direction. Improvement of the sensor system with respect to signal resolution including algorithm and software development, and fusion of the sensor and camera signals was successfully implemented and tested before starting the human study. In addition, experimental tests and simulations were performed with the purpose of connecting human subject data with repeatable experimental conditions. The results include occurrence statistics of detected breaths by signal peaks of CO2 and alcohol. From the statistical data, the accuracy of breath alcohol

  3. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is one of the occupational diseases that affect workers worldwide, affecting their own productivity and performance (as well as that of the organizations where they work, and even their physical and mental health. According to the International Labour Organization, Mexican workers suffer from stress the most all over the world, since theirs is one of the most stressful professions. With this in mind, the aim of this research is to study the work stress in bus rapid transit drivers and minibus in Mexico City. The method used is based on an exploratory statistical factorial analysis. It is concluded that the factors which a higher influence in the onset of stress are organizational, environmental (physical/individual, inherent to the position, extra organizational and individual. Although divergent among drivers, minibus drivers are the workers who suffer the most from stress.

  4. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 10-168

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  5. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  6. Square Wave Driver for Piezoceramic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Jakiela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the circuit and performance of a square wave driver and power supply for piezoceramic actuators characterized by large capacitance, up to 3 μF. Capacitance of piezoceramic element is the key factor that limits the use of powerful actuators operating at high frequencies (kHz. It is thus important to build a driver that allows use of a possible wide set of actuators in the widest range of frequencies appropriate for the piezoelement. The driver that we report uses the properties of non-inductive resistors that allow for operation at high frequencies. Our report details the design, construction, tests and limitations of the device and its application to the control of a microfluidic valve.

  7. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  8. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  9. [Relationship between symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and traffic accidents in the city drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Muhammed Emin; Kart, Levent; Uludağ, Murat; Bayram, Mehmet; Alisha, Gersi; Özçelik, Hatice; Karaköse, Fatmanur; Sezer, Murat

    2013-01-01

    There is a high tendency for traffic accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Thus it's recommended to investigate OSAS symptoms before certification of professional drivers. However, to what degree OSAS symptoms predict traffic accidents is not clear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between OSAS symptoms and traffic accidents. Five hundred twenty bus drivers working at Istanbul Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel (IETT) general management were randomly selected. Berlin questionnaire was applied which included demographic data, accident ratios, total duration in profession, duration of working in a day and OSAS symptoms. Epworth sleepiness score (ESS) test was applied to assess day time slepiness. All drivers were male. Snoring were present in 324 (65.7%) of participants. Traffic accident history were present in 259 (49.7%) of drivers. Significant relationship was present between traffic accident and only daytime sleepiness among the OSAS symptoms. The mean of accident/year ratio of all participants were 0.092. Mean of ESS was 7.3 ± 3.2 for all participants. There is a positive correlation between ESS and accident/year ratio (r= 0.57, p= 0.012). Only daytime sleepiness among OSAS symptoms is related with traffic accident. The questioning of OSAS symptoms alone is inadequate to estimate traffic accident risk. Thus further consideration more than symptom questioning is needed at phase of authorization of professional drivers to detect OSAS.

  10. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  11. Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2010-04-01

    The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety. Copyright 2010 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Lindsay J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Methods Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007 of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80 with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0. Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS, outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments. Statistical analysis: p 80; stratified chi square. Results Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987 of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 ± 17.9, ISS of 18.0 ± 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67 or complications (p = 0.38. There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06. The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (≥ 5 days, ventilator days (≥ 8 days, and hospital LOS (> 14 days when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p Conclusions The data suggests that intoxicated drivers may have better outcomes and a trend towards reduced mortality. They appeared to be less likely to have prolonged hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. We also observed that intoxicated drivers were more likely to be self-pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely

  13. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  14. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  15. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  16. Enhancing digital driver models: identification of distinct postural strategies used by drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A; Babski-Reeves, Kari L

    2010-03-01

    Driver workspace design and evaluation is, in part, based on assumed driving postures of users and determines several ergonomic aspects of a vehicle, such as reach, visibility and postural comfort. Accurately predicting and specifying standard driving postures, hence, are necessary to improve the ergonomic quality of the driver workspace. In this study, a statistical clustering approach was employed to reduce driving posture simulation/prediction errors, assuming that drivers use several distinct postural strategies when interacting with automobiles. 2-D driving postures, described by 16 joint angles, were obtained from 38 participants with diverse demographics (age, gender) and anthropometrics (stature, body mass) and in two vehicle classes (sedans and SUVs). Based on the proximity of joint angle sets, cluster analysis yielded three predominant postural strategies in each vehicle class (i.e. 'lower limb flexed', 'upper limb flexed' and 'extended'). Mean angular differences between clusters ranged from 3.8 to 52.4 degrees for the majority of joints, supporting the practical relevance of the distinct clusters. The existence of such postural strategies should be considered when utilising digital human models (DHMs) to enhance and evaluate driver workspace design ergonomically and proactively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study identified drivers' distinct postural strategies, based on actual drivers' behaviours. Such strategies can facilitate accurate positioning of DHMs and hence help design ergonomic driver workspaces.

  17. Efficacy of side air bags in reducing driver deaths in driver-side collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Elisa R; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y

    2004-03-15

    Side air bags, a relatively new technology designed to protect the head and/or torso in side-impact collisions, are becoming increasingly common in automobiles. Their efficacy in preventing US driver deaths among cars struck on the near (driver's) side was examined using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Risk ratios for driver death per nearside collision during 1999-2001 were computed for head/torso and torso-only side air bags in cars from model years 1997-2002, relative to cars without side air bags. Confounding was addressed by adjusting nearside risk ratios for front- and rear-impact mortality, which is unaffected by side air bags. Risk ratios were 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.71) for head/torso air bags and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 1.01) for torso-only air bags. Risk was reduced when cars with head/torso air bags were struck by cars/minivans (significant) or pickup trucks/sport utility vehicles (nonsignificant). Risk was reduced in two-vehicle collisions and among male drivers and drivers aged 16-64 years. Protective effects associated with torso-only air bags were observed in single-vehicle crashes and among male and 16- to 64-year-old drivers. Head/torso side air bags appear to be very effective in reducing nearside driver deaths, whereas torso-only air bags appear less protective.

  18. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  19. Theme II. Speed limits and the driver. Advisory speed limits: Should they be expanded or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    According to Dutch legislation, advisory speed limits should only be used on curves with a small radius, although there has been an increasing demand in recent years for w wider application of advisory speed limits. The behaviour of drivers on curves and the forces working on the vehicle and its occ

  20. Prevalence of drugs in oral fluid from truck drivers in Brazilian highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombana, Henrique Silva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Dos Santos, Marcelo Filonzi; Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Yonamine, Mauricio; Rohlfs, Waldo José Caram; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2017-03-01

    Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation. Important highways cross through Sao Paulo to other regions from Brazil and to other countries in Latin America. This study aims to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use by truck drivers in the state of Sao Paulo through toxicological analyses of oral fluid. Truck drivers were randomly stopped by police officers on federal roads during morning hours. Oral fluid samples were collected using the Quantisal™ device. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Oral fluid samples were screened for amphetamine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) by ELISA and the confirmation was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 764 drivers stopped, 762 agreed to participate. The participants were driving an average of 614km and 9.4h a day. Of the total samples, 5.2% (n=40) tested positive for drugs. Cocaine was the most frequently found drug (n=21), followed by amphetamine (n=16) and Δ9-THC (n=8). All drivers were men with an average age of 42.5 years. With these results we were able to verify that many truck drivers were still consuming psychoactive drugs while driving, and cocaine was the most prevalent one. This reinforces the need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of illicit drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  1. Road traffic injuries in Kenya: a survey of commercial motorcycle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheka, Duncan Mwangangi; Omar, Faraj Alkizim; Kipsaina, Chebiwot; Witte, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Motorcycle injuries contribute a substantial number of deaths and hospital admissions in Kenya. There is paucity of data to inform prevention strategies to address the issue. Therefore, the current study sought to explore the characteristics of 2 and 3-wheeler related road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey of motorcycle drivers involved in a RTI in the preceding 3 months was conducted in 11 urban and rural sites in Kenya's Thika town through face- to -face structured interviews. Drivers' demographic information, comprehensive crash characteristics and socioeconomic impact of injury data were collected. Of 200 drivers injured, 98% were male, with average age of 28.4 years (SD±6.6). Of these drivers, 33% were not wearing any protective equipment. Negligence was the most reported cause of crash (33%), followed by slippery roads (21.0%) and speeding (17.5%). The risk of sustaining a bodily injury was 1.3 times higher in drivers who had not received prevention education compared to those who had received such education. People injured at night were 5 times more likely to sustain a bodily injury compared to those injured during the day. Only 8.5% of the drivers reported the injury incident to the police. Majority of motorcycle related injuries in Thika town occur among young, productive, working-age male drivers. A high proportion of injuries are due to negligence on riding while not wearing any protective equipment compounded by lack of injury prevention education. Initiatives to foster helmet wearing, provision of high-quality affordable helmets, responsible driving and advocacy for stronger legislation, are recommended.

  2. Development of the physics driver in NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, H.; Iredell, M.; Tripp, P.

    2016-12-01

    As a key component of the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS), a physics driver is developed in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) in order to facilitate the research, development, and transition to operations of innovations in atmospheric physical parameterizations. The physics driver connects the atmospheric dynamic core, the Common Community Physics Package and the other NEMS-based forecast components (land, ocean, sea ice, wave, and space weather). In current global forecasting system, the physics driver has incorporated major existing physics packages including radiation, surface physics, cloud and microphysics, ozone, and stochastic physics. The physics driver is also applicable to external physics packages. The structure adjustment in NEMS by separating the PHYS trunk is to create an open physics package pool. This open platform is beneficial to the enhancement of U.S. weather forecast ability. In addition, with the universal physics driver, the NEMS can also be used for specific functions by connecting external target physics packages through physics driver. The test of its function is to connect a physics dust-radiation model in the system. Then the modified system can be used for dust storm prediction and forecast. The physics driver is also developed into a standalone form. This is to facilitate the development works on physics packages. The developers can save instant fields of meteorology data and snapshots from the running system , and then used them as offline driving data fields to test the new individual physics modules or small modifications to current modules. This prevents the run of whole system for every test.

  3. Modeling safety risk perception due to mobile phone distraction among four wheeler drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Rajesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing trend in the use of information and communication technology devices in new vehicles. Due to these increasing service facilities, driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety. To reduce safety risks, it is crucial to understand how distracting activities affect driver behavior at different levels of vehicle control. The objective of this work is to understand how the vehicle and driver characteristics influence mobile phone usage while driving and associated risk perception of road safety incidents. Based on literature review, a man–machine framework for distracted driving and a mobile phone distraction model is presented. The study highlights the findings from a questionnaire survey conducted in Kerala, India. The questionnaire uses a 5-point Likert scale. Responses from 1203 four-wheeler drivers are collected using random sampling approach. The questionnaire items associated with three driver-drive characteristics are: (i Human Factors (age, experience, emotional state, behavior of driver, (ii Driver space (meter, controls, light, heat, steering, actuators of vehicle, (iii Driving conditions (speed, distance, duration, traffic, signals. This mobile phone distraction model is tested using structural equation modeling procedure. The study indicates that among the three characteristics, ‘Human Factors’ has the highest influence on perceived distraction due to mobile phones. It is also observed that safety risk perception due to mobile phone usage while driving is moderate. The practical relevance of the study is to place emphasis on behavior-based controls and to focus on strategies leveraging perception of distraction due to mobile phones while driving.

  4. Drivers and barriers for bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin; Schouwenberg, Peter Paul; Nikolaisen, Lars; Andrade, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    There are several drivers responsible for the strong increase in biomass trade over the past decade: concerns regarding the effects of climate change remain unchanged, and policy targets for renewable energy for 2020 have so far remained (largely) intact despite the economic crisis. At the same time

  5. The future: six drivers of global change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gore, Albert

    2013-01-01

    .... Once we turn, though, where will we be? That is the compelling question Al Gore sets out to answer by examining the drivers of global change, connecting the dots among the social, economic, and political forces shaping our present and future...

  6. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krishna Moorthy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researched (Worthington & Patton, 2005 and more needs to be done to help SME owner-managers adopt environmental initiatives (Hitchens et al., 2003 as poor environmental performance is not simply the outcome of negative attitudes by SME owner-managers to the environment. This study identifies five key drivers of environmental management practice for SMEs go green. The five drivers are: economic benefits, financial incentives, stakeholders demand, legislation, resources, motivation and knowledge. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is considered as the most appropriate theory to study the drivers of green environment behavior and to investigate the owners’/managers’ perception and attitude towards Malaysian SMEs’ green concept.

  7. A Fast 650V Chopper Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of Linac4 and the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) studies at CERN, the design for a beam chopper has been carried out . This paper describes a new chopper driver amplifier providing 650 V on 50 Ω with fronts of about 2 ns and a repetition frequency of up to 45 MHz.

  8. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  9. Driver behavior at urban roads in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; van Zuylen, H.J.; van der Horst, E.

    2014-01-01

    Driver behavior in China shows remarkable differences from that in western countries. In this study, six focus groups were organized to investigate Chinese drivers’ attitudes, expectations, intended actions, their preferences, and habits in different situations in urban areas. The outcomes show that

  10. A Research on Darkness Adaptation of Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of darkness adaptation test fordrivers. It is shown that there is a significant difference (p10 s is 7.3%, implying that the high accident rate of the drivers in accident group might be caused by their longer darkness adaptation time.

  11. Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mayhew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although driver education (DE is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives.

  12. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  13. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  14. Conceptualizing distal drivers in land use competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems...

  15. Field testing driver night vision devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Kolletzki, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available methodologies to field test driver night vision devices ranging from vehicle mounted camera’s to head-mounted NVG’s. As in flight trials, a formidable challenge is to collect meaningful performance measures. Night vision systems for land and air systems show many

  16. 'The best drivers in the world'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars; Järvinen, Margaretha Maria

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses risk behaviour as described by a group of convicted drink-drivers. Risk assessment is seen as a part of a complicated process reflecting moral values in specific socio-cultural settings and within a specific framework of time. The respondents’ retrospective accounts of their dr...

  17. Drivers and barriers for bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin; Schouwenberg, Peter Paul; Nikolaisen, Lars; Andrade, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    There are several drivers responsible for the strong increase in biomass trade over the past decade: concerns regarding the effects of climate change remain unchanged, and policy targets for renewable energy for 2020 have so far remained (largely) intact despite the economic crisis. At the same

  18. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  19. Do management practices support or constrain safe driving behaviour? A multi-level investigation in a sample of occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Warmerdam, Amanda; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-05-01

    It has been estimated that one-third of all work-related deaths occur while driving for work-related purposes. Despite this, many organisations are unaware of the practices, beyond those that identify and control the impact of unforeseen events (i.e., risk management), that predispose drivers to risk. This study addresses the issue by identifying the management practices operationalised as, High Performance Workplace Systems (HPWS) that influence safe driver behaviour. The study also explores the value given to safety by senior level management as a moderator of the relationship between HPWS practices and driver behaviour. Each factor was tested within a two level hierarchical model consisting of 911 drivers, nested within 161 supervisors and 83 organisations. The findings highight that under conditions of high investment in job and work design, communication and selection practices, drivers reported poorer driving behaviour. An interaction effect also demonstrated that under conditions of high investment in remuneration, drivers reported safer behaviour, but only when they perceived that managers valued and prioritised safety. The findings challenge current thinking in the management of workplace road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a general theory of driver behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ray

    2005-05-01

    Taylor [Taylor, D.H., 1964. Drivers' galvanic skin response and the risk of accident. Ergonomics 7, 439-451] argued that drivers attempt to maintain a constant level of anxiety when driving which Wilde [Wilde, G.J.S., 1982. The theory of risk homeostasis: implications for safety and health. Risk Anal. 2, 209-225] interpreted to be coupled to subjective estimates of the probability of collision. This theoretical paper argues that what drivers attempt to maintain is a level of task difficulty. Naatanen and Summala [Naatanen, R., Summala, H., 1976. Road User Behaviour and Traffic Accidents. North Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York] similarly rejected the concept of statistical risk as a determinant of driver behaviour, but in so doing fell back on the learning process to generate a largely automatised selection of appropriate safety margins. However it is argued here that driver behaviour cannot be acquired and executed principally in such S-R terms. The concept of task difficulty is elaborated within the framework of the task-capability interface (TCI) model, which describes the dynamic interaction between the determinants of task demand and driver capability. It is this interaction which produces different levels of task difficulty. Implications of the model are discussed regarding variation in performance, resource allocation, hierarchical decision-making and the interdependence of demand and capability. Task difficulty homeostasis is proposed as a key sub-goal in driving and speed choice is argued to be the primary solution to the problem of keeping task difficulty within selected boundaries. The relationship between task difficulty and mental workload and calibration is clarified. Evidence is cited in support of the TCI model, which clearly distinguishes task difficulty from estimates of statistical risk. However, contrary to expectation, ratings of perceived risk depart from ratings of statistical risk but track difficulty ratings almost perfectly. It now

  1. Study on “Dish Cheap Hurting Farmers” from the Angle of Microeconomics%基于微观经济学视角的“菜贱伤农”研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅

    2012-01-01

    基于微观经济学视角,对“菜贱伤农”进行了理论分析,追溯了“菜贱伤农”的实践原因,指出“菜贱伤农”是经济学理论分析中市场价格发挥作用自动均衡的一种结果,实际反映的是菜农面临的市场风险以及我国在农产品产销信息管理和价格管理中存在的问题.并探索了保障菜农利益的有效措施.%From the angle of microeconomics, "dish cheap hurting farmers" was analyzed theoretically, and the practical reasons of "dish cheap-hurting farmers" were traced, and it pointed out that "dish cheap hurting farmers" was the result of automatic balancing under the market mechanism adjustment in the economic theory analysis of market price, which reflected market risk faced by farmers in China, as well as the problems of agricultural products information management and price management. Moreover, the effective measures for guaranteeing the interests of vegetable grower were explored.

  2. The Implementation of Hard-Disk Protection Method Based on Disk Filter Driver

    OpenAIRE

    Yangwu Liu; Xisan Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it analyzes the working mechanism for the hard disk protection based on the current disk filter driver. The core ideology of the mechanism is to redirect the I/O request packet to the disk operation and to restore data automatically after restart the system in the case of transparent operating system to its upper storey. Also, it specifically analyzes the safety trouble by new virus, like the emerging virus, which can penetrate through the filter driver and results the failure ...

  3. 78 FR 63295 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  4. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  5. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  6. 77 FR 33554 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  7. 78 FR 63280 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  8. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  9. 77 FR 33551 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  10. 78 FR 63298 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... individuals for exemptions from the prohibition against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications;...

  11. Double detonation drivers for a shock tube/tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Hong; FENG; Heng; YU; Hongru

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress on detonation drivers is reviewed. Performances of the forward detonation driver and backward detonation driver have been observed. To eliminate occurrence of a Taylor wave following the detonation wave in the primary driver and to improve the performance of the detonation driver, an additional backward detonation driver was proposed to attach to the end of the forward detonation driver.When the ratio of the initial pressures between the additional and the primary drivers becomes larger than or equal to a critical value, the Taylor wave will disappear, and thus a homogeneous driving gas with high pressure and high temperature can be generated.Furthermore, an over-driving detonation wave will be also obtained, which can increase the driving capability.

  12. Aggregate driver model to enable predictable behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A.; Chakravarty, T.; Banerjee, T.; Balamuralidhar, P.

    2015-09-01

    The categorization of driving styles, particularly in terms of aggressiveness and skill is an emerging area of interest under the broader theme of intelligent transportation. There are two possible discriminatory techniques that can be applied for such categorization; a microscale (event based) model and a macro-scale (aggregate) model. It is believed that an aggregate model will reveal many interesting aspects of human-machine interaction; for example, we may be able to understand the propensities of individuals to carry out a given task over longer periods of time. A useful driver model may include the adaptive capability of the human driver, aggregated as the individual propensity to control speed/acceleration. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying smartphone based application to be used for data collection by a group of drivers. Data is primarily being collected from GPS measurements including position & speed on a second-by-second basis, for a number of trips over a two months period. Analysing the data set, aggregate models for individual drivers were created and their natural aggressiveness were deduced. In this paper, we present the initial results for 12 drivers. It is shown that the higher order moments of the acceleration profile is an important parameter and identifier of journey quality. It is also observed that the Kurtosis of the acceleration profiles stores major information about the driving styles. Such an observation leads to two different ranking systems based on acceleration data. Such driving behaviour models can be integrated with vehicle and road model and used to generate behavioural model for real traffic scenario.

  13. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  14. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  15. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  16. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly.

  17. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  18. New York City Taxi Drivers' Knowledge and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gany, Francesca; Flores, Cristina; Winkel, Gary; Alam, Ishtiaq; Genoff, Margaux; Leng, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess New York City taxi drivers' knowledge and perceptions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A cross-sectional street-intercept study design was used to assess drivers' knowledge about the ACA. A 146-item questionnaire was administered from September 12 to December 6, 2013 to 175 yellow taxi and for-hire vehicle drivers. 91 % of drivers were foreign-born; 50 % were uninsured. Mean knowledge about the ACA was quite low; 78 % of the sample either knew nothing or only a little bit about the ACA. 77 % wanted more information about the ACA. Greater English proficiency, more years driving a taxi, and knowledge of having or not having a pre-existing health condition (vs. not knowing) were related to higher ACA knowledge levels. Knowledge of a pre-existing condition (whether they had one or not) compared to those who lacked such knowledge was also an important predictor of the perception of whether the ACA would have a positive impact. To facilitate enrollment, efforts should focus on occupationally-focused initiatives that educate drivers at their places of work and leisure, to raise the overall knowledge levels and enrollment of the community.

  19. Creating a smart application system to provide a beneficial maintenance service for elderly drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sebin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As overall population ages, elderly drivers have become a larger percentage of the driving population. With this trend, a lot of vehicle systems have been improved for elderly’s safety and convenience using different advanced technologies. However, elderly drivers have often paid more money than other drivers in a car-repair shop due to their lack of knowledge about vehicle systems with modern technologies. Given this fact, developing a tool to diminish this disadvantage and to help elderly drivers maintain their cars with confidence and with minimal cost is necessary. Therefore, this research work mainly focuses on suggesting a system concept on user-interface application, which is connected to a smart phone or a tablet to provide beneficial services anywhere. For the research outcome, diverse research activities – surveys, interviews with small focus groups, observations of the focus groups, and discussions – has been conducted to understand the elderly driver’s difficulties and behaviours regarding vehicle maintenance, to investigate what specific problems make them uncomfortable in repair shops, and to demonstrate how new system-concepts could be developed for the elderly. Furthermore, we conclude that adequate system-concepts for the elderly would offer elderly drivers convenient vehicle repair and maintenance and provide them a confident driving experience.

  20. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  1. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jason, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea, E-mail: sears8@llnl.gov, E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Welch, Dale [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation during the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.

  2. Noise exposure of a tractor driver at skidding of wood assortments in hilly-mountaineous areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first phase of transport of forest products (skidding in Serbia is usually performed by skid trails with adapted agricultural tractors. The educational base ”Goč - Gvozdac” compartment 21 was the selected object of this research. Data recording was carried out in June 2011. The vehicle driven by the driver was an IMT 565 DV tractor. The organizational form of work was 1T + 1P (tractor driver and assistant. The microphone of a Bruel & Kjaer 4189 noise measuring instrument was mounted on the helmet of the tractor driver in accordance with the ISO 9612: 2012 standard. The recording was performed with a Bruel & Kjaer 2250 instrument. The values of the following parameters with appropriate filters: LAeq (dB(A, LAIeq (dB(A, LCpeak (dB(C, LZeq (dB were measured. The measured exposure of the workers to noise was the highest in the course of the main productive time (empty or full drive. It was found that the eight-hour exposure to noise of the driver (88 dB (A exceeds the limit value of daily exposure according to European legislation. The results show that it is necessary for drivers to use hearing protection equipment when transporting wood with the studied transportation vehicle. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31041

  3. Non-planar driver's side rearview mirrors: A survey of mirror types and european driver experience and a driver behavior study on the influence of experience and driver age on gap acceptance and vehicle detection (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de

    2000-01-01

    Some European drivers have been using different types of convex, driver-side rear-view mirrors which provide a wider field-of-view than flat mirrors, but produce a minified image. With a minified image, some drivers may have difficulty judging distances and approach speeds. To assess the potential b

  4. Analog Video Line Driver with Adaptive Impedance Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram; Dijkstra, Marcel B.

    1998-01-01

    A new principle for an adaptive line driver is presented. This type of line driver can adapt its output impedance automatically to the applied load. This results in automatically corrected output impedance for different cables with terminations. Also, the line-driver output impedance becomes insensi

  5. Driver Steering Control and Full Vehicle Dynamics Study Based on a Nonlinear Three-Directional Coupled Heavy-Duty Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated driving situations, such as cornering brake, lane change, or barrier avoidance, the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle are coupled and interacted obviously. This work aims to propose the suitable vehicle and driver models for researching full vehicle dynamics in complicated conditions. A nonlinear three-directional coupled lumped parameters (TCLP model of a heavy-duty vehicle considering the nonlinearity of suspension damping and tire stiffness is built firstly. Then a modified preview driver model with nonlinear time delay is proposed and connected to the TCLP model to form a driver-vehicle closed-loop system. The presented driver-vehicle closed-loop system is evaluated during a double-lane change and compared with test data, traditional handling stability vehicle model, linear full vehicle model, and other driver models. The results show that the new driver model has better lane keeping performances than the other two driver models. In addition, the effects of driver model parameters on lane keeping performances, handling stability, ride comfort, and roll stability are discussed. The models and results of this paper are useful to enhance understanding the effects of driver behaviour on full vehicle dynamics.

  6. Driver drowsiness detection using the in-ear EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeho Hwang; Miyoung Kim; Seunghyeok Hong; Kwang Suk Park

    2016-08-01

    Driver drowsiness monitoring is one of the most demanded technologies for active prevention of severe road accidents. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and several peripheral signals have been suggested for the drowsiness monitoring. However, each type of signal has partial limitations in terms of either convenience or accuracy. Recent emerged concept of in-ear EEG raises expectations due to reduced obtrusiveness. It is yet unclear whether the in-ear EEG is effective enough for drowsiness detection in comparison with on-scalp EEG or peripheral signals. In this work, we evaluated performance of the in-ear EEG in drivers' alertness-drowsiness classification for the first time. Simultaneously, we also tested three peripheral signals including electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), and galvanic skin response (GSR) which have advantage in convenience of measurement. The classification analysis using the in-ear EEG resulted in high classification accuracy comparable to that of the individual on-scalp EEG channels. The ECG, PPG and GSR showed competitive performance but only when used together in pairwise combinations. Our results suggest that the in-ear EEG would be viable alternative to the single channel EEG or the individual peripheral signals for the drowsiness monitoring.

  7. TRAFFIC CONTROL AND IMPROVING RELATIONS DRIVERS OF VEHICLES WITH EMPLOYEES UNITS GAI CITIES OF DNIPROPETROVSK

    OpenAIRE

    Мозолевич, Г. Я.; А. В. ТРОЯН

    2013-01-01

    In this work there were suggested the arrangements for the improvement of mutual relations of drivers and employees of the State motor-car inspection of Dnipropetrovsk city by introduction of electronic account of documents and automation of processes of travelling traffic regulation and controlling a travelling situation on the motor-car ways of city. There has been worked out strategy of introduction and expected cost of project for Dni-propetrovsk city. 

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  9. Does power help or hurt? The moderating role of self-other focus on power and perspective-taking in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena

    2013-08-01

    Reconciling competing viewpoints suggesting that power helps and hurts perspective-taking in close relationships, in two experiments and two daily experience studies we tested the hypothesis that power's effect on perspective-taking depends on the extent to which people are relatively self-versus other-focused. In Study 1, recalling a time of high (vs. low) power over a romantic partner reduced inclinations to take the partner's perspective for relatively self-focused but not other-focused individuals. Studies 2 and 3 replicated Study 1 using daily variations in power and perspective-taking. In Study 4, being the "in-charge" partner during a conflict conversation reduced empathic accuracy for more self-focused individuals. Self-other focus was assessed with measures of gratitude, relational self-construal, and social value orientation. The current findings provide evidence that, particularly for the more self-focused, relationship power influences people's inclinations to take their romantic partner's perspective in daily life as well as their empathic accuracy during conflict.

  10. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-10-14

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  11. Spoke cavity developments for the EURISOL driver

    CERN Document Server

    Bousson, S; Biarrotte, J.L; Dufour, J.M; Gandolfo, N; Junquera, T; Lesrel, J; Lukovac, L; Lutton, F; Martinet, G; Olry, G; Ponton, A; Rampnoux, E; Saugnac, H

    EURISOL is the next generation of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility which aims at the provision of high intensity beams of radioactive nuclei with variable energy, from a few keV to greater than 100 MeV per nucleon, at an intensity several orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. The driver of EURISOL has to accelerate protons at a final energy of 1 GeV and 5 mA current, but also deuterons at 200 MeV (total energy). For the intermediate energy part of the driver, a solution based on superconducting (SC) spoke cavities is under study at the IPN Orsay laboratory. In this paper are presented the experimental results on the beta 0.15 spoke cavity, as well as achievements on the power coupler and cold tuning system. A new horizontal cryostat for performing a test of a fully equipped spoke cavity is also presented.

  12. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  13. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  14. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Stephen T; Berry, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver's license.

  15. Driver's Face Tracking Based on Improved CAMShift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarul Hawari Bin Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistic shows that the number of casualty increase in every year due to road accident related to driver drowsiness. After long journey or sleepless night, vehicle driver will perform some bio-features with regard to drowsiness on them face. It is self-evident that getting location information of head in continuous monitoring and surveillance system rapidly and accurately can help prevent many accidents, and consequently save money and reduce personal suffering. In this paper, according the real situation in vehicle, an improved CAMShift approach is proposed to tracking motion of driver’s head. Results from experiment show the significant performance of proposed approach in driver’s head tracking.

  16. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, noise......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high-throughput DNA...... sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on protein...

  17. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green

    OpenAIRE

    M. Krishna Moorthy; Peter a/l Yacob; Mahendra Kumar a/l Chelliah; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researche...

  18. Laser dazzling impacts on car driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Sandberg, Stig; Hörberg, Ulf; Persson, Rolf; Berglund, Folke; Karslsson, Kjell; Öhgren, Johan; Yu, Zhaohua; Söderberg, Per

    2013-10-01

    A growing problem for the Police and Security Forces has been to prevent potentially hostile individuals to pass a checkpoint, without using lethatl violence. Therefore the question has been if there is a laser or any other strong light source that could be used as a warning and dazzling device, without lethal or long term effects. To investigate the possibilities a field trial has been performed at a motor-racing track. A green CW laser with an irradiance on the eye of maximum 0.5 MPE, as defined by ICNIRP [1] and the ANZI standard [2], was used as a dazzle source. Ten drivers have been driving with dipped headlights through a course of three lines with orange cones. In every line there has been only one gate wide enough to pass without hitting the cones. The time through the course, the choice of gates and the number of cones hit have been measured. For every second trial drive through the track, the driver was exposed to the laser dazzler. The background illuminances ranged from a thousand lux in daylight to about ten millilux in darkness. The protective effect of the sun-visor of the car was investigated. The drives visual system was carefully examined before and after experimental driving and a few weeks after the experimental driving to verify that no pathological effects, that could potentially be induced by the laser exposure, pre-existed or occurred after the laser exposure. An analysis of variance for a within subjects design has been used for evaluation. It was found that green laser light can have an obvious warning effect in daylight. Dazzling does reduce the drivers ability to make judgments and manouver the car in twilight and darkness. A sun-visor can reduce the glare and give the driver an improved control, but that perception can be unjustified. No damage to the visual system was observed.

  19. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  20. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions.

  1. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  2. Urinalysis and hair analysis for illicit drugs of driver applicants and drivers in the trucking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to determine if any differences in outcomes are associated with employment status or specimen type. The data is also assessed for specific patterns associated with particular drugs and their assay outcomes. Overall, it was determined that drug positive cases are relatively rare. Job applicants are more likely to test positive for an illicit drug than a currently employed driver. Applicants are more frequently positive for a drug by a factor of 3 for both urinalysis and hair analysis when compared to currently employed drivers. Approximately 2% of applicants were urine positive and 9% hair positive for an illegal drug. Considering employed truck drivers 0.6% were drug positive by urinalysis and 3% when using hair analysis. It is concluded that hair assays detect more drug use than urinalysis. It is also concluded that when urine and hair assay outcomes are non-concordant the typical case is a positive hair analysis with a negative urinalysis.

  3. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  4. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles.

  5. Work, Train, Win: Work-Based Learning Design and Management for Productivity Gains. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Realising the potential of work-based learning schemes as a driver of productivity requires careful design and support. The length of work-based learning schemes should be adapted to the profile of productivity gains. A scheme that is too long for a given skill set might be unattractive for learners and waste public resources, but a scheme that is…

  6. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  7. Urban Mining as a Driver for Teaching Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge; Martin, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    To teach sustainable architecture is an ongoing process of establishing a frame where the student’s creativity can be challenged by dealing with actual demands on the anthropogenic scene. To use Urban Mining as a driver has been one of the most challenging teaching approaches since many years....... This approach involves a complex journey from investigating and harvesting local resources to gaining insight into metabolism and finally to design a project of diversity. The methodology used was based on industrial ecology. By realizing local resources and their potentials the students acquired knowledge...... of available materials, and components and as well as their upgrading versus downscaling. The design process explored ways of interconnecting the mined resources and to establish businesses based on this interconnections, producing economic value and social identity for the locals. Working on a site...

  8. Earthworm-like micro robot based on electromagnetic driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kundong; Yan Guozheng

    2007-01-01

    According to the principle of bionics, a prototype of the earthworm-like micro robot was developed and manufactured for entering the small tube. Based on the process of the action and mechanics analysis, the controller was designed. This micro robot with 6mm diameter was driven directly by three electromagnetic linear drivers. Mobile cells were Joined with two degree-of-freedom joint and the whole body Was flexible and soft. The driving force reached 10.8g in normal working condition. The direction of movement and the angle of imaging can be controlled by the shape memory alloy (SMA). The driving force, velocity and movement of micro robot in flexural tube were tested through experiments, which indicated that the driving force was in proportion to the current, and the velocity reached a maximum in certain range of frequency, and the micro robot could move in the thin tube flexibly.

  9. Urban Mining as a Driver for Teaching Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge; Martin, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    To teach sustainable architecture is an ongoing process of establishing a frame where the student’s creativity can be challenged by dealing with actual demands on the anthropogenic scene. To use Urban Mining as a driver has been one of the most challenging teaching approaches since many years...... of available materials, and components and as well as their upgrading versus downscaling. The design process explored ways of interconnecting the mined resources and to establish businesses based on this interconnections, producing economic value and social identity for the locals. Working on a site...... could be utilized, if a better and easier access is established located at the urban areas. The conclusion argues that there is a need of critical studies and change of the waste industry and hereby give possibilities for new perspectives in architectural design....

  10. [The peptide correction of neurotic disorders among professional truck-drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Artamonova, V G

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the neurobehavioral status and to compare the prevalence of psychoadaptive disorders among lorry-drivers (experimental group) and metal craftsmen (control group) in connection with their age, length of service, occupational hazards, work schedule and sociodemographic characteristics. 150 male lorry-drivers (mean age 43.3 +/- 0.9) and 150 male metal craftsmen (mean age 42.8 +/- 0.9) were examined using a clinical questionnaire to identify, estimate and compare neurotic states. The study comprised 3 groups: 1st--subjects with stable psychic adaptation, 2nd--subjects with unstable psychic adaptation, a risk group, 3rd--subjects with stable psychic disadaptation, i.e. with some borderline mental disorders (BMD). Significant differences in the prevalence of psychic adaptation and disadaptation among groups under study were found. The predominance of the 2nd and 3rd groups among lorry-drivers in comparison with control group was found. The results showed that social and demographic characteristics had no significant influence neither in experimental nor in control groups (p > 0.1). Variability of psychoemotional imbalance levels among lorry-drivers was found to be due to a combination of the following factors: occupational exposure and their work schedule, while in control group--to the age of metal craftsmen. Comparative analysis of neurobehavioral disorders revealed the predominance of the asthenic symptoms, anxious and depressive manifestations, hysterical reactions among lorry-drivers, and the vegetative disorders only in control group. The results thus obtained support the hypothesis of occupational hazards and long driving experience being the risk factors for the development of BMD. The application of bioregulating peptides was found to restore the organism adaptive potential, improved psychoemotional indices, intensified resistance to work stress and reduced occupational risk of borderline mental disorders (p factor on a target

  11. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  12. Association of climate drivers with rainfall in New South Wales, Australia, using Bayesian Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Rivett, Kelly; MacSween, Katrina; Le-Anh, Linh

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall in New South Wales (NSW), located in the southeast of the Australian continent, is known to be influenced by four major climate drivers: the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Many studies have shown the influences of ENSO, IPO modulation, SAM and IOD on rainfall in Australia and on southeast Australia in particular. However, only limited work has been undertaken using a multiple regression framework to examine the extent of the combined effect of these climate drivers on rainfall. This paper analysed the role of these combined climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall in NSW using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to account for model uncertainty by considering each of the linear models across the whole model space which is equal to the set of all possible combinations of predictors to find the model posterior probabilities and their expected predictor coefficients. Using BMA for linear regression models, we are able to corroborate and confirm the results from many previous studies. In addition, the method gives the ranking order of importance and the probability of the association of each of the climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall at a site. The ability to quantify the relative contribution of the climate drivers offers the key to understand the complex interaction of drivers on rainfall, or lack of rainfall in a region, such as the three big droughts in southeastern Australia which have been the subject of discussion and debate recently on their causes.

  13. A 200 C Universal Gate Driver Integrated Circuit for Extreme Environment Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Huque, Mohammad A [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL; Blalock, Benjamin J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature power converters (dc-dc, dc-ac, etc.) have enormous potential in extreme environment applications, including automotive, aerospace, geothermal, nuclear, and well logging. For successful realization of such high-temperature power conversion modules, the associated control electronics also need to perform at high temperature. This paper presents a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based high-temperature gate driver integrated circuit (IC) incorporating an on-chip low-power temperature sensor and demonstrating an improved peak output current drive over our previously reported work. This driver IC has been primarily designed for automotive applications, where the underhood temperature can reach 200 C. This new gate driver prototype has been designed and implemented in a 0.8 {micro}m, 2-poly, and 3-metal bipolar CMOS-DMOS (Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) on SOI process and has been successfully tested for up to 200 C ambient temperature driving a SiC MOSFET and a SiC normally-ON JFET. The salient feature of the proposed universal gate driver is its ability to drive power switches over a wide range of gate turn-ON voltages such as MOSFET (0 to 20 V), normally-OFF JFET (-7 to 3 V), and normally-ON JFET (-20 to 0 V). The measured peak output current capability of the driver is around 5 A and is thus capable of driving several power switches connected in parallel. An ultralow-power on-chip temperature supervisory circuit has also been integrated into the die to safeguard the driver circuit against excessive die temperature ({ge}220 C). This approach utilizes increased diode leakage current at higher temperature to monitor the die temperature. The power consumption of the proposed temperature sensor circuit is below 10 {micro}W for operating temperature up to 200 C.

  14. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnoea among professional taxi drivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ridvan Tua; Mihaere, Kara; Gander, Philippa H

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the distribution of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) among taxi drivers, and to investigate differences by ethnicity in OSAS symptoms among drivers. A two-page postal questionnaire was completed by 241 professional taxi drivers from Wellington, New Zealand. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was defined as having an estimated 15 or more respiratory disturbances, per hour of sleep (Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI)> or =15) and self-reported daytime sleepiness. Pacific and Māori taxi drivers were more likely to have symptoms and risk factors for OSAS, compared to non-Māori non-Pacific drivers. In particular, Pacific drivers had a significantly increased pre-test probability of having moderate-severe OSA (RDI> or =15). Some professional taxi drivers are at increased risk for moderate-severe OSAS, especially Pacific and Māori taxi drivers. Untreated OSAS increases motor vehicle crash risk, so these findings have implications for the health and safety of drivers and their passengers. They suggest a need for more comprehensive research to guide policy on medical examinations required for licensing professional drivers as fit to drive.

  16. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  17. Assessment of personal noise exposure of overhead-traveling crane drivers in steel-rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Lin; CHAI Dong-liang; LI Hui-juan; LEI Zhuo; ZHAO Yi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Noise is widespread occupational hazard in iron and steel industry. Overhead-traveling cranes are widely used in this industry, but few studies characterized the overhead-traveling crane drivers' noise exposure level so far. In this study, we assessed and characterized personal noise exposure levels of overhead-traveling crane drivers in two steel-rolling mills.Methods One hundred and twenty-four overhead-traveling crane drivers, 76 in the cold steel-rolling mill and 48 in the hot steel-rolling mill, were enrolled in the study. Personal noise dosimeters (AIHUA Instruments Model AWA5610e,Hangzhou, China) were used to collect full-shift noise exposure data from all the participants. Crane drivers carried dosimeters with microphones placed near their collars during the work shifts. Work logs had been taken by the drivers simultaneously. Personal noise exposure data were divided into segments based on lines in which they worked. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS 13.0.Results The average personal noise exposure (LAeq.8h) of overhead-traveling crane drivers in the hot steel-rolling mills ((85.03±2.25) dB(A)) was higher than that in the cold one ((83.05±2.93) dB(A), P<0.001). There were 17 overhead traveling cranes in the hot steel-rolling mill and 24 cranes in the cold one, of which carrying capacities varied from 15 tons to 100 tons. The average noise exposure level based on different lines in the hot and cold steel-rolling mills were (85.2±2.61) dB(A) and (83.3±3.10) dB(A) respectively (P=0.001), which were similar to the average personal noise exposure in both mills. The noise exposure levels were different among different lines (P=0.021).Conclusion Noise exposure levels, depending upon background noise levels and the noise levels on the ground, are inconstant. As the noise exposure levels are above the 85 dB(A) criteria, these drivers should be involved in the Hearing Conservation Program to protect their hearing.

  18. Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

    2010-01-01

    High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

  19. Does "grief work" work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M; Stroebe, W

    1991-01-01

    This article challenges the long-standing belief in the necessity of "grief work" for adjustment to bereavement. Evidence is offered from a prospective study of 30 widows and 30 widowers that indicates that grief work is not always as essential for adjustment to bereavement as theorists and clinicia

  20. An evaluation of graduated driver licensing programs in North America using a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Mayhew, Dan; Marcoux, Kyla; Wets, Geert; Brijs, Tom; Shope, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Most jurisdictions in North America have some version of graduated driver licensing (GDL). A sound body of evidence documenting the effectiveness of GDL programs in reducing collisions, fatalities and injuries among novice drivers is available. However, information about the relative importance of individual components of GDL is lacking. The objectives of this study are to calculate a summary statistic of GDL effectiveness and to identify the most effective components of GDL programs using a meta-analytic approach. Data from 46 American States, the District of Columbia and 11 Canadian jurisdictions are used and were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the U.S. and from Transport Canada's Traffic Accident Information Database (TRAID) for Canada. The timeframe of this evaluation is 1992 through 2006, inclusive. Relative fatality risks and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using fatality counts and population data for target and comparison groups, both in a pre-implementation and post-implementation period in each jurisdiction. The target groups were 16-, 17-, 18- and 19-year-old drivers. The comparison group was 25-54-year-old drivers. The relative fatality risks of all jurisdictions were summarized using the random effects DerSimonian and Laird model. Meta-regression using Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling was also conducted. Strong evidence in support of GDL was found. GDL had a positive and significant impact on the relative fatality risk of 16-year-old drivers (reduction of 19.1%). Significant effects were found for meta-regression models with 16-, 18- and 19-year-old drivers. These effects include length of night restriction in the learner stage, country, driver education in the learner stage and in the intermediate stage, whether night restrictions are lifted in the intermediate stage for work purposes, passenger restriction in the intermediate stage, whether

  1. Minibus taxi drivers' sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncama, Busisiwe; Mchunu, Gugu; Naidoo, Joanne; Majeke, Sisana; Pillay, Padmini; Myeza, Thandazile; Ndebele, Thandiwe

    2013-01-08

    Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  2. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  3. Muscle computer interfaces for driver distraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushaba, Rami N; Kodagoda, Sarath; Liu, Diaki; Dissanayake, Gamini

    2013-05-01

    Driver distraction is regarded as a significant contributor to motor-vehicle crashes. One of the important factors contributing to driver distraction was reported to be the handling and reaching of in-car electronic equipment and controls that usually requires taking the drivers' hands off the wheel and eyes off the road. To minimize the amount of such distraction, we present a new control scheme that senses and decodes the human muscles signals, denoted as Electromyogram (EMG), associated with different fingers postures/pressures, and map that to different commands to control external equipment, without taking hands off the wheel. To facilitate such a scheme, the most significant step is the extraction of a set of highly discriminative feature set that can well separate between the different EMG-based actions and to do so in a computationally efficient manner. In this paper, an accurate and efficient method based on Fuzzy Neighborhood Discriminant Analysis (FNDA), is proposed for discriminant feature extraction and then extended to the channel selection problem. Unlike existing methods, the objective of the proposed FNDA is to preserve the local geometrical and discriminant structures, while taking into account the contribution of the samples to the different classes. The method also aims to efficiently overcome the singularity problems of classical LDA by employing the QR-decomposition. Practical real-time experiments with eight EMG sensors attached on the human forearm of eight subjects indicated that up to fourteen classes of fingers postures/pressures can be classified with <7% error on average, proving the significance of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A CENTURY SELECTING DRIVERS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CIVERA MOLLÁ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the Directorial 91/439 of Cee Council who regulate driving licence, the drivers abilities and requiredproves to prove true them. The Reglamento General de Conductores required from all of candidates toobtein/renewad licence submitted to physical an psychological examination to obtain driving licence. TheReglamento General de Conductores maintained psychological test and a preventive pattern, legalized at 1934,although any City Halls required it for public transport. We offered an analysis of internal and external evolutionof the model, and the importance in proffesional labour of psychologist and the popularity of the society.

  5. CARess, a gentle touch informs the driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of Human Machine Interface (HMI) used to de- liver information to the driver in cars is described in this paper. The de- livery of information is based on the Informative Interruptive Cue (IIC) approach. The interface is a matrix of 4 x 3 vibrating motors, controlled through a real......-time algorithm based on apparent motion and phantom illusion to create continuous and discrete tactile patterns. A first exper- iment was conducted with 22 participants to examine their ability to discriminate the tactile patterns displayed by the interface placed on the back of a chair. Results showed 61...

  6. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  7. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    2015-01-01

    In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based ...

  8. Occupational conditions and the risk of the use of amphetamines by truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Souza, Letícia Maria de Araújo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Gouvêa, Marcela Júlio César; de Almeida, Carlos Vinícius Dias; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether the occupational conditions of professional truck drivers are associated with amphetamine use after demographic characteristics and ones regarding mental health and drug use are controlled for. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 684 male truck drivers, which was collected in three highways in Sao Paulo between years 2012 and 2013. Demographic and occupational information was collected, as well as data on drug use and mental health (sleep quality, emotional stress, and psychiatric disorders). A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with amphetamine use. Odds ratio (OR; 95%CI) was defined as the measure for association. The significance level was established as p < 0.05. RESULTS The studied sample was found to have an average age of 36.7 (SD = 7.8) years, as well as low education (8.6 [SD = 2.3] years); 29.0% of drivers reported having used amphetamines within the twelve months prior to their interviews. After demographic and occupational variables had been controlled for, the factors which indicated amphetamine use among truck drivers were the following: being younger than 38 years (OR = 3.69), having spent less than nine years at school (OR = 1.76), being autonomous (OR = 1.65), working night shifts or irregular schedules (OR = 2.05), working over 12 hours daily (OR = 2.14), and drinking alcohol (OR = 1.74). CONCLUSIONS Occupational aspects are closely related to amphetamine use among truck drivers, which reinforces the importance of closely following the application of law (Resting Act (“Lei do Descanso”); Law 12,619/2012) which regulates the workload and hours of those professionals. Our results show the need for increased strictness on the trade and prescription of amphetamines in Brazil. PMID:26398875

  9. Occupational conditions and the risk of the use of amphetamines by truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To test whether the occupational conditions of professional truck drivers are associated with amphetamine use after demographic characteristics and ones regarding mental health and drug use are controlled for.METHODS Cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 684 male truck drivers, which was collected in three highways in Sao Paulo between years 2012 and 2013. Demographic and occupational information was collected, as well as data on drug use and mental health (sleep quality, emotional stress, and psychiatric disorders. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with amphetamine use. Odds ratio (OR; 95%CI was defined as the measure for association. The significance level was established as p < 0.05.RESULTS The studied sample was found to have an average age of 36.7 (SD = 7.8 years, as well as low education (8.6 [SD = 2.3] years; 29.0% of drivers reported having used amphetamines within the twelve months prior to their interviews. After demographic and occupational variables had been controlled for, the factors which indicated amphetamine use among truck drivers were the following: being younger than 38 years (OR = 3.69, having spent less than nine years at school (OR = 1.76, being autonomous (OR = 1.65, working night shifts or irregular schedules (OR = 2.05, working over 12 hours daily (OR = 2.14, and drinking alcohol (OR = 1.74.CONCLUSIONS Occupational aspects are closely related to amphetamine use among truck drivers, which reinforces the importance of closely following the application of law (Resting Act (“Lei do Descanso”; Law 12,619/2012 which regulates the workload and hours of those professionals. Our results show the need for increased strictness on the trade and prescription of amphetamines in Brazil.

  10. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM

    2013-01-01

    ) was used for monitoring positive drivers. Tramadol is not included in the Danish legislation therefore the general cut off, as decided in the DRUID project was used. Overall, ethanol (18%) was the most frequently identified compound (alone or in combination with other drugs) exceeding the legal limit...... found to be above the Danish legal limit in 4.9% of injured drivers. Young men (median age 31 years) were over-represented among injured drivers who violated Danish law for alcohol and drugs. Diazepam (4.4%), tramadol (3.2%), and clonazepam (3.0%) were the medicinal drugs most frequently detected......, percentages are not mutually exclusive. Poly-drug use was observed in 112 (13%) seriously injured drivers. Tramadol was detected above DRUID cutoffs in 2.1% of seriously injured drivers. This is 3.5 times that observed in a Danish survey of randomly selected drivers. Moreover, illegal and medicinal drug...

  11. Do drivers have a realistic view of their driving ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...

  12. Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Derserri Y; Lee, Hoe C; Patomella, Ann-Helen; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-06-05

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.

  13. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  14. Driver support in congestion : an assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van Cornelia Jacoba Geertje

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  15. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  16. Driver D220.12 DRIVER-test-bed: Architecture, Integration and Orchestration

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, T.W. van den

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the recommended architecture of the DRIVER Test Bed. The architecture description is developed in two iterations identified by the deliverable numbers D22.11 D220.12, and this deliverable concerns the second iteration, with initial and preliminary information on test bed services.

  17. Driver D220.12 DRIVER-test-bed: Architecture, Integration and Orchestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the recommended architecture of the DRIVER Test Bed. The architecture description is developed in two iterations identified by the deliverable numbers D22.11 D220.12, and this deliverable concerns the second iteration, with initial and preliminary information on test bed s

  18. Driver behaviour in motorway car-following transitions and driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative driving with speed adaptation functionality has great potential to improve traffic-throughput, traffic-safety, and environmental-impact on heavily used traffic-infrastructures. A driving-simulator study was performed to investigate the driver behaviour with respect to such

  19. How to improve a safe and sustainable driver behaviour - driver's fatigue?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the number of accidents that are caused by drowsiness or fatigue could be achieved by applying different strategies. This paper focuses on the on-line, real time detection of deteriorating driver state and driving behaviour, and on the question what should be done after this has been

  20. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  1. Driver reactions on ecological feedback via different HMI modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Staubach, Maria; Kassner, Astrid; Fricke, Nicola; Schießl, Caroline; Brockmann, Martin; Kuck, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays there already exists a large amount of driving-related information displayed in the dashboard and thus additional information concerning ecological driving might enlarge the workload of the driver further. This raises the question whether the presentation of additional ecologic information via the haptic channel is more efficient and comfortable for the driver compared to a visual presentation. Previous studies proved the impact of driver feedback systems on the reduction of fuel con...

  2. Development of Accomodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ebert 2013). Posture and position data were recorded for male and female enlisted personnel at three Army posts as they sat in a driver mockup ...Figure 1). Figure 1. Driver and squad mockups . The current study used data from 145 men and women tested in the driver mockup . Table 1 lists...UNCLASSIFIED 10 Figure 2 shows the garb levels used for measurements in the mockup . At the Advanced Combat Uniform (ACU) level, Soldiers wore their own

  3. Artefacts of questionnaire-based psychological testing of drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a significant role of social approval variable in the qustionnairebased diagnosis of drivers' psychological aptitude. Material and Methods: Three questionnaires were used: Formal Characteristics of Behavior - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R(S and Impulsiveness Questionnaire (Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy - IVE. Three groups of drivers were analyzed: professional "without crashes" (N = 46, nonprofessional "without crashes" (N = 75, and nonprofessional "with crashes" (N = 75. Results: Nonprofessional drivers "without crashes" significantly stood up against other drivers. Their personality profile, indicating a significantly utmost perseveration, emotional reactivity, neuroticism, impulsiveness and the lowest endurance did not fit in to the requirements to be met by drivers. The driver safety profile was characteristic of professional drivers (the lowest level of perseveration, impulsiveness and neuroticism and the highest level of endurance. Similar profile occurred among nonprofessional drivers - the offenders of road crashes. Compared to the nonprofessional "without crashes" group, professional drivers and offenders of road crashes were also characterized by a significantly higher score on the Lie scale, determining the need for social approval. This is likely to result from the study procedure according to which the result of professional drivers testing had an impact on a possible continuity of their job and that of nonprofessional drivers "with crashes" decided about possible recovery of the driving license. Conclusions: The variable of social approval can be a significant artifact in the study of psychological drivers' testing and reduce the reliability of the results of questionnaire methods. Med Pr 2014;65(3:373–385

  4. A self-tuning digital-driver for open-loop control of stepping-motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T.; Hori, N. [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibarki (Japan). Intelligent Interaction Technologies, Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering

    2010-08-13

    Stepping motors are commonly used as actuators in industrial control applications because of the their high torque-to-weight ratio, precise and quick positioning, and self-hold capability. They can also be controlled in an open-loop fashion using a proper driver. This paper described the design of an experimental digital driver, which contained both fixed and adjustable gains. It also discussed a current regulation problem for a stepping-motor which underwent rapid and large changes in its gains. An open-loop nature of a stepping motor could be preserved using only signals that are readily available in the driver and do not require neither the angular position of the shaft nor its rate. Specifically, the paper discussed the stepping motor and driver, parameter variations, dead-zone compensation, nonlinear digital filter, and anti-aliasing filter. The self-tuning algorithm was also presented with particular reference to background controller design and self tuning pre-compensator. The experiments and parameters used in the experiments were also described. It was concluded that stable and safe operations can be achieved using a combination of fixed controller blocks and precompensator blocks with self-tuning parameters, which change as the speed of rotation varies. For this method to work, it is important to include a dead-zone compensator and a nonlinear digital filter and an anti-aliasing filter. 7 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  5. KEY DRIVERS OF OPTIMAL SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS PROVISION: AN ENGLISH STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saneeya QURESHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to argue that there are a number of key drivers for Special Educational Needs (SEN provision that have to be met by Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs and teaching professionals so as to ensure optimal provision and inclusion for children with SEN in mainstream primary schools. Although the research has been carried out in England, there is a significant European Dimension to the issue, as a similar role to that of SENCOs in respect of SEN management already exists in countries such as Finland and Ireland, and is being considered in Italy. Methods: This paper focuses on the data gathered for the purpose of the author’s doctoral research in England, through questionnaires and interviews with SENCOs, head teachers and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to explore key drivers of SEN provision by practitioners who support children with SEN. Results: Data illustrate that the key drivers of SEN provision include time; teacher openness to change; target setting; evidence of tried interventions; empowerment; decision-making and approachability. The implementation of such drivers depend largely on practitioner skills and competencies. Conclusion: The main conclusion within this paper is to develop points of reference for planning and practice, with illustrations of optimal provision by all practitioners who work with children with SEN.

  6. Key Drivers of an Effective Facilities Management Practice for Malaysia State Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapri Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discuss on the importance of facilities management (FM in supporting mosque function and propose the key drivers for an effective FM practice for mosque. Qualitative research design was adopted in this study. Data were collected using focus group consists of seven (7 participants who have been selected among mosque management committee, FM practitioner and academician. Transcript of focus group discussion was analysed using content analysis. Coding system was applied in order to describe the interpretation of data. The results show that there is an agreement among participants on the importance of FM in supporting mosque function. Although practice of FM in mosque is not widely recognised, but its potential in uplifting and prospering mosque function could not be denied. Therefore, an effective of FM practice in mosque is seen vital. This paper discovered that team working is the most significant drivers to an effective FM practice for mosque. Other key drivers are organisational structure design; appoint knowledgeable and skilled facilities manager; sharing FM knowledge and its benefits; and strong change management. The discovered FM drivers are important for all stakeholders that directly or indirectly involve in mosque management.

  7. Exposure of jeepney drivers in Manila, Philippines, to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure of jeepney drivers to selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Manila, Philippines. Personal sampling was conducted on 15 jeepney drivers. Area sampling was conducted to determine the background VOC concentration in Manila as compared to that in a rural area. Both personal and area samples were collected for 5 working days. Samples were obtained using diffusive samplers and were analyzed for 6 VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene) using gas chromatography. Results showed that the average personal exposure concentration of jeepney drivers was 55.6 (+/-9.3), 196.6 (+/-75.0), 17.9 (+/-9.0), 72.5 (+/-21.1) and 88.5 (+/-26.5) microg/m(3) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene, respectively. The urban ambient concentration was 11.8 (+/-2.2), 83.7 (+/-40.5) and 38.0 (+/-12.1) microg/m(3) for benzene, toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The rural ambient concentration was 14.0 (+/-6.0) and 24.7 (+/-11.9) microg/m(3) for toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The personal samples had significantly higher (pp<0.05) than the rural concentrations. The personal exposures for all the target VOCs were not significantly different among the jeepney drivers.

  8. Effects of self stretching on pain and musculoskeletal symptom of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed on a scale of numeric rating scale (NRS) which is divided by 10. Ergonomic posture assessment was conducted using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Self-stretching exercise was performed for 4 weeks by the bus drivers who suffered from neck and shoulder pain. [Results] Musculoskeletal symptoms were present in the order of shoulder, neck, lower back and lower extremities. Compared with other jobs, the final score, and the action level of bus drivers were very high, showing 57.6% of action levels 3 and 4. A statistically significant decrease of pain was shown after the self-stretching intervention. There was also a significant decrease of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders after the self-stretching exercise. [Conclusion] Performing stretching for musculoskeletal symptoms had a positive influence on the symptoms and reduced pain.

  9. Application of eye-tracking in the testing of drivers: A review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitaniak, Bronisław; Walczak, Marta; Kosobudzki, Marcin; Jóźwiak, Zbigniew; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation). Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator) and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet - or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD) camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  11. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  12. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  13. Historical patterns and drivers of global crop water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change expected to subject staple crops in major growing regions to increased heat exposure, a critical question for agriculture and global food security is the degree to which crop water demand is also likely to change. Recent work has explored the relationship between extreme temperatures and crop water demand, finding that vapor pressure deficit (VPD), through its dependence on both temperature and humidity, provides a very good meteorological predictor of water stress. However, assessing crop water demand solely through atmospheric conditions ignores the roles of radiation and transpiration efficiency, which are increased through elevated CO2. We provide a 60-year global assessment of crop water demand in the world's major growing areas, comparing trends and drivers across key growing regions. We find that an atmospheric-based demand measure can differ significantly from that of a crop-specific sink-based approach that incorporates radiation and CO2 effects, sometimes enough to reverse the sign of historical trends. We also find that these changes differ significantly by region, and that multi-decadal trends can mask large decadal swings. To our knowledge, our work is the first to use global meteorological datasets in a global analysis of crop water demand, and should serve as a valuable reference for future work examining the interaction of hydrological, temperature, and CO2 changes on crop yields.

  14. Self-assessed job satisfaction and ischaemic heart disease mortality: a 10-year follow-up of urban bus drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Suadicani, P

    1993-01-01

    working in a high traffic intensity area, RR = 1.6. In contrast to what was expected, men who reported a high degree of job satisfaction had increased risk of IHD. Those who did not look for another job had a highly significant sixfold increased risk of future death from IHD. Also those who reported never......Several studies have shown that bus driving is a high-risk occupation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In order to study contributing factors in the job, all male full-time bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed for 10 years. It was hypothesized that bus drivers who...... reported job strain and job dissatisfaction would have an excess risk of subsequent death due to IHD. Of 2465 bus drivers, 2045 (83%) responded to a questionnaire distributed in 1978 on psychosocial well-being and work conditions. The men had their mortality recorded during the years 1978-1988. Information...

  15. Self-assessed job satisfaction and ischaemic heart disease mortality: a 10-year follow-up of urban bus drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Suadicani, P

    1993-01-01

    working in a high traffic intensity area, RR = 1.6. In contrast to what was expected, men who reported a high degree of job satisfaction had increased risk of IHD. Those who did not look for another job had a highly significant sixfold increased risk of future death from IHD. Also those who reported never......Several studies have shown that bus driving is a high-risk occupation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In order to study contributing factors in the job, all male full-time bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed for 10 years. It was hypothesized that bus drivers who...... reported job strain and job dissatisfaction would have an excess risk of subsequent death due to IHD. Of 2465 bus drivers, 2045 (83%) responded to a questionnaire distributed in 1978 on psychosocial well-being and work conditions. The men had their mortality recorded during the years 1978-1988. Information...

  16. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramukumba, Tendani S; Mathikhi, Makwena S

    2016-11-30

    Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers. The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors. An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician. The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation. The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  17. Drivers Recall and Attitudes Towards Road Safety Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Fonseca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse Portuguese drivers recall and attitudes towards road safety advertising campaigns. Through a quantitative method the authors used a sample of Portuguese drivers. More than a half of the subjects didn’t recall any road safety advertising campaign. The appeals that most influenced driving behaviour were moderate speed and use of seatbelt. The dramatic approach was the one that had most impact, and the death of familiars of the driver the consequence that most influenced drivers. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i2.2112

  18. Feasibility of a driver performance data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

    1994-06-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) envisions many future situations in which the effectiveness and consequences of new intelligent vehicle-highway systems technologies will need to be studied in actual production vehicles. Such studies will enable evaluations in vehicles which are familiar to drivers. These studies would be future enhanced by the availability of an instrumentation package that can be easily installed in these vehicles to enable specific vehicle configurations of interest to be evaluated, thereby increasing the variety of vehicle options that are available for study. Ideally, an approach is needed that would allow data collection from a variety of vehicle models and types, and would address the issue of driver familiarity. Such an approach is embodied in the concept of a driver performance data acquisition system that could be installed in a wide range of vehicles within a relatively short period of time. As a universally adaptable system, it would provide researchers with the ability to manually input data as well as directly record information on driver, vehicle, roadway, and environmental parameters. Furthermore, it would enable the measurement of driver performance in the driver`s own vehicle, thereby ensuring vehicle familiarity. In addition, it would be possible to measure driver performance in relation to any vehicle design characteristic at relatively little expense and effort, and would make it easy to update existing models of driver/vehicle behavior to reflect performance characteristics in vehicles of current manufacture.

  19. Medical risk factors amongst drivers in single-car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, T; Tómasson, K; Reynisdóttir, H; Björnsson, J K; Kristbjarnarson, H

    1997-03-01

    To estimate medical risk factors amongst drivers in single-car accidents with special reference to sleepiness and alcohol abuse. An epidemiological survey by means of multiple-choice questionnaires that were mailed to drivers and a random control group. Iceland. All drivers in single-car accidents (n = 471) during 1989-91 and a control group from the general population (n = 1000). Medical health profile and answers to questions concerning sleep disorders and alcohol abuse. Compared to the controls the drivers were younger and there were three times more males. The drivers abused alcohol more often. Chronic disorders such as epilepsy, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac disorders were not over-represented. Altogether, 15.4% claimed that sleepiness had caused their traffic accident, logistic regression analyses revealed that these 'sleepy' drivers more often had alcohol abuse and a history of 'almost falling a sleep whilst driving'. Compared to controls, drivers in single-car accidents are more likely to be young, male, have a history of sleepiness whilst driving, and also have a history suggestive of alcoholism. Chronic disorders like epilepsy and diabetes mellitus were not over-represented amongst the single-car accidents drivers. These results raise the question of how drivers with a high probability of causing an accident (sleepiness and alcoholism) can be identified in time and proper measures taken to prevent 'accidents waiting to happen'.

  20. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  1. Driver Distraction Using Visual-Based Sensors and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Carús, Juan Luis; Casado, Rubén

    2016-10-28

    Driver distraction, defined as the diversion of attention away from activities critical for safe driving toward a competing activity, is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Additionally, the trend towards increasing the use of in-vehicle information systems is critical because they induce visual, biomechanical and cognitive distraction and may affect driving performance in qualitatively different ways. Non-intrusive methods are strongly preferred for monitoring distraction, and vision-based systems have appeared to be attractive for both drivers and researchers. Biomechanical, visual and cognitive distractions are the most commonly detected types in video-based algorithms. Many distraction detection systems only use a single visual cue and therefore, they may be easily disturbed when occlusion or illumination changes appear. Moreover, the combination of these visual cues is a key and challenging aspect in the development of robust distraction detection systems. These visual cues can be extracted mainly by using face monitoring systems but they should be completed with more visual cues (e.g., hands or body information) or even, distraction detection from specific actions (e.g., phone usage). Additionally, these algorithms should be included in an embedded device or system inside a car. This is not a trivial task and several requirements must be taken into account: reliability, real-time performance, low cost, small size, low power consumption, flexibility and short time-to-market. The key points for the development and implementation of sensors to carry out the detection of distraction will also be reviewed. This paper shows a review of the role of computer vision technology applied to the development of monitoring systems to detect distraction. Some key points considered as both future work and challenges ahead yet to be solved will also be addressed.

  2. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  3. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  4. Facilitation as a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Models describing the biotic drivers that create and maintain biological diversity within trophic levels have focused primarily on negative interactions (i.e. competition), leaving marginal room for positive interactions (i.e. facilitation). We show facilitation to be a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity by first noting that all species use resources and thus change the local biotic or abiotic conditions, altering the available multidimensional niches. This can cause a shift in local species composition, which can cause an increase in beta, and sometimes alpha, diversity. We show that these increases are ubiquitous across ecosystems. These positive effects on diversity occur via a broad host of disparate direct and indirect mechanisms. We identify and unify several of these facilitative mechanisms and discuss why it has been easy to underappreciate the importance of facilitation. We show that net positive effects have a long history of being considered ecologically or evolutionarily unstable, and we present recent evidence of its potential stability. Facilitation goes well beyond the common case of stress amelioration and it probably gains importance as community complexity increases. While biodiversity is, in part, created by species exploiting many niches, many niches are available to exploit only because species create them.

  5. 'The best drivers in the world'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars; Järvinen, Margaretha Maria

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses risk behaviour as described by a group of convicted drink-drivers. Risk assessment is seen as a part of a complicated process reflecting moral values in specific socio-cultural settings and within a specific framework of time. The respondents’ retrospective accounts of their dr......The paper analyses risk behaviour as described by a group of convicted drink-drivers. Risk assessment is seen as a part of a complicated process reflecting moral values in specific socio-cultural settings and within a specific framework of time. The respondents’ retrospective accounts...... of their drink-driving are interpreted as part of moral identity negotiations, focusing on four dimensions: drink-driving as non-voluntary behaviour, drink-driving as strategic behaviour, drink-driving and control, and drink-driving and ‘normalcy’. Central to these negotiations is the fact that many respondents...... come from social environments (be that friend groups or workmate groups) where drink-driving is common and that they therefore do not regard—or did not regard—drink-driving as deviant behaviour....

  6. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills.

  7. Online and mobile marketing strategies as brand love drivers in sports teams: Findings from Real Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of online and mobile marketing as drivers of brand love. Data were collected through an online survey during early 2013. A total of 241 valid answered questionnaires were collected and the constructs were tested for unidimensionality by using principal components analysis. This work confirms that in spite of the fact that players are relevant assets and investments, sports managers need to concentrate their efforts on managing the team’s brand,...

  8. "Every disease…man can get can start in this cab": focus groups to identify south Asian taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about cardiovascular disease and its risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gany, Francesca M; Gill, Pavan P; Ahmed, Ayaz; Acharya, Sudha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    South Asian (SA) taxi drivers potentially possess a double epidemiologic risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to their ethnicity and occupation. This study investigates SA taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about general health, CVD and approaches to reduce CVD risk. Five focus groups were conducted with 31 SA taxi drivers in the participants' primary language (Bengali, Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi). Audio-recordings of the sessions were transcribed, translated and entered into ATLAS.ti 6.2 for coding and analysis. SA drivers in an urban setting perceive themselves to be at high risk for CVD because of high work-related stress, physical inactivity, poor diet and poor health care access. Participants attributed their occupation to increasing risk for heart disease; none believed that being SA increased their risk. Interventions to lower CVD risk among SA taxi drivers should be multi-level and involve the individual drivers and the taxi industry.

  9. The Rack-Brain Pencil-Push of hurt-in-hiding: Translating the Poetry of Seamus Heaney into Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Mozetič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of the Slovene possibilities of translating culture-, politics-, and language-specific poetic texts of the Irish author Seamus Heaney. The inquiry has been triggered by the unfavourable response to the poet’s work in Slovenia, which is all the more telling in light of other modern Irish writers, especially dramatists, who have lately gained firm ground and acquired sympathy from the Slovene public. Our comparison of Heaney’s poems with their Slovene translations is, therefore, aimed at elucidating the main reasons for such a tepid response, drawing mainly on a variety of the Slovene stylistic, linguistic, and pragmatic interpretations of his poetic output, which happen to be more often than not at variance with the author’s intrinsic poetic output and thus the chief culprit in the misapprehension of his poetic communique.

  10. The influence of driver distraction on the severity of injuries sustained by teenage drivers and their passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, David M; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2008-01-01

    Studies show that teenage drivers are at a higher risk for crashes. Opportunities to engage in technology and non-technology based distractions appear to be a particular concern among this age group. An ordered logit model was developed to predict the likelihood of a severe injury for these drivers and their passenger using a national crash database (the 2003, U.S. DOT-General Estimate System [GES]). As one would expect, speeding substantially increases the likelihood of severe injuries for teenage drivers and their passengers. The results of the analysis also reveal that teenage drivers have an increased likelihood of more severe injuries if distracted by a cell phone or by passengers than if the source of distraction was related to in-vehicle devices or if the driver was inattentive. Additionally, passengers of teenage drivers are more likely to sustain severe injuries when their driver is distracted by devices or passengers than with a non-distracted or inattentive driver. This supports the previous literature on teenage drivers and extends our understanding of injuries for this age group related to distraction-related crashes.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of occupational risks in Colombian taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Amaya, Reynaldo Mauricio; Becerra Pinto, Sandra Milena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to learn about the health and safety strategies in a sample of taxi drivers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 138 taxi drivers. A survey was used to identify the socio-demographic and working characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices according to their occupational risk. Eighty-five percent of the workers labored 9-15 h/day. Of those who suffered accidents, 27% were not affiliated to an occupational risk administrator (p = 0.028). Of the workers who had a work-related accident, 58% considered that the use of a cell phone while driving would not always reduce their attention, 50% always used their seat belt and 7% took active breaks and wore their seat belt (p = 0.01). Within this group of taxi drivers, having or believing to possess knowledge regarding an occupational risk did not ensure that they had a safe attitude or safe working practices.

  12. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  13. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  14. Consistent Condom Use during Casual Sex among Long-Truck Drivers in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Vignikin, Kokou; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N’dri, Kouamé Mathias; Gbetoglo, Kodjo Dodji; Edorh, Atavi-Mensah; Ahlegnan, Komla; Yenkey, Holali Comlan; Toudeka, Ayawavi Sitsopé; Pitché, Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2008, the proportion of truck drivers who were not systematically protected during sex was 63% with casual partners and 60% with sex workers. Despite the high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the growing awareness of the existence of the risk of HIV infection, condom use always encounters resistance among truck drivers in Togo. We sought to document the factors associated with condom use during casual sex among trucks’ drivers in Togo. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 and targeted truckers at truck station on the two main roads of Togo, Lomé-Cinkassé and Kodjoviakopé-Sanvee Condji. Results In this study, 1,782 trucks’ drivers and their helpers were interviewed. All were men, and their mean age was 28.8 ± 8.8 years. Trucks’ drivers were doing an average of 3 stops on their journeys and 1,229 (69%) of them had at least two years of experience in the work. Of the 1,782 trucks’ drivers, only 620 (34.8%) had consistently used condoms during casual sex in the last three months. In multivariate analysis, predictors were: education level (primary schooling: OR = 1.54; p = 0.002; Secondary schooling and higher OR = 1.38; p = 0.036), good knowledge of ways of HIV transmission (OR = 1.53; p = 0.000), tested for HIV (OR = 1.67, p = 0.000), duration in the profession (2–5 years: OR = 1.43, p = 0.008; more than 5 years: OR = 1.38, p = 0.027), and HIV risk’s perception (OR = 1.44, p = 0.000). Conclusion These results highlight factors associated with consistent condom use during casual sex by truck drivers in Togo. This is a key population group at high risk of HIV transmission toward which the national HIV/AIDS control program should strengthen the HIV prevention strategies. PMID:27071059

  15. Vehicle handling aspects by drivers with special needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekstra, A.; Kempeneers, R.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements and assessment criteria to determine the medical fitness to drive and the driving skills of the European driver are outlined in the driving licence directive (91/439/EEG). All drivers must comply to these criteria. An expert judgement on compliance is made at least once for each dri

  16. 49 CFR 391.15 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disqualification of drivers. (e) Disqualification for violation of prohibition of texting while driving a...) of this section. (2) Duration. Disqualification for violation of prohibition of texting while driving...) General. A driver who is disqualified shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle. A motor carrier...

  17. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... motor vehicle traffic control prohibiting texting while driving.2 60 days Not applicable 120 days Not... holder of a CDL who is disqualified must not drive a CMV. (2) An employer must not knowingly allow, require, permit, or authorize a driver who is disqualified to drive a CMV. (3) A driver is subject...

  18. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  19. Kantian Critique as a possible Driver for Planned Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund; Bordum, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article it is revealed that planned change approaches operate with multiple drivers for change, but often neglect critique as a relevant driver for change. This is in contradistinction to approaches within the social sciences, where critique is often seen as a relevant approach to creatin...

  20. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in design

  1. Behavioural impacts of advanced driver assistance systems : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; Waard, D. de; Janssen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is that driver error will be reduced or even eliminated, and efficiency in traffic and transport is enhanced. The benefits of ADAS implementations are potentially considerable because of a significant decrease in human suffering, economical co

  2. 78 FR 5559 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... for diabetes in 1970 because several risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher... these applicants from the diabetes requirement in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  3. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... diabetes in 1970 because several risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of... these applicants from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  4. 78 FR 35088 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... because several risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement... these applicants from the diabetes requirement in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  5. 77 FR 532 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement than the... applicants from the diabetes requirement in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of safety equal... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  6. 76 FR 26792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement than the... from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of safety equal to that... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  7. 75 FR 50797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... because several risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement... from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of safety equal to that... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  8. 76 FR 47288 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement than the... these applicants from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  9. 76 FR 27376 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... risk studies indicated that drivers with diabetes had a higher rate of crash involvement than the... from the diabetes standard in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3) is likely to achieve a level of safety equal to that... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes...

  10. Analyzing the drivers of green manufacturing with fuzzy approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Diabat, Ali; Madan Shankar, K.

    2015-01-01

    are validated by a two-stage sensitivity analysis, namely: (1) using different de-fuzzification methods that are further evaluated through the Spearman coefficient and (2) assigning varying weight to the essential top priority drivers of green manufacturing among all common drivers. This study helps firms...

  11. Lateral driving assistance using embedded driver-vehicle-road mode

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, S.; Mammar, S.; Sainte-Marie, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a vehicle model devoted to the development of driver longitudinal and lateral assistance in curves. Each module of vehicle dynamics is described and several complexity levels are detailed. The adopted formalism for the description of the vehicle dynamics allows an easy interface to road, driver and control modules. Finally, a lateral active steering driving assistance is presented.

  12. Priming Drivers before Handover in Semi-Autonomous Cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, R.M.A.; Iqbal, Shamsi T.; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Semi-autonomous vehicles occasionally require control to be handed over to the driver in situations where the vehicle is unable to operate safely. Currently, such handover requests require the driver to take control almost instantaneously. We investigate how auditory pre-alerts that occur well befor

  13. 49 CFR 391.63 - Multiple-employer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drivers. (a) If a motor carrier employs a person as a multiple-employer driver (as defined in § 390.5 of... motor carrier need not— (1) Require the person to furnish an application for employment in accordance..., his/her social security number, and the identification number, type and issuing State of his/her...

  14. Distraction and inattention in the driver model library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Martens, M.H.; Ubink, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    TNO is developing a Driver Model Library (DML) to provide computational models of driver behaviour and decision making for use as a cross-platform plug-in for traffic simulations. The DML is based on a multi-agent cognitive framework which models the individual driving tasks (such as navigation, ove

  15. Competition Policy as a Driver of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanova Nadezhda, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a concept that in a contemporary economy competition policy becomes a key determinant of economic growth. Different approaches to the study of economic grow are analyzed. A profound and complete review of the relevant literature is made concerning the key problems analysed, including previously elaborated theories and empirical works. This review is done in the context of both academic subjects and various research schools. There made the conclusion that traditional factors of growth in a complex and turbulent post-industrial economy cannot explain many modern phenomena. The typical assumption of free and perfect competition does not work anymore. It is competition policy that could have significant impact on the growth nowadays. The paper contains the results of the original econometric studies aimed at showing the influence of competition and competition policy indicators on GDP growth rate. The results demonstrate statistically significant effects: more competition due to effective competition policy leads to higher growth rates. The recommendations with regard to the Russian competition policy authorities are provided. Actual and urgent problem of economic research based on the investigation of new drivers of economic growth for the Russian economy, usage of contemporary analytical and econometric methods and practical recommendations, these are the main strengths of this paper.

  16. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  17. Inherent robust stability of driver support systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙; J.; Ackermann

    1999-01-01

    Presented are the fact that the transfer function from the front steering angle to yaw rate is strictly positive real, irrespective of the uncertain mass and uncertain velocity, how to determine the positivity margin for this transfer function (some stabilization results are obtained), and how to check the positivity of a controller family. Furthermore,by exploiting the intrinsic structure of system equations and uncertainties, a nonconservative PID stabilization criterion for driver support systems is established. Some interesting results on positivity and connections of PID controllers are shown. Finally, some extreme point results on PID α-stabilization are obtained. These results give certain explanations and justifications for the simulation results performed at German Aerospace Research Center.

  18. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......, contrary to the predictions in previous research, companies sometimes move back and forth between different generations of rules. Companies that have moved to a more flexible third generation of rules might revert to their second generation rules, or supplement their flexibility with an increased level...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  19. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Simon G; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Kremen, Claire; Neumann, Peter; Schweiger, Oliver; Kunin, William E

    2010-06-01

    Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. There is clear evidence of recent declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in the plants that rely upon them. Here we describe the nature and extent of reported declines, and review the potential drivers of pollinator loss, including habitat loss and fragmentation, agrochemicals, pathogens, alien species, climate change and the interactions between them. Pollinator declines can result in loss of pollination services which have important negative ecological and economic impacts that could significantly affect the maintenance of wild plant diversity, wider ecosystem stability, crop production, food security and human welfare. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.