WorldWideScience

Sample records for hurricane wind shelter

  1. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  2. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures

  3. Hurricane Wind Vector Estimates from WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Ian S; Hennon, Christopther C; Jones, W. L; Ahmad, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    .... In late 2004, the first preliminary oceanic wind vector results were released, and this paper presents the first evaluation of this product for several Atlantic hurricanes during the 2003 season...

  4. Wind and waves in extreme hurricanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuijsen, L.H.; Powell, M.D.; Pietrzak, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Waves breaking at the ocean surface are important to the dynamical, chemical and biological processes at the air-sea interface. The traditional view is that the white capping and aero-dynamical surface roughness increase with wind speed up to a limiting value. This view is fundamental to hurricane

  5. Elements of extreme wind modeling for hurricanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Kelly, Mark C.

    The report summarizes characteristics of the winds associated with Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes, Typhoons). It has been conducted by the authors across several years, from 2012-2015, to identify the processes and aspects that one should consider when building at useful computer support system...

  6. Impact of a Hurricane Shelter Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak on a Responding Medical Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Joshua B; Page, Rianne; Prather, Caren; Paavola, Fred; Garrett, Andrew L

    2015-08-01

    Introduction In late October of 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the northeast United States and shelters were established throughout the impacted region. Numerous cases of infectious viral gastroenteritis occurred in several of these shelters. Such outbreaks are common and have been well described in the past. Early monitoring for, and recognition of, the outbreak allowed for implementation of aggressive infection control measures. However, these measures required intensive medical response team involvement. Little is known about how such outbreaks affect the medical teams responding to the incident. Hypothesis/Problem Describe the impact of an infectious viral gastroenteritis outbreak within a single shelter on a responding medical team. The number of individuals staying in the single shelter each night (as determined by shelter staff) and the number of patients treated for symptoms of viral gastroenteritis were recorded each day. On return from deployment, members of a single responding medical team were surveyed to determine how many team members became ill during, or immediately following, their deployment. The shelter population peaked on November 5, 2012 with 811 individuals sleeping in the shelter. The first patients presented to the shelter clinic with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis on November 4, 2012, and the last case was seen on November 21, 2012. A total of 64 patients were treated for nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea over the 17-day period. A post-deployment survey was sent to 66 deployed medical team members and 45 completed the survey. Twelve (26.7%) of the team members who responded to the survey experienced symptoms of probable viral gastroenteritis. Team members reported onset of symptoms during deployment as well as after returning home. Symptoms started on days 4-8, 8-14, on the trip home, and after returning home in four, four, two, and two team members, respectively. Medical teams providing shelter care during viral gastroenteritis outbreaks are

  7. Hurricane Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibra, Besart [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Finucane, Zachary [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Foley, Benjamin [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Hall, Rudy [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Zachary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendt, Fabian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andersen, Mads Boel Overgaard [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Standish, Kevin [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Lee, Ken [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Raina, Amool [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Wetzel, Kyle [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Hurricanes occur over much of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, from Long Island to the U.S.-Mexico border, encompassing much of the nation's primary offshore wind resource. Category 5 hurricanes have made landfall as far north as North Carolina, with Category 3 hurricanes reaching New York with some frequency. Along the US West coast, typhoons strike with similar frequency and severity. At present, offshore wind turbine design practices do not fully consider the severe operating conditions imposed by hurricanes. Although universally applied to most turbine designs, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards do not sufficiently address the duration, directionality, magnitude, or character of hurricanes. To assess advanced design features that could mitigate hurricane loading in various ways, this Hurricane-Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study considered a concept design study of a 500-megawatt (MW) wind power plant consisting of 10-MW wind turbines deployed in 25-meter (m) water depths in the Western Gulf of Mexico. This location was selected because hurricane frequency and severity provided a unique set of design challenges that would enable assessment of hurricane risk and projection of cost of energy (COE) changes, all in response to specific U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) objectives. Notably, the concept study pursued a holistic approach that incorporated multiple advanced system elements at the wind turbine and wind power plant levels to meet objectives for system performance and reduced COE. Principal turbine system elements included a 10-MW rotor with structurally efficient, low-solidity blades; a lightweight, permanent-magnet, direct-drive generator, and an innovative fixed substructure. At the wind power plant level, turbines were arrayed in a large-scale wind power plant in a manner aimed at balancing energy production against capital, installation, and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs to achieve significant overall reductions in

  8. Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creechan, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A simple collapsible nuclear shelter is described, comprising a frame and a sheet of fabric supported on the frame, thus enclosing a sheltered space within. This inexpensive form of shelter could be quickly made available on a large scale and would be capable of protecting people against nuclear fallout. (U.K.)

  9. Special needs hurricane shelters and the ageing population: development of a methodology and a case study application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Mark W; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Marcelin, Jean Michael; Kocatepe, Ayberk

    2018-01-01

    Recent experience of hurricanes, particularly in the southeast United States, has heightened awareness of the multifaceted nature of and the challenges to effective disaster relief planning. One key element of this planning is providing adequate shelter at secure locations for people who evacuate. Some of these individuals will have 'special needs', yet there is little research on the relationship with shelter space. This study designed a geographic information systems-based network optimisation methodology for the siting of special needs hurricane relief shelters, with a focus on the transportation component. It sought to find new locations for shelters that maximise accessibility by vulnerable populations, given capacity constraints, concentrating on the ageing population. The framework was implemented in a medium-sized metropolitan statistical area in the state of Florida where data suggest a possible deficit in special needs shelter space. The study analysed options for increasing special needs shelter capacity, while considering potential uncertainties in transportation network availability. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  12. Hurricane Wind Speed Estimation Using WindSat 6 and 10 GHz Brightness Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The realistic and accurate estimation of hurricane intensity is highly desired in many scientific and operational applications. With the advance of passive microwave polarimetry, an alternative opportunity for retrieving wind speed in hurricanes has become available. A wind speed retrieval algorithm for wind speeds above 20 m/s in hurricanes has been developed by using the 6.8 and 10.7 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures of WindSat. The WindSat measurements for 15 category 4 and category 5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2010 and the corresponding H*wind analysis data are used to develop and validate the retrieval model. In addition, the retrieved wind speeds are also compared to the Remote Sensing Systems (RSS global all-weather product and stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The statistical results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the retrieved wind speeds with respect to the H*wind analysis data are 0.04 and 2.75 m/s, respectively, which provides an encouraging result for retrieving hurricane wind speeds over the ocean surface. The retrieved wind speeds show good agreement with the SFMR measurements. Two case studies demonstrate that the mean bias and RMS difference are 0.79 m/s and 1.79 m/s for hurricane Rita-1 and 0.63 m/s and 2.38 m/s for hurricane Rita-2, respectively. In general, the wind speed retrieval accuracy of the new model in hurricanes ranges from 2.0 m/s in light rain to 3.9 m/s in heavy rain.

  13. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  14. Predicting hurricane wind damage by claim payout based on Hurricane Ike in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Myong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of natural disasters and their related damage have led to a growing demand for models that predict financial loss. Although considerable research on the financial losses related to natural disasters has found significant predictors, there has been a lack of comprehensive study that addresses the relationship among vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and the economic losses of individual buildings. This study identifies the vulnerability indicators for hurricanes to establish a metric to predict the related financial loss. We classify hurricane-prone areas by highlighting the spatial distribution of losses and vulnerabilities. This study used a Geographical Information System (GIS to combine and produce spatial data and a multiple regression method to establish a wind damage prediction model. As the dependent variable, we used the value of the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association (TWIA claim payout divided by the appraised values of the buildings to predict real economic loss. As independent variables, we selected a hurricane indicator and built environment vulnerability indicators. The model we developed can be used by government agencies and insurance companies to predict hurricane wind damage.

  15. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed......The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high...

  16. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  17. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  18. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  19. High Temporal Resolution Tropospheric Wind Profile Observations at NASA Kennedy Space Center During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Huddleston, Lisa; Brauer, Thomas; Wilfong, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operates a 48-MHz Tropospheric/Stratospheric Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (TDRWP) on a continual basis generating wind profiles between 2-19 km in the support of space launch vehicle operations. A benefit of the continual operability of the system is the ability to provide unique observations of severe weather events such as hurricanes. Over the past two Atlantic Hurricane seasons the TDRWP has made high temporal resolution wind profile observations of Hurricane Irma in 2017 and Hurricane Matthew in 2016. Hurricane Irma was responsible for power outages to approximately 2/3 of Florida's population during its movement over the state(Stein,2017). An overview of the TDRWP system configuration, brief summary of Hurricanes Irma and Matthew storm track in proximity to KSC, characteristics of the tropospheric wind observations from the TDRWP during both events, and discussion of the dissemination of TDRWP data during the event will be presented.

  20. Eye of the storm: analysis of shelter treatment records of evacuees to Acadiana from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, L Philip; Paul, P Joseph; Sabatier, Steven M; Caillouet, Kevin A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into the medical needs of disaster evacuees, through a review of experiential data collected in evacuation shelters in the days and weeks following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, to better prepare for similar events in the future. Armed with the information and insights provided herein, it is hoped that meaningful precautions and decisive actions can be taken by individuals, families, institutions, communities, and officials should the Louisiana Gulf Coast-or any other area with well-known vulnerabilities-be faced with a future emergency. Demographic and clinical data that were recorded on paper documents during triage and treatment in evacuation shelters were later transcribed into a computerized database management system, with cooperation of the Department of Health Information Management at The University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Analysis of those contemporaneously collected data was undertaken later by the Louisiana Center for Health Informatics. Evacuation shelters, Parish Health Units, and other locations including churches and community centers were the venue for ad hoc clinics in the Acadiana region of Louisiana. The evacuee-patients-3,329 of them-whose information is reflected in the subject dataset were among two geographically distinct but similarly distressed groups: 1) evacuees from Hurricane Katrina that devastated New Orleans and other locales near Louisiana and neighboring states in late August 2005 and 2) evacuees from Hurricane Rita that devastated Southwest Louisiana and neighboring areas of Texas in September 2005. Patient data were collected by physicians, nurses, and other volunteers associated with the Operation Minnesota Lifeline (OML) deployment during the weeks following the events. Volunteer clinicians from OML provided triage and treatment services and documented those services as paper medical records. As the focus of the OML "mission of mercy" was entirely on direct individually

  1. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at

  2. Dependence of US hurricane economic loss on maximum wind speed and storm size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Alice R; Jiang, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical hurricane economic loss models consider only wind speed and neglect storm size. These models may be inadequate in accurately predicting the losses of super-sized storms, such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In this study, we examined the dependences of normalized US hurricane loss on both wind speed and storm size for 73 tropical cyclones that made landfall in the US from 1988 through 2012. A multi-variate least squares regression is used to construct a hurricane loss model using both wind speed and size as predictors. Using maximum wind speed and size together captures more variance of losses than using wind speed or size alone. It is found that normalized hurricane loss (L) approximately follows a power law relation with maximum wind speed (V max ) and size (R), L = 10 c V max a R b , with c determining an overall scaling factor and the exponents a and b generally ranging between 4–12 and 2–4 respectively. Both a and b tend to increase with stronger wind speed. Hurricane Sandy’s size was about three times of the average size of all hurricanes analyzed. Based on the bi-variate regression model that explains the most variance for hurricanes, Hurricane Sandy’s loss would be approximately 20 times smaller if its size were of the average size with maximum wind speed unchanged. It is important to revise conventional empirical hurricane loss models that are only dependent on maximum wind speed to include both maximum wind speed and size as predictors. (letters)

  3. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Bryan, George H.; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2017-06-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

  4. Baseline Design of a Hurricane-Resilient Wind Turbine (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Schreck, S.; Maples, B.; Anderson, M.; Finucane, Z.; Raina, A.

    2014-10-01

    Under U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored research FOA 415, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led a team of research groups to produce a complete design of a large wind turbine system to be deployable in the western Gulf of Mexico region. As such, the turbine and its support structure would be subjected to hurricane-loading conditions. Among the goals of this research was the exploration of advanced and innovative configurations that would help decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the design, and the expansion of the basic IEC design load cases (DLCs) to include hurricane environmental conditions. The wind turbine chosen was a three-bladed, downwind, direct-drive, 10-MW rated machine. The rotor blade was optimized based on an IEC load suite analysis. The drivetrain and nacelle components were scaled up from a smaller sized turbine using industry best practices. The tubular steel tower was sized using ultimate load values derived from the rotor optimization analysis. The substructure is an innovative battered and raked jacket structure. The innovative turbine has also been modeled within an aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool, and future papers will discuss results of the dynamic response analysis for select DLCs. Although multiple design iterations could not be performed because of limited resources in this study, and are left to future research, the obtained data will offer a good indication of the expected LCOE for large offshore wind turbines to be deployed in subtropical U.S. waters, and the impact design innovations can have on this value.

  5. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer Wind Speed and Rain Rate Retrievals during the 2010 GRIP Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Saleem; Farrar, Spencer; Johnson, James; Jones, W. Linwood; Roberts, Jason; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing observations of hurricanes, from NOAA and USAF hurricane surveillance aircraft, provide vital data for hurricane research and operations, for forecasting the intensity and track of tropical storms. The current operational standard for hurricane wind speed and rain rate measurements is the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a nadir viewing passive microwave airborne remote sensor. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, HIRAD, will extend the nadir viewing SFMR capability to provide wide swath images of wind speed and rain rate, while flying on a high altitude aircraft. HIRAD was first flown in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes, GRIP, NASA hurricane field experiment in 2010. This paper reports on geophysical retrieval results and provides hurricane images from GRIP flights. An overview of the HIRAD instrument and the radiative transfer theory based, wind speed/rain rate retrieval algorithm is included. Results are presented for hurricane wind speed and rain rate for Earl and Karl, with comparison to collocated SFMR retrievals and WP3D Fuselage Radar images for validation purposes.

  6. Extreme Wind, Rain, Storm Surge, and Flooding: Why Hurricane Impacts are Difficult to Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 hurricane season is estimated as one of the costliest in the U.S. history. The damage and devastation caused by Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Irma in Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico are distinctly different in nature. The complexity of hurricane impacts from extreme wind, rain, storm surge, and flooding presents a major challenge in hurricane forecasting. A detailed comparison of the storm impacts from Harvey, Irma, and Maria will be presented using observations and state-of-the-art new generation coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean hurricane forecast model. The author will also provide an overview on what we can expect in terms of advancement in science and technology that can help improve hurricane impact forecast in the near future.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  8. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, S. E.; Niiler, P. P.; Stammer, D.; Terrill, E.; Morzel, J.

    2009-01-01

    with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using

  9. Development, Capabilities, and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.; Amarin, R.; Atlas, R.; Bailey, M.; Black, P.; Buckley, C.; Chen, S.; El-Nimri, S.; Hood, R.; James, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is being designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude) with approximately 2 km resolution. This paper describes the HIRAD instrument and the physical basis for its operations, including chamber test data from the instrument. The potential value of future HIRAD observations will be illustrated with a summary of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct simulated H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact on H*Wind analyses of using the HIRAD instrument observations to replace those of the SFMR instrument, and also on the impact of a future satellite-based HIRAD in comparison to instruments with more limited capabilities for observing strong winds through heavy

  10. Application of a regional hurricane wind risk forecasting model for wood-frame houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vineet Kumar; Davidson, Rachel Ann

    2007-02-01

    Hurricane wind risk in a region changes over time due to changes in the number, type, locations, vulnerability, and value of buildings. A model was developed to quantitatively estimate changes over time in hurricane wind risk to wood-frame houses (defined in terms of potential for direct economic loss), and to estimate how different factors, such as building code changes and population growth, contribute to that change. The model, which is implemented in a simulation, produces a probability distribution of direct economic losses for each census tract in the study region at each time step in the specified time horizon. By changing parameter values and rerunning the analysis, the effects of different changes in the built environment on the hurricane risk trends can be estimated and the relative effectiveness of hypothetical mitigation strategies can be evaluated. Using a case study application for wood-frame houses in selected counties in North Carolina from 2000 to 2020, this article demonstrates how the hurricane wind risk forecasting model can be used: (1) to provide insight into the dynamics of regional hurricane wind risk-the total change in risk over time and the relative contribution of different factors to that change, and (2) to support mitigation planning. Insights from the case study include, for example, that the many factors contributing to hurricane wind risk for wood-frame houses interact in a way that is difficult to predict a priori, and that in the case study, the reduction in hurricane losses due to vulnerability changes (e.g., building code changes) is approximately equal to the increase in losses due to building inventory growth. The potential for the model to support risk communication is also discussed.

  11. Statistical Validation of Calibrated Wind Data Collected From NOAA's Hurricane Hunter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K.; Sears, I. T.; Holmes, M.; Henning, R. G.; Damiano, A. B.; Parrish, J. R.; Flaherty, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining accurate in situ meteorological measurements from the NOAA G-IV Hurricane Hunter Aircraft currently requires annual wind calibration flights. This project attempts to demonstrate whether an alternate method to wind calibration flights can be implemented using data collected from many previous hurricane, winter storm, and surveying flights. Wind derivations require using airplane attack and slip angles, airplane pitch, pressure differentials, dynamic pressures, ground speeds, true air speeds, and several other variables measured by instruments on the aircraft. Through the use of linear regression models, future wind measurements may be fit to past statistical models. This method of wind calibration could replace the need for annual wind calibration flights, decreasing NOAA expenses and providing more accurate data. This would help to ensure all data users have reliable data and ultimately contribute to NOAA's goal of building of a Weather Ready Nation.

  12. Capabilities and Impact on Wind Analyses of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Amarin, Ruba; Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Christopher; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in partnership with the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory/Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida, the University of Michigan, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The instrument is being test flown in January and is expected to participate in or collaborate with the tropical cyclone experiment GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) in the 2010 season. HIRAD is designed to study the wind field in some detail within strong hurricanes and to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track at a single point directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx.3 x the aircraft altitude) with approx.2 km resolution. See Figure 1, which depicts a simulated HIRAD swath versus the line of data obtained by SFMR.

  13. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Wind Speed Retrievals and Assessment Using Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.

    2018-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an experimental C-band passive microwave radiometer designed to map the horizontal structure of surface wind speed fields in hurricanes. New data processing and customized retrieval approaches were developed after the 2015 Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) experiment, which featured flights over Hurricanes Patricia, Joaquin, Marty, and the remnants of Tropical Storm Erika. These new approaches produced maps of surface wind speed that looked more realistic than those from previous campaigns. Dropsondes from the High Definition Sounding System (HDSS) that was flown with HIRAD on a WB-57 high altitude aircraft in TCI were used to assess the quality of the HIRAD wind speed retrievals. The root mean square difference between HIRAD-retrieved surface wind speeds and dropsonde-estimated surface wind speeds was 6.0 meters per second. The largest differences between HIRAD and dropsonde winds were from data points where storm motion during dropsonde descent compromised the validity of the comparisons. Accounting for this and for uncertainty in the dropsonde measurements themselves, we estimate the root mean square error for the HIRAD retrievals as around 4.7 meters per second. Prior to the 2015 TCI experiment, HIRAD had previously flown on the WB-57 for missions across Hurricanes Gonzalo (2014), Earl (2010), and Karl (2010). Configuration of the instrument was not identical to the 2015 flights, but the methods devised after the 2015 flights may be applied to that previous data in an attempt to improve retrievals from those cases.

  14. An Exploration of Wind Stress Calculation Techniques in Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra M. Bryant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As hurricanes continue to threaten coastal communities, accurate storm surge forecasting remains a global priority. Achieving a reliable storm surge prediction necessitates accurate hurricane intensity and wind field information. The wind field must be converted to wind stress, which represents the air-sea momentum flux component required in storm surge and other oceanic models. This conversion requires a multiplicative drag coefficient for the air density and wind speed to represent the air-sea momentum exchange at a given location. Air density is a known parameter and wind speed is a forecasted variable, whereas the drag coefficient is calculated using an empirical correlation. The correlation’s accuracy has brewed a controversy of its own for more than half a century. This review paper examines the lineage of drag coefficient correlations and their acceptance among scientists.

  15. Estimate of Hurricane Wind Speed from AMSR-E Low-Frequency Channel Brightness Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new parameters (W6H and W6V were defined that represent brightness temperature increments for different low-frequency channels due to ocean wind. We developed a new wind speed retrieval model inside hurricanes based on W6H and W6V using brightness temperature data from AMSR-E. The AMSR-E observations of 12 category 3–5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2011 and corresponding data from the H*wind analysis system were used to develop and validate the AMSR-E wind speed retrieval model. The results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the AMSR-E retrieved wind speeds with respect to H*wind (HRD Real-time Hurricane Wind Analysis System analysis data were −0.01 m/s and 2.66 m/s, respectively. One case study showed that W6H and W6V were less sensitive to rain than the observed AMSR-E C-band and X-band brightness temperature data. The AMSR-E retrieval model was further validated by comparing the retrieved wind speeds against stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The comparison showed an RMS difference of 3.41 m/s and a mean bias of 0.49 m/s.

  16. Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parametric Adjustments to the Rankine Vortex Wind Model for Gulf of Mexico Hurricanes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT ...may be used to construct spatially varying wind fields for the GOM region (e.g., Thompson and Cardone [12]), but this requires using a complicated...Storm Damage Reduc- tion, and Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER). The USACE Headquarters granted permission to publish this paper

  17. Wind Retrieval Algorithms for the IWRAP and HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radars with Applications to Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Stephen Richard; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Frasier, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for the retrieval of atmospheric winds in precipitating systems from downward-pointing, conically-scanning airborne Doppler radars are presented. The focus in the paper is on two radars: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler(IWRAP) and the High-altitude IWRAP (HIWRAP). The IWRAP is a dual-frequency (Cand Ku band), multi-beam (incidence angles of 30 50) system that flies on the NOAAWP-3D aircraft at altitudes of 2-4 km. The HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ku and Kaband), dual-beam (incidence angles of 30 and 40) system that flies on the NASA Global Hawk aircraft at altitudes of 18-20 km. Retrievals of the three Cartesian wind components over the entire radar sampling volume are described, which can be determined using either a traditional least squares or variational solution procedure. The random errors in the retrievals are evaluated using both an error propagation analysis and a numerical simulation of a hurricane. These analyses show that the vertical and along-track wind errors have strong across-track dependence with values of 0.25 m s-1 at nadir to 2.0 m s-1 and 1.0 m s-1 at the swath edges, respectively. The across-track wind errors also have across-track structure and are on average, 3.0 3.5 m s-1 or 10 of the hurricane wind speed. For typical rotated figure four flight patterns through hurricanes, the zonal and meridional wind speed errors are 2 3 m s-1.Examples of measured data retrievals from IWRAP during an eyewall replacement cycle in Hurricane Isabel (2003) and from HIWRAP during the development of Tropical Storm Matthew (2010) are shown.

  18. Impacts of a large array of offshore wind farms on precipitation during hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Archer, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey brought to the Texas coast possibly the heaviest rain ever recorded in U.S. history, which then caused flooding at unprecedented levels. Previous studies have shown that large arrays of offshore wind farms can extract kinetic energy from a hurricane and thus reduce the wind and storm surge. This study will quantitatively test weather the offshore turbines may also affect precipitation patterns. The Weather Research Forecast model is employed to model Harvey and the offshore wind farms are parameterized as elevated drag and turbulence kinetic energy sources. The turbines (7.8 MW Enercon-126 with rotor diameter D=127 m) are placed along the coast of Texas and Louisiana within 100 km from the shore, where the water depth is below 200 meters. Three spacing between turbines are considered (with the number of turbines in parenthesis): 7D×7D (149,936), 9D×9D (84,339), and 11D×11D (56,226). A fourth case (9D×9D) with a smaller area and thus less turbines (33,363) is added to the simulations to emphasize the impacts of offshore turbines installed specifically to protect the city of Houston, which was flooded heavily during hurricane Harvey. The model is integrated for 24 hours from 00UTC Aug 26th, 2017 to 00UTC Aug 27th, 2017. Model results indicate that the offshore wind farms have a strong impact on the distribution of 24-hour accumulated precipitation, with an obvious decrease onshore, downstream of the wind farms, and an increase in the offshore areas, upstream of or within the wind farms. A sector covering the metro-Houston area is chosen to study the sensitivity of the four different wind farm layouts. The spatial-average 24-hour accumulated precipitation is decreased by 37%, 28%, 20% and 25% respectively for the four cases. Compared with the control case with no wind turbines, increased horizontal wind divergence and lower vertical velocity are found where the precipitation is reduced onshore, whereas increased horizontal wind convergence and

  19. Influence of hurricane wind field in the structure of directional wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Osuna, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Extensive field measurements of wind waves in deep waters in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, have been analyzed to describe the spatial structure of directional wave spectra during hurricane conditions. Following Esquivel-Trava et al. (2015) this analysis was made for minor hurricanes (categories 1 and 2) and major hurricanes (categories 3, 4 and 5). In both cases the directionality of the energy wave spectrum is similar in all quadrants. Some differences are observed however, and they are associated with the presence and the shape of swell energy in each quadrant. Three numerical experiments using the spectral wave prediction model SWAN were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the directional and frequency distributions of hurricane wave energy. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the effect of the translation speed of the hurricane and the presence of concentric eye walls, on both the wave growth process and the shape of the directional wave spectrum. The HRD wind field of Hurricane Dean on August 20 at 7:30 was propagated at two different velocities (5 and 10 m/s). An idealized concentric eye wall (a Gaussian function that evolve in time along a path in the form of an Archimedean spiral) was imposed to the wind field. The white-capping formulation of Westhuysen et al. (2007) was selected. The wave model represents fairly well the directionality of the energy and the shape of the directional spectra in the hurricane domain. The model results indicate that the forward movement of the storm influences the development of the waves, consistent with field observations. This work has been supported by CONACYT scholarship 164510 and projects RugDisMar (155793), CB-2011-01-168173 and the Department of Physical Oceanography of CICESE. References Esquivel-Trava, B., Ocampo-Torres, F. J., & Osuna, P. (2015). Spatial structure of directional wave spectra in hurricanes. Ocean Dynam., 65(1), 65-76. doi:10.1007/s10236-014-0791-9 Van der

  20. Resilience and challenges among staff of gulf coast nursing homes sheltering frail evacuees following Hurricane Katrina, 2005: implications for planning and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Cornman, Carol B; Davis, Courtney B; Richter, Jane V E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore experiences and responses of staff in caring for sheltered, frail, Hurricane Katrina evacuees; and (2) identify how planning and training can be enhanced for staff who may care for frail older populations during and after disasters. Individual, in-person, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 staff members in four nursing homes in Mississippi, sheltering 109 evacuees in November 2005, nine weeks after Hurricane Katrina. Twenty-four were direct care staff, including certified nursing assistants, licensed nurses, dietary aides, and social workers; 14 were support staff, including maintenance and business managers. The number interviewed in each nursing home averaged 9.5 (range 6-15). Using a discussion guide and focusing on their experiences caring for nursing home evacuees, staff were asked to describe: (1) experiences; (2) problems; (3) what helped; and (4) what was learned. Data were processed using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Responses of direct care staff differed in emphasis from those of support staff in several areas; responses from these groups were analyzed separately and together. Three of the researchers identified recurring themes; two organized themes conceptually. Staff emphasized providing emotional reassurance to evacuees as well as physical care. Many described caring for evacuees as "a blessing," saying the experience helped them bond with residents, evacuees, and other staff. However, caring for evacuees was difficult because staff members were extremely anxious and in poor physical condition after an arduous evacuation. Challenges included communicating with evacuees' families, preventing dehydration, lack of personal hygiene supplies, staff exhaustion, and emotional needs of residents, evacuees, and staff. Teamwork, community help, and having a well-organized disaster plan, extra supplies, and dependable staff helped personnel cope with the situation. Staff of nursing homes

  1. Observations of Building Performance under Combined Wind and Surge Loading from Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Roueche, D. B.; Krupar, R. J.; Smith, D. J.; Soto, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Texas coastline on August 25, 2017, as a Category 4 hurricane - the first major hurricane to reach the US in twelve years. Wind gusts over 130 mph and storm surge as high as 12.5 ft caused widespread damage to buildings and critical infrastructure in coastal communities including Rockport, Fulton, Port Aransas and Aransas Pass. This study presents the methodology and preliminary observations of a coordinated response effort to document residential building performance under wind and storm surge loading. Over a twelve day survey period the study team assessed the performance of more than 1,000 individual, geo-located residential buildings. Assessments were logged via a smartphone application to facilitate rapid collection and collation of geotagged photographs, building attributes and structural details, and structural damage observations. Detailed assessments were also made of hazard intensity, specifically storm surge heights and both wind speed and direction indicators. Preliminary observations and findings will be presented, showing strong gradients in damage between inland and coastal regions of the affected areas that may be due in part to enhanced individual loading effects of wind and storm surge and potentially joint-hazard loading effects. Contributing factors to the many cases of disproportionate damage observed in close proximity will also be discussed. Ongoing efforts to relate building damage to near-surface hazard measurements (e.g., radar, anemometry) in close proximity will also be described.

  2. NASA CYGNSS Ocean Wind Observations in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mayers, D.; McKague, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The CYGNSS constellation of eight satellites was successfully launched on 15 December 2016 into a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit to measure ocean surface wind speed in the inner core of tropical cyclones with better than 12 hour refresh rates. Each satellite carries a four-channel bi-static radar receiver that measures GPS signals scattered by the ocean, from which ocean surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux are estimated. The measurements are unique in several respects, most notably in their ability to penetrate through all levels of precipitation, made possible by the low frequency at which GPS operates, and in the frequent sampling of tropical cyclone intensification, made possible by the large number of satellites. Level 2 science data products have been developed for near surface (10 m referenced) ocean wind speed, ocean surface roughness (mean square slope) and latent heat flux. Level 3 gridded versions of the L2 products have also been developed. A set of Level 4 products have also been developed specifically for direct tropical cyclone overpasses. These include the storm intensity (peak sustained winds) and size (radius of maximum winds), its extent (34, 50 and 64 knot wind radii), and its integrated kinetic energy. Results of measurements made during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, including frequent overpasses of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, will be presented.

  3. Wind vs Water in Hurricanes: The Challenge of Multi-peril Hazard Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the advancing threat of Sea Level Rise much of the U. S. is in danger of falling into the "protection gap". Residential property flood risk is not yet covered by the insurance market. Many coastal properties are not paying into the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) at premiums commensurate with the risk. This is exasperated by the program being deep in debt, despite only covering a fraction of the potential loss, while windstorm insurance covers up to replacement value. This results in a battle that benefits nobody. Any significant hurricane will include both wind and storm surge perils at the same time and any coastal property has to contend with the risk of damage by both. If you have extensive flood damage your wind storm policy might deny your claim and your flood policy (if you even have one) will in most cases be constrained to a $250,000 limit. Bring on the litigators! Some homeowners will claim that the wind destroyed the home first and then it was carried away by flood waters or pulverized by waves. Insurers might respond that the storm surge did all the damage and deny the claim. We've seen this already following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008, with thousands of litigation claims and a cottage industry of scientists serving as expert witnesses on both sides of the aisle. Congress responded in 2012 with the Coastal Act, which provided an "unfunded mandate" directing NOAA to provide wind and water level data to FEMA for input to their "Coastal Formula" for attributing loss to wind and water. The results of the formula would then limit the amount paid by the NFIP by subtracting out the wind loss portion. The Texas Windstorm Insurance Association (TWIA) went further by assembling a panel of experts to recommend guidelines for how the state should respond to future hurricane impacting properties on the Texas coast. The expert panel report was released in April of 2016, and TWIA is currently developing a comprehensive

  4. Wind variability and sheltering effects on measurements and modeling of air-water exchange for a small lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Resseger, Emily; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Stefan, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Lakes with a surface area of less than 10 km2 account for over 50% of the global cumulative lake surface water area, and make up more than 99% of the total number of global lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Within the boreal regions as well as some temperate and tropical areas, a significant proportion of land cover is characterized by lakes or wetlands, which can have a dramatic effect on land-atmosphere fluxes as well as the local and regional energy budget. Many of these small water bodies are surrounded by complex terrain and forest, which cause the wind blowing over a small lake or wetland to be highly variable. Wind mixing of the lake surface layer affects thermal stratification, surface temperature and air-water gas transfer, e.g. O2, CO2, and CH4. As the wind blows from the land to the lake, wake turbulence behind trees and other shoreline obstacles leads to a recirculation zone and enhanced turbulence. This wake flow results in the delay of the development of wind shear stress on the lake surface, and the fetch required for surface shear stress to fully develop may be ~O(1 km). Interpretation of wind measurements made on the lake is hampered by the unknown effect of wake turbulence. We present field measurements designed to quantify wind variability over a sheltered lake. The wind data and water column temperature profiles are used to evaluate a new method to quantify wind sheltering of lakes that takes into account lake size, shape and the surrounding landscape features. The model is validated against field data for 36 Minnesota lakes. Effects of non-uniform sheltering and lake shape are also demonstrated. The effects of wind sheltering must be included in lake models to determine the effect of wind-derived energy inputs on lake stratification, surface gas transfer, lake water quality, and fish habitat. These effects are also important for correctly modeling momentum, heat, moisture and trace gas flux to the atmosphere.

  5. Shelter Index and a simple wind speed parameter to characterize vegetation control of sand transport threshold and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nield, J. M.; Nickling, W. G.; Furtak-Cole, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emissions occur in many dryland environments from a range of surfaces with different types and amounts of vegetation. Understanding how vegetation modulates these processes remains a research challenge. Here we present results from a study that examines the relationship between an index of shelter (SI=distance from a point to the nearest upwind vegetation/vegetation height) and particle threshold expressed as the ratio of wind speed measured at 0.45 times the mean plant height divided by the wind speed at 17 m when saltation commences, and saltation flux. The results are used to evaluate SI as a parameter to characterize the influence of vegetation on local winds and sediment transport conditions. Wind speed, wind direction, saltation activity and point saltation flux were measured at 35 locations in defined test areas (~13,000 m2) in two vegetation communities: mature streets of mesquite covered nebkhas and incipient nebkhas dominated by low mesquite plants. Measurement positions represent the most open areas, and hence those places most susceptible to wind erosion among the vegetation elements. Shelter index was calculated for each measurement position for each 10° wind direction bin using digital elevation models for each site acquired using terrestrial laser scanning. SI can show the susceptibility to wind erosion at different time scales, i.e., event, seasonal, or annual, but in a supply-limited system it can fail to define actual flux amounts due to a lack of knowledge of the distribution of sediment across the surface of interest with respect to the patterns of SI.

  6. Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T.W.; Smith, T. J.; Robblee, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew downed and defoliated an extensive swath of mangrove trees across the lower Florida peninsula. Permanent field sites were established to assess the extent of forest damage and to monitor the rate and process of forest recovery. Canopy trees suffered the highest mortality particularly for sites within and immediately north of the storm's eyewall. The type and extent of site damage, windthrow, branch loss, and defoliation generally decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the storm track. Forest damage was greater for sites in the storm's right quadrant than in the left quadrant tor the same given distance from the storm center. Stand exposure, both horizontally and vertically, increased the susceptibility and probability of forest damage and accounted for much of the local variability. Slight species differences were found. Laguncularia racemosa exceeded Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle in damage tendency under similar wind conditions. Azimuths of downed trees were strongly correlated with maximum wind speed and vector based on a hurricane simulation of the storm. Lateral branch loss and leaf defoliation on sites without windthrow damage indicated a degree of crown thinning and light penetration equivalent to treefall gaps under normally intact forest conditions. Mangrove species and forests are susceptible to catastrophic disturbance by hurricanes; the impacts of which are significant to changes in forest structure and function.

  7. Impact of Spatial Resolution on Wind Field Derived Estimates of Air Pressure Depression in the Hurricane Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Jones

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the near surface horizontal wind field in a hurricane with spatial resolution of order 1–10 km are possible using airborne microwave radiometer imagers. An assessment is made of the information content of the measured winds as a function of the spatial resolution of the imager. An existing algorithm is used which estimates the maximum surface air pressure depression in the hurricane eye from the maximum wind speed. High resolution numerical model wind fields from Hurricane Frances 2004 are convolved with various HIRAD antenna spatial filters to observe the impact of the antenna design on the central pressure depression in the eye that can be deduced from it.

  8. Mitigation of the collapse of asbestos cement light covers by hurricane winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Estrada Cingualbres

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean region, the Gulf of Mexico and the Strait of Florida, is an area of high vulnerability to high-level hurricanes. Light covers are the most vulnerable during the occurrence of these phenomena, their collapse generates a great danger to the life of the residents of these homes, as well as a high economic and social impact. The objective of this research has been the characterization of the lightweight fiber cement roofs (asbestos-cement most commonly used in Cuba and through the modeling of the Finite Element Method to determine the causes of the collapse of these when extreme winds occur due to high intensity hurricanes, perform the comparative analysis of the resistive behavior of the covers studied and to mitigate the collapse of the covered ones.

  9. On the Use of Coupled Wind, Wave, and Current Fields in the Simulation of Loads on Bottom-Supported Offshore Wind Turbines during Hurricanes: March 2012 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungsoo [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Manuel, Lance [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Curcic, Milan [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Chen, Shuyi S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Phillips, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, potential offshore wind plant sites have been identified along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Gulf of Mexico. It is imperative that we define external conditions associated with hurricanes and severe winter storms and consider load cases for which wind turbines may need to be designed. We selected two hurricanes, Ike (2008) and Sandy (2012), and investigated the effect these tropical storms would have on bottom-supported offshore wind turbines that were hypothetically in or close to their path as they made landfall. For realistic turbine loads assessment, it is important that the coupled influences of the changing wind, wave, and current fields are simulated throughout the evolution of the hurricanes. We employed a coupled model--specifically, the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM)--that integrates atmospheric, wave, and ocean components to produce needed wind, wave, and current data. The wind data are used to generate appropriate vertical wind profiles and full wind velocity fields including turbulence; the current field over the water column is obtained by interpolated discrete output current data; and short-crested irregular second-order waves are simulated using output directional wave spectra from the coupled model. We studied two monopile-supported offshore wind turbines sited in 20 meters of water in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate loads during Hurricane Ike, and a jacket space-frame platform-supported offshore wind turbine sited in 50 meters of water in the mid-Atlantic region to estimate loads during Hurricane Sandy. In this report we discuss in detail how the simulated hurricane wind, wave, and current output data are used in turbine loads studies. In addition, important characteristics of the external conditions are studied, including the relative importance of swell versus wind seas, aerodynamic versus hydrodynamic forces, current velocity effects, yaw control options for the turbine, hydrodynamic drag versus inertia forces

  10. Influence of hurricane wind field in the structure of directional wave spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; García-Nava, Hector; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Three numerical experiments using the spectral wave prediction model SWAN were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the directional and frequency distributions of hurricane wave energy. One particular objective is to evaluate the effect of the translation speed of the hurricane and the presence of concentric eye walls, on both the wave growth process and the shape of the directional wave spectrum. The HRD wind field of Hurricane Dean on August 20 at 7:30 was propagated at two different velocities (5 and 10 m/s). An idealized concentric eye wall (a Gaussian function that evolve in time along a path in the form of an Archimedean spiral) was imposed to the wind field. The white-capping formulation of Westhuysen et al. (2007) was selected. The wave model represents fairly well the directionality of the energy and the shape of the directional spectra in the hurricane domain. The model results indicate that the forward movement of the storm influences the development of the waves, consistent with field observations. Additionally the same experiments were carried out using the Wave Watch III model with the source terms formulation proposed by Ardhuin et al., 2010, with the aim of making comparisons between the physical processes that represent each formulation, and the latest results will be addressed. References Ardhuin, F., Rogers, E., Babanin, A. V., Filipot, J.-F., Magne, R., Roland, A., van der Westhuysen, A., et al. (2010). Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 40(9), 1917-1941. doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1 Van der Westhuysen, A. J., Zijlema, M., & Battjes, J. A. (2007). Nonlinear saturation-based whitecapping dissipation in SWAN for deep and shallow water. Coast. Eng., 54(2), 151-170. doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2006.08.006

  11. Development and Calibration of a Model for the Determination of Hurricane Wind Speed Field at the Peninsula of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Fernández–Baqueiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a model to calculate the wind speed field produced by hurricanes that hit the Yucatan Peninsula is developed. The model variables are calculated using equations recently developed, that include new advances in meteorology. The steps in the model are described and implemented in a computer program to systematize and facilitate the use of this model. The model and the program are calibrated using two data bases; the first one includes trajectories and maximum wind velocities of hurricanes; the second one includes records of wind velocities obtained from the Automatic Meteorology Stations of the National Meteorology Service. The hurricane wind velocity field is calculated using the model and information of the first data base. The model results are compared with field data from the second data base. The model is calibrated adjusting the Holland's pressure radial profile parameter B; this is carried out for three hurricane records: Isidore, Emily and Wilma. It is concluded that a value of B of 1.3 adjusts globally the three hurricane records and that the developed model is capable of reproducing satisfactorily the wind velocity records.

  12. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft- and Satellite-based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on Estimates of Hurricane Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhorn, Eric; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Buckley, Courtney; Chen, Shuyi; El-Nimri, Salem; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor currently under development to enhance real-time hurricane ocean surface wind observations. HIRAD builds on the capabilities of the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which now operates on NOAA P-3, G-4, and AFRC C-130 aircraft. Unlike the SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 times the aircraft altitude). To demonstrate potential improvement in the measurement of peak hurricane winds, we present a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing platforms (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a high-resolution (approximately 1.7 km) numerical model. Simulated retrieval errors due to both instrument noise as well as model function accuracy are considered over the expected range of incidence angles, wind speeds and rain rates. Based on numerous simulated flight patterns and data source combinations, statistics are developed to describe relationships between the observed and true (from the model s perspective) peak wind speed. These results have implications for improving the estimation of hurricane intensity (as defined by the peak sustained wind anywhere in the storm), which may often go un-observed due to sampling limitations.

  13. Using Large-Eddy Simulations to Define Spectral and Coherence Characteristics of the Hurricane Boundary Layer for Wind-Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Bryan, George H.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Zhang, Jun A.

    2017-10-01

    Offshore wind-energy development is planned for regions where hurricanes commonly occur, such as the USA Atlantic Coast. Even the most robust wind-turbine design (IEC Class I) may be unable to withstand a Category-2 hurricane (hub-height wind speeds >50 m s^{-1}). Characteristics of the hurricane boundary layer that affect the structural integrity of turbines, especially in major hurricanes, are poorly understood, primarily due to a lack of adequate observations that span typical turbine heights (wind profiles of an idealized Category-5 hurricane at high spatial (10 m) and temporal (0.1 s) resolution. By comparison with unique flight-level observations from a field project, we find that a relatively simple configuration of the Cloud Model I model accurately represents the properties of Hurricane Isabel (2003) in terms of mean wind speeds, wind-speed variances, and power spectra. Comparisons of power spectra and coherence curves derived from our hurricane simulations to those used in current turbine design standards suggest that adjustments to these standards may be needed to capture characteristics of turbulence seen within the simulated hurricane boundary layer. To enable improved design standards for wind turbines to withstand hurricanes, we suggest modifications to account for shifts in peak power to higher frequencies and greater spectral coherence at large separations.

  14. Modelling hurricane exposure and wind speed on a mesoclimate scale: a case study from Cusuco NP, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batke, Sven P; Jocque, Merlijn; Kelly, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    High energy weather events are often expected to play a substantial role in biotic community dynamics and large scale diversity patterns but their contribution is hard to prove. Currently, observations are limited to the documentation of accidental records after the passing of such events. A more comprehensive approach is synthesising weather events in a location over a long time period, ideally at a high spatial resolution and on a large geographic scale. We provide a detailed overview on how to generate hurricane exposure data at a meso-climate level for a specific region. As a case study we modelled landscape hurricane exposure in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras with a resolution of 50 m×50 m patches. We calculated actual hurricane exposure vulnerability site scores (EVVS) through the combination of a wind pressure model, an exposure model that can incorporate simple wind dynamics within a 3-dimensional landscape and the integration of historical hurricanes data. The EVSS was calculated as a weighted function of sites exposure, hurricane frequency and maximum wind velocity. Eleven hurricanes were found to have affected CNP between 1995 and 2010. The highest EVSS's were predicted to be on South and South-East facing sites of the park. Ground validation demonstrated that the South-solution (i.e. the South wind inflow direction) explained most of the observed tree damage (90% of the observed tree damage in the field). Incorporating historical data to the model to calculate actual hurricane exposure values, instead of potential exposure values, increased the model fit by 50%.

  15. A decision support tool to locate shelters in emergency logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a systematic methodology to locate shelters considering both : transportation and social factors in the aftermath of disasters. When anticipated demands for hurricane evacuation : shelter spaces exceed exi...

  16. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, S. E.

    2009-04-25

    The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Sea state observation in island-sheltered nearshore zone based on in situ intermediate-water wave measurements and NCEP/CFSR wind data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    and transformation in and around the offshore islands was analyzed using the wind wave model. 2. Materials and methods As one of the potential fishing zones along the west coast of India, and also as a popular tourist site, Karwar is sheltered by six offshore...

  18. Potential of Future Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Ocean Surface Wind Observations for Determining Tropical Storm Vortex Intensity and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Robert; Bailey, M. C.; Black, Peter; James, Mark; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Miller, Timothy; Ruf, Christopher; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development, which offers the potential of new and unique remotely sensed observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation from either UAS or satellite platforms. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a proven aircraft remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates, including those of major hurricane intensity. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required tropical cyclone remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. HIRAD incorporates a unique, technologically advanced array antenna and several other technologies successfully demonstrated by the NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. A brassboard version of the instrument is complete and has been successfully tested in an anechoic chamber, and development of the aircraft instrument is well underway. HIRAD will be a compact, lightweight, low-power instrument with no moving parts that will produce wide-swath imagery of ocean vector winds and rain during hurricane conditions when existing microwave sensors (radiometers or scatterometers) are hindered. Preliminary studies show that HIRAD will have a significant positive impact on analyses as either a new aircraft or satellite sensor.

  19. The main forest inventory characteristics of the stands damaged by hurricane winds in the southern taiga subzone (Kostroma Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Petukhov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2010 in Yaroslavl, Vologda and Kostroma regions, as a result of exposure to hurricane winds, recorded several violations of extensive forest cover in the form of windfalls and windbreaks (Krylov et al., 2012; Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014. Retrospective analysis on the basis of remote sensing data for the period 1984–2011’s was conducted. It showed, that among the 21st dedicated mass windfall within the Kostroma region and border areas, windfall July 2010 is unique in the magnitude of the total area of disturbed forest cover. According to our estimates, derived from the analysis of remote sensing (RS, its area was more than 60 thousand Ha, which is four times the average annual area of clear felling, in particular, in the Kostroma region (Petukhov, Nemchinova, 2014. In addition to determining the areas of windfall violations of forest cover, based on forest inventory data and remote sensing data analyzed taxation characteristics of forest stands affected by the impact of the seven gale-force winds within the territory of the Kostroma region. The analysis revealed the following trends in hurricane-force winds damaged trees: for parameters such as completeness, forest type and site class is observed relatively uniform stands hurricane wind damage; I.e., we have not found an association between the degree (probability of forest stands damaged data and taxation values data. An exception is the age, height, and in some cases, the predominant species plantations. Plantations dominated by spruce in the stand proved to be somewhat less, but with a predominance of pine – more resistant to hurricane winds, compared to other tree species. Selectivity is also observed for breach of stands older than 40 years and a height of over 16 meters, which is possibly related to the morphological and physiological features of the trees of a given age and height.

  20. The measurement of winds over the ocean from Skylab with application to measuring and forecasting typhoons and hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, V. J.; Pierson, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    On Skylab, a combination microwave radar-radiometer (S193) made measurements in a tropical hurricane (AVA), a tropical storm, and various extratropical wind systems. The winds at each cell scanned by the instrument were determined by objective numerical analysis techniques. The measured radar backscatter is compared to the analyzed winds and shown to provide an accurate method for measuring winds from space. An operational version of the instrument on an orbiting satellite will be able to provide the kind of measurements in tropical cyclones available today only by expensive and dangerous aircraft reconnaissance. Additionally, the specifications of the wind field in the tropical boundary layer should contribute to improved accuracy of tropical cyclone forecasts made with numerical weather predictions models currently being applied to the tropical atmosphere.

  1. Observations of the structure and evolution of surface and flight-level wind asymmetries in Hurricane Rita (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and distribution of surface winds, including the structure of azimuthal asymmetries in the wind field, are important factors for tropical cyclone forecasting. With its ability to remotely measure surface wind speeds, the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) has assumed a prominent role for the operational tropical cyclone forecasting community. An example of this instrument's utility is presented here, where concurrent measurements of aircraft flight-level and SFMR surface winds are used to document the wind field evolution over three days in Hurricane Rita (2005). The amplitude and azimuthal location (phase) of the wavenumber-1 asymmetry in the storm-relative winds varied at both levels over time. The peak was found to the right of storm track at both levels on the first day. By the third day, the peak in flight-level storm-relative winds remained to the right of storm track, but it shifted to left of storm track at the surface, resulting in a 60-degree shift between the surface and flight-level and azimuthal variations in the ratio of surface to flight-level winds. The asymmetric differences between the surface and flight-level maximum wind radii also varied, indicating a vortex whose tilt was increasing.

  2. Investigation and classification of spume droplets production mechanisms at hurricane winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays are typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer of important environmental effect. There are still significant uncertainties in estimations of these effects due to insufficient knowledge on the sea spray generation function. The reason for that are difficulties of direct measurements and insufficient knowledge about the mechanisms of the spume droplet's formation. This study is concerned with the laboratory experiments for identification of mechanisms due to which a strong wind tears off water from the crest of the waves made at the high-speed wind-wave flume of IAP RAS. In order to obtain statistical data for the events on the surface, leading to the spray generation a high-speed video-filming was made using a horizontal and vertical shadow methods at rates of up to 10,000 fps in a wide range of wind speeds (20 - 35 m/s). Classification of phenomena responsible for generation of spume droplets was made. It was observed for the friction velocities from 0.8 to 1.5 m/s that the generation of the spume droplets is caused by 3 types of local phenomena: breaking of "projections" see e.g.[1], bursting of submerged bubbles [2,3] and bag breakup - it begins with increase of small-scale elevation of the surface, transforming to small "sails" then inflated to a water film bordered by a thicker rim and at last blows up, so the droplets are produced from rupture of the water film and fragmentation of the rim (the first report on the observation of a new mechanism of spume droplets', similar to bag-breakup regime was made in [4]). Statistical analysis of number of these phenomena at different winds showed that the "bag-breakup" is the major mechanism of spume droplets generation at strong and hurricane winds. Statistical distributions of observed "bags" geometrical parameters at different airflow velocities were retrieved from video-filming using specially developed software which allowed semi-automatic registering of image features. Acknowledgements

  3. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  4. Earth, wind, and fire: Wildfire risk perceptions in a hurricane-prone environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren M. Newman; Matthew S. Carroll; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams; Lorie L. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is one of several potential disturbances that could have extraordinary impacts on individuals and communities in fire-prone areas. In this article we describe disturbance risk perceptions from interviews with residents in three Florida communities that face significant wildfire and hurricane risk. Although they live in areas characterized by emergency managers...

  5. Analysis of Hurricane Irene’s Wind Field Using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred M. Klausmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Irene caused widespread and significant impacts along the U.S. east coast during 27–29 August 2011. During this period, the storm moved across eastern North Carolina and then tracked northward crossing into Long Island and western New England. Impacts included severe flooding from the mid-Atlantic states into eastern New York and western New England, widespread wind damage and power outages across a large portion of southern and central New England, and a major storm surge along portions of the Long Island coast. The objective of this study was to conduct retrospective simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW model in an effort to reconstruct the storm’s surface wind field during the period of 27–29 August 2011. The goal was to evaluate how to use the WRF modeling system as a tool for reconstructing the surface wind field from historical storm events to support storm surge studies. The results suggest that, with even modest data assimilation applied to these simulations, the model was able to resolve the detailed structure of the storm, the storm track, and the spatial surface wind field pattern very well. The WRF model shows real potential for being used as a tool to analyze historical storm events to support storm surge studies.

  6. Radiation shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookes, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes a shelter comprising a cavity for receiving life to be sheltered; a roof for covering at least a portion of said cavity, and at least one aqueous, protective barrier layer adapted to prevent transmission through said roof and into said cavity of at least a portion of radiation in a predetermined spectrum. The cavity walls may be impregnated with an oil suitable for dressing burns. (author)

  7. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  8. Assessment and Analysis of QuikSCAT Vector Wind Products for the Gulf of Mexico: A Long-Term and Hurricane Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico D’Sa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The northern Gulf of Mexico is a region that has been frequently impacted in recent years by natural disasters such as hurricanes. The use of remote sensing data such as winds from NASA’s QuikSCAT satellite sensor would be useful for emergency preparedness during such events. In this study, the performance of QuikSCAT products, including JPL’s latest Level 2B (L2B 12.5 km swath winds, were evaluated with respect to buoy-measured winds in the Gulf of Mexico for the period January 2005 to February 2007. Regression analyses indicated better accuracy of QuikSCAT’s L2B DIRTH, 12.5 km than the Level 3 (L3, 25 km wind product. QuikSCAT wind data were compared directly with buoy data keeping a maximum time interval of 20 min and spatial interval of 0.1° (≈10 km. R2 values for moderate wind speeds were 0.88 and 0.93 for L2B, and 0.75 and 0.89 for L3 for speed and direction, respectively. QuikSCAT wind comparisons for buoys located offshore were better than those located near the coast. Hurricanes that took place during 2002-06 were studied individually to obtain regressions of QuikSCAT versus buoys for those events. Results show QuikSCAT’s L2B DIRTH wind product compared well with buoys during hurricanes up to the limit of buoy measurements. Comparisons with the National Hurricane Center (NHC best track analyses indicated QuikSCAT winds to be lower than those obtained by NHC, possibly due to rain contamination, while buoy measurements appeared to be constrained at high wind speeds. This study has confirmed good agreement of the new QuikSCAT L2B product with buoy measurements and further suggests its potential use during extreme weather conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Wartime shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a wartime shelter for giving protection against nuclear blast and radiation, comprising a main chamber having a dog leg access passage and preferably a decontamination chamber. The chamber comprises a large diameter (say 21/2 metres) corrugated steel tube and the access passage comprises a small diameter (say 11/4 metres) tube communicating with the main chamber through a shock proof hatch. The main chamber may have a hatch leading to a dog leg escape passage. Connections between the tubes and other fixed structural parts of the shelter are by means of permanent banded and/or welded joints. (author)

  10. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  11. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  12. On the Decrease of the Oceanic Drag Coefficient in High Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    The sheltering coefficient - prefixing Jeffreys' concept of the exponential wave growth rate at a gas-liquid interface - is shown to be Reynolds number dependent from laboratory measurements of waves and Reynolds stresses. There are two turbulent flow regimes: wind speed range of 2.5 to 30 m/s where the drag coefficients increase with wind speed, and wind speed range of 30 to 50 m/s where sheltering/drag coefficients decrease/saturate with wind speed. By comparing model calculations of drag coefficients - using a fixed sheltering coefficient - with ocean observations over a wind speed range of 1 to 50 m/s a similar Reynolds number dependence of the oceanic sheltering coefficient is revealed. In consequence the drag coefficient is a function of Reynolds number and wave age, and not just wind speed as frequently assumed. The resulting decreasing drag coefficient above 30 m/s is shown to be critical in explaining the rapid intensification so prominent in the climatology of Atlantic hurricanes. The Reynolds number dependence of the sheltering coefficient, when employed in coupled models, should lead to significant improvements in the prediction of intensification and decay of tropical cyclones. A calculation of curvature at the wave crest suggests that at wind speeds above 56.15 m/s all waves-breaking or not-induce steady flow separation leading to a minimum in the drag coefficient. This is further evidence of the veracity of the observations of the oceanic drag coefficient at high winds.

  13. EnKF OSSE Experiments Assessing the Impact of HIRAD Wind Speed and HIWRAP Radial Velocity Data on Analysis of Hurricane Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Cerese; Sippel, Jason A.; Braun, Scott A.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009, Weng et al. 2011) have shown that radial velocity data from airborne and ground-based radars can be assimilated into ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) systems to produce accurate analyses of tropical cyclone vortices, which can reduce forecast intensity error. Recently, wind speed data from SFMR technology has also been assimilated into the same types of systems and has been shown to improve the forecast intensity of mature tropical cyclones. Two instruments that measure these properties were present during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment in 2010 which sampled Hurricane Karl, and will next be co-located on the same aircraft for the subsequent NASA HS3 experiment. The High Altitude Wind and Rain Profiling Radar (HIWRAP) is a conically scanning Doppler radar mounted upon NASAs Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, and the usefulness of its radial velocity data for assimilation has not been previously examined. Since the radar scans from above with a fairly large fixed elevation angle, it observes a large component of the vertical wind, which could degrade EnKF analyses compared to analyses with data taken from lesser elevation angles. The NASA Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a passive microwave radiometer similar to SFMR, and measures emissivity and retrieves hurricane surface wind speeds and rain rates over a much wider swath. Thus, this study examines the impact of assimilating simulated HIWRAP radial velocity data into an EnKF system, simulated HIRAD wind speed, and HIWRAP+HIRAD with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and compares the results to no data assimilation and also to the Truth from which the data was simulated for both instruments.

  14. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  15. Air and water trade winds, hurricanes, gulf stream, tsunamis and other striking phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, René

    2017-01-01

    Air and water are so familiar that we all think we know them. Yet how difficult it remains to predict their behavior, with so many questions butting against the limits of our knowledge. How are cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms, tsunamis or floods generated — sometimes causing devastation and death? What will the weather be tomorrow, next week, next summer? This book brings some answers to these questions with a strategy of describing before explaining. Starting by considering air and water in equilibrium (i.e., at rest), it progresses to discuss dynamic phenomena first focusing on large scale structures, such as El Niño or trade winds, then on ever smaller structures, such as low-pressure zones in the atmosphere, clouds, rain, as well as tides and waves. It finishes by describing man-mad e constructions (dams, ports, power plants, etc.) that serve to domesticate our water resources and put them to work for us.  Including over one hundred illustrations and very few equations, most of the�...

  16. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... evacuation decision-making. To accomplish this, the study provides information on the extent and severity of potential flooding from hurricanes, the associated vulnerable population, capacities of existing public shelters...

  17. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  18. Microseisms from Hurricane "Hilda".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bremaecker, J C

    1965-06-25

    As hurricane "Hilda" crossed the Gulf of Mexico the dominant period of the microseisms shifted from about 8 to 5 seconds as the eye reached water about 150 to 200 meters deep. The conversion of wind energy to microseismic energy is most efficient in water depths from 20 to 200 meters. There is no evidence that two periods, one twice the other, are present.

  19. Factors Contributing to the Interrupted Decay of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) in a Moderate Vertical Wind Shear Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    11  C.  TCI MISSIONS INTO HURRICANE JOAQUIN ............................. 13  III.  DATA AND METHODOLOGY ...October (Figure 12) indicated that the convection in Joaquin had become more organized with an enshrouded eye and rainbands spiraling outward on the...mission. Note that the intensity of Joaquin was still 75 kt at 0600 UTC 6 October (Table 1). 25 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY A. TCI FIELD PROGRAM

  20. The fence experiment - a first evaluation of shelter models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary evaluation of shelter models of different degrees of complexity using full-scale lidar measurements of the shelter on a vertical plane behind and orthogonal to a fence. Model results accounting for the distribution of the relative wind direction within the observed direct...

  1. 75 FR 54918 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1247, “Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    .... This series was developed to describe and make available to the public such information as methods that... maximum hurricane windspeeds for hurricanes that originate in the Atlantic and make landfall along the... connected and provides an aerodynamic sail area on which the wind can act. An automobile hurricane missile...

  2. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  3. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  4. Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Serrano, Mayra I.; Foster, David Russell

    2004-01-01

    Puerto Rico is subject to frequent and severe impacts from hurricanes, whose long-term ecological role must be assessed on a scale of centuries. In this study we applied a method for reconstructing hurricane disturbance regimes developed in an earlier study of hurricanes in New England. Patterns of actual wind damage from historical records were analyzed for 85 hurricanes since European settlement in 1508. A simple meteorological model (HURRECON) was used to reconstruct the impacts of 43 hurr...

  5. Innovative shelter for disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a

  6. A theoretical model of the influence of spray on the exchange of momentum, with storm and hurricane winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    A stochastic model of the "life cycle" of a droplet, the torn off the crest of a steep surface wave and then falling down to the water is constructed. The model includes the following constituents: i) a model of motion of a heavy particle in the forcing air flow (equation of motion), ii) a model of the wind flow (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations), iii) a model of spray injection, iiii) the droplet statistics (size distribution, wind-speed dependence) The interaction of water droplets in the atmospheric boundary layer with turbulent fluctuations is described in terms of the Markovian chain. The mean wind field in the marine atmospheric boundary layer is determined by the momentum exchange associated with the turbulent and wave momentum transfer and by sprays. The wave and turbulent momentum exchange is parameterized by the Charnok expression for the roughness parameter. Wave disturbances induced in the air flow by waves at the surface, were calculated within the model of the marine atmospheric boundary suggested in [1]. The greatest uncertainty in this model is the mechanism of droplets injection. We consider two models for the injection of droplets in the air flow. In the first model the droplets formed by the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, are entered in the flow with the orbital velocity of the wave (Koga's model [2]), The second mechanism, investigated in many papers, considers droplets from the breakdown of a jet which rises at high speeds from the bottom of the collapsing air bubble cavity [3]. To determine the number of drops injected to the atmospheric boundary layer from the sea surface, the Spray generation function proposed in [4] was in use. Within the model the momentum acquired by every droplet in the interaction with the air flow was calculated. Depending on the particular field of air velocity, wave parameters and the radius of the droplet, it can both get and deliver momentum give impetus to the air

  7. Hurricane Impacts to Tropical and Temperate Forest Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Foster, David Russell; Fluet, Marcheterre

    1994-01-01

    Hurricanes represent an important natural disturbance process to tropical and temperate forests in many coastal areas of the world. The complex patterns of damage created in forests by hurricane winds result from the interaction of meteorological, physiographic, and biotic factors on a range of spatial scales. To improve our understanding of these factors and of the role of catastrophic hurricane wind as a disturbance process, we take an integrative approach. A simple meteorological model (HU...

  8. Nuclear fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear fallout shelter, to be buried below ground level exposing only an access hatch with a cover and ventilators, is constructed of two preformed hollow end sections connected by one or more preformed hollow tubular intermediate sections. The ventilators include a filter for removing radioactive particles from the air entering the shelter. The sections may be moulded shells of glass fibre reinforced plastics material having inwardly directed peripheral end flanges to enable the sections to be bolted together from inside the shelter after they have been positioned in an excavated trench. (author)

  9. A collapsible shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Asadulin, Kh.F.; Maloiaroslavtsev, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Rastorquev, M.A.

    1980-08-15

    A collapsible shelter is proposed which includes a foundation, a framework with reinforced elements which form a roof, tie bolt elements which are riveted to the reinforced elements, and a railing; it is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to simplify its construction and improve its reliability, the reinforced elements are detachable and are equipped with rigid connecting rods made of separate sections which are mounted to allow for movement via the reinforced elements; the connecting rod of each reinforcement element is connected to the connecting rod of the adjacent reinforced element using horizontal rods on which the shelter is secured. The shelter is made from separate planks.

  10. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  11. Hurricane Harvey Report : A fact-finding effort in the direct aftermath of Hurricane Harvey in the Greater Houston Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, A.G.; Lendering, K.T.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Brand, A.D.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Kolen, B.; Comes, M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Meesters, K.J.M.G.; van de Walle, B.A.; Ebrahimi Fard, A.; Cunningham, S.; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Nespeca, V.

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Rockport, Texas as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of approximately 200 km/hour. Harvey caused severe damages in coastal Texas due to extreme winds and storm surge, but will go down in history for record-setting rainfall

  12. Female hurricanes are deadlier than male hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kiju; Shavitt, Sharon; Viswanathan, Madhu; Hilbe, Joseph M

    2014-06-17

    Do people judge hurricane risks in the context of gender-based expectations? We use more than six decades of death rates from US hurricanes to show that feminine-named hurricanes cause significantly more deaths than do masculine-named hurricanes. Laboratory experiments indicate that this is because hurricane names lead to gender-based expectations about severity and this, in turn, guides respondents' preparedness to take protective action. This finding indicates an unfortunate and unintended consequence of the gendered naming of hurricanes, with important implications for policymakers, media practitioners, and the general public concerning hurricane communication and preparedness.

  13. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindke, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group that has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8 foot by 8 foot x 22 foot nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters

  14. WIND DAMAGE ON TREES FOLLOWING HURRICANE SANDY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CITY LANDSCAPING: GLEN RIDGE – MONTCLAIR TOWNS, NEW JERSEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAITH JUSTUS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glen Ridge is a small municipality in the Northern New Jersey with a significant number of huge trees lining majority of its streets. The trees have been subject to a wide range of natural and artificial stresses, one being the strong wind associated with superstorm Sandy. On 29th October 2012, a windstorm of extreme intensity struck the Tristate region and brought havoc to the tree population including those in Glen Ridge. A survey was conducted immediately after the storm to collect quantitative information on fallen tree population. The study aimed at understanding the spatial extent of wind damage on trees with reference to location, trunk diameter and soil characteristics. A total of 51 fallen trees with a mean trunk diameter of 100.4 centimetres along streets in study area were surveyed. High damage was noted on trees in Glen Ridge (29 trees while streets transitioning to Montclair had 22 fallen trees. Majority of the surveyed trees were found on USBOO soils (49%, which are characterised as disturbed urban soils with Boonton substratum-Boonton complexes. BowrB soils had 27.5%, Boob 13.7%, BowrC 7.8% and USDUNB 2.0% of fallen trees. A need for city wide tree inventorying and species mapping is identified as a management implication to further enhance the historical value of the city. Other measures are discussed with a view of engaging appropriate local management partnerships and coordination frameworks to play a role in protecting the remaining large trees.

  15. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  16. Hurricane Resource Reel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Reel Includes the Following Sections TRT 50:10 Hurricane Overviews 1:02; Hurricane Arthur 15:07; Cyclone Pam 19:48; Typhoon Hagupit 21:27; Hurricane Bertha...

  17. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  18. Urban Shelter Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syagga, P.M.; Olima, W.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The central concern for every individual or family is adequate shelter which is more than roof over one's head. Shelter incorporates both housing and the entire environment within which housing must function (Kenya, 1995: 163). adequate shelter means adequate privacy and security including security of tenure, adequate space for socio-economic activities for the advancement of the quality of life physical accessibility and adequate basic infrastructural services (UNCHS, 1996: 26). Shelter provision is, therefore, an important investment to the individual, family and economy as a whole. This is not only determined by the space and facilities it provides, but by other external services it offers such as accessibility to education and health facilities, employment and trade opportunities and public and community services all available in the neighbourhood. The provision of a shelter plays a significant role in the overall national development. For instance, between 1990 and 1994 about 30 percent of the employees in the construction industry were directly engaged in the construction of building of which housing is an important component

  19. Evacuating People and Their Pets: Older Floridians' Need for and Proximity to Pet-Friendly Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Rachel; Kocatepe, Ayberk; Barrett, Anne E; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Gumber, Clayton

    2017-10-04

    Pets influence evacuation decisions, but little is known about pet-friendly emergency shelters' availability or older adults' need for them. Our study addresses this issue, focusing on the most densely populated area of Florida (Miami-Dade)-the state with the oldest population and greatest hurricane susceptibility. We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to identify the shortest paths to pet-friendly shelters, based on distance and congested and uncongested travel times-taking into account the older population's spatial distribution. Logistic regression models using the 2013 American Housing Survey's Disaster Planning Module examine anticipated shelter use as a function of pet ownership and requiring pet evacuation assistance. Thirty-four percent of older adults in the Miami-Dade area have pets-35% of whom report needing pet evacuation assistance. However, GIS accessibility measures show that travel time factors are likely to impede older adults' use of the area's few pet-friendly shelters. Logistic regression results reveal that pet owners are less likely to report anticipating shelter use; however, the opposite holds for pet owners reporting they would need help evacuating their pets-they anticipate using shelters. High pet shelter need coupled with low availability exacerbates older adults' heightened vulnerability during Florida's hurricane season. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Satellite sar detection of hurricane helene (2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Lian; Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the wind structure of hurricane Helene (2006) over the Atlantic Ocean is investigated from a C-band RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired on 20 September 2006. First, the characteristics, e.g., the center, scale and area of the hurricane eye (HE) are determined. ...... observations from the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) on NOAA P3 aircraft. All the results show the capability of hurricane monitoring by satellite SAR. Copyright © 2013 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  1. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  2. The Search for Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Nora Richter

    This report describes the response of the American Institute of Architects' Housing Committee to the homeless crisis in the United States. Based on information shared at two conferences held by the Committee in 1985, this publication examines the question of how to provide secure, dignified shelter for those with little financial resources. It…

  3. Shielding: people and shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krissdottir, M; Simon, J

    1977-01-01

    Housing is something that protects and defends. This book explores the ways in which humans have sought to defend themselves against physical dangers and to protect themselves against the imagined evils of the natural world by means of the shelters built. The book examines briefly the shelters built in ancient times, and shows how several basic types recurred in different ages and at different times. Following this there is a brief survey of the kinds of shelters built by the native peoples of Canada, depending on their environment--climate, the natural materials on hand--and the culture and life-style of each people. The next chapter explores the psychology of human beings, and how shelters should satisfy not only physical needs but psychological needs as well--the need for companionship and yet for privacy, space for children to play and community centers for adults to meet. The second half of the book looks at the dilemmas of housing today, and at various attempts around the world and in Canada to solve the problems--garden cities in England, the famous community of Tapiola in Finland, the technological innovations of Disneyland, new housing suburbs in Canada. There is a discussion of the problems of urban renewal, of overcoming the high cost of home-ownership--condominiums, cooperatives, owner-built homes, and the disadvantages of trailers--and of overcoming the energy crisis by building ecological houses.

  4. Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning

    Hurricanes present major hazards to the United States. Associated with extreme winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surge, landfalling hurricanes often cause enormous structural damage to coastal regions. Hurricane damage risk assessment provides the basis for loss mitigation and related policy-making. Current hurricane risk models, however, often oversimplify the complex processes of hurricane damage. This dissertation aims to improve existing hurricane risk assessment methodology by coherently modeling the spatial-temporal processes of storm landfall, hazards, and damage. Numerical modeling technologies are used to investigate the multiplicity of hazards associated with landfalling hurricanes. The application and effectiveness of current weather forecasting technologies to predict hurricane hazards is investigated. In particular, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), with Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)'s hurricane initialization scheme, is applied to the simulation of the wind and rainfall environment during hurricane landfall. The WRF model is further coupled with the Advanced Circulation (AD-CIRC) model to simulate storm surge in coastal regions. A case study examines the multiple hazards associated with Hurricane Isabel (2003). Also, a risk assessment methodology is developed to estimate the probability distribution of hurricane storm surge heights along the coast, particularly for data-scarce regions, such as New York City. This methodology makes use of relatively simple models, specifically a statistical/deterministic hurricane model and the Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) model, to simulate large numbers of synthetic surge events, and conducts statistical analysis. The estimation of hurricane landfall probability and hazards are combined with structural vulnerability models to estimate hurricane damage risk. Wind-induced damage mechanisms are extensively studied. An innovative windborne debris risk model is

  5. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  6. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  8. Estimating cellular network performance during hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Graham; Torres, Jacob; Guikema, Seth; Sprintson, Alex; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Cellular networks serve a critical role during and immediately after a hurricane, allowing citizens to contact emergency services when land-line communication is lost and serving as a backup communication channel for emergency responders. However, due to their ubiquitous deployment and limited design for extreme loading events, basic network elements, such as cellular towers and antennas are prone to failures during adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes. Accordingly, a systematic and computationally feasible approach is required for assessing and improving the reliability of cellular networks during hurricanes. In this paper we develop a new multi-disciplinary approach to efficiently and accurately assess cellular network reliability during hurricanes. We show how the performance of a cellular network during and immediately after future hurricanes can be estimated based on a combination of hurricane wind field models, structural reliability analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and cellular network models and simulation tools. We then demonstrate the use of this approach for assessing the improvement in system reliability that can be achieved with discrete topological changes in the system. Our results suggest that adding redundancy, particularly through a mesh topology or through the addition of an optical fiber ring around the perimeter of the system can be an effective way to significantly increase the reliability of some cellular systems during hurricanes.

  9. Who evacuates when hurricanes approach? The role of risk, information, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Robert M; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Subramanian, Devika

    2010-01-01

    This article offers an expanded perspective on evacuation decision making during severe weather. In particular, this work focuses on uncovering determinants of individual evacuation decisions. We draw on a survey conducted in 2005 of residents in the eight-county Houston metropolitan area after Hurricane Rita made landfall on September 24, 2005. We find that evacuation decisions are influenced by a heterogeneous set of parameters, including perceived risk from wind, influence of media and neighbors, and awareness of evacuation zone, that are often at variance with one of the primary measures of risk used by public officials to order or recommend an evacuation (i.e., storm surge). We further find that perceived risk and its influence on evacuation behavior is a local phenomenon more readily communicated by and among individuals who share the same geography, as is the case with residents living inside and outside official risk areas. Who evacuates and why is partially dependent on where one lives because perceptions of risk are not uniformly shared across the area threatened by an approaching hurricane and the same sources and content of information do not have the same effect on evacuation behavior. Hence, efforts to persuade residential populations about risk and when, where, and how to evacuate or shelter in place should originate in the neighborhood rather than emanating from blanket statements from the media or public officials. Our findings also raise important policy questions (included in the discussion section) that require further study and consideration by those responsible with organizing and implementing evacuation plans.

  10. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  11. Hurricane Gustav Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Gustav poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Gustav having made landfall along the Louisiana coastline. Poster size is 36"x27"

  12. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  13. Hurricane Ike Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Ike poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-15 shows Hurricane Ike in the Gulf of Mexico heading toward Galveston Island, Texas. Poster size is 36"x27".

  14. 2004 Landfalling Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2004 U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes poster is a special edition poster which contains two sets of images of Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne, created...

  15. Fire management ramifications of Hurricane Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Saveland; D. D. Wade

    1991-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo passed over the Francis Marion National Forest on September 22, 1989, removing almost 75 percent of the overstory. The radically altered fuel bed presented new and formidable challenges to fire managers. Tractor-plows, the mainstay of fire suppression, were rendered ineffective. The specter of wind-driven escaped burns with no effective means of ground...

  16. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  17. Nuclear fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An underground nuclear fall-out shelter has a plastics shell which, apart from service and access openings, is waterproof and provided, if desired, with a concrete roof. The shelter has an access opening, an air system, lighting, water storage, sanitation and sewage facilities. (author)

  18. Condensation-induced kinematics and dynamics of cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.

    2009-01-01

    A universal equation is obtained for air pressure and wind velocity in cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes as dependent on the distance from the center of the considered wind pattern driven by water vapor condensation. The obtained theoretical estimates of the horizontal profiles of air pressure and wind velocity, eye and wind wall radius in hurricanes and tornadoes and maximum values of the radial, tangential and vertical velocity components are in good agreement with empirical evidence.

  19. Weathering the storm: challenges to nurses providing care to nursing home residents during hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M; Christensen, Janelle J; Thomas, Kali S

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the experience of 291 Florida nursing homes during the 2004 hurricane season. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors described and compared the challenges nurses encountered when evacuating residents with their experiences assisting residents of facilities that sheltered in place. The primary concerns for evacuating facilities were accessing appropriate evacuation sites for residents and having ambulance transportation contracts honored. The main issue for facilities that sheltered in place was the length of time it took for power to be restored. Barriers to maintaining resident health during disasters for those who evacuated or sheltered in place are identified.

  20. Temporary air-raid shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, J.; Olin, J.; Koukkari, H.

    1983-05-01

    This report deals with materials and structures of temporary air-raid shelters. At first, the weapon effects against which the temporary shelters can protect are described. These are, primarily, the fragmentation and blast pressure caused by conventional weapons and those effects of the nuclear weapons which exist outside the total disaster and fire areas. Temporary shelters built into existing buildings can give protection either from radioactive fallout or from fallout and collapse of the building above. For fallout protection heavy materials are needed, which simultaneously protect from fragmentation. In the research report, the methods and materials used for the contruction of a fallout shelter into an apartment house and a small house are introduced. The collapse loads acting on a basement ceiling and the design of additional timber supports are also presented. The use of various materials in the construction of shelters outside the buildings are introduced. Separate shelters can be built either under the ground or on the ground. The same materials can be used in both cases, but the underground shelters have a better level of protection. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a 40-inch...

  2. Will technology make shelters obsolete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    The fears and hopes that shelters for civil defense might be made obsolete by technology fall along diametrically opposed paths. Along the pessimistic direction is the fear that strategic offensive weapons have become so numerous and terrible that no shelter program is worthwhile. This fear has been nurtured by the US deterrence policy of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), about which we will say more in the first part of this article. In the opposite direction along the optimistic path is the hope that active defensive technology will become so good that shelters will be unnecessary. Very few hold this viewpoint today, although there was a time during the development of antiballistic missiles (ABM) when such a hope was common. The recent emphasis on research and development of laser- and particle-beam weapons has again raised some hopes that defense against strategic missiles may become effective. Researchers will discuss the impact of defensive technology on shelters in Part II of this article

  3. Early Childhood Education Students' Reflections: Volunteering after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Teresa K.; Benedict, Joan

    2007-01-01

    After the hurricanes, faculty asked the students to help with the relief efforts in different ways. Most students volunteered to work in shelters directly with individual or groups of children, youths, and adults. After their experiences, they wrote brief reflections about what they had done. Their comments show that they developed a better…

  4. Spatial structure of directional wave spectra in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Osuna, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The spatial structure of the wave field during hurricane conditions is studied using the National Data Buoy Center directional wave buoy data set from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The buoy information, comprising the directional wave spectra during the passage of several hurricanes, was referenced to the center of the hurricane using the path of the hurricane, the propagation velocity, and the radius of the maximum winds. The directional wave spectra were partitioned into their main components to quantify the energy corresponding to the observed wave systems and to distinguish between wind-sea and swell. The findings are consistent with those found using remote sensing data (e.g., Scanning Radar Altimeter data). Based on the previous work, the highest waves are found in the right forward quadrant of the hurricane, where the spectral shape tends to become uni-modal, in the vicinity of the region of maximum winds. More complex spectral shapes are observed in distant regions at the front of and in the rear quadrants of the hurricane, where there is a tendency of the spectra to become bi- and tri-modal. The dominant waves generally propagate at significant angles to the wind direction, except in the regions next to the maximum winds of the right quadrants. Evidence of waves generated by concentric eyewalls associated with secondary maximum winds was also found. The frequency spectra display some of the characteristics of the JONSWAP spectrum adjusted by Young (J Geophys Res 111:8020, 2006); however, at the spectral peak, the similarity with the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is clear. These results establish the basis for the use in assessing the ability of numerical models to simulate the wave field in hurricanes.

  5. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  6. Hurricane Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to terabytes of data and generate 2-D or time-series plots and animation without downloading any software and data. HDAT includes data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the NASA Quick Scatterometer(QuikSCAT) and NECP Reanalysis, and the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N - 60 S) IR Dataset. The GES DISC archives TRMM data. The daily global rainfall product derived from the 3-hourly multi-satellite precipitation product (3B42 V6) is available in HDAT. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature from the Remote Sensing Systems is in HDAT as well. The NASA QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and the NCEP Reanalysis provide ocean surface and atmospheric conditions, respectively. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N -60 S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged pixel-resolution IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The GES DISC has collected over 10 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution (every 30 minutes) dataset not only provides additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allows observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convection system, etc. Basic functions include selection of area of

  7. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  8. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.

    2011-02-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  9. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarieva, A.M., E-mail: ammakarieva@gmail.co [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, V.G. [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-14

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  10. Hurricane preparedness among elderly residents in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleier, Jo Ann; Krause, Deirdre; Ogilby, Terry

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with hurricane preparation and to test a theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process among a group of elderly residents living in a high-risk geographical area. This is a descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample consisted of 188 English-speaking individuals who were aged 55 years or older. In addition to demographic information, two survey instruments were used. Theoretical constructs were operationalized through Moon's Hurricane Preparation Questionnaire. Hurricane preparedness was measured by self-reported responses to FEMA's inventory checklist, which addresses the recommended basic steps of preparation. The theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process was supported. Main barriers to preparation are the need for cooperation from others and cost of preparation. Participants reported having taken many preparatory steps to shelter-in-place, but too few are prepared if their home were storm-damaged or they should have to evacuate. Findings are consistent with previous studies of samples drawn from similar populations. This report provides guidance as to how public health nurses can become involved with the population and develop interventions based on the constructs of the theoretical model. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. SHELTER MEDICINE: A NEW ESPECIALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. S. Moretto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shelter Medicine is a new branch in Veterinary Medicine which aims to improve the health and welfare of animals that do not have a home and live at risk. The specialty was created in the United States of America (USA with this denomination, and intended the population control of dogs and cats through sterilization, reintegration and socialization of abandoned animals, handling feral cats and control of common diseases in shelters. In this sense, Shelter Medicine proposes a solution to the rampant increase in the non domiciled animals population and, hence, the spread of zoonotic diseases. In addition, to improve the quality of life of those animals, by reducing the euthanasia procedures, damage to property and assault cases

  12. Shelters. History, state and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'ko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Korneev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time were made attempt to systematize the result of scientific investigations in object 'Shelter' for the ten last years since the accident on 4-th unit of Chernobyl NPP. These materials contain the detailed analyses of the accident, the diagnostic of destroyed unit, the description of control systems, the results of investigations fuel-containing materials characteristics, there placement and state of nuclear and radiation safety. The results of inspect the building constructions, which are base of new defence construction present in this book. Were made the analyse of the influence on environment the 'Shelter' and estimated the consequences of accident on the object. Were estimated the projects, presented on the competition of implementation object 'Shelter', examined the perspective on realization of these projects

  13. Ventilation of Animal Shelters in Wildland Fire Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, A. S.; Bohrer, G.; Dickinson, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of wildland fires on cavity-nesting birds and bats, as well as fossorial mammals and burrow-using reptiles, are of considerable interest to the fire management community. However, relatively little is known about the degree of protection afforded by various animal shelters in wildland fire events. We present results from our ongoing investigation, utilizing NIST’s Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and experimental data, of the effectiveness of common shelter configurations in protecting animals from combustion products. We compare two sets of simulations with observed experimental results. In the first set, wind tunnel experiments on single-entry room ventilation by Larsen and Heiselberg (2008) were simulated in a large domain resolved into 10 cm cubic cells. The set of 24 simulations comprised all combinations of incident wind speeds of 1,3 and 5 m/s; angles of attack of 0, 45, 90 and 180 degrees from the horizontal normal to the entrance; and temperature differences of 0 and 10 degrees C between the building interior and exterior. Simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data, thus providing a validation of FDS code for further ventilation experiments. In the second set, a cubic simulation domain of ~1m on edge and resolved into 1 cm cubic cells, was set up to represent the experiments by Ar et al. (2004) of wind-induced ventilation of woodpecker cavities. As in the experiments, we simulated wind parallel and perpendicular to the cavity entrance with different mean forcing velocities, and monitored the rates of evacuation of a neutral-buoyancy tracer from the cavity. Simulated ventilation rates in many, though not all, cases fell within the range of experimental data. Reasons for these differences, which include vagueness in the experimental setup, will be discussed. Our simulations provide a tool to estimate the viability of an animal in a shelter as a function of the shelter geometry and the fire intensity. In addition to the above

  14. Infrasonic ray tracing applied to mesoscale atmospheric structures: refraction by hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Alfred J; Jones, R Michael

    2013-11-01

    A ray-tracing program is used to estimate the refraction of infrasound by the temperature structure of the atmosphere and by hurricanes represented by a Rankine-combined vortex wind plus a temperature perturbation. Refraction by the hurricane winds is significant, giving rise to regions of focusing, defocusing, and virtual sources. The refraction of infrasound by the temperature anomaly associated with a hurricane is small, probably no larger than that from uncertainties in the wind field. The results are pertinent to interpreting ocean wave generated infrasound in the vicinities of tropical cyclones.

  15. Nuclear blast and fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Maddock, C.E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The underground shelter has walls, floor, and roof comprising at least one layer of fibre glass reinforced resin on each side of a layer of a light material, e.g. balsa wood or foamed material. The walls and other sections of the shelter are made by moulding at least one layer of resin impregnated fibre glass in a suitable mould, placing a layer of balsa wood on the moulded fibre glass/resin, and adding one or more further layers of fibre glass reinforced resin onto the balsa wood to form a sandwich type construction. The sections may have joists and reinforcing webs, and peripheral flanges. (author)

  16. Shelter models and observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide

    This report documents part of the work performed by work package (WP) 3 of the ‘Online WAsP’ project funded by the Danish Energy Technology and Demonstration Program (EUDP). WP3 initially identified the shortcomings of the current WAsP engine for small and medium wind turbines (Peña et al., 2014b......), adapted the WAsP engine to OnlineWAsP (www.wasponline.dk), and made an effort to quantify the error and the uncertainty, first of the obstacle model in WAsP and later ofthe WAsP model chain. This report documents the work done for the obstacle model. In addition, EUDP supports the IEA task 27 on ‘small...... in the wake of a fence. The experiment is the basis of the study of the error and uncertainty of the obstacle models....

  17. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  18. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COASTAL WATERS FOLLOWING HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the morning of August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Biloxi, Mississippi, as a strong category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The massive winds and flooding had the potential for a tremendous environmental impac...

  20. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...

  1. 'Shelter' object safety. Structural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, P.I.; Nemchinov, Yu.I.; Bambura, A.N.; Sokolov, A.P.; Shenderovich, V.Ya.; Vasyagin, R.V.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Tokarevskij, V.V.; Belousov, E.L.; Khejger, D.; Gorodetskij, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the group of the international experts including Ukrainian organizations and 'Shelter' Object ChNPP are developed the plan of SO transformation into ecological safe status (plan SIP). The realization of the plan was carried out on basis of international tender. The results of structural aspects of SO safety and it transformation into ecological safe state (ESS) are resented in this report

  2. Design of an Emergency Shelter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a light and robust temporary emergency shelter with a triangulated polyhedral grid to transfer the lateral and vertical loads efficiently. To simplify the construction the variety of the elements is minimized, only two sizes of elements are applied. For the

  3. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  4. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  5. Hurricane Katrina Sediment Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  6. Hurricane Katrina Water Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  7. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  8. Hurricane Harvey Report: A fact-finding effort in the direct aftermath of Hurricane Harvey in the Greater Houston Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian, A.G.; Lendering, K.T.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Brand, A.D.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Kolen, B.; Comes, M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Meesters, K.J.M.G.; van de Walle, B.A.; Ebrahimi Fard, A.; Cunningham, S.; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Nespeca, V.

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Rockport, Texas as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of approximately 200 km/hour. Harvey caused severe damages in coastal Texas due to extreme winds and storm surge, but will go down in history for record-setting rainfall totals and flood-related damages. Across large portions of southeast Texas, rainfall totals during the six-day period between August 25 and 31, 2017 were amongst the highest ever recorded, causing flo...

  9. Significant Wave Height under Hurricane Irma derived from SAR Sentinel-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S.; Pleskachevsky, A.; Soloviev, A.; Fujimura, A.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was with three major hurricanes a particular active one. The Category 4 hurricane Irma made landfall on the Florida Keys on September 10th 2017 and was imaged several times by ESAs Sentinel-1 satellites in C-band and the TerraSAR-X satellite in X-band. The high resolution TerraSAR-X imagery showed the footprint of individual tornadoes on the sea surface together with their turbulent wake imaged as a dark line due to increased turbulence. The water-cloud structures of the tornadoes are analyzed and their sea surface structure is compared to optical and IR cloud imagery. An estimate of the wind field using standard XMOD algorithms is provided, although saturating under the strong rain and high wind speed conditions. Imaging the hurricanes by space radar gives the opportunity to observe the sea surface and thus measure the wind field and the sea state under hurricane conditions through the clouds even in this severe weather, although rain features, which are usually not observed in SAR become visible due to damping effects. The Copernicus Sentinel-1 A and B satellites, which are operating in C-band provided several images of the sea surface under hurricane Irma, Jose and Maria. The data were acquired daily and converted into measurements of sea surface wind field u10 and significant wave height Hs over a swath width of 280km about 1000 km along the orbit. The wind field of the hurricanes as derived by CMOD is provided by NOAA operationally on their web server. In the hurricane cases though the wind speed saturates at 20 m/sec and is thus too low in the area of hurricane wind speed. The technique to derive significant wave height is new though and does not show any calibration issues. This technique provides for the first time measurements of the areal coverage and distribution of the ocean wave height as caused by a hurricane on SAR wide swath images. Wave heights up to 10 m were measured under the forward quadrant of the hurricane

  10. Hurricane Elena and Pinellas County, Florida: Some Lessons Learned from the Largest Evacuation of Nursing Home Patients in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Wiley P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied prior planning for and problems associated with evacuation of 1,860 nursing home patients in Pinellas County, Florida, due to Hurricane Elena in 1985 through questionnaires administered to nursing home administrators and public documents. Found most serious problems to be transporting patients to shelters in timely fashion, delayed passage…

  11. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  12. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Hurricane Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) developed hurricane models that specify wind speed, inundation, and erosion around Rhode Island with enough precision to incorporate impacts on individual facilities. At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Visualization Lab (MAVL) developed a way to realistically visualize these impacts in 3-D. Since climate change visualizations and water resource simulations have been shown to promote resiliency action (Sheppard, 2015) and increase credibility (White et al., 2010) when local knowledge is incorporated, URI's hurricane models and visualizations may also more effectively enable hurricane resilience actions if they include Facility Manager (FM) and Emergency Manager (EM) perceived hurricane impacts. This study determines how FM's and EM's perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale while exploring methods to elicit this information from FMs and EMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI GSO's hurricane models.

  13. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  14. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  15. Hurricane Katrina: A Teachable Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for integrating the phenomenon of hurricanes into the teaching of high school fluid mechanics. Students come to understand core science concepts in the context of their impact upon both the environment and human populations. Suggestions for using information about hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina, in a…

  16. High Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes in a Climate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    model reproduces the observed increase in Atlantic hurricane activity (numbers, Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), Power Dissipation Index (PDI), etc.) over the period 1980-2006 fairly realistically, and also simulates ENSO-related interannual variations in hurricane counts. Annual simulated hurricane counts from a two-member ensemble correlate with observed counts at r=0.86. However, the model does not simulate hurricanes as intense as those observed, with minimum central pressures of 937 hPa (category 4) and maximum surface winds of 47 m/s (category 2) being the most intense simulated so far in these experiments. To explore possible impacts of future climate warming on Atlantic hurricane activity, we are re-running the 1980- 2006 seasons, keeping the interannual to multidecadal variations unchanged, but altering the August-October mean climate according to changes simulated by an 18-member ensemble of AR4 climate models (years 2080- 2099, A1B emission scenario). The warmer climate state features higher Atlantic SSTs, and also increased vertical wind shear across the Caribbean (Vecchi and Soden, GRL 2007). A key assumption of this approach is that the 18-model ensemble-mean climate change is the best available projection of future climate change in the Atlantic. Some of the 18 global models show little increase in wind shear, or even a decrease, and thus there will be considerable uncertainty associated with the hurricane frequency results, which will require further exploration. Results from our simulations will be presented at the meeting.

  17. Hurricane Risk Variability along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Jill C.; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Tucker, Clay S.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locations, along the borders of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Using a geographically weighted regression model, the relationship of these parameters to sea surface temperature (SST) is found to assess sensitivity to change. It is shown that as SSTs increase near the coast, the frequency of hurricanes in these grids decrease significantly. This reinforces the importance of SST in areas of likely tropical cyclogenesis in determining the number of hurricanes near the coast, along with SSTs along the lifespan of the storm, rather than simply local SST. The range of hurricane wind speeds experienced near Florida is shown to increase with increasing SSTs (insignificant), suggesting that increased temperatures may allow hurricanes to maintain their strength as they pass over the Florida peninsula. The modifiable areal unit problem is assessed using multiple grid sizes. Moran’s I and the local statistic G are calculated to examine spatial autocorrelation in the parameters. This research opens up future questions regarding rapid intensification and decay close to the coast and the relationship to changing SSTs. PMID:25767885

  18. Hurricane risk variability along the Gulf of Mexico coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Jill C; Ellis, Kelsey N; Tucker, Clay S

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locations, along the borders of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Using a geographically weighted regression model, the relationship of these parameters to sea surface temperature (SST) is found to assess sensitivity to change. It is shown that as SSTs increase near the coast, the frequency of hurricanes in these grids decrease significantly. This reinforces the importance of SST in areas of likely tropical cyclogenesis in determining the number of hurricanes near the coast, along with SSTs along the lifespan of the storm, rather than simply local SST. The range of hurricane wind speeds experienced near Florida is shown to increase with increasing SSTs (insignificant), suggesting that increased temperatures may allow hurricanes to maintain their strength as they pass over the Florida peninsula. The modifiable areal unit problem is assessed using multiple grid sizes. Moran's I and the local statistic G are calculated to examine spatial autocorrelation in the parameters. This research opens up future questions regarding rapid intensification and decay close to the coast and the relationship to changing SSTs.

  19. Shelter from the Storm: Optimizing Distribution of Bus Stop Shelters in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Philip; Taylor, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The functions of bus stop shelters and factors affecting their placement at stops in transit systems are analyzed. Drawing on information from a variety of sources, current shelter placement policy in Los Angeles was found to be guided principally by the revenue-generating potential of shelter advertisements, secondarily by political concerns over geographic equity, and only peripherally on the basis of bus stop use. Using data on shelter and stop locations, boardings, and headways, a methodo...

  20. Effect of shelter on the performance of Friesian cows during winter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of sawdust among treatment groups would probably be more reliable than .... mal's hair coat is reduced by wind and rain while the surface heat exchange is ... ing the effect of various shelters on the milk yield of dairy cows is available in ...

  1. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  2. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  3. Hurricane Katrina Poster (August 28, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Katrina poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows a very large Hurricane Katrina as a category 5 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on August 28, 2005....

  4. Hurricane Rita Poster (September 22, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Rita poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Rita as a category-4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22, 2005. Poster size is...

  5. A fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as, for example, a fallout shelter, strong-room or electricity sub-station is described. The major portion is generally tubular in construction and rectangular in cross-section. The tube may be formed in one piece or with two directed channel elements. Pairs of U legs abut either along the sides or along the top and bottom. End slabs close the compartment. An entrance shaft is formed by an upstanding channel element with upper and lower end slabs; alternatively the entrance shaft may be horizontal. Doors or hatches are provided. The whole structure may be buried. This invention provides a structure capable of withstanding considerable overpressure and of offering good resistance to radiation and is cheap and simple to manufacture. (U.K.)

  6. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  7. Biogeochemical Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Texas Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, P.; Hu, X.; Walker, L.; Wetz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey made landfall Friday 25 August 2017 as a Category 4 hurricane, which is the strongest hurricane to hit the middle Texas coast since Carla in 1961. After the wind storm and storm surge, coastal flooding occurred due to the storm lingering over Texas for four more days, dumping as much as 50" of rain near Houston, producing 1:1000 year flood event. The Texas coast is characterized by lagoons behind barrier islands, and their ecology and biogeochemistry are strongly influenced by coastal hydrology. The ensuing inflow event replaced brackish water with fresh water that was high in inorganic an organic matter, significantly enhancing respiration of coastal blue carbon, and dissolved oxygen went to zero for a long period of time. Recovery will likely take months or nearly one year.

  8. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  9. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  10. Gusts and Shear in an Idealized LES-modeled Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, R.; Lundquist, J. K.; Bryan, G. H.; Damiani, R.; Musial, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclone winds can cause extreme loading and damage to coastal structures such as buildings and energy infrastructure. Offshore wind energy development is underway along the US East Coast where hurricanes pose a substantial risk. Understanding wind gusts, gust factor, shear, and veer in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) can help manufacturers assess risk and design wind turbines to better withstand these extreme wind conditions. Because of the paucity of observational data at low-levels (200 m and below), we use the Cloud Model Version I (CM1) large-eddy simulation numerical model to simulate high spatial- (10 m) and temporal- (0.1 s) resolution data. This unique dataset is used to answer the following questions: do severe mean wind speeds and gusts that exceed current design limits occur?; how does the gust factor vary with distance from the eye?; and lastly, how does wind direction vary horizontally and with height? We find that mean winds and gusts near the eyewall can exceed current turbine design thresholds of 50 m s-1 and 70 m s-1, respectively. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface just inward of the peak gust location and can exceed the 1.4 value used to convert a 50 m s-1 reference wind speed to a 50-year 3-second gust. Strong veer (15-30 degrees) across a 120 m-layer suggests that veer should be assessed against standard design prescriptions. Lastly, wind directions can shift 10-25 degrees in durations shorter than 10 minutes, which can challenge structures designed to endure winds from a consistent direction for periods longer than 10 minutes, including wind turbines.

  11. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  12. Numerical study of sediment dynamics during hurricane Gustav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhengchen; Xue, Z. George; Bao, Shaowu; Chen, Qin; Walker, Nan D.; Haag, Alaric S.; Ge, Qian; Yao, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-and-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was employed to explore sediment dynamics in the northern Gulf of Mexico during hurricane Gustav in 2008. The performance of the model was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively against in-situ and remote sensing measurements, respectively. After Gustav's landfall in coastal Louisiana, the maximum significant wave heights reached more than 8 m offshore and they decreased quickly as it moved toward the inner shelf, where the vertical stratification was largely destroyed. Alongshore currents were dominant westward on the eastern sector of the hurricane track, and offshoreward currents prevailed on the western sector. High suspended sediment concentrations (>1000 mg/l) were confined to the inner shelf at surface layers and the simulated high concentrations at the bottom layer extended to the 200 m isobaths. The stratification was restored one week after landfall, although not fully. The asymmetric hurricane winds induced stronger hydrodynamics in the eastern sector, which led to severe erosion. The calculated suspended sediment flux (SSF) was convergent to the hurricane center and the maximum SSF was simulated near the south and southeast of the Mississippi river delta. The averaged post-hurricane deposition over the Louisiana shelf was 4.0 cm, which was 3.2-26 times higher than the annual accumulation rate under normal weather conditions.

  13. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  14. Vaccines in Shelters and Group Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Dogs and cats entering animal shelters are at high risk of acquiring 1 or more contagious infectious diseases. Such animals may be severely stressed, exhausted, and unwell, as well as malnourished and parasitized. The typically high throughput of shelter animals, many of them young and of unknown vaccination status, plays a role. Vaccines are a crucially important part of the management approach to limiting morbidity, mortality, and spread of infection. Guidelines for the use of vaccines in shelters have been published and are reviewed and discussed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Glantz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time.

    Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region.

    The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1.

    Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on

  16. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time. Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region. The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1). Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on the order of 20 feet or so. The Ninth Ward, heavily

  17. Seeking safety: predictors of hurricane evacuation of community-dwelling families affected by Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Janelle J; Richey, Elizabeth Danforth; Castañeda, Heide

    2013-11-01

    This article explores how dyads of 186 community-dwelling individuals with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder (ADRD) and their caregivers (dyads) plan to respond to hurricane evacuation warnings in South Florida. Predictors of dyad evacuation for a category 1-3 storm include (1) a younger age of the person with an ADRD diagnosis, (2) the caregiver living in a different residence than the person with ADRD, (3) lack of hurricane shutters, and (4) lower income. A dyad is more likely to evacuate in a category 4 or 5 hurricane if there is (1) a younger age person with an ADRD diagnosis, (2) a more recent diagnosis of ADRD, (3) a residence in an evacuation zone, and if (4) they report needing a shelter. Emergency management teams, especially those who assist with special needs shelters or other outreach programs for people with cognitive disabilities, can use these guidelines to estimate service usage and needs.

  18. Drag Coefficient Comparisons Between Observed and Model Simulated Directional Wave Spectra Under Hurricane Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    the Wave Model (WAM; Hasselmann t al., 1988 ), and Simulating Waves Nearshore ( SWAN ; Booij et al., 999...of the circle represents the maximum wind speed of the hurricane. The black lines in the vicinity of the hurricane track represent the aircraft...contour maps and black contour lines for the model spec- ra at the same location. Then, the model spectra energy exceeds RA pk are plotted as

  19. First Spaceborne GNSS-Reflectometry Observations of Hurricanes From the UK TechDemoSat-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Giuseppe; Gommenginger, Christine; Srokosz, Meric

    2017-12-01

    We present the first examples of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) observations of hurricanes using spaceborne data from the UK TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) mission. We confirm that GNSS-R signals can detect ocean condition changes in very high near-surface ocean wind associated with hurricanes. TDS-1 GNSS-R reflections were collocated with International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) hurricane data, MetOp ASCAT A/B scatterometer winds, and two reanalysis products. Clear variations of GNSS-R reflected power (σ0) are observed as reflections travel through hurricanes, in some cases up to and through the eye wall. The GNSS-R reflected power is tentatively inverted to estimate wind speed using the TDS-1 baseline wind retrieval algorithm developed for low to moderate winds. Despite this, TDS-1 GNSS-R winds through the hurricanes show closer agreement with IBTrACS estimates than winds provided by scatterometers and reanalyses. GNSS-R wind profiles show realistic spatial patterns and sharp gradients that are consistent with expected structures around the eye of tropical cyclones.

  20. A diary of hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, C S

    1989-12-01

    Charleston, South Carolina was the recent victim of Hurricane Hugo. This article recalls the events that occurred before, during, and after the hurricane struck. The focus is on four outpatient dialysis units in that area. It is a story from which others may learn more about emergency preparedness.

  1. Hurricane Season: Are You Ready?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hurricanes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces. Host Bret Atkins talks with CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health Director Dr. Chris Portier about the main threats of a hurricane and how you can prepare.

  2. Repurposing shelter for displaced people in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Dean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Buildings in Ukraine are being repurposed to provide shelter for those fleeing conflict in the country but, as the war continues, the need for more permanent solutions must be acknowledged.

  3. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  4. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU OF... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1104 Shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a minor-in-need-of-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility...

  5. Design of mobile shelters for communication purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotens, W. A.; Leebeek, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A general design for a future generation of shelters, to be used as mobile work places, is presented. Design criteria involve ergonomics, functional suitability, and air conditioning. Electronics, power supply, and personnel get their own compartments. Work space is provided for two people with room for two more. Center of mass and cable connections are considered. Air conditioning requirements are calculated with a computer program. The result is an integrated design, applicable to shelters for several purposes.

  6. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  7. Are recent hurricane (Harvey, Irma, Maria) disasters natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Lijing, C.; Jacobs, P.; Abraham, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Yes and no! Hurricanes are certainly natural, but human-caused climate change is supersizing them, and unbridled growth is exacerbating risk of major damages. The addition of heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere has led to observed increases in upper ocean heat content (OHC). This human-caused increase in OHC supports higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric moisture. These elevated temperatures and increased moisture availability fuel tropical storms, allowing them to grow larger, longer lasting, and more intense, and with widespread heavy rainfalls. Our preliminary analysis of OHC through the August of 2017 shows not only was it by far the highest on record globally, but it was also the highest on record in the Gulf of Mexico prior to hurricane Harvey occurring. The human influence on the climate is also evident in rising sea levels, which increases risks from storm surges. These climatic changes are taking place against a background of growing habitation along coasts, which further increases the risk storms pose to life and property. This combination of planning choice and climatic change illustrates the tragedy of global warming, as evidenced by Harvey in Houston, Irma in the Caribbean and Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico. However, future damages and loss of life can be mitigated, by stopping or slowing human-caused climate change, and through proactive planning (e.g., better building codes, increased-capacity drainage systems, shelters, and evacuation plans). We discuss the climatic and planning contexts of the unnatural disasters of the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season, including novel indices of climate-hurricane influence.

  8. NOAA HRD's HEDAS Data Assimilation System's performance for the 2010 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, K.; Aksoy, A.; Vukicevic, T.; Lorsolo, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Hurricane Ensemble Data Assimilation System (HEDAS) was developed at the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) of NOAA, in conjunction with an experimental version of the Hurricane Weather and Research Forecast model (HWRFx), in an effort to improve the initial representation of the hurricane vortex by utilizing high resolution in-situ data collected during NOAA’s Hurricane Field Program. HEDAS implements the “ensemble square root “ filter of Whitaker and Hamill (2002) using a 30 member ensemble obtained from NOAA/ESRL’s ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) system and the assimilation is performed on a 3-km nest centered on the hurricane vortex. As part of NOAA’s Hurricane Forecast Improvement Program (HFIP), HEDAS will be run in a semi-operational mode for the first time during the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season and will assimilate airborne Doppler radar winds, dropwindsonde and flight level wind, temperature, pressure and relative humidity, and Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer surface wind observations as they become available. HEDAS has been implemented in an experimental mode for the cases of Hurricane Bill, 2009 and Paloma, 2008 to confirm functionality and determine the optimal configuration of the system. This test case demonstrates the importance of assimilating thermodynamic data in addition to wind observations and the benefit of increasing the quantity and distribution of observations. Applying HEDAS to a larger sample of storm forecasts would provide further insight into the behavior of the model when inner core aircraft observations are assimilated. The main focus of this talk will be to present a summary of HEDAS performance in the HWRFx model for the inaugural season. The HEDAS analyses and the resulting HWRFx forecasts will be compared with HWRFx analyses and forecasts produced concurrently using the HRD modeling group’s vortex initialization which does not employ data assimilation. The initial vortex and subsequent forecasts will be

  9. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  10. Effect of isolator plates on telecom shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, M. Mebrouk; Dokkar, Boubekeur; Dokkar, Abdelghani; Settou, Noureddine; Chennouf, Nasreddine

    2018-05-01

    Passive ventilation systems are being increasingly proposed as an alternate to mechanical ventilation systems. This tendency is due to their potential benefits in terms of operational cost, energy requirement and carbon dioxide emission. In the present work, fresh flow is introduced under external isolator plates in order to reduce indoor temperature of telecom shelter located at neighboring of Ouargla city (south of Algeria). The metallic plates play two roles; the first one is to protect shelter from sun rays and the second is to operate as solar chimney. This chimney creates upward airflow which operates as passive cooling for the microwave relay. During the whole year, Shelter audit energy has been examined using Trnsys 16 software. Then, CFD code (Fluent 6.3) is used to predict thermal performance and fluid flow in two-dimensional computational domain for solar chimneys. The obtained results show that flow increase at shelter inlet causes a marked improvement in shelter cooling. This improvement indicates that shelter can be designed with small conventional air conditioning which leads to significant energy consumption fall. Indeed, with this technique, indoor temperature reduction can reach about 30°K without any electrical energy dispenses.

  11. Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – impact and wind pressure testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; C. Adam Senalik; Marshall Begel

    2018-01-01

    A tornado safe room is a shelter designed to provide protection during a tornado and is specifically engineered to resist the high wind pressures and debris impact generated by these high wind events. The required performance criteria of these shelters has been established and is found in the International Code Council Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm...

  12. The effects of hurricanes on birds, with special reference to Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Wunderle, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests. The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments. Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover

  13. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  14. Effects of Asymmetric Secondary Eyewall on Tropical Cyclone Evolution in Hurricane Ike (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guosheng; Perrie, William

    2018-02-01

    The secondary eyewall plays an important role in tropical cyclone evolution and intensification and is routinely assumed to be axisymmetric. A unique opportunity to investigate the characteristics of the secondary eyewall in two dimensions is provided by the high spatial resolution (about 1 km) sea surface winds that were observed by spaceborne synthetic aperture radar over Hurricane Ike (2008). Here we extract the asymmetric characteristics using our Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Winds model and analyze the related hurricane evolution by comparisons with aircraft measurements. Compared to the classic eyewall replacement cycle theory, our investigation finds that the primary eyewall did not weaken and the secondary eyewall did not shrink over a period of more than 30 hr. We suggest that the reason for this persistence is that a boundary layer inflow pathway is provided by the relatively low winds in the asymmetric secondary eyewall area, as observed by synthetic aperture radar.

  15. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) was collected by the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which was a multi-band...

  16. A hurricane modification process, applying a new technology tested for warm cloud seeding to produce artificial rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T.; Martin, I.; Iha, K.

    A Hurricane Modification Process with application of a new clean technology attested for seeding warm clouds with collector pure water droplets of controlled size to produce artificial rains in warm clouds is proposed to modify the hurricanes in order to avoid their formation or to modify the trajectory or to weaken hurricanes in action The Process is based on the time-dependent effects of cloud droplets microphysical processes for the formation and growth of the natural water droplets inside the clouds releasing large volumes of Aeolian energy to form the strong rotative upside air movements A new Paradigm proposed explain the strong and rotative winds created with the water droplets formation and grow process releasing the rotative Aeolian Energy in Tornados and Hurricanes This theory receive the Gold Medal Award of the Water Science in the 7th International Water Symposium 2005 in France Artificial seeding in the Process studies condensing a specified percentage of the water vapor to liquid water droplets where we observe the release of larges intensity of the Aeolian energy creates the hurricanes producing appreciable perturbations With they rotating strong wind created by the water droplets releasing Aeolian energy The Amplitudes of these winds are comparable to natural disasters Once this natural thermal process is completely understood artificial process to modify the hurricanes become scientifically possible to avoid them to happen or to deviate their trajectory or to weaken the already formed hurricanes In this work

  17. Shrinking the Need for Homeless Shelter Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has confirmed that only a minority of people who use emergency shelter beds are long-term users. Most shelter clients stay for short periods and do so relatively infrequently. These people use shelters as a temporary solution to problems that stem from poverty as opposed to problems arising from addiction or mental health problems. The implication is that addressing poverty may be an effective way of shrinking the need for emergency shelter beds. Our study uses information describing demographic characteristics and a measure of housing affordability in 51 Canadian cities to identify to what extent efforts at poverty reduction may enable the closing of emergency shelter beds. Across Canada in 2011, 15,493 permanent beds were available in 408 emergency shelters. The provision of emergency shelter beds varies widely across cities. Calgary, for example, provides more than twice as many beds per 100,000 people than does Vancouver or Toronto and more than four times the number provided in Montreal. The number of emergency beds provided is an indication not only of the number of homeless people but it is also a measure of the local response to the issue. We show that an effective strategy for shrinking the need for shelter beds is to provide improved income support to the very poor. Accounting for differences in climate, housing affordability, and demographics that may be associated with discrimination in housing markets, we show how a relatively modest increase in the incomes of those with very low incomes can shrink the need for emergency beds by nearly 20%. We also show that a modest increase in rent subsidies would have a similar impact. Still other policies that can prove effective are those that reduce the cost of building housing that can be profitably rented at prices those with low incomes can afford. These may involve tax incentives to builders and may call into question efforts at urban densification which makes low

  18. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  20. Trapped in Place? Segmented Resilience to Hurricanes in the Gulf Coast, 1970–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Issar, Sukriti; Xu, Zengwang

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes pose a continuing hazard to populations in coastal regions. This study estimates the impact of hurricanes on population change in the years 1970–2005 in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. Geophysical models are used to construct a unique data set that simulates the spatial extent and intensity of wind damage and storm surge from the 32 hurricanes that struck the region in this period. Multivariate spatial time-series models are used to estimate the impacts of hurricanes on population change. Population growth is found to be reduced significantly for up to three successive years after counties experience wind damage, particularly at higher levels of damage. Storm surge is associated with reduced population growth in the year after the hurricane. Model extensions show that change in the white and young adult population is more immediately and strongly affected than is change for blacks and elderly residents. Negative effects on population are stronger in counties with lower poverty rates. The differentiated impact of hurricanes on different population groups is interpreted as segmented withdrawal—a form of segmented resilience in which advantaged population groups are more likely to move out of or avoid moving into harm’s way while socially vulnerable groups have fewer choices. PMID:27531504

  1. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  2. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  3. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews

  4. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)], E-mail: afp4@cdc.gov; Orr, Maureen F. [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison [Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  5. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  6. Hurricane Gustav: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Guy, Kristy K.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, currents, and wave field. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and surface waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is also a significant aspect of the coastal change observed during extreme storms. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes) strives to provide hazard information to those concerned about the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure morphological changes associated with Hurricane Gustav, which made landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana, on September 1, 2008. Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and

  7. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  8. Simulation of the Impact of New Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of surface wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new passive microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the current real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airbome Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approximately 3 x the aircraft altitude, or approximately 2 km from space). The instrument is described in a separate paper presented at this conference. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the relative impact of HIRAD and other instruments on H*Wind analyses, including the use of HIRAD from 2 aircraft altitudes and from a space-based platform.

  9. Initial management of hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: a systematic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Erin L; Andress, Knox; Schultz, Carl H

    2013-06-01

    Hurricanes remain a major threat to hospitals throughout the world. The authors attempted to identify the planning areas that impact hospital management of evacuations and the challenges faced when sheltering-in-place. This observational, retrospective cohort study examined acute care institutions from one hospital system impacted by Hurricane Rita in 2005. Investigators used a standardized survey instrument and interview process, previously used in the hospital evacuation context, to examine hospitals' initial internal situational awareness and subsequent decision making that resulted in evacuation due to Hurricane Rita. Participants from each hospital included representatives from senior leadership and clinical and nonclinical staff that comprised the Incident Management Team (IMT). The main measured outcomes were responses to 95 questions contained in the survey. Seven of ten eligible hospitals participated in the study. All facilities evacuated the sickest patients first. The most significant factors prompting evacuation were the issuing of mandatory evacuation orders, storm dynamics (category, projected path, storm surge), and loss of regional communications. Hospitals that sheltered-in-place experienced staff shortages, interruptions to electrical power, and loss of water supplies. Three fully-evacuated institutions experienced understaffing of 40%-60%, and four hospitals sustained depressed staffing levels for over four weeks. Five hospitals lost electricity for a mean of 4.8 days (range .5-11 days). All facilities continued to receive patients to their Emergency Departments (EDs) while conducting their own evacuation. Hospital EDs should plan for continuous patient arrival during evacuation. Emergency Operation Plans (EOPs) that anticipate challenges associated with evacuation will help to maximize initial decision making and management during a crisis situation. Hospitals that shelter-in-place face critical shortages and must provide independent patient

  10. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed interim...-ISG-024, ``Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles....221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit...

  11. R.I.P. Computer Animal Shelter

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Due to a brutal and unjustified attack on our facilities in front of the CERN Computer Centre, we had to close the CERN Animal Shelter on 5/1/2012 after only 9 months of operation (the shelter was inaugurated on 1/4/2011). With deep sadness we look back to the old days when everything was fine. R.I.P.   The Computer Mice shelter after the attack. More photographs available here.  All surviving mice have been returned to their owners, who have also been advised to "Stop --- Think --- Click" in order to securely browse the Internet and securely read e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. However, still too many users click on malicious web-links and put their computer and account at risk. Thank you all for your support during the last 9 months. The Computer Animal Shelter    

  12. The Financial Structure of Sheltered Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly, John R.

    The first section of this report provides descriptive information about the financial structure of a sample of sheltered workshops (n=123) in terms of the variety of their sources of income and their expenses during fiscal year 1966. The relationship between differences in financial structure and other organizational characteristics is examined in…

  13. Preserving Childhood for Children in Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Thelma, Ed.; Ray, Adele Richardson, Ed.; Rolandelli, Pam, Ed.

    This book provides useful "how-to" information to help shelters create a safe, healthful, and supportive environment for their youngest residents. The chapters of the book are: (1) "The Effects of Homelessness on Children and Families" (Janice Molnar); (2) "Children and Domestic Violence: Recognizing Effects and Building…

  14. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  15. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V E

    1991-01-15

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs.

  16. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1403-9 - Criteria-Shelter holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Shelter holes. 75.1403-9 Section 75... Criteria—Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes should be provided on track haulage roads at intervals of not... holes should be readily accessible and should be at least 5 feet in depth, not more than 4 feet in width...

  18. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  19. 24 CFR 576.53 - Use as an emergency shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.53 Use as an emergency shelter. (a)(1) Restrictions and definition... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use as an emergency shelter. 576.53...

  20. Hurricane Hugo Poster (September 21, 1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Hugo poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-11 captures Hurricane Hugo slamming into South Carolina coast on September 21, 1989. Poster size is 36"x36".

  1. Hurricane Isabel Poster (September 18, 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Isabel poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Isabel making landfall on the North Carolina Outer Banks on September 18, 2003. Poster...

  2. Hurricane Wilma Poster (October 24, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Wilma poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows Hurricane Wilma exiting Florida off the east Florida coast on October 24, 2005. Poster size is 34"x30".

  3. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  4. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  5. Hurricane Ivan Poster (September 15, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Ivan poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Ivan in the Gulf of Mexico on September 15, 2004. Poster size is 34"x30".

  6. Hurricane Charley Poster (August 13, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Charley poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows a small but powerful hurricane heading toward southern Florida on August 13, 2004. Poster dimension...

  7. Hurricane Jeanne Poster (September 25, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Jeanne poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Jeanne near Grand Bahama Island on September 25, 2004. Poster size is 34"x30".

  8. NOAA predicts active 2013 Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    (discussion) El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion National Hurricane Preparedness Week in both English and Spanish, featuring NOAA hurricane experts and the FEMA administrator at

  9. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility's actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities

  10. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, F.J. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  11. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  12. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Matthew along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eric R.; Byrne,, Michael L.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Harden, Stephen L.

    2017-11-02

    IntroductionHurricane Matthew moved adjacent to the coasts of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The hurricane made landfall once near McClellanville, South Carolina, on October 8, 2016, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of storm-tide sensors at 284 sites along the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Matthew. Storm tide, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm.The deployment for Hurricane Matthew was the largest deployment of storm-tide sensors in USGS history and was completed as part of a coordinated Federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act (Public Law 92–288, 42 U.S.C. 5121–5207) under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In total, 543 high-water marks (HWMs) also were collected after Hurricane Matthew, and this was the second largest HWM recovery effort in USGS history after Hurricane Sandy in 2012.During the hurricane, real-time water-level data collected at temporary rapid deployment gages (RDGs) and long-term USGS streamgage stations were relayed immediately for display on the USGS Flood Event Viewer (https://stn.wim.usgs.gov/FEV/#MatthewOctober2016). These data provided emergency managers and responders with critical information for tracking flood-effected areas and directing assistance to effected communities. Data collected from this hurricane can be used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent, and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

  13. Home care during the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubon, S J

    1992-06-01

    During the course of field observations for an ethnographic study of home care nurses' job stress, Hurricane Hugo struck the community, causing extensive damage. The nurses' office building was heavily damaged by wind and water, and their office was not habitable for almost a week. The author had observed the nurses' work practices over 10 weeks before the hurricane. In the aftermath of the storm, the nurses were simultaneously disaster victims and caregivers for other victims. They experienced grief, anger, and frustration about their losses, as well as conflict between their family- and work-related responsibilities. Their experiences and behaviors were consistent with those described in prior disaster research literature, lending further support to the earlier studies. A major asset for these nurses was their open, supportive work environment. They were able to accept and affirm one another's negative feelings and to provide support to each other as they dealt with their losses.

  14. The Importance of Hurricane Research to Life, Property, the Economy, and National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The devastating 2017 Atlantic hurricane season has brought into stark relief how much hurricane forecasts have improved - and how important it is to make them even better. Whereas the error in 48-hour track forecasts has been reduced by more than half, according to the National Hurricane Center, intensity forecasts remain challenging, especially with storms such as Harvey that strengthened from a tropical depression to a Category 4 hurricane in less than three days. The unusually active season, with Hurricane Irma sustaining 185-mph winds for a record 36 hours and two Atlantic hurricanes reaching 150-mph winds simultaneously for the first time, also highlighted what we do, and do not, know about how tropical cyclones will change as the climate warms. The extraordinary toll of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria - which may ultimately be responsible for hundreds of deaths and an estimated $200 billion or more in damages - underscores why investments into improved forecasting must be a national priority. At NCAR and UCAR, scientists are working with their colleagues at federal agencies, the private sector, and the university community to advance our understanding of these deadly storms. Among their many projects, NCAR researchers are making experimental tropical cyclone forecasts using an innovative Earth system model that allows for variable resolution. We are working with NOAA to issue flooding, inundation, and streamflow forecasts for areas hit by hurricanes, and we have used extremely high-resolution regional models to simulate successfully the rapid hurricane intensification that has proved so difficult to predict. We are assessing ways to better predict the damage potential of tropical cyclones by looking beyond wind speed to consider such important factors as the size and forward motion of the storm. On the important question of climate change, scientists have experimented with running coupled climate models at a high enough resolution to spin up a hurricane

  15. Year-ahead prediction of US landfalling hurricane numbers: intense hurricanes

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Shree; Jewson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We continue with our program to derive simple practical methods that can be used to predict the number of US landfalling hurricanes a year in advance. We repeat an earlier study, but for a slightly different definition landfalling hurricanes, and for intense hurricanes only. We find that the averaging lengths needed for optimal predictions of numbers of intense hurricanes are longer than those needed for optimal predictions of numbers of hurricanes of all strengths.

  16. Connective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS): Composition and Performance of Fire Shelter Concepts at Close-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Joshua M.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bruce, Walter E., III; Wells, John M.; Wusk, Mary E.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Miller, Steve D.

    2018-01-01

    Summary of highlights of the Convective Heating Improvement for Emergency Fire Shelters (CHIEFS) taskunder NASA. CHIEFS was tasked with providing the US Forest Service with an emergency fire shelter forimproved resistance to flame contact. Emphasis is on the final shelter designs at task close-out (end of FY17).

  17. Tsunami shelter in Padang city: Location suitability and management issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Eva; Permata, Robby; Yonne, Hilma; Carlo, Nasfryzal

    2017-11-01

    The building of Temporary Evacuation Sites (TES/shelter) is an effort to minimize the vulnerability of the population who live in coastal city areas with high risk of tsunami. Padang city in Indonesia, one of the cities with high risk of tsunami, has built shelter in North Ulak Karang Village, North Padang Sub-district. The problems are the location of shelter does not meet the standard of population number, how to manage the shelter in normal condition (without disaster), and who will be responsible for the management of the shelter. The aim of the study is to learn the suitability of shelter location and the management of the shelter in normal condition as well as the expectation of the people who live near the shelter location. This research uses evaluative-descriptive method with the collection of secondary and primary data through structured interviews with 200 respondents in the area of shelter building. The result shows that the furthest location of the shelter is located at RW 03 with a distance of 1.3 kms which takes 12.15-24.30 minutes. It shows that the shelter location in Padang meets the requirement of FEMA P646. At normal condition, shelter can be used for sport and educational activities, as a center for socialisation and simulation of disaster and other activities. The management of the shelter is done together by government and stakeholders. The proposed management is by forming a team (organization) which involves Disaster Alert groups (KSB) and by making the Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) for their implementation. People expect that the number of shelter is added and the building of the shelter is based on the suitability of location, number of population and availability of land.

  18. 7 CFR 701.50 - 2005 hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.50 Section 701.50 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.50 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701...

  19. Hurricane Katrina impacts on Mississippi forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher Oswalt; Jeffery Turner

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina triggered public interest and concern for forests in Mississippi that required rapid responses from the scientific community. A uniform systematic sample of 3,590 ground plots were established and measured in 687 days immediately after the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast. The hurricane damaged an estimated 521 million trees with more...

  20. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  1. Changes in Patterns of Understory Leaf Phenology and Herbivory following Hurricane Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar Angulo-Sandoval; H. Fernandez-Marin; J. K. Zimmerman; T. M. Aide

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes are important disturbance events in many forested ecosystems. They can have strong effects on both forest structure and animal populations, and yet few studies have considered the impacts on plant–animal interactions. Reduction of canopy cover by severe winds increases light availability to understory plants, providing an opportunity for increased growth. An...

  2. 33 CFR 203.49 - Rehabilitation of Hurricane and Shore Protection Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Projects. (a) Authority. The Chief of Engineers is authorized to rehabilitate any Federally authorized hurricane or shore protection structure damaged or destroyed by wind, wave, or water action of an... (exclusive of dredge mobilization and demobilization costs) exceeds $1 million and is greater than two...

  3. Hindcast and validation of Hurricane Ike waves, forerunner, and storm surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hope, M.E.; Westerink, J.J.; Kennedy, A.B.; Kerr, P.C.; Dietrich, J.C.; Dawson, C.; Bender, C.J.; Smith, J.M.; Jensen, R.E.; Zijlema, M.; Holthuijsen, L.H.; Luettich, R.A.; Powell, M.D.; Cardone, V.J.; Cox, A.T.; Pourtaheri, H.; Roberts, H.J.; Atkinson, J.H.; Tanaka, S.; Westerink, H.J.; Westerink, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Ike (2008) made landfall near Galveston, Texas, as a moderate intensity storm. Its large wind field in conjunction with the Louisiana-Texas coastline's broad shelf and large scale concave geometry generated waves and surge that impacted over 1000 km of coastline. Ike's complex and varied

  4. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  5. Hurricane Season: Are You Ready?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-24

    Hurricanes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces. Host Bret Atkins talks with CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health Director Dr. Chris Portier about the main threats of a hurricane and how you can prepare.  Created: 9/24/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 9/24/2012.

  6. Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography

  7. Impacts of cloud flare-ups on hurricane intensity resulting from departures from balance laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Krishnamurti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud flare-ups along the inner eye wall of a hurricane lead to enhancement of cloud scale divergence, which in turn leads to a large local enhancement of the departure from balance laws and can lead to local supergradient winds. This scenario is tested using the results from a mesoscale microphysical model at horizontal resolution of 1.33 km for the simulation of hurricane Katrina. Rainwater mixing ratio tags growing cloud elements. The departure from balance laws includes terms such as the local, horizontal and vertical advections of divergence, divergence square and a term invoking the gradient of vertical velocity. It is noted that these terms collectively contribute to a substantial local enhancement of the departure from balance laws. Departures from balance laws are related to the radial gradient wind imbalances in a storm-centred coordinate. In this study, several examples, from the hurricane Katrina simulations, that display this scenario of rapid intensification are illustrated. Organisation of convection in the azimuthal direction seems important for the hurricane scale; cloud flare-ups away from such regions of azimuthal organisation fail to contribute to this scenario for the overall intensification of the hurricane.

  8. Hurricane Isabel gives accelerators a severe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapan Chattopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel was at category five--the most violent on the Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane strength--when it began threatening the central Atlantic seaboard of the US. Over the course of several days, precautions against the extreme weather conditions were taken across the Jefferson Lab site in south-east Virginia. On 18 September 2003, when Isabel struck North Carolina's Outer Banks and moved northward, directly across the region around the laboratory, the storm was still quite destructive, albeit considerably reduced in strength. The flood surge and trees felled by wind substantially damaged or even devastated buildings and homes, including many belonging to Jefferson Lab staff members. For the laboratory itself, Isabel delivered an unplanned and severe challenge in another form: a power outage that lasted nearly three-and-a-half days, and which severely tested the robustness of Jefferson Lab's two superconducting machines, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the superconducting radiofrequency ''driver'' accelerator of the laboratory's free-electron laser. Robustness matters greatly for science at a time when microwave superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) are not only being considered, but in some cases already being built for projects such as neutron sources, rare-isotope accelerators, innovative light sources and TeV-scale electron-positron linear colliders. Hurricane Isabel interrupted a several-week-long maintenance shutdown of CEBAF, which serves nuclear and particle physics and represents the world's pioneering large-scale implementation of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology. The racetrack-shaped machine is actually a pair of 500-600 MeV SRF linacs interconnected by recirculation arc beamlines. CEBAF delivers simultaneous beams at up to 6 GeV to three experimental halls. An imminent upgrade will double the energy to 12 GeV and add an extra hall for ''quark confinement'' studies. On a smaller scale

  9. A Near-Annual Record of Hurricane Activity From the Little Bahama Bank Over the Last 700 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, T. S.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Sullivan, R.; Albury, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term and high-resolution records of hurricane activity that extend past the short observational record (8m vibracores collected with a Rossfelder P-3. The previous core analyzed (TPBH-C1, Continental Shelf Research, 2014) was likely obtained from the cave-area of the bluehole, and previous radiocarbon-dated bivalves deeper in the core were likely impacted by an old-carbon effect, casting doubt on the veracity of the previous age-model at this site. Recent overwash beds from Hurricane Jeanne (2004) and Hurricane Floyd (1999) are present at all coretops, and additional radiocarbon dating that includes terrestrial organic matter fragments indicates a near-annual sedimentation rate in the bluehole (>1cm yr-1), with the record spanning the last 700 years. Since 1866 CE, 12 hurricanes with wind speeds exceeding Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale (wind speeds 154-177 km hr-1) have passed within a 50 km radius of TPBH, many of which can be associated with coarse-grained overwash deposits in the top 200 cm of TPBH-C3. It appears from this high-resolution record that 1500-1650 CE and 1750-1800 CE were active intervals for hurricanes near Abaco, which were previously identified in a lower-resolution (multi-decadal) hurricane reconstruction from Abaco (Blackwood Sinkhole). Additionally, these active intervals coincide with evidence of regional storminess from multiple reconstructions based on historical archives (e.g.: Archivo General de Indias, newspapers, ships' logbooks, meteorological journals), and the 1500-1650 CE active interval falls within a previously identified 1400-1675 CE active interval of intense hurricane strikes on the Northeastern United States. Once the age-model is finalized, further comparison of this record to other regional oceanographic and high-resolution hurricane reconstructions may provide further insight into the drivers of hurricane activity during the last millennium.

  10. Self-Healing, Inflatable, Rigidizable Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Andrea; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Dixit, Anshu; Gleeson, Dan

    2012-01-01

    An inflatable, rigidizable shelter system was developed based on Rigi dization on Command (ROC) technology incorporating not only the requ ired low-stowage volume and lightweight character achieved from an i nflatable/rigidizable system, but also a self-healing foam system inc orporated between the rigidizable layers of the final structure to m inimize the damage caused by any punctures to the structure.

  11. Antiradiation pharmacological protection of the 'Shelter' staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorovoj, L.F.; Danilov, V.M.; Senyuk, O.F.

    2002-01-01

    The stressful effects and discomfortable working conditions of the 'Shelter' staff demand strengthening of protective systems ensuring acclimatization of an organism to penetration irradiation and other harmful factors. Thus, the drugs for antiactinic protection of staff OY should have properties adaptive drugs. Complex biological preparation Mycoton has this broad spectrum of antiradiation properties. This drug is designed in Ukraine on the basis of biopolmers of a cell-like wall of funguses: chitin, glucan and melanins

  12. Berlin: Emergency shelters and contemporary border struggles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Podgornik-Jakil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching the developments of present political economy must necessarily include investigating the tools of contemporary border regime. These are used for surveillance and control of populations in order to create new divisions of labour and enable extraction of rent by using peoples’ bodies. The article focuses on emergency shelters in Berlin, that is, on their function and ways in which the asylum seekers accommodated there spontaneously struggle against them. The research was done as a militant and cooperative work of the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin’s district Wedding, which builds connections with people housed in the sports halls in the mentioned district. The author underlines that exhausting the aslyum seekers psychically is one of the strategies for filtering the ‘unwanted’ from the ‘wanted’, that is the ones that are interesting for the labour market. At the same time, the restriction of movement and limited access to civil rights confine asylum seekers in emergency shelters run by private companies, which seek profits on their account. Far from claiming that non-profit companies have a ‘better’ shelter administration, since the boundaries between them and profit-oriented companies are often blurred, the author rather speaks of new forms of anticolonial struggles by the people living inside. He understands these struggles as the struggles against the contemporary border regime in Germany and the EU and as a potential for building an inclusive society.

  13. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  14. Estimation of Phytoplankton Responses to Hurricane Gonu over the Arabian Sea Based on Ocean Color Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the authors investigated phytoplankton variations in the Arabian Sea associated with Hurricane Gonu using remote-sensing data of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, sea surface temperature (SST and winds. Additional data sets used for the study included the hurricane and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data. Hurricane Gonu, presenting extremely powerful wind intensity, originated over the central Arabian Sea (near 67.7ºE, 15.1ºN on June 2, 2007; it traveled along a northwestward direction and made landfall in Iran around June 7. Before Hurricane Gonu, Chl-a data indicated relatively low phytoplankton biomass (0.05-0.2 mg m-3, along with generally high SST (>28.5 ºC and weak wind (<10 m s-1 in the Arabian Sea. Shortly after Gonu’s passage, two phytoplankton blooms were observed northeast of Oman (Chl-a of 3.5 mg m-3 and in the eastern central Arabian Sea (Chl-a of 0.4 mg m-3, with up to 10-fold increase in surface Chl-a concentrations, respectively. The Chl-a in the two post-hurricane blooms were 46% and 42% larger than those in June of other years, respectively. The two blooms may be attributed to the storm-induced nutrient uptake, since hurricane can influence intensively both dynamical and biological processes through vertical mixing and Ekman Pumping.

  15. Coastal Sediment Distribution Patterns Following Category 5 Hurricanes (Irma and Maria): Pre and Post Hurricane High Resolution Multibeam Surveys of Eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, T. N.; Sawyer, D. E.; Russell, P.

    2017-12-01

    In August of 2017 we collected high resolution multibeam data of the seafloor in a large embayment in eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands (USVI). One month later, the eyewall of Category 5 Hurricane Irma directly hit St. John as one of the largest hurricanes on record in the Atlantic Ocean. A week later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria passed over St. John. While the full extent of the impacts are still being assessed, the island experienced a severe loss of vegetation, infrastructure, buildings, roads, and boats. We mobilized less than two months afterward to conduct a repeat survey of the same area on St. John. We then compared these data to document and quantify the sediment influx and movement that occurred in coastal embayments as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. The preliminary result of the intense rain, wind, and storm surge likely yields an event deposit that can be mapped and volumetrically quantified in the bays of eastern St. John. The results of this study allow for a detailed understanding of the post-hurricane pulse of sediment that enters the marine environment, the sediment flux seaward, and the morphological changes to the bay floor.

  16. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500–10,000 m3s−1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  17. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500-10,000 m3s-1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  18. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  19. Hurricane Havoc - Mapping the Mayhem with NOAA's National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, G. R.; Stone, M.

    2017-12-01

    With Hurricane Irene as an example, this work demonstrates the versatility of NOAA's new National Water Model (NWM) as a tool for analyzing hydrologic hazards before, during, and after events. Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina on August 27, 2011, and made its way up the East Coast over the next 3 days. This storm caused widespread flooding across the Northeast, where rain totals over 20" and wind speeds of 100mph were recorded, causing loss of life and significant damage to infrastructure. Large portions of New York and Vermont were some of the hardest hit areas. This poster will present a suite of post-processed products, derived from NWM output, that are currently being developed at NOAA's National Water Center in Tuscaloosa, AL. The National Water Model is allowing NOAA to expand its water prediction services to the approximately 2.7 million stream reaches across the U.S. The series of forecasted and real-time analysis products presented in this poster will demonstrate the strides NOAA is taking to increase preparedness and aid response to severe hydrologic events, like Hurricane Irene.

  20. Simulating the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) with AIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Braun, Scott A.; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2006-02-01

    Using the AIRS retrieved temperature and humidity profiles, the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) influence on the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) is simulated numerically with the MM5 model. The warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is assimilated by use of the nudging technique, which enables the model thermodynamic state to be relaxed to the profiles of the AIRS retrieved data for the regions without cloud contamination. By incorporating the AIRS data, MM5 better simulates the large-scale flow patterns and the timing and location of the formation of Hurricane Isabel and its subsequent track. By comparing with an experiment without nudging of the AIRS data, it is shown that the SAL may have delayed the formation of Hurricane Isabel and inhibited the development of another tropical disturbance to the east. This case study confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  1. Strategy and technologies of 'Shelter' radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A.M.; Batij, V.G.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Korchagin, P.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Saverskij, S.Yu.; Stoyanov, A.I.; Shcherbin, V.N.; Shcherbina, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main directions of technical activity under the Chernobyl NPP 'Shelter' waste management during its transformation to ecologically safe system are determined. Comprehensive classification of 'Shelter' radioactive waste according to the requirements of the Ukrainian laws and normative documents was worked out for the first time. The sequence of works was proposed in accordance with the decisions of the Ukrainian government and with works on 'Shelter' condition stabilization and preparation for Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. 1 figs

  2. Hindcast of breaking waves and its impact at an island sheltered coast, Karwar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, G. Udhaba; Kumar, V. Sanil

    2018-01-01

    Variability in the characteristics of depth-induced wave breakers along a non-uniform coastal topography and its impact on the morpho-sedimentary processes is examined at the island sheltered wave-dominated micro-tidal coast, Karwar, west coast of India. Waves are simulated using the coupled wind wave model, SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III, forced by the reanalysis winds from different sources (NCEP/NCAR, ECMWF, and NCEP/CFSR). Impact of the wave breakers is evaluated through mean longshore current and sediment transport for various wave energy conditions across different coastal morphology. Study revealed that the NCEP/CFSR wind is comparatively reasonable in simulation of nearshore waves using the SWAN model nested by 2D wave spectra generated from WAVEWATCH III. The Galvin formula for estimating mean longshore current using the crest wave period and the Kamphuis approximation for longshore sediment transport is observed realistically at the sheltered coastal environment while the coast interacts with spilling and plunging breakers.

  3. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  4. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  5. Safety and design impact of hurricane Andrew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, Ching N.

    2004-01-01

    Turkey Point completed the IPE in June of 1991. Hurricane Andrew landed at Turkey Point on August 24, 1992. Although the safety related systems, components and structures were not damaged by the Hurricane Andrew, certain nonsafety related components and the neighboring fossil plant sustained noticeable damage. Among the major components that were nonsafety related but would affect the PRA of the plant included the service water pumps and the high tower. This paper discusses the safety and design impact of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. The risk of hurricanes on the interim and evolving plant configurations are briefly described. The risk of the plant from internal events as a result of damage incurred during Hurricane Andrew are discussed. The design change as the result of Hurricane Andrew and its impact on the PRA are presented. (author)

  6. Evolution of a Nursing Model for Identifying Client Needs in a Disaster Shelter: A Case Study with the American Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Janice; Casey-Lockyer, Mary

    2016-12-01

    From the time of Clara Barton, Red Cross nursing has had a key role in the care and support of persons affected by disasters in the United States. Hurricane Katrina and other events brought to light the need for a shelter model that was inclusive of the whole community, including persons with disabilities, at-risk and vulnerable populations, and children. From an intake process to a nursing model for assessment, an evidence-guided process informed a systematic approach for a registered nurse-led model of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Turbulence and Coherent Structure in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer near the Eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. A.; Marks, F. D.; Montgomery, M. T.; Black, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    In this talk we present an analysis of observational data collected from NOAA'S WP-3D research aircraft during the eyewall penetration of category five Hurricane Hugo (1989). The 1 Hz flight level data near 450m above the sea surface comprising wind velocity, temperature, pressure and relative humidity are used to estimate the turbulence intensity and fluxes. In the turbulent flux calculation, the universal shape spectra and co-spectra derived using the 40 Hz data collected during the Coupled Boundary Layer Air-sea Transfer (CBLAST) Hurricane experiment are applied to correct the high frequency part of the data collected in Hurricane Hugo. Since the stationarity assumption required for standard eddy correlations is not always satisfied, different methods are summarized for computing the turbulence parameters. In addition, a wavelet analysis is conducted to investigate the time and special scales of roll vortices or coherent structures that are believed important elements of the eye/eyewall mixing processes that support intense storms.

  8. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  9. Wind hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.; Moland, M.; Sciaudone, J.C.; Twisdale, L.A.; Vickery, P.J.; Mizzen, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, NB Power has embarked on a wind hazard assessment for the Point Lepreau Generating Station site that incorporates the latest up to date wind information and modeling. The objective was to provide characterization of the wind hazard from all potential sources and estimate wind-driven missile fragilities and wind pressure fragilities for various structures, systems and components that would provide input to a possible high wind Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The paper will discuss the overall methodology used to assess hazards related to tornadoes, hurricanes and straight-line winds, and site walk-down and hazard/fragility results. (author)

  10. Lessons Learnt From Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akundi, Murty

    2008-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and its suburbs on Monday August 29^th, 2005. The previous Friday morning, August 26, the National Hurricane Center indicated that Katrina was a Category One Hurricane, which was expected to hit Florida. By Friday afternoon, it had changed its course, and neither the city nor Xavier University was prepared for this unexpected turn in the hurricane's path. The university had 6 to 7 ft of water in every building and Xavier was closed for four months. Students and university personnel that were unable to evacuate were trapped on campus and transportation out of the city became a logistical nightmare. Email and all electronic systems were unavailable for at least a month, and all cell phones with a 504 area code stopped working. For the Department, the most immediate problem was locating faculty and students. Xavier created a list of faculty and their new email addresses and began coordinating with faculty. Xavier created a web page with advice for students, and the chair of the department created a separate blog with contact information for students. The early lack of a clear method of communication made worse the confusion and dismay among the faculty on such issues as when the university would reopen, whether the faculty would be retained, whether they should seek temporary (or permanent) employment elsewhere, etc. With the vision and determination of President Dr. Francis, Xavier was able to reopen the university in January and ran a full academic year from January through August. Since Katrina, the university has asked every department and unit to prepare emergency preparedness plans. Each department has been asked to collect e-mail addresses (non-Xavier), cell phone numbers and out of town contact information. The University also established an emergency website to communicate. All faculty have been asked to prepare to teach classes electronically via Black board or the web. Questions remain about the longer term issues of

  11. Hurricane feedback research may improve intensity forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Forecasts of a hurricane's intensity are generally much less accurate than forecasts of its most likely path. Large-scale atmospheric patterns dictate where a hurricane will go and how quickly it will get there. The storm's intensity, however, depends on small-scale shifts in atmospheric stratification, upwelling rates, and other transient dynamics that are difficult to predict. Properly understanding the risk posed by an impending storm depends on having a firm grasp of all three properties: translational speed, intensity, and path. Drawing on 40 years of hurricane records representing 3090 different storms, Mei et al. propose that a hurricane's translational speed and intensity may be closely linked.

  12. Environmental Modeling, Technology, and Communication for Land Falling Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tchounwou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Katrina (a tropical cyclone/hurricane began to strengthen reaching a Category 5 storm on 28th August, 2005 and its winds reached peak intensity of 175 mph and pressure levels as low as 902 mb. Katrina eventually weakened to a category 3 storm and made a landfall in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, south of Buras on 29th August 2005. We investigate the time series intensity change of the hurricane Katrina using environmental modeling and technology tools to develop an early and advanced warning and prediction system. Environmental Mesoscale Model (Weather Research Forecast, WRF simulations are used for prediction of intensity change and track of the hurricane Katrina. The model is run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 h periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model results are in good agreement with the observations suggesting that the model is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track and precipitation associated with hurricane Katrina. We computed the maximum vertical velocities (Wmax using Convective Available Kinetic Energy (CAPE obtained at the equilibrium level (EL, from atmospheric soundings over the Gulf Coast stations during the hurricane land falling for the period August 21–30, 2005. The large vertical atmospheric motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorms and tornadoes 2–3 days before landfall. The environmental modeling simulations in combination with sounding data show that the tools may be used as an advanced prediction and communication system (APCS for land falling tropical cyclones/hurricanes.

  13. Projecting future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K.; Flanagan, S.; Rourke, O.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial recent progress has been made to estimate the biomass loss and resulting carbon emissions caused by hurricanes impacting the U.S. Additionally, efforts to evaluate the net effects of hurricanes on the regional carbon balance have demonstrated the importance of viewing large disturbance events in the broader context of recovery from a mosaic of past events. Viewed over sufficiently long time scales and large spatial scales, regrowth from previous storms may largely offset new emissions; however, changes in number, strength or spatial distribution of extreme disturbance events will result in changes to the equilibrium state of the ecosystem and have the potential to result in a lasting carbon source or sink. Many recent studies have linked climate change to changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes. In this study, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by scenarios of future hurricane activity based on historic activity and future climate projections, to evaluate how changes in hurricane frequency, intensity and spatial distribution could affect regional carbon storage and flux over the coming century. We find a non-linear response where increased storm activity reduces standing biomass stocks reducing the impacts of future events. This effect is highly dependent on the spatial pattern and repeat interval of future hurricane activity. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and recovery is key to our understanding and ability to predict the carbon balance of forests.

  14. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Coupled Community-Level Assessment of Social and Physical Vulnerability to Hurricane Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Sutley, E. J.; Chowdhury, A. G.; Hamideh, S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant portion of the U.S. building inventory exists in hurricane- and flood-prone regions. The accompanying storm surge and rising water levels often result in the inundation of residential homes, particularly those occupied by low income households and forcing displacement. In order to mitigate potential damages, a popular design technique is to elevate the structure using piers or piles to above the base flood elevation. This is observed for single-family and multi-family homes, including manufactured homes and post-disaster temporary housing, albeit at lower elevations. Although this design alleviates potential flood damage, it affects the wind-structure interaction by subjecting the structure to higher wind speeds due to its increased height and also having a path for the wind to pass underneath the structure potentially creating new vulnerabilities to wind loading. The current ASCE 7 Standard (2016) does not include a methodology for addressing the modified aerodynamics and estimating wind loads for elevated structures, and thus the potential vulnerability during high wind events is unaccounted for in design. Using experimentally measured wind pressures on elevated and non-elevated residential building models, tax data, and census data, a coupled vulnerability assessment is performed at the community-level. Galveston, Texas is selected as the case study community. Using the coupled assessment model, a hindcast of 2008 Hurricane Ike is used for predicting physical damage and household dislocation. The predicted results are compared with the actual outcomes of the 2008 hurricane disaster. Recommendations are made (1) for code adoption based on the experimentally measured wind loads, and (2) for mitigation actions and policies that would could decrease population dislocation and promote recovery.

  16. Dynamics of the chemical composition of rainwater throughout Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mullaugh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential sampling of rainwater from Hurricane Irene was carried out in Wilmington, NC, USA on 26 and 27 August 2011. Eleven samples were analyzed for pH, major ions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Hurricane Irene contributed 16% of the total rainwater and 18% of the total chloride wet deposition received in Wilmington NC during all of 2011. This work highlights the main physical factors influencing the chemical composition of tropical storm rainwater: wind speed, wind direction, back trajectory and vertical mixing, time of day and total rain volume. Samples collected early in the storm, when winds blew out of the east, contained dissolved components indicative of marine sources (salts from sea spray and low DOC. The sea-salt components in the samples had two maxima in concentration during the storm the first of which occurred before the volume of rain had sufficiently washed out sea salt from the atmosphere and the second when back trajectories showed large volumes of marine surface air were lifted. As the storm progressed and winds shifted to a westerly direction, the chemical composition of the rainwater became characteristic of terrestrial storms (high DOC and NH4+ and low sea salt. This work demonstrates that tropical storms are not only responsible for significant wet deposition of marine components to land, but terrestrial components can also become entrained in rainwater, which can then be delivered to coastal waters via wet deposition. This study also underscores why analysis of one composite sample can lead to an incomplete interpretation of the factors that influence the chemically divergent analytes in rainwater during extreme weather events.

  17. Wind tipping point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author looks at how in five years wind energy has rapidly evolved into a mainstream industry. The United States has begun to look at wind differently - from a macroeconomic perspective.'This country is going to become increasingly committed to renewable energy, and it's not about altruism', said Alan Waxman, managing director of Goldman Sachs and Co., a financial giant that has invested $1 billion in the resource. Wind is seen not just as an environmentally benign alternative, but also as a means to solve some large problems plaguing the energy business and ultimately the United States as a whole. The last year brought record-breaking electricity rate increases, in some cases doubling consumer costs, and escalating the flight of large enterprises out of high-cost energy regions - or out of business altogether. The rate hikes were caused by hurricanes that hit the southern states and disrupted natural gas and oil operations. Adding wind power to the grid is increasingly seen as a way to limit the price shock caused by such events. Wind power reduces reliance on gas and oil-fired generation and, in particular, creates a hedge against spikes in natural gas, a fuel that increasingly sets the marginal price. Large energy users, too, are becoming aware of wind's hedging benefits. The author looks at the cost issues and how the future of wind energy in the country can be sustained as a reliable alternative fuel

  18. Wind and tornado guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project is to provide guidance and criteria for design of new facilities and for evaluation of existing ones subjected to extreme winds, earthquakes, and floods. This paper describes the treatment of wind and tornado hazards. Four facility-use categories are defined which represent increasing levels of risk to personnel or the environment in the event of a high wind event. Facilities are assigned to a particular category, depending on their mission, value, or toxic material content. The assigned facility-use category determines the design and evaluation criteria. The criteria are based on probabilistic hazard assessment. Performance goals are also specified for each facility-use category. A uniform approach to design wind loads, based on the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard, allows treatment of high winds and hurricane and tornado winds in a similar manner. Based on the wind hazard models, some sites must account for the possibility of tornadoes while others do not. Atmospheric pressure changes and missiles must be taken into account when considering tornadoes. The design and evaluation guidelines are designed to establish consistent levels of risk for different natural phenomena hazards and for facilities at different geographical locations

  19. Hurricane Activity and the Large-Scale Pattern of Spread of an Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P.; Cronin, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances are a primary facilitator of the growth and spread of invasive species. However, the effects of large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and tropical storms, on the broad geographic patterns of invasive species growth and spread have not been investigated. We used historical aerial imagery to determine the growth rate of invasive Phragmites australis patches in wetlands along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. These were relatively undisturbed wetlands where P. australis had room for unrestricted growth. Over the past several decades, invasive P. australis stands expanded in size by 6–35% per year. Based on tropical storm and hurricane activity over that same time period, we found that the frequency of hurricane-force winds explained 81% of the variation in P. australis growth over this broad geographic range. The expansion of P. australis stands was strongly and positively correlated with hurricane frequency. In light of the many climatic models that predict an increase in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes over the next century, these results suggest a strong link between climate change and species invasion and a challenging future ahead for the management of invasive species. PMID:24878928

  20. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft- and Satellite-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses and Numerical Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Johnson, James; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric; Krishnamurti, T. N.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the realtime airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath ( 3 x the aircraft altitude). The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. The H*Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data_sub/wind.html. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRAD instrument on H*Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future time the HIRAD instrument is implemented. Also shown will be preliminary results of numerical weather prediction OSSEs in which the impact of the addition of HIRAD observations to the initial state

  1. The short-term effect on carbonate parameters from hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B. F.; Salisbury, J., II; Melendez Oyola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical storms and hurricanes are events with potentially extreme impacts on ocean conditions. Strong winds generating vigorous vertical mixing and extensive precipitation affect both temperature and salinity in the mixed layer. The surface temperature, for example, decreased several degrees C in the wake of both hurricanes Irma and Maria. While it is clear that the physical state of the surface ocean is affected by hurricanes, how such storms affect carbonate system variability is still an open question. Changes in temperature and salinity combined with extreme winds create the potential for changes in solubility of pCO2, and large net fluxes of CO2 across the air-sea interface. A deepening of the mixed layer from wind-driven mixing may further affect the carbonate system, as sub-surface waters rich in dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrients are entrained to the surface. To examine these process, we evaluate simulated fields of temperature and salinity (from a 1/12° global data assimilated General Circulation Model), satellite ocean color and wind speed data within the context of a conceptual box model. Our model is compared to observed pCO2, wind speed, temperature and salinity data from buoyed assets that survived the storms. We address total CO2 fluxes, the relative effects temperature, salinity and biology on the carbonate system, and the time scales over which the system is "restored" to its initial state. We explore the connection between the magnitude of perturbation and the length of time it takes for the system to recover, and observe recovery over time scales lasting from days to weeks depending on the storm. Although not observed in these data, we speculate that depending on the buoyancy frequency, recovery elsewhere could take place over monthly time scales, raising the potential that hurricanes could exacerbate or alleviate environmental stresses on calcifying marine organisms.

  2. Pet overpopulation: data and measurement issues in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrup, J; Dowidchuk, A

    1999-01-01

    Data collection and analysis within animal shelters are critical to developing effective programs that reduce the number of dogs and cats euthanized each year. However, current data collection efforts are insufficient to identify the magnitude, dynamics, or root causes of euthanasia in animal shelters across the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine potential solutions to the underlying root causes of pet overpopulation, with 2 elements. The first, more explicit goal was to establish a baseline of shelter data, policies, and viewpoints through a detailed survey of 186 shelters, 12 site visits, and numerous interviews. The findings suggest large variation in local issues faced by shelters, as well as a nearly universal focus on sterilization as a solution. The greater objective, however, was to use this information as an impetus to improve the process by which shelters amalgamate information and effectively use it to target the most pressing needs within their communities. We believe the essential step is to provide shelters with an analytical tool that would yield informational benefits exceeding the cost of data collection. Such an improvement would have a positive spillover effect on researchers, donors, and others attempting to collect standardized, geographically scalable data. This article presents an overview of the survey findings, as well as a prototype of a tool to help improve data amalgamation and analysis efforts within shelters.

  3. Understanding How Domestic Violence Shelter Rules May Influence Survivor Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katie; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Sullivan, Cris M

    2017-10-01

    Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended. This study builds on the small amount of research conducted regarding survivors' experiences of shelter rules by specifically examining how rules were perceived to affect empowerment. Seventy-three survivors from two domestic violence shelters were asked about their experiences around specific shelter rules relating to curfew, parenting, chores, time limits, food, alcohol, drugs, and medications. A transcendental phenomenological approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, seeking explanations of how survivors made meaning of the rules and how those rules influenced their empowerment. Among those survivors who found the rules problematic, three major themes emerged: (a) rules acted as barriers to carrying out their normal, day-to-day activities; (b) the shelter staff's flexibility with rules was based on contingencies; and (c) rules negatively affected their psychological well-being, and required them to engage in protective behaviors. Recommendations are made for the reexamination and restructuring of rules within domestic violence shelters.

  4. Defining Flexible Standards for Post-Disaster Emergency Sheltering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafahomi, M.; Egyedi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Post-disaster emergency-sheltering requires that various relief agencies and other actors with different backgrounds cooperate in a tremendously short amount of time and under very different circumstances. Lives depend on the quality of aid and, specifically, on the quality of sheltering. Standards

  5. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  6. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  7. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  8. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  9. Genesis of tornadoes associated with hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The climatological history of hurricane-tornadoes is brought up to date through 1982. Most of the tornadoes either form near the center of the hurricane, from the outer edge of the eyewall outward, or in an area between north and east-southeast of the hurricane center. The blackbody temperatures of the cloud tops which were analyzed for several hurricane-tornadoes that formed in the years 1974, 1975, and 1979, did not furnish strong precursor signals of tornado formation, but followed one of two patterns: either the temperatures were very low, or the tornado formed in areas of strong temperature gradients. Tornadoes with tropical cyclones most frequently occur at 1200-1800 LST, and although most are relatively weak, they can reach the F3 intensity level. Most form in association with the outer rainbands of the hurricane.

  10. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  11. Assessing Domestic Violence Shelter Workers Views and Practices Pertaining to HIV Prevention Services for Women Residing in Domestic Violence Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harvey, Jenna; Alexander, Kamila A; Saraczewski, Samantha; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2018-06-01

    There is a need for studies to assess domestic violence (DV) shelter workers views about brief HIV prevention interventions for shelter residents to improve these workers' provision of HIV prevention interventions to shelter residents. This mixed methods study assessed DV shelter workers' views about the following: (a) the need for and appropriateness of HIV prevention services within DV shelters, (b) the utility (i.e., acceptability, systems support, understanding, and feasibility) of an HIV Risk Assessment and Safety Plan (HIV RASP) for women in DV shelters, and (c) suggested changes to or concerns about using the HIV RASP. Workers from DV shelters located in the 10 states in the United States with the highest rates of HIV reviewed the HIV RASP and answered survey questions about it including the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention (URP-I) Questionnaire and two open-ended questions. Although workers felt it was appropriate to provide HIV prevention interventions within DV shelters, only 23% reported that HIV prevention interventions had ever been implemented at their shelter and only 42% had provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Workers generally agreed that the HIV RASP was acceptable, understandable, and feasible. They somewhat disagreed about their ability to implement the tool independently. Findings suggest that little progress has been made in engaging DV shelter workers in HIV prevention efforts for residents during the past decade and reveal ways to improve the HIV RASP and overcome barriers to implementing it. The study findings may be used to help reduce gaps between the science and practice of HIV prevention for abused women.

  12. Assessing Hurricane Katrina Vegetation Damage at Stennis Space Center using IKONOS Image Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina hit southwestern Mississippi on August 29, 2005, at 9:45 a.m. CDT as a category 3 storm with surges up to approx. 9 m and sustained winds of approx. 120 mph. The hurricane's wind, rain, and flooding devastated several coastal towns, from New Orleans through Mobile. The storm also caused significant damage to infrastructure and vegetation of NASA's SSC (Stennis Space Center). Storm recovery at SSC involved not only repairs of critical infrastructure but also forest damage mitigation (via timber harvests and control burns to reduce fire risk). This presentation discusses an effort to use commercially available high spatial resolution multispectral IKONOS data for vegetation damage assessment, based on data collected over SSC on September 2, 2005.

  13. 48 CFR 1852.236-73 - Hurricane plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Hurricane plan. 1852.236-73... Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and place all materials...

  14. The Impact of Hurricane Maria on the Vegetation of Dominica and Puerto Rico Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangao Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the worst natural disaster on record in Dominica and Puerto Rico, Hurricane Maria in September 2017 had a large impact on the vegetation of these islands. In this paper, multitemporal Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2 data are used to investigate vegetation damage on Dominica and Puerto Rico by Hurricane Maria, and related influencing factors are analyzed. Moreover, the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in the year 2017 are compared to reference years (2015 and 2016. The results show that (1 there is a sudden drop in NDVI values after Hurricane Maria’s landfall (decreased about 0.2 which returns to near normal vegetation after 1.5 months; (2 different land cover types have different sensitivities to Hurricane Maria, whereby forest is the most sensitive type, then followed by wetland, built-up, and natural grassland; and (3 for Puerto Rico, the vegetation damage is highly correlated with distance from the storm center and elevation. For Dominica, where the whole island is within Hurricane Maria’s radius of maximum wind, the vegetation damage has no obvious relationship to elevation or distance. The study provides insight into the sensitivity and recovery of vegetation after a major land-falling hurricane, and may lead to improved vegetation protection strategies.

  15. Ungendering and Regendering Shelters for Survivors of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Hacker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on intensive fieldwork in the two Israeli shelters designated for victims of human trafficking and slavery. The shelters, one for women and one for men, are a refuge for survivors of sex trafficking; labor migrants subjected to severe exploitation by their employers; and asylum seekers who arrived in Israel after experiencing severe physical and emotional abuse at the hands of kidnappers and smugglers en route to Israel. The study included interviews with policy makers and professionals, and with women and men who resided at the shelters, as well as an analysis of the relevant legislation and official reports. The article explores the problematic gendered differentiations between the two shelters. Most significantly, while support for residents of the shelter for women is anchored by emotional and psychological rehabilitation, residents of the shelter for men do not receive any therapeutic support. At the same time, while staff in the shelter for men put significant effort into the reintegration of the men into the labor force, the women’s employment prospects receive less attention. Based on these and other findings, the article cautions against gender-biased rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and slavery, and calls for a gender-sensitive rehabilitation theory and practice.

  16. Case Study of Hurricane Felix (2007) Rapid Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Pagan, I. C.; Davis, C. A.; Holland, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    The forecasting of tropical cyclones (TC) rapid intensification (RI) is one of the most challenging problems that the operational community experiences. Research advances leading to improvements in predicting this phenomenon would help government agencies make decisions that could reduce the impact on communities that are so often affected by these weather-related events. It has been proposed that TC RI is associated to various factors, including high sea-surface temperatures, weak vertical wind shear, and the ratio of inertial to static stability, which improves the conversion of diabatic heating into circulation. While a cyclone develops, the size of the region of high inertial stability (IS) decreases whereas the magnitude of IS increases. However, it’s unknown whether this is a favorable condition or a result of RI occurrences. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to determine if the IS follows, leads or changes in sync with the intensity change by studying Hurricane Felix (2007) RI phase. Results show a trend of increasing IS before the RI stage, followed by an expansion of the region of high IS. This episode is eventually followed by a decrease in both the intensity and region of positive IS, while the maximum wind speed intensity of the TC diminished. Therefore, we propose that monitoring the IS may provide a forecast tool to determine RI periods. Other parameters, such as static stability, tangential wind, and water vapor mixing ratio may help identify other features of the storm, such as circulation and eyewall formation. The inertial stability (IS) trend during the period of rapid intensification, which occurred between 00Z and 06Z of September 3rd. Maximum values of IS were calculated before and during this period of RI within a region located 30-45 km from the center. In fact, this region could represent the eye-wall of Hurricane Felix.

  17. Large-scale Vertical Motions, Intensity Change and Precipitation Associated with Land falling Hurricane Katrina over the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.; Kwembe, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the large- scale heat fluxes and intensity change associated with the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. After reaching the category 5 intensity on August 28th , 2005 over the central Gulf of Mexico, Katrina weekend to category 3 before making landfall (August 29th , 2005) on the Louisiana coast with the maximum sustained winds of over 110 knots. We also examined the vertical motions associated with the intensity change of the hurricane. The data for Convective Available Potential Energy for water vapor (CAPE), sea level pressure and wind speed were obtained from the Atmospheric Soundings, and NOAA National Hurricane Center (NHC), respectively for the period August 24 to September 3, 2005. We also computed vertical motions using CAPE values. The study showed that the large-scale heat fluxes reached maximum (7960W/m2) with the central pressure 905mb. The Convective Available Potential Energy and the vertical motions peaked 3-5 days before landfall. The large atmospheric vertical motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorm, tornadoes, storm surge and floods Numerical model (WRF/ARW) with data assimilations have been used for this research to investigate the model's performances on hurricane tracks and intensities associated with the hurricane Katrina, which began to strengthen until reaching Category 5 on 28 August 2005. The model was run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 hr periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model output was compared with the observations and is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track associated with hurricane Katrina.

  18. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  19. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  20. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  1. Life defence against big storm surges. Cyclone shelter in Bangladesh; Kyodai takashio kara seimei wo mamoru. Bangladesh no cyclone shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1996-08-15

    This paper presents the cyclone shelters in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has been damaged by flooding due to big storm surges caused by cyclone every year, losing many human lives and properties. The sea within 100km apart from the coast is gradually shoaling beach shallower than 10m because of sediment transport by the Ganges. Consequently, huge storm surges are easily caused by cyclone generated in Bay of Bengal. The cyclone shelter is only one refuge from cyclone. Construction of the cyclone shelters was opened in the 1960s, and the public work department (PWD) in the government had constructed the cyclone shelters under support by International Development Association (IDA) since 1970. At the same time, BDRCS had constructed the shelters under support by Red Cross Societies of every country, and positive NGOs such as Caritas had been also in the same action. Because many cyclone shelters became too old for use, construction of new cyclone shelters was opened again just after disaster in 1991. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Recovery from PTSD following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    We examined patterns and correlates of speed of recovery of estimated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people who developed PTSD in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey 7-19 months following the hurricane and again 24-27 months posthurricane. The baseline survey assessed PTSD using a validated screening scale and assessed a number of hypothesized predictors of PTSD recovery that included sociodemographics, prehurricane history of psychopathology, hurricane-related stressors, social support, and social competence. Exposure to posthurricane stressors and course of estimated PTSD were assessed in a follow-up interview. An estimated 17.1% of respondents had a history of estimated hurricane-related PTSD at baseline and 29.2% by the follow-up survey. Of the respondents who developed estimated hurricane-related PTSD, 39.0% recovered by the time of the follow-up survey with a mean duration of 16.5 months. Predictors of slow recovery included exposure to a life-threatening situation, hurricane-related housing adversity, and high income. Other sociodemographics, history of psychopathology, social support, social competence, and posthurricane stressors were unrelated to recovery from estimated PTSD. The majority of adults who developed estimated PTSD after Hurricane Katrina did not recover within 18-27 months. Delayed onset was common. Findings document the importance of initial trauma exposure severity in predicting course of illness and suggest that pre- and posttrauma factors typically associated with course of estimated PTSD did not influence recovery following Hurricane Katrina. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Data Assimilation within the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Modeling Framework for Hurricane Storm Surge Forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Butler, T.

    2012-07-01

    Accurate, real-time forecasting of coastal inundation due to hurricanes and tropical storms is a challenging computational problem requiring high-fidelity forward models of currents and water levels driven by hurricane-force winds. Despite best efforts in computational modeling there will always be uncertainty in storm surge forecasts. In recent years, there has been significant instrumentation located along the coastal United States for the purpose of collecting data—specifically wind, water levels, and wave heights—during these extreme events. This type of data, if available in real time, could be used in a data assimilation framework to improve hurricane storm surge forecasts. In this paper a data assimilation methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the use of ensemble Kalman filters and the advanced circulation (ADCIRC) storm surge model is described. The singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter has been shown to be effective at producing accurate results for ocean models using small ensemble sizes initialized by an empirical orthogonal function analysis. The SEIK filter is applied to the ADCIRC model to improve storm surge forecasting, particularly in capturing maximum water levels (high water marks) and the timing of the surge. Two test cases of data obtained from hindcast studies of Hurricanes Ike and Katrina are presented. It is shown that a modified SEIK filter with an inflation factor improves the accuracy of coarse-resolution forecasts of storm surge resulting from hurricanes. Furthermore, the SEIK filter requires only modest computational resources to obtain more accurate forecasts of storm surge in a constrained time window where forecasters must interact with emergency responders.

  4. Comparative Sediment Transport Between Exposed and Reef Protected Beaches Under Different Hurricane Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, D.; Enriquez, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.

    2016-12-01

    Many world coast regions are subjected to tropical cyclone activity, which can cause major damage to beaches and infrastructure on sediment dominated coasts. The Caribbean Sea has on average 4 hurricanes per year, some of them have caused major damage to coastal cities in the past 25 years. For example, Wilma, a major hurricane that hit SE Mexico in October 2005 generated strong erosion at an exposed beach (Cancun), while beach accretion was observed 28 km south at a fringing reef protected beach (Puerto Morelos). Hurricanes with similar intensity and trajectory but different moving speeds have been reported to cause a different morphological response. The present study analyses the morphodynamic response to the hydrodynamic conditions of exposed and reef protected beaches, generated by hurricanes with similar intensities but different trajectories and moving speeds. A non-stationary Delft3D Wave model is used to generate large scale wind swell conditions and local sea wind states and coupled with Delft3D Flow model to study the connection between the continental shelf and surf zones exchanges. The model is validated with hydrodynamic data gathered during Wilma, and morphological conditions measured before and after the event. Preliminary results show that erosion appears at the exposed beach and a predominant exchange between north and south dominates the shelf sediment transport (figure 1). Onshore driven flows over the reef crest input sediment in the reef protected beach. It is expected that for a same track but faster moving speed, southward sediment transport will have less time to develop and accretion at the reef protected site would be less evident or inexistent. The study can be used as a prediction tool for shelf scale sediment transport exchange driven by hurricanes.

  5. The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane outlook and optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Ergonomic and macro ergonomic factors of the 'Ukrytie' shelter personnel safe activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, G.E.; Kupnyj, V.I.; Danilov, V.M.; Vtornikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Four actions are planned based upon this preliminary analysis of Human Factors technology applied to the Chernobyl Shelter activities, namely: 1. Provide expertise to and participate in all projects regarding the Shelter's future. 2. Conduct a detailed on-site survey of the current Shelter's situation. 3. Organize a business game (brain-storming) to shape the system of the Shelter's HF problems

  7. Public protection strategies for potential nuclear reactor accidents: sheltering concepts with existing public and private structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Johnson, J.D.

    1978-02-01

    Three generic sheltering/relocation strategies are identified and discussed. They are: population relocation only (no specific sheltering response initiated); sheltering at location following by relocation; and preferential sheltering followed by relocation. Shielding factors representative of these strategies are calculated, and the adequacy of using average shielding factors for the calculation of public health effects is discussed

  8. Hurricane risk assessment to rollback or ride out a cost versus loss decision making approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential exists that a hurricane striking the Kennedy Space Center while a Space Shuttle is on the pad. Winds in excess of 74.5 knots could cause the failure of the holddown bolts bringing about the catastrophic loss of the entire vehicle. Current plans call for the rollback of the shuttle when winds of that magnitude are forecast to strike the center. As this is costly, a new objective method for making rollback/rideout decisions based upon Bayesian Analysis and economic cost versus loss is presented.

  9. Multi-hazard evacuation route and shelter planning for buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A bi-level, two-stage, binary stochastic program with equilibrium constraints, and three variants, are presented that : support the planning and design of shelters and exits, along with hallway fortification strategies and associated : evacuation pat...

  10. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  11. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  12. Exploring telehealth opportunities in domestic violence shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Susan; Shearer, Nelma; Long, Carol

    2002-10-01

    To determine the degree of interest in using a computer for the purpose of accessing services from a nurse practitioner (NP) at domestic violence shelters (DVSs); and to identify issues of privacy and confidentiality that might arise from participation by victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Telehealth intervention. Focus groups with 19 women residing in two DVSs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes were identified that answered the questions posed in the interviews. Most of the women understood the term NP and were favorably inclined to seek services from one. Over half of the women were not familiar with computer use, but were willing to learn in order to receive health care services, both for episodic needs and for maintenance of chronic conditions. After learning of the method proposed to allow them to access an NP through the internet while still protecting their privacy and confidentiality, the women felt comfortable with this approach to meeting their health care needs. Results from this study can be used to support the development and testing of Telehealth interventions for these victims of IPV.

  13. Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Practices Treatments That Work Screening and Assessment Psychological First Aid and SPR Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Trauma- ... Measure Reviews All Measure Reviews Usage and Glossary Psychological First Aid and SPR About PFA About SPR NCTSN Resources ...

  14. Disaster imminent--Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, J B

    1990-04-01

    Response to a disaster situation depends upon the type of circumstances presented. In situations where the disaster is the type that affects the hospital as well as a wide surrounding area directly, the hospital and pharmacy itself may be called upon to continue functioning for some period of time without outside assistance. The ability to function for prolonged periods of time requires the staff to focus on the job at hand and the administrative staff to provide security, compassion, and flexibility. Plans for a disaster of the nature of a hurricane require that attention be paid to staffing, medication inventories, supplies, and services being rendered. Recognition of the singular position occupied by a hospital in the community and the expectations of the local population require that hospitals and the pharmacy department have the ability to respond appropriately.

  15. Hurricane Katrina and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Serious and widely reported scientific analyses and assessments have called attention to climate changes and to the additional risks the world now faces. Through science has not yet provided proof positive of a connection between the increased intensity of extreme weather events and climate change, there can be no valid reason for failing to hedge the risk with preventive action. The catastrophe that struck New Orleans had can been predicted since the 1990s. The 2050 Coast Plan for reducing the vulnerability of the Louisiana coast and preventing hurricane disasters had been approved by the local authorities but not the federal government. Partly because of its cost, it was never carried into effect [it

  16. Investigating the key indicators for evaluating post-disaster shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ronita; Shannon, Harry; Kabali, Conrad; Oremus, Mark

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to identify the primary indicators for evaluating shelter assistance following natural disasters and then to develop a shelter evaluation instrument based on these indicators. Electronic databases and the 'grey' literature were scoured for publications with a relation to post-disaster shelter assistance. Indicators for evaluating such assistance were extracted from these publications. In total, 1,525 indicators were extracted from 181 publications. A preliminary evaluation instrument was designed from these 1,525 indicators. Shelter experts checked the instrument for face and content validity, and it was revised subsequently based on their input. The revised instrument comprises a version for use by shelter agencies (48 questions that assess 23 indicators) and a version for use by beneficiaries (52 questions that assess 22 indicators). The instrument can serve as a standardised tool to enable groups to gauge whether or not the shelter assistance that they supply meets the needs of disaster-affected populations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  17. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  18. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  19. Hurricane Irene Poster (August 27, 2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Irene poster. Color composite GOES image shows Irene moving through the North Carolina Outer Banks on August 27, 2011. Poster size is 36"x27"

  20. Spectral Growth of Hurricane Generated Seas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finlayson, William

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of a growing sea during hurricanes are significantly different from those observed in ordinary storms since the source of energy generating waves is moving and the rate of change...

  1. Tsunamis and Hurricanes A Mathematical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Tsunamis and hurricanes have had a devastating impact on the population living near the coast during the year 2005. The calculation of the power and intensity of tsunamis and hurricanes are of great importance not only for engineers and meteorologists but also for governments and insurance companies. This book presents new research on the mathematical description of tsunamis and hurricanes. A combination of old and new approaches allows to derive a nonlinear partial differential equation of fifth order describing the steepening up and the propagation of tsunamis. The description includes dissipative terms and does not contain singularities or two valued functions. The equivalence principle of solutions of nonlinear large gas dynamics waves and of solutions of water wave equations will be used. An extension of the continuity equation by a source term due to evaporation rates of salt seawater will help to understand hurricanes. Detailed formula, tables and results of the calculations are given.

  2. Hurricane Katrina - Murphy Oil Spill Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  3. Spatial grids for hurricane climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, James B.; Hodges, Robert E.; Jagger, Thomas H. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The authors demonstrate a spatial framework for studying hurricane climatology. The framework consists of a spatial tessellation of the hurricane basin using equal-area hexagons. The hexagons are efficient at covering hurricane tracks and provide a scaffolding to combine attribute data from tropical cyclones with spatial climate data. The framework's utility is demonstrated using examples from recent hurricane seasons. Seasons that have similar tracks are quantitatively assessed and grouped. Regional cyclone frequency and intensity variations are mapped. A geographically-weighted regression of cyclone intensity on sea-surface temperature emphasizes the importance of a warm ocean in the intensification of cyclones over regions where the heat content is greatest. The largest differences between model predictions and observations occur near the coast. The authors suggest the framework is ideally suited for comparing tropical cyclones generated from different numerical simulations. (orig.)

  4. Geotechnical Impacts of Hurricane Harvey Along the Texas, USA Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegan, S. M.; Stark, N.; Jafari, N.; Ravichandran, N.; Shafii, I.; Bassal, P.; Figlus, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association response to Hurricane Harvey, a team of engineers and scientists mobilized to the coastal cities of Texas, USA from 1 to 5 September 2017. Damage to coastal and riverine structures due to erosion by storm surge, waves, and coastal and riverine flooding was assessed in a wide coastal zone between Corpus Christi and Galveston. Making initial landfall near Rockport, Texas on 26 August 2017, Hurricane Harvey was classified as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with wind speeds exceeding 130 mph and an atmospheric pressure of 938 mbar. The storm stalled over the Houston area, pouring 40 inches of rain on an area encompassing more than 3,000 square miles. Hurricane Harvey, which remained a named storm for 117 hours after initial landfall, slowly moved east into the Gulf of Mexico and made final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana on 30 August. The GEER team surveyed sixteen main sites, extending from Mustang Island in the southwest to Galveston in the northeast and as far inland as Rosenburg. In Port Aransas, beach erosion and undercutting along a beach access road near Aransas Pass were observed. Due to several tide gauge failures in this area, the nearest NOAA tide gauge (#8775870 near Corpus Christi) was used to estimate water levels of 1.35 m, approximately 1.0 m above the predicted tide. In Holiday Beach, anchored retaining walls were inundated, causing backside scour along the entire length and exposing the sheetpile wall anchors. Along the Colorado River at the Highway 35 bridge near Bay City, active riverbank failure was observed and a sheet pile wall was found collapsed. Significant sediment deposits lined the vegetated riverbanks. A USGS stream gage recorded gage heights greater than 45 ft, exceeding the flood stage of 44 ft. Fronting a rubblemound seawall in Surfside Beach, a runnel and ridge formation was observed. Nearby at San Luis Pass, infilled scour

  5. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation

  6. Impact of Hurricane Andrew on FPL generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, W.F.; Adams, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the pre-dawn hours of August 25, 1992, Hurricane Andrew made landfall in southern Dade County, Florida. The storm approached directly from the east and moved rapidly across the State and into the Gulf of Mexico. Andrew's intense winds caused unprecedented devastation to structures and facilities in its path. Not surprisingly, Florida Power and Light's (FPL) generation, transmission and distribution facilities in south Florida also suffered extensive damage. Two of FPL's electrical generating sites were located in the direct path of the storm and received its full brunt. This paper presents a review of the damage sustained by those plants, an overview of the unique recovery challenges encountered and a summary of the lessons learned from this experience

  7. Hurricanes, coral reefs and rainforests: resistance, ruin and recovery in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Ariel E.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Nixon, Scott W.

    2000-01-01

    The coexistence of hurricanes, coral reefs, and rainforests in the Caribbean demonstrates that highly structured ecosystems with great diversity can flourish in spite of recurring exposure to intense destructive energy. Coral reefs develop in response to wave energy and resist hurricanes largely by virtue of their structural strength. Limited fetch also protects some reefs from fully developed hurricane waves. While storms may produce dramatic local reef damage, they appear to have little impact on the ability of coral reefs to provide food or habitat for fish and other animals. Rainforests experience an enormous increase in wind energy during hurricanes with dramatic structural changes in the vegetation. The resulting changes in forest microclimate are larger than those on reefs and the loss of fruit, leaves, cover, and microclimate has a great impact on animal populations. Recovery of many aspects of rainforest structure and function is rapid, though there may be long-term changes in species composition. While resistance and repair have maintained reefs and rainforests in the past, human impacts may threaten their ability to survive.

  8. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Hugo in eastern Puerto Rico, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.

    1992-01-01

    On the morning of September 18, 1989, a category-four hurricane struck eastern Puerto Rico with a sustained wind speed in excess of 46 m/s. The 24-h rainfall accumulation from the hurricane ranged from 100 to 339 mm. Average rainfall intensities ranging from 34 to 39 mm/h were calculated for 4 and 6 h periods, respectively, at a rain gage equipped with satellite telemetry, and at an observer station. The hurricane rainfall triggered more than 400 landslides in the steeply sloping, highly dissected mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Of these landslides, 285 were mapped from aerial photography which covered 6474 ha. Many of the mapped landslides were on northeast- and northwest-facing slopes at the eastern terminus of the mountains, nearest the hurricane path. The surface area of individual landslides ranged from 18 m2 to 4500 m2, with a median size of 148 m2. The 285 landslides disturbed 0.11% of the land surface in the area covered by aerial photographs. An approximate denudation rate of 164 mm/1000 y was calculated from the volume of material eroded by landsliding and the 10-y rainfall recurrence interval.

  9. Spatial generalized linear mixed models of electric power outages due to hurricanes and ice storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Davidson, Rachel A.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new statistical models that predict the number of hurricane- and ice storm-related electric power outages likely to occur in each 3 kmx3 km grid cell in a region. The models are based on a large database of recent outages experienced by three major East Coast power companies in six hurricanes and eight ice storms. A spatial generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) approach was used in which spatial correlation is incorporated through random effects. Models were fitted using a composite likelihood approach and the covariance matrix was estimated empirically. A simulation study was conducted to test the model estimation procedure, and model training, validation, and testing were done to select the best models and assess their predictive power. The final hurricane model includes number of protective devices, maximum gust wind speed, hurricane indicator, and company indicator covariates. The final ice storm model includes number of protective devices, ice thickness, and ice storm indicator covariates. The models should be useful for power companies as they plan for future storms. The statistical modeling approach offers a new way to assess the reliability of electric power and other infrastructure systems in extreme events

  10. Integrating UAV and orbital remote sensing for spatiotemporal assessment of coastal vegetation health following hurricane events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Madden, M.; Jordan, T.; Knight, A.; Aragon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane impacts often include the total or partial removal of vegetation due to strong winds (e.g., uprooted trees and broken trunks and limbs). Those impacts can usually be quickly assessed following hurricanes, by using established field and remote sensing methods. Conversely, impacts on vegetation health may present challenges for identification and assessment, as they are disconnected in time from the hurricane event and may be less evident. For instance, hurricanes may promote drastic increases in salinity of water available to roots and may increase exposure of aerial parts to salt spray. Derived stress conditions can negatively impact biological processes and may lead to plant decline and death. Large areas along the coast of the United States have been affected by hurricanes and show such damage (vegetation browning). Those areas may continue to be impacted, as climate projections indicate that hurricanes may become more frequent and intense, resulting from the warming of ocean waters. This work uses remote sensing tools and techniques to record and assess impacts resulting from recent hurricanes at Sapelo Island, a barrier island off the coast of the State of Georgia, United States. Analyses included change detection at the island using time series of co-registered Sentinel 2 and Landsat images. A field campaign was conducted in September 2017, which included flying three UAVs over the island and collecting high-overlap 20-megapixel RGB images at two spatial resolutions (1 and 2 inches/pixel). A five-band MicaSense RedEdge camera, a downwelling radiation sensor and calibration panel were used to collect calibrated multispectral images of multiple vegetation types, including healthy vegetation and vegetation affected by browning. Drone images covering over 600 acres were then analyzed for vegetation status and damage, with emphasis to vegetation removal and browning resulting from salinity alterations and salt spray. Results from images acquired by drones

  11. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  12. Isentropic Analysis of a Simulated Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Pauluis, Olivier; Zhang, Fuqing

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes, like many other atmospheric flows, are associated with turbulent motions over a wide range of scales. Here the authors adapt a new technique based on the isentropic analysis of convective motions to study the thermodynamic structure of the overturning circulation in hurricane simulations. This approach separates the vertical mass transport in terms of the equivalent potential temperature of air parcels. In doing so, one separates the rising air parcels at high entropy from the subsiding air at low entropy. This technique filters out oscillatory motions associated with gravity waves and separates convective overturning from the secondary circulation. This approach is applied here to study the flow of an idealized hurricane simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. The isentropic circulation for a hurricane exhibits similar characteristics to that of moist convection, with a maximum mass transport near the surface associated with a shallow convection and entrainment. There are also important differences. For instance, ascent in the eyewall can be readily identified in the isentropic analysis as an upward mass flux of air with unusually high equivalent potential temperature. The isentropic circulation is further compared here to the Eulerian secondary circulation of the simulated hurricane to show that the mass transport in the isentropic circulation is much larger than the one in secondary circulation. This difference can be directly attributed to the mass transport by convection in the outer rainband and confirms that, even for a strongly organized flow like a hurricane, most of the atmospheric overturning is tied to the smaller scales.

  13. Tales of Wind and Water: Houma Indians and Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, T. Mayheart

    2008-01-01

    The majority of the Houma people live in the southern portions of Lafourche and Terrebonne parishes in south Louisiana. This author grew up in the Houma community that had formed in lower Plaquemines Parish, about thirty miles north of the mouth of the Mississippi River. The Houma community there was centered near the town of Venice with extended…

  14. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  15. Disaster-related injuries and illnesses treated by American Red Cross disaster health services during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Rebecca S; Schnall, Amy H; Wolkin, Amy F; Podgornik, Michelle N; Wood, April D; Spears, Jeanne; Stanley, Sharon A R

    2013-01-01

    To describe the injuries and illnesses treated by the American Red Cross (Red Cross) during Hurricanes Gustav and Ike disaster relief operations reported on a new Aggregate Morbidity Report Form. From August 28 to October 18, 2008, 119 Red Cross field service locations in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas addressed the healthcare needs of people affected by the hurricanes. From these locations, individual client visit data were retrospectively collated per site onto new 24-hour Aggregate Morbidity Report Forms. A total of 3863 clients were treated. Of the clients, 48% were girls and women and 44% were boys and men; 61% were 19 to 64 years old. Ninety-eight percent of the visits occurred in shelters. The reasons for half of the visits were acute illness and symptoms (eg, pain) and 16% were for routine follow-up care. The majority (65%) of the 2516 visits required treatment at a field location, although 34%, or 1296 visits, required a referral, including 543 healthcare facility transfers. During the hurricanes, a substantial number of displaced evacuees sought care for acute and routine healthcare needs. The capacity of the Red Cross to address the immediate and ongoing health needs of sheltered clients for an extended period of time is a critical resource for local public health agencies, which are often overwhelmed during a disaster. This article highlights the important role that this humanitarian organization fills, to decrease surge to local healthcare systems and to monitor health effects following a disaster. The Aggregate Morbidity Report Form has the potential to assist greatly in this role, and thus its utility for real-time reporting should be evaluated further.

  16. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  17. Model of analysis of maximum loads in wind generators produced by extreme winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera – Sánchez, Omar; Schellong, Wolfgang; González – Fernández, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The use of the wind energy by means of the wind turbines in areas of high risk of occurrence of Hurricanes comes being an important challenge for the designers of wind farm at world for some years. The wind generator is not usually designed to support this type of phenomena, for this reason the areas of high incidence of tropical hurricanes of the planning are excluded, that which, in occasions disables the use of this renewable source of energy totally, either because the country is very small, or because it coincides the area of more potential fully with that of high risk. To counteract this situation, a model of analysis of maxims loads has been elaborated taken place the extreme winds in wind turbines of great behavior. This model has the advantage of determining, in a chosen place, for the installation of a wind farm, the micro-areas with higher risk of wind loads above the acceptable for the standard classes of wind turbines. (author)

  18. Application of a Theoretical Model Toward Understanding Continued Food Insecurity Post Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Lauren A; Papas, Mia A; Gill, Kimberly; Abramson, David M

    2018-02-01

    Disaster recovery efforts focus on restoring basic needs to survivors, such as food, water, and shelter. However, long after the immediate recovery phase is over, some individuals will continue to experience unmet needs. Ongoing food insecurity has been identified as a post-disaster problem. There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that might place an individual at risk for continued food insecurity post disaster. Using data from a sample (n=737) of households severely impacted by Hurricane Katrina, we estimated the associations between food insecurity and structural, physical and mental health, and psychosocial factors 5 years after Hurricane Katrina. Logistic regression models were fit and odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI estimated. Nearly one-quarter of respondents (23%) reported food insecurity 5 years post Katrina. Marital/partner status (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.42, 0.99), self-efficacy (OR: 0.56, CI: 0.37, 0.84), sense of community (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.44, 0.98), and social support (OR: 0.59, CI: 0.39, 0.89) lowered the odds of food insecurity and explained most of the effects of mental health distress on food insecurity. Social support, self-efficacy, and being partnered were protective against food insecurity. Recovery efforts should focus on fostering social-support networks and increased self-efficacy to improve food insecurity post disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:47-56).

  19. Increasing magnitude of Hurricane Rapid Intensification in the central-eastern Atlantic over the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L. R.; Balaguru, K.; Foltz, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, several hurricanes underwent rapid intensification (RI) in the central-eastern Atlantic. This motivates an analysis of trends in the strength of hurricane RI during the 30-year post-satellite period of 1986-2015. Our results show that in the eastern tropical Atlantic, to the east of 60W, the mean RI magnitude averaged during 2001-2015 was 3.8 kt per 24 hr higher than during 1986-2000. However, in the western tropical Atlantic, to the west of 60W, changes in RI magnitude over the same period were not statistically significant. We examined the large-scale environment to understand the causes behind these changes in RI magnitude and found that various oceanic and atmospheric parameters that play an important role in RI changed favorably in the eastern tropical Atlantic. More specifically, changes in SST, Potential Intensity, upper-ocean heat content, wind shear, relative humidity and upper-level divergence enhanced the ability for hurricanes to undergo RI in the eastern tropical Atlantic. In contrast, changes in the same factors are inconsistent in the western tropical Atlantic. While changes in SST and Potential Intensity were positive, changes in upper-ocean heat content, wind shear and upper-level divergence were either insignificant or unfavorable for RI. Finally, we examined the potential role of various climate phenomena, which are well-known to impact Atlantic hurricane activity, in causing the changes in the large-scale environment. Our analysis reveals that changes in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation over the 30-year period are predominantly responsible. These results provide important aspects of the large-scale context to understand the Atlantic hurricane season of 2017.

  20. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  1. The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W. -K.; Halverson, J.; Adler, R.; Garstang, M.; Houze, R., Jr.; LeMone, M.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Woodley, W.; O'C.Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This AMS Meteorological Monographs is dedicated to Dr. Joanne Simpson for her many pioneering research efforts in tropical meteorology during her fifty-year career. Dr. Simpson's major areas of scientific research involved the "hot tower" hypothesis and its role in hurricanes, structure and maintenance of trade winds, air-sea interaction, and observations and the mechanism for hurricanes and waterspouts. She was also a pioneer in cloud modeling with the first one-dimensional model and had the first cumulus model on a computer. She also played a major role in planning and leading observational experiments on convective cloud systems. The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, a joint U.S.-Japan project, in November of 1997 made it possible for quantitative measurements of tropical rainfall to be obtained on a continuous basis over the entire global tropics. Dr. Simpson was the TRAM Project Scientist from 1986 until its launch in 1997. Her efforts during this crucial period ensured that the mission was both well planned scientifically and well engineered as well as within budget. In this paper, Dr. J. Simpson's nine specific accomplishments during her fifty-year career: (1) hot tower hypothesis, (2) hurricanes, (3) airflow and clouds over heated islands, (4) cloud models, (5) trade winds and their role in cumulus development, (6) air-sea interaction, (7) cloud-cloud interactions and mergers, (8) waterspouts, and (9) TRMM science, will be described and discussed.

  2. Hurricane Harvey: Infrastructure Damage Assessment of Texas' Central Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Fovenyessy, S.; Patterson, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    We report a detailed ground-based damage survey for Hurricane Harvey, the first major hurricane to make landfall along the central Texas coast since the 1970 Category 3 Hurricane Celia. Harvey, a Category 4 storm, made landfall near Rockport, Texas on August 25th, 2017 at 10 PM local time. From September 2nd to 5th we visited Rockport and 22 nearby cities to assess the severity of the damage. Nearly all damage observed occurred as a direct result of the hurricane-force winds, rather than a storm surge. This observation is in contrast to the severe damage caused by both high winds and a significant storm surge, locally 3 to 5 m in height, in the 2013 Category 5 Hurricane Haiyan, that devastated the Philippines. We have adopted a damage scale and have given an average damage score for each of the areas investigated. Our damage contour map illustrates the areal variation in damage. The damage observed was widespread with a high degree of variability. Different types of damage included: (1) fallen fences and utility poles; (2) trees with branches broken or completely snapped in half; (3) business signs that were either partially or fully destroyed; (4) partially sunken or otherwise damaged boats; (5) and sheet metal sheds either completely or partially destroyed. There was also varying degrees of damage to both residential and commercial structures. Many homes had (6) roof damage, ranging from minor damage to complete destruction of the roof and second story, and (7) siding damage, where parts or whole sections of the homes siding had been removed. The area that had the lowest average damage score was Corpus Christi, and the areas that had the highest average damage score was both Fulton and Holiday Beach. There is no simple, uniform pattern of damage distribution. Rather, the damage was scattered, revealing hot spots of areas that received more damage than the surrounding area. However, when compared to the NOAA wind swath map, all of the damage was contained within

  3. Investigating the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and trajectory to sea surface temperatures using the regional model WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Kilic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on the hurricane characteristics are investigated in a set of sensitivity experiments employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The idealised experiments are performed for the case of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The first set of sensitivity experiments with basin-wide changes of the SST magnitude shows that the intensity goes along with changes in the SST, i.e., an increase in SST leads to an intensification of Katrina. Additionally, the trajectory is shifted to the west (east, with increasing (decreasing SSTs. The main reason is a strengthening of the background flow. The second set of experiments investigates the influence of Loop Current eddies idealised by localised SST anomalies. The intensity of Hurricane Katrina is enhanced with increasing SSTs close to the core of a tropical cyclone. Negative nearby SST anomalies reduce the intensity. The trajectory only changes if positive SST anomalies are located west or north of the hurricane centre. In this case the hurricane is attracted by the SST anomaly which causes an additional moisture source and increased vertical winds.

  4. Automatic urban debris zone extraction from post-hurricane very high-resolution satellite and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated remote sensing methods have not gained widespread usage for damage assessment after hurricane events, especially for low-rise buildings, such as individual houses and small businesses. Hurricane wind, storm surge with waves, and inland flooding have unique damage signatures, further complicating the development of robust automated assessment methodologies. As a step toward realizing automated damage assessment for multi-hazard hurricane events, this paper presents a mono-temporal image classification methodology that quickly and accurately differentiates urban debris from non-debris areas using post-event images. Three classification approaches are presented: spectral, textural, and combined spectral–textural. The methodology is demonstrated for Gulfport, Mississippi, using IKONOS panchromatic satellite and NOAA aerial colour imagery collected after 2005 Hurricane Katrina. The results show that multivariate texture information significantly improves debris class detection performance by decreasing the confusion between debris and other land cover types, and the extracted debris zone accurately captures debris distribution. Additionally, the extracted debris boundary is approximately equivalent regardless of imagery type, demonstrating the flexibility and robustness of the debris mapping methodology. While the test case presents results for hurricane hazards, the proposed methodology is generally developed and expected to be effective in delineating debris zones for other natural hazards, including tsunamis, tornadoes, and earthquakes.

  5. The feasibility of BRT corridor VI shelters in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Andi; Setiawan, Moch Fathoni

    2018-03-01

    Like other big cities in Indonesia, Semarang City as the capital of Central Java Province also has various city problems, one of them is the transportation problem. Transportation problems arise due to increased mobility of society that is not in balanced with the public transportation facilities and infrastructure availability. In order to create a better transportation system, the local government of Semarang City held Trans Semarang bus rapid transit (BRT) which began operating in 2010. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI shelters. This research uses descriptive critique technique. The results are expected to be considered in determining the right policy in creating a better transportation system. Based on observations made, the majority of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI uses non-permanent shelters and is less feasible to be a BRT shelter. Thus, the local government is expected to improve the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang shelter so that the sense of security and comfort can be obtained by users of BRT. In addition, the local government is also expected to maintain the quality of services provided. These services include ticket service, the condition of buses, speed and waiting time, as well as the placement and condition of shelters.

  6. Tracks of Major Hurricanes of the Western Hemisphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 36"x24" National Hurricane Center poster depicts the complete tracks of all major hurricanes in the north Atlantic and eastern north Pacific basins since as...

  7. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  8. Identification of Caribbean basin hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Herrera, R. [Depto. Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Ribera, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Fernandez, G. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain); Hernandez, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper analyses five hurricanes that occurred in the period 1600 to 1800. These examples were identified during a systematic search in the General Archive of the Indies (AGI) in Seville. The research combined the expertise of climatologists and historians in order to optimise the search and analysis strategies. Results demonstrate the potential of this archive for the assessment of hurricanes in this period and show some of the difficulties involved in the collection of evidence of hurricane activity. The documents provide detailed descriptions of a hurricane's impacts and allow us to identify previously unreported hurricanes, obtain more precise dates for hurricanes previously identified, better define the area affected by a given hurricane and, finally, better assess a hurricane's intensity.

  9. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  10. Wind erosion in semiarid landscapes: Predictive models and remote sensing methods for the influence of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, H. Brad

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: to develop and test predictive relations for the quantitative influence of vegetation canopy structure on wind erosion of semiarid rangeland soils, and to develop remote sensing methods for measuring the canopy structural parameters that determine sheltering against wind erosion. The influence of canopy structure on wind erosion will be investigated by means of wind-tunnel and field experiments using structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments using model roughness elements to simulate plant canopies. The canopy structural variables identified by the wind-tunnel and field experiments as important in determining vegetative sheltering against wind erosion will then be measured at a number of naturally vegetated field sites and compared with estimates of these variables derived from analysis of remotely sensed data.

  11. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  12. Lifestyles and Goals of Homeless Male Shelter Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Schwend

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the health, lifestyles, and goals of homeless male shelter users. The mixed-methods descriptive non-experimental study was conducted at a homeless shelter cot program. The Dykeman biopsychosocial interventional model was used as a framework for this study. Thirty men utilizing the program were interviewed using the Chapin Lifestyle Assessment Survey. In addition, the men were asked about their social support system and goals. The results demonstrated that the group had a strong sense of responsibility for their own actions, a desire to learn, and were motivated to make a meaningful contribution. Goals focused on obtaining employment and securing housing. Shelter staff was reported as a source of social support.

  13. The impact of underwater glider observations in the forecast of Hurricane Gonzalo (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, G. J.; Domingues, R. M.; Kim, H. S.; Domingues, R. M.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Bringas, F.; Morell, J. M.; Pomales, L.; Baltes, R.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical Atlantic basin is one of seven global regions where tropical cyclones (TC) are commonly observed to originate and intensify from June to November. On average, approximately 12 TCs travel through the region every year, frequently affecting coastal, and highly populated areas. In an average year, 2 to 3 of them are categorized as intense hurricanes. Given the appropriate atmospheric conditions, TC intensification has been linked to ocean conditions, such as increased ocean heat content and enhanced salinity stratification near the surface. While errors in hurricane track forecasts have been reduced during the last years, errors in intensity forecasts remain mostly unchanged. Several studies have indicated that the use of in situ observations has the potential to improve the representation of the ocean to correctly initialize coupled hurricane intensity forecast models. However, a sustained in situ ocean observing system in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea dedicated to measuring subsurface thermal and salinity fields in support of TC intensity studies and forecasts has yet to be implemented. Autonomous technologies offer new and cost-effective opportunities to accomplish this objective. We highlight here a partnership effort that utilize underwater gliders to better understand air-sea processes during high wind events, and are particularly geared towards improving hurricane intensity forecasts. Results are presented for Hurricane Gonzalo (2014), where glider observations obtained in the tropical Atlantic: Helped to provide an accurate description of the upper ocean conditions, that included the presence of a low salinity barrier layer; Allowed a detailed analysis of the upper ocean response to hurricane force winds of Gonzalo; Improved the initialization of the ocean in a coupled ocean-atmosphere numerical model; and together with observations from other ocean observing platforms, substantially reduced the error in intensity forecast

  14. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forecasting tropical cyclone recurvature with upper tropospheric winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Data from 17 tropical cyclones during the 1974 through 1979 hurricane seasons are used to investigate whether the high level winds far to the northwest, north and northeast of the hurricane center can be used to predict hurricane track recurvature. When the man 200-mb winds 1500 to 2000 km northwest and north of the storm center equal or exceed 20 m/s, 80 per cent of the storms recurved before traveling as much as 12 degrees of longitude farther west. The high winds were also used to predict change in direction of forward motion during the next 72 hours. The regression equations developed explain up to 41 per cent of the variance in future direction. In addition to the geostrophic winds used, winds were also obtained by tracking clouds with successive satellite imagery. The u-components of the satellite winds are highly correlated with the geostrophic winds at 200-mb and could probably be used instead of them when available. The v-components are less highly correlated.

  16. How prepared were the Puerto Rico Seismic Network sites for the arrival of Hurricane Maria? Lessons learned on communications, power and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Lugo, J.; Baez-Sanchez, G.

    2017-12-01

    For exactly 85 years the island of Puerto Rico in the northeastern Caribbean was spared from catastrophic category 4 hurricane winds. Then Hurricane Maria arrived on September 20, 2017 with maximum sustained winds of up to 155 mph. The eye of the hurricane crossed the island from southeast to northwest in eight hours leaving almost a meter of rainfall on its path. Sustained winds, gusts and precipitation were most certainly going to affect the seismic and geodetic equipment the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) use for locating earthquakes in the region. PRSN relies on 35 seismic stations (velocity and strong-motion) to characterize the seismic behavior of the island and 15 geodetic (GNSS) stations to determine crustal deformation of the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands microplate. PRSN stations have been designed to withstand earthquakes. However, the equipment suffered considerable damage due to the strong winds especially station communication towers. This coupled with catastrophic damage to the telecommunication and power grids of the island had severe effects on the network. Additionally, the level of devastation was such that it hampered the ability of PRSN staff to visit the sites for assessment and repair. Here we present the effects of category 4 hurricane had on our seismic and geodetic sites, examine the susceptibility of the PRSN stations' power and communications, and discuss future plans to recuperate and improve station resiliency for future catastrophic events. These lessons learned hopefully will help harden sites of networks, agencies and/or institutions that rely on similar infrastructure.

  17. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  18. Assessment of the radionuclide fluxes from the Chernobyl shelter and cooling pond into pripyat river and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Onishi, Y.; Kivva, S.; Dzjuba, N.; Dvorzhak, A.

    2004-01-01

    The destroyed Chernobyl Unit 4 under the constructed 'shelter' and the Chernobyl Cooling Pond are potentially most hazardous object in the Chernobyl zone. The model based assessment of the consequences of the Shelter collapse on surface water contamination was provided in the frame of the Environmental Impact Assessment of New Safe Confinement (NSC), designed above the Shelter. For the conservative worst hydrological scenario the wind direction was taken to deposit the maximum amount of radionuclides directly on the Pripyat River surface and flood plain upstream the Chernobyl NPP. Assuming the atmospheric dispersion of 8 kg of reactor fuel due to the Shelter collapse, it was assessed that 2.4 TBq of 137 Cs and 1.1 TBq of 90 Sr will be released into the Pripyat River within 3 days. The 1-D model RIVTOX was used to simulate the propagation of released radionuclides through Dniper reservoir cascade. It was shown that the concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in Dnieper reservoirs for the simulated scenario will not be higher than during last high spring flood 1999. The impact of the NSC on the diminishing of the surface water and groundwater contamination was simulated. Most of the initial contamination of the Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CCP) by long lived radionuclides, such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr and transuranics, has accumulated in its bottom sediments. The water elevation in the CCP is at 6 m higher than in the neighbouring Pripyat river. The scenario of a collapse of CCP's dam, has been considered, which hypothetical cause can be earthquake, dam score during high flood, terrorist attack. The propagation of contaminated water and sediments from the CCP dam breach through the Pripyat River flood plain, downstream river and than through the Dnieper reservoirs was modelled by the chain of 2-D and 1-D models. (author)

  19. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  20. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  1. Worldwide historical hurricane tracks from 1848 through the previous hurricane season

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Historical Hurricane Tracks web site provides visualizations of storm tracks derived from the 6-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and...

  2. Opinions of UK rescue shelter and rehoming center workers on the problems facing their industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stavisky, Jenny; Brennan, Marnie L.; Downes, Martin J.; Dean, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    Animal shelters exist worldwide to care for and rehome unwanted or straying pets. Previous studies have examined why owners breed unwanted animals, or relinquish their pets to shelters. However, the views of shelter workers, who receive and care for these animals, have previously been largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of animal shelter workers on the problems facing their industry. A sampling frame was constructed, consisting of every identified shel...

  3. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). WWC Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is a framework for planning and delivering instruction in content areas such as science, history, and mathematics to limited-English proficient students. The goal of SIOP is to help teachers integrate academic language development into their lessons, allowing students to learn and practice…

  4. 26 CFR 301.6111-2 - Confidential corporate tax shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, registration shall in all events be required with respect to any interests in the... claimed to be proprietary or exclusive to the tax shelter promoter or any party other than the offeree. (2... any tax advisor (including a tax advisor independent from all other entities involved in the...

  5. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Infections with endoparasites in dogs in Dutch animal shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, le W.E.; Robben, S.R.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faecal samples from 224 dogs from 23 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined for endoparasites. In total 20.5% of the faecal sample were positive for helminth and/or protozoa infections. Eggs of Toxocara canis were found in 8.5% of the faecal samples. Other endoparasites found were

  7. Some aspects of shelter FCM surfaces with water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, A.V.; Gonchar, V.V.; Veklich, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    The water affinity and adhesion energy temperature dependences for all main sort of FCM have been both measured for the first time. It was established that FCM are slightly hydrophilous only and their wettability depends on its certain type, The data obtained allows to suggest the certain technological recommendations concerning the FCM of Shelter object treatment

  8. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  9. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  10. SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii. We carried out 24 heterospecific, six-hour trials, with 30 min behavioural observations per hour. Most often, red swamp crayfish were both the first (70.8% and the long-term winner (62.5%. Usually, the long-term winner was the first winner. Whenever shelter was occupied, a passive behaviour by unsheltered individuals was more frequent in signal crayfish than in red swamp crayfish. When both were unsheltered, signal crayfish displayed more often a passive behaviour. Although the observed behaviour might be explained as the result of dominance by the red swamp crayfish over the signal crayfish, shelter availability and class, as well as different growth patterns and population size structures, could change the intensity and the outcome of the encounters in the wild, where signal crayfish usually reach larger sizes than red swamp crayfish.

  11. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  12. Sheltered Workshops and Transition: Old Bottles, New Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Edmund

    This paper provides a historical overview of sheltered workshops and presents information about service innovations and mission expansion. The first workshop in the United States was the Perkins Institute, opened in 1837 for individuals with visual handicaps. This workshop was typical of "categorical" workshops that were established during this…

  13. On the Influence of Global Warming on Atlantic Hurricane Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. R.; Scaioni, M.; Marani, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane's intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR). The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82). In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  14. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  15. Establishment in treeshelter. II. Effect of shelter color on gas exchange and hardiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.; Montague, D.T.; Rupp, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the microclimate, gas exchange, and growth of feild-grown Norway maple (Acerplatanoides L.) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees nonsheltered, and in brown and white shelters. Shelter microclimate-air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and radiation -and tree leaf area, growth in diameter, stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthesis were measured during the first growing season after bare-root transplanting. Bark temperatures in midwinter were also measured. Treeshelter microclimate was greenhouse-like compared to ambient conditions, as shortwave radiation was lower, and midday Ta and relative humidity were higher. Although trees in shelters had greater shoot elongation and higher gs than trees grown without shelters, photosynthesis was not different. White shelters allowed 25% more shortwave radiation penetration and increased Ta by 2 to 4 degrees C and VPD by 0.5-1 kPa over brown shelters. However, tree growth and gas exchange generally were not affected by shelter color. Winter injury was increased for trees in shelters and varied with species and shelter color. Both species exhibited shoot dieback in shelters the spring following a winter where bark temperatures varied 40 to 50 degrees C diurnally. More new growth died on maple, particularly in white shelters where several trees were killed. These data suggest that supra optimal summer and winter temperatures may reduce vigor and interfere with cold tolerance of some species grown in shelters

  16. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  17. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... grants to seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority...) announces the award of single-source expansion supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care...

  18. 45 CFR 1627.7 - Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax sheltered annuities, retirement accounts and... SERVICES CORPORATION SUBGRANTS AND MEMBERSHIP FEES OR DUES § 1627.7 Tax sheltered annuities, retirement... recipient on behalf of its employees for the purpose of contributing to or funding a tax sheltered annuity...

  19. Recent improvements in Hurricane Imaging Radiometer’s brightness temperature image reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayak K. Biswas

    Full Text Available NASA MSFCs airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD uses interferometric aperture synthesis to produce high resolution wide swath images of scene brightness temperature (Tb distribution at four discrete C-band microwave frequencies (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 6.6 GHz. Images of ocean surface wind speed under heavy precipitation such as in tropical cyclones, is inferred from these measurements. The baseline HIRAD Tb reconstruction algorithm had produced prominent along-track streaks in the Tb images. Particularly the 4.0 GHz channel had been so dominated by the streaks as to be unusable.The loss of a frequency channel had compromised the final wind speed retrievals. During 2016, the HIRAD team made substantial progress in developing a quality controlled signal processing technique for the HIRAD data collected in 2015’s Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI experiment and reduced the effect of streaks in all channels including 4.0 GHz. 2000 MSC: 41A05, 41A10, 65D05, 65D17, Keywords: Microwave radiometry, Aperture synthesis, Image reconstruction, Hurricane winds

  20. Preparing for a Hurricane: Prescription Medications

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    What you should do to protect yourself and your family from a hurricane. As you evacuate, remember to take your prescription medicines with you.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/17/2008.

  1. Investigation of long-term hurricane activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, B.M.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of applying numerical methods to model storm processes. A storm empirical track technique is utilized to simulate the full tracks of hurricanes, starting with their initial points over the sea and ending with their landfall locations or final dissipations. The

  2. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy for port resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    New York Harbor was directly in the path of the most damaging part of Hurricane Sandy causing significant impact on many of the : facilities of the Port of New York and New Jersey. The U.S. Coast Guard closed the entire Port to all traffic before the...

  3. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  4. Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News ; Seasonal Climate Summary Archive The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season outlook is an official product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The outlook is

  5. Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    "Hurricane Sandy demonstrated the strengths and limits of the transportation infrastructure in New York City and the surrounding region. As a result of the timely and thorough preparations by New York City and the MTA, along with the actions of city ...

  6. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  7. Economic impacts of hurricanes on forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of the economic impacts of hurricanes on timber producers and consumers, offer a framework indicating how welfare impacts can be estimated using econometric estimates of timber price dynamics, and illustrate the advantages of using a welfare theoretic model, which includes (1) welfare estimates that are consistent with neo-classical...

  8. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  9. Using albedo to reform wind erosion modelling, mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion and dust emission models are used to assess the impacts of dust on radiative forcing in the atmosphere, cloud formation, nutrient fertilisation and human health. The models are underpinned by a two-dimensional geometric property (lateral cover; L) used to characterise the three-dimensional aerodynamic roughness (sheltered area or wakes) of the Earth's surface and calibrate the momentum it extracts from the wind. We reveal a fundamental weakness in L and demonstrate that values are an order of magnitude too small and significant aerodynamic interactions between roughness elements and their sheltered areas have been omitted, particularly under sparse surface roughness. We describe a solution which develops published work to establish a relation between sheltered area and the proportion of shadow over a given area; the inverse of direct beam directional hemispherical reflectance (black sky albedo; BSA). We show direct relations between shadow and wind tunnel measurements and thereby provide direct calibrations of key aerodynamic properties. Estimation of the aerodynamic parameters from albedo enables wind erosion assessments over areas, across platforms from the field to airborne and readily available satellite data. Our new approach demonstrated redundancy in existing wind erosion models and thereby reduced model complexity and improved fidelity. We found that the use of albedo enabled an adequate description of aerodynamic sheltering to characterise fluid dynamics and predict sediment transport without the use of a drag partition scheme (Rt) or threshold friction velocity (u∗t). We applied the calibrations to produce global maps of aerodynamic properties which showed very similar spatial patterns to each other and confirmed the redundancy in the traditional parameters of wind erosion modelling. We evaluated temporal patterns of predicted horizontal mass flux at locations across Australia which revealed variation between land cover types that would not

  10. POPULATION OF DOGS AND HOUSING CONDITIONS IN POLISH SHELTERS FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE DATA FROM THE SZCZECIN SHELTER FOR HOMELESS ANIMALS IN THE YEARS 2002 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    MAŁGORZATA PIERKO; MARCELINA GAIK

    2009-01-01

    The analysis included the state and the housing conditions in the shelter, the population of dogs, adoptions, euthanasias, castrations, deaths, escapes, the number of dogs rehomed by the original owners. The observations ascertained the trends regarding the homeless dogs in the shelter, the future prospects for the center and its rank among other animal shelters in Poland. The overpopulation problem was noted, and henceforth the the exceeding quantity of euthanized and dead cases. Another pro...

  11. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  12. Projecting the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests (1851-2100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.

    2009-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Estimates of the carbon emissions resulting from single storms range as high as ~100 Tg C, an amount equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink in forest trees. Recent studies have estimated the historic regional carbon emissions from hurricane activity using an empirically based approach. Here, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by maps of mortality and damage based on historic hurricane tracks and future scenarios to predict the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests. Model estimates compare well to previous empirically based estimates, with mean annual biomass loss of 26 Tg C yr-1 (range 0 to ~225 Tg C yr-1) resulting from hurricanes during the period 1851-2000. Using the mechanistic model, we are able to include the effects of both disturbance and recovery on the net carbon flux. We find a regional carbon sink throughout much of the 20th century resulting from forest recovery following a peak in hurricane activity during the late 19th century exceeding biomass loss. Recent increased hurricane activity has resulted in the region becoming a net carbon source. For the future, several recent studies have linked increased sea surface temperatures expected with climate change to increased hurricane activity. Based on these relationships, we investigate a range of scenarios of future hurricane activity and find the potential for substantial increases in emissions from hurricane mortality and reductions in regional carbon stocks. In our scenario with the largest increase in hurricane activity, we find a 35% increase in area disturbed by 2100, but due to the reduction of standing biomass, only a 20% increase in biomass loss per year. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and

  13. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  14. The Roles of Climate Change and Climate Variability in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kovach, Robin; Molod, Andrea M.; Pawson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    The 2017 hurricane season was extremely active with six major hurricanes, the third most on record. The sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) over the eastern Main Development Region (EMDR), where many tropical cyclones (TCs) developed during active months of August/September, were approximately 0.96 degrees Centigrade above the 1901-2017 average (warmest on record): about 0.42 degrees Centigrade from a long-term upward trend and the rest (around 80 percent) attributed to the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM). The contribution to the SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation over the EMDR was a weak warming, while that from ENSO was negligible. Nevertheless, ENSO, the NAO, and the AMM all contributed to favorable wind shear conditions, while the AMM also produced enhanced atmospheric instability. Compared with the strong hurricane years of 2005-2010, the ocean heat content (OHC) during 2017 was larger across the tropics, with higher SST anomalies over the EMDR and Caribbean Sea. On the other hand, the dynamical/thermodynamical atmospheric conditions, while favorable for enhanced TC activity, were less prominent than in 2005-2010 across the tropics. The results suggest that unusually warm SST in the EMDR together with the long fetch of the resulting storms in the presence of record-breaking OHC were key factors in driving the strong TC activity in 2017.

  15. Near-inertial motions in the DeSoto Canyon during Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Antoni; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hamilton, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Hurricane Georges passed directly over an array of 13 moorings deployed in the DeSoto Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico on 27-28 September 1998. Current velocity data from the mooring array were analyzed together with a primitive-equation model simulation with realistic hurricane forcing, to characterize the generation and propagation of the hurricane-generated near-inertial waves. The model successfully reproduces the observed mean (sub-inertial) and near-inertial motions. The upper ocean response is strongly impacted by the canyon 'wall': a strong jet is formed along the slope, and the near-inertial motions on the shelf are rapidly suppressed. The model results moreover suggest that strong near-inertial waves in the mixed layer are mostly trapped in an energy flux recirculating gyre around the canyon. This gyre retains the near-inertial energy in the canyon region and enhances the transfer of near-inertial energy below the mixed layer. Additional simulations with idealized topographies show that the presence of a steep slope rather than the canyon is fundamental for the generation of this recirculating gyre. The near-inertial wave energy budget shows that during the study period the wind generated an input of 6.79 × 10-2 Wm-2 of which about 1/3, or 2.43 × 10-2 Wm-2, was transferred below the mixed layer. The horizontal energy flux into and out of the canyon region, in contrast, was relatively weak.

  16. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  17. [Hurricane Paloma's effects on seagrasses along Jardines de la Reina Archipelago, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Zúñiga, Adán; Pina, Fabián; Matos, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Seagrasses are one of the most important coastal ecosystems since they promote organic matter flow, nutrient cycling, food availability and refuge. Until now, reports on damages caused by storms and hurricanes on seagrass beds are uncommon and highly variable. The seagrass meadows of the East end of Jardines de la Reina archipelago were surveyed from Nov. 29th to Dec. 5th of 2008, in order to determinate the effects from the passing of Hurricane Paloma: a category three storm on the Saffir-Simpsom scale. A rapid field assessment of the affected areas was carried out using the manta tow technique. In six sites, seagrass was quantitatively evaluated using a 15cm diameter core (four sampling units per site) and shoot density was calculated. Remote sensing techniques were used to estimate seagrass cover. To estimate the percentage of affected areas, a Region of Interest (ROI) was first created over a Landsat image. The percentage of seagrass affected within the ROI was estimated through direct georeferentiation of the contours of the damaged area and with a comparison to the total seagrass extension. To find possible explanations for damages, a false colour image was created using the near infrared band, to highlight the differences between emerged and submerged zones. The direction of winds was estimated using ArcGis 9.2 creating circular buffers, from the centre of the hurricane and generating lines tangent to the buffers. Seagrass in the region was dominated by the angiosperm Thalassia testudinum. Regional mean density was 1 321 +/- 721 shoots/m2, a value regarded as high for the Caribbean area. Seagrass meadows were partly affected by sediment accumulation on the shoots of T. testudinum and uprooting rhizomes. The 7.6 km2 disturbed area represented 1% of the total seagrass area. Other sites, closer to the centre of the hurricane, did not show any damages on the marine vegetation. The keys location with respect to the hurricane track was the most likely cause of the

  18. Mapping and Visualization of Storm-Surge Dynamics for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.

  19. Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree in protective shelters during establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree [Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch] whips in translucent tubelike shelters were investigated. In a container study, 1.2-m-high shelters were placed over whips following transplanting, then diurnal microclimate, water relations, and water use were measured. Shelter air temperature and vapor pressure were substantially higher, and solar radiation was 70% lower, than ambient conditions. Sheltered trees responded with nearly three-times higher stomatal conductance than nonsheltered trees. However, due to substantially lower boundary layer conductance created by the shelter, normalized water use was 40% lower. In a second experiment, same-sized shelters were placed on whips following spring transplanting in the field. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials and midday stomatal conductance (g(s)) were monitored periodically through the season, and growth was measured in late summer. Midday g(s) was also much higher in field-grown trees with shelters than in those without. Sheltered trees in the field had four times greater terminal shoot elongation but 40% less stem diameter growth. Attenuated radiation in the shelters and lower-specific leaf area of sheltered trees indicated shade acclimation. Shelters can improve height and reduce water loss during establishment in a field nursery, but they do not allow for sufficient trunk growth

  20. Training veterinary students in shelter medicine: a service-learning community-classroom technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.

  1. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  2. Performance of shelter in coal mines agains smoke problems. Konai taihisho no kemuri ni taisuru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, S.; Shikada, N.; Tanaka, M.; Kinoshita, M. (Coal Mine Safety Research Center, Kyushu, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-10-25

    Relation between a coal mine shelter and smoke was discussed. An enclosing method using combination of ceder boards and vinyl curtains affect greatly the amount of leaking air and the smoke entrance because of tightness of the vinyl curtains changing with temperatures and time. Rope curtains and air curtains show very little effect of preventing smoke from coming in. Upper levels in a shelter restrict the range of sight and have carbon monoxide in higher concentration, whereby people in the shelter are required to take a low posture. It is possible to block smoke and carbon monoxide from coming into a shelter at fire by means of keeping the shelter supplied with certain amount of pressurized air. The time required for smoke to enter a shelter is as relatively short as about 5 to 6 minutes, but 40 minutes or longer is required to discharge it, hence a shelter must be so devised that smoke can never enter it. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Storm Surge and Wave Impact of Low-Probability Hurricanes on the Lower Delaware Bay—Calibration and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes pose major threats to coastal communities and sensitive infrastructure, including nuclear power plants, located in the vicinity of hurricane-prone coastal regions. This study focuses on evaluating the storm surge and wave impact of low-probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay using the Delft3D dynamically coupled wave and flow model. The model comprised Overall and Nested domains. The Overall model domain encompassed portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay. The two-level Nested model domains encompassed the Delaware Estuary, its floodplain, and a portion of the continental shelf. Low-probability hurricanes are critical considerations in designing and licensing of new nuclear power plants as well as in establishing mitigating strategies for existing power facilities and other infrastructure types. The philosophy behind low-probability hurricane modeling is to establish reasonable water surface elevation and wave characteristics that have very low to no probability of being exceeded in the region. The area of interest (AOI is located on the west bank of Delaware Bay, almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. The model was first calibrated for Hurricane Isabel (2003 and then applied to synthetic hurricanes with very low probability of occurrence to establish the storm surge envelope at the AOI. The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations of water surface elevation, wind velocity, wave height, and wave period. A range of meteorological, storm track direction, and storm bearing parameters that produce the highest sustained wind speeds were estimated using the National Weather Service (NWS methodology and applied to the model. Simulations resulted in a maximum stillwater elevation and wave height of 7.5 m NAVD88 and 2.5 m, respectively, at the AOI. Comparison of results with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Coastal Comprehensive Study (USACE-NACCS storm surge

  4. Mapping potential carbon and timber losses from hurricanes using a decision tree and ecosystem services driver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delphin, S; Escobedo, F J; Abd-Elrahman, A; Cropper, W

    2013-11-15

    Information on the effect of direct drivers such as hurricanes on ecosystem services is relevant to landowners and policy makers due to predicted effects from climate change. We identified forest damage risk zones due to hurricanes and estimated the potential loss of 2 key ecosystem services: aboveground carbon storage and timber volume. Using land cover, plot-level forest inventory data, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, and a decision tree-based framework; we determined potential damage to subtropical forests from hurricanes in the Lower Suwannee River (LS) and Pensacola Bay (PB) watersheds in Florida, US. We used biophysical factors identified in previous studies as being influential in forest damage in our decision tree and hurricane wind risk maps. Results show that 31% and 0.5% of the total aboveground carbon storage in the LS and PB, respectively was located in high forest damage risk (HR) zones. Overall 15% and 0.7% of the total timber net volume in the LS and PB, respectively, was in HR zones. This model can also be used for identifying timber salvage areas, developing ecosystem service provision and management scenarios, and assessing the effect of other drivers on ecosystem services and goods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design professional units on maternity home of teens sheltered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Garcia Penna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory descriptive study describes the view of government shelters’ professionals regarding pregnancy in institutionalized adolescents and discusses the acting of such professionals to support the construction of a healthy motherhood in this population group. In an investigation performed between December 2009 and January 2010, contents of the reports of six professionals that took care of them in the circles of Community Therapy sheltered adolescents were analyzed. According to the view of such professionals, motherhood in institutionalized adolescents is something precocious and harmful, resultant of the immaturity of those young mothers, and because of that, their schooling process has to be interrupted. The actions of these professionals alternates between social reintegration and care with the motherhood of the adolescents. The dialogical action, the "problematization" concerning motherhood, as well as reproductive, sexual health and family planning are strategies proposed to reach health promotion among sheltered adolescents.

  6. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  7. Counselling and Psychological Services for Clients at the Shelter Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Fonferová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The paper is dealing with a psychological approach to the work with families and their children at a shelter home. It describes the circumstances and conditions for the work in the specific socio-therapeutic environment of the Horni Pocernice Shelter Home. The main research question - 'What are the options of psychological intervention and psychotherapeutic work with clients in the scope of services offered by the shelter home in Horni Pocernice'- works with the hypopaper that psychology and psychotherapy have their place within and next to social services. For clients who use services of this shelter home is this work essential and contributes to better understanding of their life situation and their social relations. Effectivity of psychological work in the environment of a shelter home is in a great deal connected to its acceptance, inner belief and understanding of its real possibilities by every single social worker. Lack of understanding, distorted expectations both on the side of social workers and psychologists complicate or even prevent psychotherapeutic work with clients for whom the requirements and demands of social workers are determining during their stay. Methods: This paper is based on the design of ethnographic field research. Empirical design of this research is defined by the premises of the shelter home and the time period from 2007 to 2012. Therapeutic possibilities of clients are examined from the position of psychologist and psychotherapist of this centre who offers his/her services once a week for about 5 to 7 hours. The research sample was being created during the collection of data in the examined period and its analysis when it was early established with respect to the research question that all available cases typical for full collection will be included (there were 646 clients in the examined period. Results: The answer to the main research question concerns two variables which are related to each other. The

  8. Homeless health needs: shelter and health service provider perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Alicia J; Secor-Turner, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The effects of homelessness on health are well documented, although less is known about the challenges of health care delivery from the perspective of service providers. Using data from a larger health needs assessment, the purpose of this study was to describe homeless health care needs and barriers to access utilizing qualitative data collected from shelter staff (n = 10) and health service staff (n = 14). Shelter staff members described many unmet health needs and barriers to health care access, and discussed needs for other supportive services in the area. Health service providers also described multiple health and service needs, and the need for a recuperative care setting for this population. Although a variety of resources are currently available for homeless health service delivery, barriers to access and gaps in care still exist. Recommendations for program planning are discussed and examined in the context of contributing factors and health care reform.

  9. Experimental studies of radioactive new formations of object 'Shelter'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, A.S.; Kuz'mina, I.E.; Tkach, V.N.; Tokarevskij, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical and phase composition of radioactive new-formations of object 'Shelter ' have been experimentally studied by the X-ray and local electronic probe methods of the substance analysis. Leaching of uranium is shown to be a result of attack by alkali-carbonate solutions, migration of uranium take place in the form of double alkali-carbonate system Na 4 [U O 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ]. Carbonates, sulphates, halite and probably sulphates-carbonates were found in the mineral association of new-formations. A hypothesis of formation of sodium uranyltetracarbonate Na 6 (U O 2 )(CO 3 ) 4 , under conditions of object 'Shelter' which was not described in scientific literature before has been advanced

  10. Effectiveness and risks associated with sheltering and evacuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, A.; McKenna, T.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have assessed the risks and benefits associated with evacuation and sheltering following a severe reactor accident. In the case of a severe accident and the associated uncertainties with the source term and containment behaviour, these assessments suggest that prompt evacuation of areas close to the plant offers the highest protection of the public against acute doses. Sheltering may be used as an alternative in special circumstances where evacuation may not be feasible. The source term associated with reactor accidents and containment failure mechanism affect the effectiveness of different protective measures. A comparison of different protective measures is made and results discussed. (Author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Faecal virome of cats in an animal shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Pesavento, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the metagenomics-derived feline enteric virome in the faeces of 25 cats from a single shelter in California. More than 90 % of the recognizable viral reads were related to mammalian viruses and the rest to bacterial viruses. Eight viral families were detected: Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Caliciviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Six previously known viruses were also identified: feline coronavirus type 1, felid herpes 1, feline calicivirus, feline norovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and picobirnavirus. Novel species of astroviruses and bocaviruses, and the first genome of a cyclovirus in a feline were characterized. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region from four highly divergent partial viral genomes in the order Picornavirales were sequenced. The detection of such a diverse collection of viruses shed within a single shelter suggested that such animals experience robust viral exposures. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in cats, facilitating future evaluation of their pathogenic and zoonotic potentials. PMID:25078300

  12. Decision Science Perspectives on Hurricane Vulnerability: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Atlantic Hurricane Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Milch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field has seen great advances in hurricane prediction and response, the economic toll from hurricanes on U.S. communities continues to rise. We present data from Hurricanes Earl (2010, Irene (2011, Isaac (2012, and Sandy (2012 to show that individual and household decisions contribute to this vulnerability. From phone surveys of residents in communities threatened by impending hurricanes, we identify five decision biases or obstacles that interfere with residents’ ability to protect themselves and minimize property damage: (1 temporal and spatial myopia, (2 poor mental models of storm risk, (3 gaps between objective and subjective probability estimates, (4 prior storm experience, and (5 social factors. We then discuss ways to encourage better decision making and reduce the economic and emotional impacts of hurricanes, using tools such as decision defaults (requiring residents to opt out of precautions rather than opt in and tailoring internet-based forecast information so that it is local, specific, and emphasizes impacts rather than probability.

  13. ON THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ATLANTIC HURRICANE FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Hosseini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane’s intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR. The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82. In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  14. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  15. Cooling a telecommunication shelter using mini-eolic technology

    OpenAIRE

    García Cipolletti, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Refrigeration nowadays is needed in many applications throughout different sectors. Especially in electronic components where material temperature raises considerably and cooling is necessary in order to maintain the optimal working conditions for its correct function. Telecommunication shelters are no exception, and high temperatures are reached in their components. Therefore, there is an important develop to be done in this sector in order to reduce costs of energy for this process. In this...

  16. LEED AND THE DESIGN/BUILD EXPERIENCE: A SHELTER FOR HOMELESS FAMILIES RETURNING TO POST-KATRINA NEW ORLEANS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Verderber

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina displaced nearly one million citizens from the New Orleans metro region in 2005. Five years after the catastrophe, in August of 2010, more than 150,000 citizens remained scattered across the United States. Katrina was the largest Diaspora in the nation’s history. The number of homes damaged or destroyed by Katrina’s devastation numbered more than 125,000. An award-winning case study is presented of a unique partnership forged between academia, a local social service agency, professional architectural and engineering firms, and a national humanitarian aid organization whose mission is to provide affordable housing for homeless persons in transition. This collaboration resulted in a sustainable design/build project that originated in a research-based university design studio. The facility is a 38-bed family shelter for homeless mothers and their children seeking to rebuild their lives in post-Katrina New Orleans. The site for this 4,400 facility did not flood when the city’s federally built levee system failed in 2005. This case study is presented from its inception, to programming and design, construction, occupancy, and the postoccupancy assessment of the completed building. This facility is the first LEED certified (Silver building in New Orleans. Project limitations, lessons learned, and recommendations for future initiatives of this type are discussed, particularly in the context of any inner urban community coping with the aftermath of an urban disaster.

  17. Evolution of Subjective Hurricane Risk Perceptions: A Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    David Kelly; David Letson; Forest Nelson; David S. Nolan; Daniel Solis

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how individuals update subjective risk perceptions in response to hurricane track forecast information, using a unique data set from an event market, the Hurricane Futures Market (HFM). We derive a theoretical Bayesian framework which predicts how traders update their perceptions of the probability of a hurricane making landfall in a certain range of coastline. Our results suggest that traders behave in a way consistent with Bayesian updating but this behavior is based on t...

  18. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-04-09

    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  19. Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.

  20. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft-and Satellite-based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on Wind Analyses and Numerical Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, TImothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Chen, Shuyi; Jones, Linwood; Ruf, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric; Gamache, John; Amarin, Ruba; El-Nimri, Salem; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRAD is being designed to enhance the realtime airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft currently using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRAD will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a detailed numerical model, and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRAD instrument on H*Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future time the HIRAD instrument is implemented. Also shown will be preliminary results of numerical weather prediction OSSEs in which the impact of the addition of HIRAD observations to the initial state on numerical forecasts of the hurricane intensity and structure is assessed.

  1. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  2. Performance of Oil Infrastructure during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, C.; Kameshwar, S.; Padgett, J.

    2017-12-01

    Three major refining centers - Corpus Christi, Houston, and Beaumont/Port Arthur - were affected during Hurricane Harvey. Damage to oil infrastructure, especially aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), caused the release of more than a million gallons of hazardous chemicals in the environment. The objective of this presentation is to identify and gain a better understanding of the different damage mechanisms that occurred during Harvey in order to avoid similar failures during future hurricane events. First, a qualitative description of the damage suffered by ASTs during Hurricane Harvey is presented. Analysis of aerial imagery and incident reports indicate that almost all spills were caused by rainfall and the associated flooding. The largest spill was caused by two large ASTs that floated due to flooding in the Houston Ship Channel releasing 500,000 gallons of gasoline. The vulnerability of ASTs subjected to flooding was already well known and documented from previous storm events. In addition to flooding, Harvey also exposed the vulnerability of ASTs with external floating roof to extreme rainfall; more than 15 floating roofs sank or tilted due to rain water accumulation on them, releasing pollutants in the atmosphere. Secondly, recent fragility models developed by the authors are presented which allow structural vulnerability assessment of floating roofs during rainfall events and ASTs during flood events. The fragility models are then coupled with Harvey rainfall and flood empirical data to identify the conditions (i.e.: internal liquid height or density, drainage system design and efficiency, etc.) that could have led to the observed failures during Hurricane Harvey. Finally, the conditions causing tank failures are studied to propose mitigation measures to prevent future AST failures during severe storm, flood, or rainfall events.

  3. The process of homelessness: an event history analysis of length of stay for the Groningen shelter accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernee, H.; Oldersma, F.; Popping, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the process of shelter exits for homeless individuals and for different shelter types in the public shelter system in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Individualised administrative data from the Groningen Homelessness Monitor (2003–2006) are used for estimating a Weibull hazard rate regression model. Results show that the different shelter types fit adequately with their policy purposes : lengths of stay in emergency shelter accommodation appear to be shorter than...

  4. Planning Emergency Shelters for Urban Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Location-Allocation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijun Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extreme natural hazards threaten cities more than ever due to contemporary society’s high vulnerability in cities. Hence, local governments need to implement risk mitigation and disaster operation management to enhance disaster resilience in cities. Transforming existing open spaces within cities into emergency shelters is an effective method of providing essential life support and an agent of recovery in the wake of disasters. Emergency shelters planning must identify suitable locations for shelters and reasonably allocate evacuees to those shelters. In this paper, we first consider both the buildings’ post-disaster condition and the human choice factor that affect evacuees’ decision, and propose a forecasting method to estimate the time-varying shelter demand. Then we formulate an integrated location-allocation model that is used sequentially: an emergency shelter location model to satisfy the time-varying shelter demand in a given urban area with a goal of minimizing the total setup cost of locating the shelters and an allocation model that allocates the evacuees to shelters with a goal of minimizing their total evacuation distance. We also develop an efficient algorithm to solve the model. Finally, we propose an emergency shelters planning based on a case study of Shanghai, China.

  5. Improving radiation worker safety at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Korneev, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Shelter (i.e. 'sarcophagus') enclosing the remains of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 that was destroyed in the April 1986 accident presents a unique radiological and nuclear safety challenge. The Chomobyl Shelter holds over 190 tons of irradiated nuclear fuel in the form of lava fuel containing masses and dust. Hazards include very high radiation, surface contamination and transient airborne radioactivity concentrations. A state-of-the-art radiation protection program is needed to support international efforts stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter, reduce the potential for major structural failure, minimize the consequences of a such an event, and develop a long-term strategy and study for its conversion into an environmentally safe site. This project consists of the first phase of efforts to transfer health physics technology necessary to support stabilization of the Chornobyl Shelter. Technical specifications for each major system and component were jointly developed by staff from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Chornobyl Shelter. Major elements of this technology transfer include equipment for external dose control (electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system, portable radiation survey instruments, and area radiation monitors), internal dose control (whole body counter, bioassay system design and technical support), health physics training, and other radiological technical support. A work planning system that includes the capability to collect data such as radiological surveys, photographs, video clips, and other data, was developed from a system demonstrated at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. An access control system similar to one used at several commercial nuclear facilities in the U.S. was converted for bilingual support (Russian and English). Technology for improving contamination control includes HEPA-ventilation and vacuum cleaner systems, semi-permanent and portable

  6. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Jayakaran; T. M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D. M. Amatya; B. Song; C. C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a rev...

  7. The effects of Hurricane Hugo on suspended-sediment loads, Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the two main tributaries that enter Lago Loiza, Rio Grande de Loiza and Rio Gurabo, 99 600 tonnes of suspended sediment was transported by 58.2??106 m3 of runoff in a 48 h period. The storm-average suspended-sediment concentration in the Rio Grande de Loiza for Hurricane Hugo was 2290 mgl-1, the second lowest for the 12 storms that have been monitored at this site. In Rio Gurabo the storm-average suspended-sediment concentration was 1420 mg l -1, the sixth lowest recorded out of 15 monitored storms. In Quebrada Salvatierra, a small tributary to Rio Grande de Loiza, suspended-sediment concentrations were as low as 33 mg l-1 during peak runoff of 20m3s-1. Normally the suspended-sediment concentrations at this discharge are 300 mg l-1. Hurricane force winds seem to be the most important factor contributing to the lower than expected suspended-sediment loads. High winds caused vegetation and debris to be dislodged and displaced. Debris accumulated on hillslopes and in small channels, blocked bridges and formed debris dams. These dams caused local backwater effects that reduced stream velocities and decreased suspended-sediment loads. -from Author

  8. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  9. Documentation and hydrologic analysis of Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey, October 29–30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro, Thomas P.; Deetz, Anna; Hearn, Paul

    2016-11-17

    In 2012, a late season tropical depression developed into a tropical storm and later a hurricane. The hurricane, named “Hurricane Sandy,” gained strength to a Category 3 storm on October 25, 2012, and underwent several transitions on its approach to the mid-Atlantic region of the eastern coast of the United States. By October 28, 2012, Hurricane Sandy had strengthened into the largest hurricane ever recorded in the North Atlantic and was tracking parallel to the east coast of United States, heading toward New Jersey. On October 29, 2012, the storm turned west-northwest and made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. The high winds and wind-driven storm surge caused massive damage along the entire coastline of New Jersey. Millions of people were left without power or communication networks. Many homes were completely destroyed. Sand dunes were eroded, and the barrier island at Mantoloking was breached, connecting the ocean with Barnegat Bay.Several days before the storm made landfall in New Jersey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made a decision to deploy a temporary network of storm-tide sensors and barometric pressure sensors from Virginia to Maine to supplement the existing USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent tide monitoring stations. After the storm made landfall, the USGS conducted a sensor data recovery and high-water-mark collection campaign in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Peak storm-tide elevations documented at USGS tide gages, tidal crest-stage gages, temporary storm sensor locations, and high-water-mark sites indicate the area from southern Monmouth County, N.J., north through Raritan Bay, N.J., had the highest peak storm-tide elevations during this storm. The USGS tide gages at Raritan River at South Amboy and Raritan Bay at Keansburg, part of the New Jersey Tide Telemetry System, each recorded peak storm-tide elevations of greater than 13 feet (ft)—more than 5 ft

  10. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  11. Sensitivity analysis to aid shelter management decisions: how does altering expenditure affect operational viability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Lord, Emily; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Streamlining purchasing in nonhuman animal shelters can provide multiple financial benefits. Streamlining shelter inputs and thus reducing shelter costs can include trading paid labor and management for fewer, more involved volunteers or purchasing large quantities of medical supplies from fewer vendors to take advantage of bulk-purchasing discounts. Beyond direct savings, time and energy spent on purchasing and inventory control can be reduced through careful management. Although cost-cutting measures may seem attractive, shelter managers are cautioned to consider the potential unintended consequences of short-term cost reduction measures that could limit revenues or increase costs in the future. This analysis illustrates an example of the impact of cost reductions in specific expense categories and the impact on shelter net revenue, as well as the share of expenses across categories. An in-depth discussion of labor and purchasing cost-reducing strategies in the real world of animal shelter management is provided.

  12. Attribution of extreme rainfall from Hurricane Harvey, August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van der Wiel, Karin; Sebastian, Antonia; Singh, Roop; Arrighi, Julie; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; Li, Sihan; Vecchi, Gabriel; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-12-01

    During August 25-30, 2017, Hurricane Harvey stalled over Texas and caused extreme precipitation, particularly over Houston and the surrounding area on August 26-28. This resulted in extensive flooding with over 80 fatalities and large economic costs. It was an extremely rare event: the return period of the highest observed three-day precipitation amount, 1043.4 mm 3dy-1 at Baytown, is more than 9000 years (97.5% one-sided confidence interval) and return periods exceeded 1000 yr (750 mm 3dy-1) over a large area in the current climate. Observations since 1880 over the region show a clear positive trend in the intensity of extreme precipitation of between 12% and 22%, roughly two times the increase of the moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere expected for 1 °C warming according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This would indicate that the moisture flux was increased by both the moisture content and stronger winds or updrafts driven by the heat of condensation of the moisture. We also analysed extreme rainfall in the Houston area in three ensembles of 25 km resolution models. The first also shows 2 × CC scaling, the second 1 × CC scaling and the third did not have a realistic representation of extreme rainfall on the Gulf Coast. Extrapolating these results to the 2017 event, we conclude that global warming made the precipitation about 15% (8%-19%) more intense, or equivalently made such an event three (1.5-5) times more likely. This analysis makes clear that extreme rainfall events along the Gulf Coast are on the rise. And while fortifying Houston to fully withstand the impact of an event as extreme as Hurricane Harvey may not be economically feasible, it is critical that information regarding the increasing risk of extreme rainfall events in general should be part of the discussion about future improvements to Houston’s flood protection system.

  13. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  14. Effects of Prior Experience on Shelter-Seeking Behavior of Juvenile American Lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Skylar R; Bianchi, Katherine M; Atema, Jelle; Jacobs, Molly W

    2017-04-01

    Shelter-seeking behaviors are vital for survival for a range of juvenile benthic organisms. These behaviors may be innate or they may be affected by prior experience. After hatching, American lobsters Homarus americanus likely first come into contact with shelter during the late postlarval (decapodid) stage, known as stage IV. After the subsequent molt to the first juvenile stage (stage V), they are entirely benthic and are thought to be highly cryptic. We hypothesized that postlarval (stage IV) experience with shelter would carry over into the first juvenile stage (stage V) and reduce the time needed for juveniles to locate and enter shelters (sheltering). We found some evidence of a carryover effect, but not the one we predicted: stage V juveniles with postlarval shelter experience took significantly longer to initiate sheltering. We also hypothesized that stage V juveniles would demonstrate learning by relocating shelters more quickly with immediate prior experience. Our findings were mixed. In a maze, juveniles with immediate prior experience were faster to regain visual contact with shelter, suggesting that they had learned the location of the shelter. In contrast, there was no significant effect of immediate prior experience on time to initiate sheltering in an open arena, or in the maze after juveniles had regained visual contact. We conclude that very young (stage V) juvenile lobsters modify their shelter-seeking behavior based on prior experiences across several timescales. Ecologically relevant variation in habitat exposure among postlarval and early juvenile lobsters may influence successful recruitment in this culturally and commercially important fishery species.

  15. Inventory assessment and determination of properties of dust contamination in the Shelter under-roof space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental results on study of radionuclide contamination of surfaces under the roof of Shelter have been analyzed. Values of 'loose' and fixed fuel contamination densities and aerodynamic diameters of dust particles capable of resuspension are obtained. Long term efficiency of dust suppression system under the Shelter roof has been estimated. On the base of retrospective analysis of the results, fuel dust inventory on the surfaces under the Shelter roof was evaluated. 14 refs., 5 tab., 3 figs

  16. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  17. Using High-Resolution Imagery to Characterize Disturbance from Hurricane Irma in South Florida Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Cook, B.; Fatoyinbo, T.; Morton, D. C.; Montesano, P.; Neigh, C. S. R.; Wooten, M.; Gaiser, E.; Troxler, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Irma, one of the strongest hurricanes recorded in the Atlantic, first made landfall in the Florida Keys before coming ashore in southwestern Florida near Everglades National Park (ENP) on September 9th and 10th of this year. Strong winds and storm surge impacted a 100+ km stretch of the southern Florida Gulf Coast, resulting in extensive damages to coastal and inland ecosystems. Impacts from previous catastrophic storms in the region have led to irreversible changes to vegetation communities and in some areas, ecosystem collapse. The processes that drive coastal wetland vulnerability and resilience are largely a function of the severity of the impact to forest structure and ground elevation. Remotely sensed imagery plays an important role in measuring changes to the landscape, particularly for extensive and inaccessible regions like the mangroves in ENP. We have estimated changes in coastal vegetation structure and soil elevation using a combination of repeat measurements from ground, airborne, and satellite platforms. At the ground level, we used before and after Structure-from-Motion models to capture the change in below canopy structure as result of stem breakage and fallen branches. Using airborne imagery collected before and after Hurricane Irma by Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral, and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager, we measured the change in forest structure and soil elevation. This unique data acquisition covered an area over 130,000 ha in regions most heavily impacted storm surge. Lastly, we also combined commercial and NASA satellite Earth observations to measure forest structural changes across the entire South Florida coast. An analysis of long-term observations from the Landsat data archive highlights the heterogeneity of hurricane and other environmental disturbances along the Florida coast. These findings captured coastal disturbance legacies that have the potential to influence the trajectory of mangrove resilience and vulnerability

  18. Avifauna response to hurricanes: regional changes in community similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon; Thomas P. Albright; Patrick D. Culbert; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Chengquan Huang; Jeffrey G. Masek; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Global climate models predict increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as hurricanes, which may abruptly alter ecological processes in forests and thus affect avian diversity. Developing appropriate conservation measures necessitates identifying patterns of avifauna response to hurricanes. We sought to answer two questions: (1) does...

  19. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  20. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  1. Post-hurricane forest damage assessment using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu; J.A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    This study developed a rapid assessment algorithm for post-hurricane forest damage estimation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. The performance of five commonly used vegetation indices as post-hurricane forest damage indicators was investigated through statistical analysis. The Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) was...

  2. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  3. Resilience of Professional Counselors Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simone F.; Lawson, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Professional counselors who provided services to those affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita completed the K6+ (screen for severe mental illness), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Results indicated that participants who survived the hurricanes had higher levels of posttraumatic growth than…

  4. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  5. A Climatological Study of Hurricane Force Extratropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    extratropical cyclone by months in the Pacific basin. Most of the storms occur from October through March...hurricane force extratropical cyclone. Starting from left to right; the first column is the storm name, second column is the year, month, day, hour (UTC...2000 through 2007 illustrates that the number of hurricane-force extratropical cyclones is quite significant: approximately 500 storms , nearly evenly

  6. Teacher Guidelines for Helping Students after a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Being in a hurricane can be very frightening, and the days, weeks, and months following the storm can be very stressful. Most families recover over time, especially with the support of relatives, friends, and their community. But different families may have different experiences during and after a hurricane, and how long it takes them to recover…

  7. Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets for surface layer cooling induced by the passage of Hurricane Frances (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peisheng; Sanford, Thomas B.; Imberger, JöRg

    2009-12-01

    Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets of the ocean surface layer during the passage of Hurricane Frances were examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In situ data obtained with the Electromagnetic-Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats were used to set up the initial conditions of the model simulation and to compare to the simulation results. The spatial heat budgets reveal that during the hurricane passage, not only the entrainment in the bottom of surface mixed layer but also the horizontal water advection were important factors determining the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. At the free surface, the hurricane-brought precipitation contributed a negligible amount to the air-sea heat exchange, but the precipitation produced a negative buoyancy flux in the surface layer that overwhelmed the instability induced by the heat loss to the atmosphere. Integrated over the domain within 400 km of the hurricane eye on day 245.71 of 2004, the rate of heat anomaly in the surface water was estimated to be about 0.45 PW (1 PW = 1015 W), with about 20% (0.09 PW in total) of this was due to the heat exchange at the air-sea interface, and almost all the remainder (0.36 PW) was downward transported by oceanic vertical mixing. Shear production was the major source of turbulent kinetic energy amounting 88.5% of the source of turbulent kinetic energy, while the rest (11.5%) was attributed to the wind stirring at sea surface. The increase of ocean potential energy due to vertical mixing represented 7.3% of the energy deposited by wind stress.

  8. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  9. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this ‘no-kill policy’ has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001. The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  10. Instrumentation requirements for radiological defense of the U.S. population in community shelters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, C.M.; Gant, K.S.

    1978-08-01

    Estimates are made of requirements for instruments for radiological defense of the U.S. population in the event of a nuclear attack. A detailed Community Shelter Plan posture is developed for each of 42,000 Standard Location Areas. Travel distance from residence to shelter in urban areas is limited to approximately 1 mile. Sixty percent of the U.S. population is sheltered in home basements, thirty-one percent in National Shelter Survey shelters, and nine percent is in neither. Three minimum allocations of instruments are developed. Allocation A, one radiological defense set per shelter, is essentially the same as the current civil defense allocations but is found to be inadequate for about 100,000 shelters having more than 100 occupants. Allocation B requires 3.4 million new dosimeters based on estimated shelter occupancy and provides a minimum instrumentation for radiological defense but not enough instruments to maintain individual dose records. Allocation C would require 18.1 million new dosimeters and would provide adequate instrumentation to maintain dose records for all shelter occupants

  11. Workplace Field Characterisation at Chernobyl Unit 4 Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.; Volosky, V.; Shylo, S.; Chernyshov, G.; Dmitrienko, A.; Rozumny, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: When assessment of effective dose is required, radiation field needs to be characterised in terms of energy spectrum and geometry of exposure. Prior to application of pre-calculated (e.g. ICRP 74) or site-specific conversion coefficients, one need to demonstrate compliance with one of standard irradiation geometries and determine appropriate energy (or energy spectrum). Particular conditions of the entombment of Chernobyl Unit 4 (Object 'Shelter') high dose rate fields, complex source-target geometry, presence of heavy shielding structures and, as a result, significant scattered component in radiation field make application of conventional area monitoring instruments like in situ spectrometers complicated if possible at all. Unique techniques and devices were developed for workplace field characterisation at Object 'Shelter'. The set of devices includes passive spectrometric system, which makes use of simultaneous exposing several TLD detectors placed inside spherical attenuators (principle much similar to Bonner sphere neutron spectroscopy). Deconvolution of gamma spectra is performed through solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. Geometry of irradiation at given workplace is determined by TLD detectors placed in the six-vector collimator. This simple device allows determination of anisotropy of radiation field, both horizontal and vertical. Another design incorporates portable gamma spectrometer with 1'x2' NaI detector placed in the specially designed lead-copper collimator with aperture compatible with the one of the described above six-vector passive system. The discussed experimental set-up was extensively tested in various locations within Object 'Shelter'. Results of both energy spectrum and exposure geometry characterisation demonstrated feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  12. Shelter-based palliative care for the homeless terminally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Coyle, Doug

    2006-03-01

    The homeless have high rates of mortality, but live in environments not conducive to terminal care. Traditional palliative care hospitals may be reluctant to accept such patients, due to behavior or lifestyle concerns. The Ottawa Inner City Health Project (OICHP) is a pilot study to improve health care delivery to homeless adults. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of terminally ill homeless individuals and the effectiveness of shelter-based palliative care. As proof of principle, a cost comparison was performed. 28 consecutive homeless terminally ill patients were admitted and died at a shelter-based palliative care hospice. Demographics, diagnoses at admission and course were recorded. Burden of illness was assessed by medical and psychiatric diagnoses, addictions, Karnofsky scale and symptom management. An expert panel was convened to identify alternate care locations. Using standard costing scales, direct versus alternate care costs were compared. 28 patients had a mean age 49 years; average length of stay 120 days. DIAGNOSES: liver disease 43%, HIV/AIDS 25%, malignancy 25% and other 8%. Addiction to drugs or alcohol and mental illness in 82% of patients. Karnofsky performance score mean 40 +/- 16.8. Pain management with continuous opiates in 71%. The majority reunited with family. Compared to alternate care locations, the hospice projected 1.39 million dollars savings for the patients described. The homeless terminally ill have a heavy burden of disease including physical illness, psychiatric conditions and addictions. Shelter-based palliative care can provide effective end-of-life care to terminally ill homeless individuals at potentially substantial cost savings.

  13. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  14. The strategy of the shelter implementation plan (SIP) performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'ko, V.N.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' (SIP) was developed it's purpose was to transform Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP into the ecologically safe system. The Plan was developed by common efforts of the Ukrainian scientists, CES representatives and experts from the United States of America. The fact that there are no nuclear and radiation safety criteria for the projects will result into the situation when different designers might use within the various project tasks various design criteria. Till now o exact date for the constructions stabilization activities has been defined, and it creates a kind of on definiteness while developing the Radioactive Waste Management strategy and Safe Confinement

  15. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  16. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  17. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  18. Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the

  19. A Risk-Based Approach to Shelter Resilience following Flood and Typhoon Damage in Rural Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stephenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is exposed to numerous typhoons every year, each of which poses a potential threat to livelihoods, shelter, and in some cases life. Flooding caused by such events leads to extensive damage to land and buildings, and the impact on rural communities can be severe. The global community is calling for action to address and achieve disaster risk reduction for communities and people exposed to such events. Achieving this requires an understanding of the nature of the risks that flooding and typhoons pose to these communities and their homes. This paper presents the findings from a field based case study assessment of three rural settlements in the Philippines, where typhoons and associated flooding in recent years has caused significant damage to houses and livelihoods, leading to the reconstruction of homes that more often than not reproduce similar structural vulnerabilities as were there before these hazards occurred. This work presents a methodology for risk assessment of such structures profiling the flood and wind hazards and measuring physical vulnerability and the experience of communities affected. The aim of the work is to demonstrate a method for identifying risks in these communities, and seeks to address the challenge faced by practitioners of assisting communities in rebuilding their homes in more resilient ways. The work set out here contributes to the discussion about how best to enable practitioners and communities to achieve the sought for risk reduction and especially highlights the role that geoscience and engineering can have in achieving this ambition.

  20. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  1. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  2. Disentangling factors that control the vulnerability of forests to catastrophic wind damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracup, E.; Taylor, A.; MacLean, D.; Boulanger, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Wind is an important driver of forest dynamics along North America's north-eastern coastal forests, but also damages many commercially managed forests which society relies as an important source of wood fiber. Although the influence of wind on north-eastern forests is well recognized, knowledge of factors predisposing trees to wind damage is less known, especially in the context of large, powerful wind storm events. This is of particular concern as climate change is expected to alter the frequency and severity of strong wind storms affecting this region. On 29 September 2003, Hurricane Juan made landfall over Nova Scotia, Canada as a Category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 158 km/h, and gusts of up to 185 km/h. Hurricane Juan variously damaged a swath of over 600,000 ha of forest. The damaged forest area was surveyed using aerial photography and LandSAT imagery and categorized according to level of wind damage sustained (none, low, moderate, severe) at a resolution of 15 x 15 m square cells. We used Random Forest to analyze and compare level of wind damage in each cell with a myriad of abiotic (exposure, depth to water table, soil composition, etc.) and biotic (tree species composition, canopy closure, canopy height, etc.) factors known or expected to predispose trees to windthrow. From our analysis, we identified topographic exposure, precipitation, and maximum gust speed as the top predictors of windthrow during Hurricane Juan. To our surprise, forest stand factors, such as tree species composition and height, had minimal effects on level of windthrow. These results can be used to construct predictive risk maps which can help society to assess the vulnerability of forests to future wind storm events.

  3. Magnitude and correlates of bird collisions at glass bus shelters in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christine M; Riding, Corey S; Loss, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife residing in urban landscapes face many human-related threats to their survival. For birds, collision with glass on manmade structures has been identified as a major hazard, causing hundreds of millions of avian fatalities in North America every year. Although research has investigated factors associated with bird-glass collision mortality at buildings, no prior studies have focused on bird fatalities at glass-walled bus shelters. Our objectives in this study were to describe the magnitude of bird-bus shelter collisions in the city of Stillwater, Oklahoma and assess potential predictors of collision risk, including characteristics of shelters (glass area) and surrounding land cover (e.g., vegetative features). We surveyed for bird carcasses and indirect collision evidence at 18 bus shelters over a five-month period. Linear regression and model selection results revealed that the amount of glass on shelters and the area of lawn within 50 m of shelters were both positively related to fatal bird collisions; glass area was also positively associated with observations of collision evidence on glass surfaces. After accounting for scavenger removal of carcasses, we estimate that a minimum of 34 birds are killed each year between May and September by collision with the 36 bus shelters in the city of Stillwater. While our study provides an initial look at bird fatalities at bus shelters, additional research is needed to generate a large-scale estimate of collision mortality and to assess species composition of fatalities at a national scale. Designing new bus shelters to include less glass and retrofitting existing shelters to increase visibility of glass to birds will likely reduce fatal bird collisions at bus shelters and thus reduce the cumulative magnitude of anthropogenic impacts to birds in cities.

  4. Hurricane Matthew (2016) and its Storm Surge Inundation under Global Warming Scenarios: Application of an Interactively Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisan, M. A.; Bao, S.; Pietrafesa, L.; Pullen, J.

    2017-12-01

    An interactively coupled atmosphere-ocean model was used to investigate the impacts of future ocean warming, both at the surface and the layers below, on the track and intensity of a hurricane and its associated storm surge and inundation. The category-5 hurricane Matthew (2016), which made landfall on the South Carolina coast of the United States, was used for the case study. Future ocean temperature changes and sea level rise (SLR) were estimated based on the projection of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. After being validated with the present-day observational data, the model was applied to simulate the changes in track, intensity, storm surge and inundation that Hurricane Matthew would cause under future climate change scenarios. It was found that a significant increase in hurricane intensity, storm surge water level, and inundation area for Hurricane Matthew under future ocean warming and SLR scenarios. For example, under the RCP 8.5 scenario, the maximum wind speed would increase by 17 knots (14.2%), the minimum sea level pressure would decrease by 26 hPa (2.85%), and the inundated area would increase by 401 km2 (123%). By including the effect of SLR for the middle-21st-century scenario, the inundated area will further increase by up to 49.6%. The increase in the hurricane intensity and the inundated area was also found for the RCP 2.6 scenario. The response of sea surface temperature was analyzed to investigate the change in intensity. A comparison was made between the impacts when only the sea surface warming is considered versus when both the sea surface and the underneath layers are considered. These results showed that even without the effect of SLR, the storm surge level and the inundated area would be higher due to the increased hurricane intensity under the influence of the future warmer ocean temperature. The coupled effect of ocean warming and SLR would cause the

  5. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public

  6. An Ecocritical Reading of Paul Bowles's The Sheltering Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sheikhzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are not simply something objective and unchallenged out there but the work of the mind made by the strata of memory. This paper attempts to show that an ecocritical reading of Paul Bowles’s The Sheltering Sky (1949 helps one in better understanding of this novel of post-colonial alienation and existential despair. Bowles is an American writer and a composer who is undoubtedly the most arresting example of cross-cultural influence concerning a Western author and the Middle East and North Africa.  His fiction mostly focuses on American expatriates travelling in exotic locations. The Sheltering Sky is an encounter with the Sahara, not only the physical one but the desert of moral nihilism into which one may wander blindly. The boundless desert acts here as a metaphor and the journey symbolizes one’s own journey into the depth of his/her soul. The desert also projects an apocalyptic vision in the struggle between the West and the East and the Sahara becomes in fact a Conradian Heart of Darkness, an Eliotian Waste Land, and a Sartrean No Exit. In the novel the actual environment becomes in some ways pale and covert under the psyche of the writer. Consequently we come to know that Bowles's own knowledge and awareness of the same environments left traces in his work. Accordingly we may wrap up that the environment bears a direct impact on our understanding of it.

  7. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  8. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  9. Estimating hurricane hazards using a GIS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taramelli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a GIS-based integrated approach to the Multi-Hazard model method, with reference to hurricanes. This approach has three components: data integration, hazard assessment and score calculation to estimate elements at risk such as affected area and affected population. First, spatial data integration issues within a GIS environment, such as geographical scales and data models, are addressed. Particularly, the integration of physical parameters and population data is achieved linking remotely sensed data with a high resolution population distribution in GIS. In order to assess the number of affected people, involving heterogeneous data sources, the selection of spatial analysis units is basic. Second, specific multi-hazard tasks, such as hazard behaviour simulation and elements at risk assessment, are composed in order to understand complex hazard and provide support for decision making. Finally, the paper concludes that the integrated approach herein presented can be used to assist emergency management of hurricane consequences, in theory and in practice.

  10. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  11. Weathering the storm: hurricanes and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2013-05-01

    A growing literature suggests that stressful events in pregnancy can have negative effects on birth outcomes. Some of the estimates in this literature may be affected by small samples, omitted variables, endogenous mobility in response to disasters, and errors in the measurement of gestation, as well as by a mechanical correlation between longer gestation and the probability of having been exposed. We use millions of individual birth records to examine the effects of exposure to hurricanes during pregnancy, and the sensitivity of the estimates to these econometric problems. We find that exposure to a hurricane during pregnancy increases the probability of abnormal conditions of the newborn such as being on a ventilator more than 30min and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Although we are able to reproduce previous estimates of effects on birth weight and gestation, our results suggest that measured effects of stressful events on these outcomes are sensitive to specification and it is preferable to use more sensitive indicators of newborn health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  13. Damage to offshore infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico by hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    and occurred on both fixed and floating platforms. The total number of pipelines damaged by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita as of May 1, 2006, was 457. Pipeline damage was mostly caused by damage or failure of the host platform or its development and production piping, the impact of dragging and displaced objects, and pipeline interaction at a crossing. Damage to pipelines was a major contributing factor in delaying start up of offshore oil and gas production. During our analysis of the NRC database we identified 611 reported hazardous-materials releases directly attributed to offshore platforms and pipelines affected by the two hurricanes. There were twice as many releases during Hurricane Katrina than during Rita; 80% or more of the releases reported in the NRC database occurred from platforms. Our analysis suggests that the majority of releases were petroleum products, such as crude oil and condensate, followed by natural gas. In both Katrina and Rita, releases were more likely in the front, right quadrant of the storm. Storm-surge values were highest closer to the coastline. This may help explain the higher number of releases in shallow waters. The higher number of hazardous-materials releases from platforms during Katrina may partly be attributed to the higher wind speeds for this storm as it approached land.

  14. Optimal design of wind barriers using 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Wu, X.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Desertification is a significant global environmental and ecological problem that requires human-regulated control and management. Wind barriers are commonly used to reduce wind velocity or trap drifting sand in arid or semi-arid areas. Therefore, optimal design of wind barriers becomes critical in Aeolian engineering. In the current study, we perform 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for flow passing through wind barriers with different structural parameters. To validate the simulation results, we first inter-compare the simulated flow field results with those from both wind-tunnel experiments and field measurements. Quantitative analyses of the shelter effect are then conducted based on a series of simulations with different structural parameters (such as wind barrier porosity, row numbers, inter-row spacing and belt schemes). The results show that wind barriers with porosity of 0.35 could provide the longest shelter distance (i.e., where the wind velocity reduction is more than 50%) thus are recommended in engineering designs. To determine the optimal row number and belt scheme, we introduce a cost function that takes both wind-velocity reduction effects and economical expense into account. The calculated cost function show that a 3-row-belt scheme with inter-row spacing of 6h (h as the height of wind barriers) and inter-belt spacing of 12h is the most effective.

  15. Investigation of Millennial Students' Responses to a Shelter-in-Place Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Frick, Melodie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated millennial students' responses to an armed gunman threat and shelter-in-place warnings that occurred on a university campus. Using descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, several significant differences were found for students' responses for sheltering-in-place and engaging in protective behaviors. Baxter Magolda'…

  16. State and forecast of radioactive contamination of geological environment in the region of 'Shelter' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Boguslavskij, A.S.; Kukharenko, D.E.; Onishchenko, I.P.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Chornobyl NPP and especially the surroundings of the 'Shelter' object are the epicenter of radioactive impact of Chornobyl accident on geological environment, including groundwater. The two data sets- north from the 'Shelter' where groundwater from under the 'Shelter' moves, and south from the 'Shelter' characterizing the groundwater flow in the up-stream direction from the 'Shelter'. After data processing the generalized models of present distribution of 3 H, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in groundwater around the 'Shelter' were obtained. They reflect the major role of the 'Shelter' in access of tritium and Strontium-90 into groundwater and main influence of the buned active layer on groundwater contamination with Cesium-137. The result obtained corresponds to high migrational activity of these isotopes. Along with this, the significantly higher migrational activity of Tritium, as compared to Strontium-90, has been proved. Obtained model schematic maps were used for onented assessment of accumulated amounts of radionuclides sorbed by rocks of geological environment around the 'Shelter' object. In watered zone of Quaternary deposits they reach more than 4000 Ci of 137 Cs, and about 6000 Ci of 90 Sr

  17. Shelter-based convalescence for homeless adults in Amsterdam: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, Igor; de Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adequate support for homeless populations includes shelter and care to recuperate from illness and/or injury. This is a descriptive analysis of diagnoses and use of shelter-based convalescence in a cohort of homeless adults in Amsterdam. METHODS: Demographics of ill homeless

  18. Using random event simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of indoor sheltering during a sour gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of sour gas releases to the atmosphere, there is a strong bias toward evacuation rather than sheltering-in-place. This paper described the critical factors in decision-making for shelter-in-place versus evacuation. These include: delay time expected before release begins; size of potential release, explosion or fire; expected duration; direction to safety for evacuation; the air tightness of the building; and, the number of people in the emergency response zone. A shelter-in-place decision chart developed by the Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs was presented. It shows the usual bias toward evacuation as the default position. It also shows the greatest drawbacks of sheltering-in-place. The main factor in maintaining the effectiveness of the building shelter is the rate of air infiltration into the building. Other issues to consider include: reactive versus passive chemicals in the release; light versus heavy gas releases; building type (houses, high-rise apartments, office buildings, or warehouses); tightness of building construction; whether to turn the house heating and air conditioning on or off during shelter; daytime versus nighttime conditions; and, cost factors. Equations for calculating indoor and outdoor toxic exposure to decide on shelter versus evacuation were also presented. It was concluded that the absence of peak concentrations dramatically reduce the risk of fatality to people sheltering indoors. Keeping people indoors is the best way to assure their safety for the first hour following a toxic release. 8 refs., 6 figs

  19. Problems of Chernobyl. Materials of International scientific and practical conference 'Shelter-98'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    These transactions contain materials of International Scientific and Practical Conference 'Shelter-98', which was held 27-30 November 1998 in Slavutich. They describe the results of the research work of the specialists from Ukraine, neighborhood and far foreign counties. The results, targeted at solving the problems of converting the Shelter Object into oncologically safe state

  20. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  1. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the

  2. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  3. Development of a membrane roofing system with integrated climate control for community shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, R.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Kok, P.J.A.; Hulsbergen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In case of calamities and emergencies, shelters offer great relief to large groups of survivors. For community supporting functions the current sheltering solutions are not satisfactory. A humane and feasible solution should be developed to fill this niche. The research group product development has

  4. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  5. The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry V. Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.

  6. Hurricane Loss Estimation Models: Opportunities for Improving the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles C., Jr.; Johnson, Mark E.

    2004-11-01

    The results of hurricane loss models are used regularly for multibillion dollar decisions in the insurance and financial services industries. These models are proprietary, and this “black box” nature hinders analysis. The proprietary models produce a wide range of results, often producing loss costs that differ by a ratio of three to one or more. In a study for the state of North Carolina, 324 combinations of loss models were analyzed, based on a combination of nine wind models, four surface friction models, and nine damage models drawn from the published literature in insurance, engineering, and meteorology. These combinations were tested against reported losses from Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew as reported by a major insurance company, as well as storm total losses for additional storms. Annual loss costs were then computed using these 324 combinations of models for both North Carolina and Florida, and compared with publicly available proprietary model results in Florida. The wide range of resulting loss costs for open, scientifically defensible models that perform well against observed losses mirrors the wide range of loss costs computed by the proprietary models currently in use. This outcome may be discouraging for governmental and corporate decision makers relying on this data for policy and investment guidance (due to the high variability across model results), but it also provides guidance for the efforts of future investigations to improve loss models. Although hurricane loss models are true multidisciplinary efforts, involving meteorology, engineering, statistics, and actuarial sciences, the field of meteorology offers the most promising opportunities for improvement of the state of the art.

  7. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.

    2018-01-01

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  8. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  9. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  10. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  11. Hurricane Andrew causes major oil spill at Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point Power Plant, Homestead, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.; Pickering, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew slammed into South Florida with wind gusts in excess of 160 mph. At 4:00 a.m. that day, the eye of this category four storm passed over Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point power plant, south of Miami. Although the plant's two nuclear units escaped any significant damage, the storm caused extensive destruction to buildings and transmission facilities, and damaged two 400 foot tall emission stacks associated with the site's two fossil fuel generating units. In addition, a 90,000 to 110,000 gallon spill of No. 6 fuel oil resulted when a piece of wind-blown debris punctured the steel of the unit One 12,000 barrel fuel oil metering tank approximately 30 feet up from the tank bottom. Despite the presence of a secondary containment structure around the tank, the intense wind blew oil throughout the plant site. The damage to the metering tank apparently occurred during the first half hour of the hurricane. As the tank's oil level fell due to the puncture, transfer pumps from the bulk oil storage tanks received a low level alarm which automatically began transferring oil to the damaged metering tank. To prevent the further discharge of oil, plant personnel entered the power block and secured the pumps during the passage of the hurricane eye. Immediately following the storm, facility personnel deployed booms across the barge canal and the Units 1 and 2 intake canal to contain the oil which had entered the water. The response strategy and implementation is described in detail. The remediation costs were approximately $14/gallon spilled, including 54,000 gallons recovered for electricity generation

  12. Geologic record of Hurricane impacts on the New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Daria; Horton, Benjamin; Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Shaw, Timothy; Enache, Mihaela; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nick; Potapova, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Hurricanes along the US Atlantic coast have caused significant damage and loss of human life over the last century. Recent studies suggest that intense-hurricane activity is closely related to changes of sea surface temperatures and therefore the risk of hurricane strikes may increase in the future. A clear understanding of the role of recent warming on tropical cyclone activity is limited by the shortness of the instrumental record. However, the sediment preserved beneath coastal wetlands is an archive of when hurricanes impacted the coast. We present two complimenting approaches that help to extend pre-historic record and assess frequency and intensity of hurricane landfalls along the New Jersey cost; dating overwash deposits and hurricane-induced salt-marsh erosion documented at multiple sites. The stratigraphic investigation of estuarine salt marshes in the southern New Jersey documented seven distinctive erosion events that correlate among different sites. Radiocarbon dates suggest the prehistoric events occurred in AD 558-673, AD 429-966, AD 558-673, Ad 1278-1438, AD 1526-1558 or AD 1630-1643 (Nikitina et al., 2014). Younger sequences correspond with historical land-falling hurricanes in AD 1903 and AD 1821 or AD 1788. Four events correlate well with barrier overwash deposits documented along the New Jersey coast (Donnelley et al., 2001 and 2004). The stratigraphic sequence of salt High resolution sedimentary-based reconstructions of past intense-hurricane landfalls indicate that significant variability in the frequency of intense hurricanes occurred over the last 2000 years.

  13. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  14. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  15. Microphysical Structures of Hurricane Irma Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didlake, A. C.; Kumjian, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines dual-polarization radar observations of Hurricane Irma as its center passed near the WSR-88D radar in Puerto Rico, capturing needed microphysical information of a mature tropical cyclone. Twenty hours of observations continuously sampled the inner core precipitation features. These data were analyzed by annuli and azimuth, providing a bulk characterization of the primary eyewall, secondary eyewall, and rainbands as they varied around the storm. Polarimetric radar variables displayed distinct signatures of convective and stratiform precipitation in the primary eyewall and rainbands that were organized in a manner consistent with the expected kinematic asymmetry of a storm in weak environmental wind shear but with moderate low-level storm-relative flow. In the front quadrants of the primary eyewall, vertical profiles of differential reflectivity (ZDR) exhibit increasing values with decreasing height consistent with convective precipitation processes. In particular, the front-right quadrant exhibits a signature in reflectivity (ZH) and ZDR indicating larger, sparser drops, which is consistent with a stronger updraft present in this quadrant. In the rear quadrants, a sharply peaked ZDR maximum occurs within the melting layer, which is attributed of stratiform processes. In the rainbands, the convective to stratiform transition can be seen traveling from the front-right to the front-left quadrant. The front-right quadrant exhibits lower co-polar correlation coefficient (ρHV) values in the 3-8 km altitude layer, suggesting larger vertical spreading of various hydrometeors that occurs in convective vertical motions. The front-left quadrant exhibits larger ρHV values, suggesting less diversity of hydrometeor shapes, consistent with stratiform processes. The secondary eyewall did not exhibit a clear signature of processes preferred in a specific quadrant, and a temporal analysis of the secondary eyewall revealed a complex evolution of its structure

  16. Microwave Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rates over Tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.; Dehority, D. C.; Black, P. G.; Chien, J. Z.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using narrowly spaced frequencies within a microwave band to measure wind speeds and rain rates over tropical storms with radiometers is reviewed. The technique focuses on results obtained in the overflights of Hurricane Allen during 5 and 8 of August, 1980.

  17. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...... between day and night with a significant increase in shelter use during daytime conditions. Visual observations showed a significant preference for nocturnal feeding. Together with the significantly reduced shelter use during the night, our results support the hypothesis that young stream living trout...

  18. Survey on radon concentration of civil air defense shelter in Hengyang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Quan; Ma Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the radon concentration of civil air defense shelter was surveyed in Hengyang area, where there is higher background of radon concentration. If civil air defense shelter is not pressure-tight, the average radon concentration is about 55.9 -167.3 Bq/m 3 , lower than the intervened quantity: 200 Bq/m 3 , which is given by the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP). Maybe radon protection is not needed with the ventilation of civil air defense shelter like that. The radon concentration of airtight civil air defense shelter change along with the season, which is lower in spring and higher in autumn. The results can be a reference for using civil air defense shelter during the time of peace or war. (authors)

  19. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  20. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.