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Sample records for hurricane ivan struck

  1. Hurricane Ivan Poster (September 15, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Ivan poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Ivan in the Gulf of Mexico on September 15, 2004. Poster size is 34"x30".

  2. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  3. Longleaf pine regeneration following Hurricane Ivan utilizing the RLGS plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; John S. Kush

    2013-01-01

    On September 16, 2004, Hurricane Ivan hit the Alabama coast and severely impacted numerous plots in the U.S. Forest Service’s Regional Longleaf Growth Study (RLGS). The Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) has 201 of the 325 RLGS plots. Nearly one-third of the EEF was impacted. Nine plots with pole-sized trees were entirely lost. Another 54 plots had some type of damage...

  4. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE IVAN ON WATER QUALITY IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay was in the strong NE quadrant of Hurricane Ivan when it made landfall on September 16, 2004 as a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. We present data describing the timeline and maximum height of the storm surge, the extent of flooding of coastal land, ...

  5. Hurricane Ivan Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Ivan made landfall. The regions photographed range from Gulf...

  6. Investigation of hurricane Ivan using the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) model is used to hindcast Hurricane Ivan (2004), an extremely intense tropical cyclone (TC) translating through the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitivity experiments with increasing complexity in ocean–atmosphere–wave coupled exchange processes are performed to assess the impacts of coupling on the predictions of the atmosphere, ocean, and wave environments during the occurrence of a TC. Modest improvement in track but significant improvement in intensity are found when using the fully atmosphere–ocean-wave coupled configuration versus uncoupled (e.g., standalone atmosphere, ocean, or wave) model simulations. Surface wave fields generated in the fully coupled configuration also demonstrates good agreement with in situ buoy measurements. Coupled and uncoupled model-simulated sea surface temperature (SST) fields are compared with both in situ and remote observations. Detailed heat budget analysis reveals that the mixed layer temperature cooling in the deep ocean (on the shelf) is caused primarily by advection (equally by advection and diffusion).

  7. Post-Hurricane Ivan coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, September 17, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Peterson, Russell D.; Thompson, Philip R.; Subino, Janice A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 17, 2004, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ivan data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey in 2001, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  8. 2004 Landfalling Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2004 U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes poster is a special edition poster which contains two sets of images of Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne, created...

  9. Caring for Ivan Ilyich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Blake; Verghese, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, Leo Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilych has been one of the most influential examinations of how we come to terms with our own mortality. Of the many who care for Ivan Ilych, only the uneducated peasant, Gerasim, is able to help him find meaning and resolution before death. An excerpt that describes Gerasim's key interaction with Ivan Ilych is provided. Analysis of the text reveals how cultural values may hinder a patient's ability to confront mortality and how unique social barriers inhibit different caretakers' ability to care for a dying patient.

  10. Pavlov, Prof. Ivan Petrovich

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Pavlov, Prof. Ivan Petrovich Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1904. Date of birth: 27 September 1849. Date of death: 27 February 1936. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  11. Ivan Orav - 100

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    1. septembril 2008 esitletakse Eesti Majas täiendatud trükki Andrus Kivirähki raamatust "Ivan Orava mälestused. Minevik kui helesinised mäed" ning sama pealkirjaga audioraamatut, mille on sisse lugenud Andrus Vaarik

  12. Ivan Zajc's Bulgarian Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanka Georgieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of newly discovered historiographic documents, this study traces the »biography« of Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian songs. It specifies some disputed details with regard to the numbering and structure of two vocal cycles; it submits a transcript of a music sheet of the song Robstvo (The Yoke, op. 843a and the original of an unknown composition Majko kleta (Poor Mother on the verses of the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov which has not been registered by Hubert Pettan in Zajc’s catalogue of works. This exploration, together with the historiographic focus, highlights the connection of these opuses with the Bulgarian poetry which gained wide popularity through the anthology Bulgarian Songs by August Harambašić. Indeed, some details which Zajc indicated on the title pages of his scores, lead to this assumption. At the same time, the spread of the songs in Bulgaria indicates the connection of the Croatian composer with Bulgarian musicians, choral societies, schools etc., as a result of which in the first decade of the 20th century Zagreb’s Hrvatski glazbeni zavod became an attractive educational centre for many young Bulgarian people. Ivan Zajc’s Bulgarian Songs have not only enriched the artistic repertoire of Bulgarian choral societies. They outline one of the lines of active multicultural transfer between Bulgaria and Croatia on the border between the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The melodies of his marches, creating the spirit of the struggles for national liberation of Bulgarian nation, have become part of the newly created national musical culture and have been often accepted as Bulgarian in their origin.

  13. Intervista a Ivan Fedele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ligabue

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The interview to Ivan Fedele – which opens this number of Music / Technology as ‘provoking’ element – expresses the composer’s attitude towards technology – mainly found in computer music –, the use he made within his work, as well as the developments generally considered harbingers of more interesting perspectives for the future. Several passages stress the primacy of the compositional idea on the technological means and the need of the composer to maintain control of the situation without giving up the prerogatives of the medium; indeed, it must be ‘bent’ – if not specifically designed – to the requirements of the compositional idea.

  14. A diary of hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, C S

    1989-12-01

    Charleston, South Carolina was the recent victim of Hurricane Hugo. This article recalls the events that occurred before, during, and after the hurricane struck. The focus is on four outpatient dialysis units in that area. It is a story from which others may learn more about emergency preparedness.

  15. Ivan Groznõi vozvrashtshajetsja! / Jaroslav Shtshedrov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shtshedrov, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Vene režissöör Pavel Lungin koos operaator Tom Sterniga alustasid Suzdalis mängufilmi "Ivan Groznõi ja metrpoliit Filipp" võtteid. Osalevad Pjotr Mamonov (Ivan IV), Oleg Jankovski (Filipp), Ivan Ohlobõstin, Aleksandr Domogarov jt

  16. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  17. Ivan Duque - Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. Ivan Duque. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 89 Issue 4 December 2010 pp 457-461 Research Note. Chromosome region 2p25 is linked and associated with type 1 diabetes in Colombia · Nicolas Pineda-Trujilo Federico Uribe Fabiola Montoya Juan-Manuel Alfaro ...

  18. In Memoriam: Ivan Daskalov: 1933 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Alvin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ivan Daskalov [1933–2004] was a friend who will be missed by many. Neither the quality of a man nor the concept of a friendship can be defined with words. We may only say that both will be missed.

  19. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  20. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Jayakaran; T. M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D. M. Amatya; B. Song; C. C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a rev...

  1. Un poema epico neolatino su Ivan Mazepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Siedina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Neo-Latin Poem on Ivan Mazepa The author publishes for the first time, translates into Italian, and analyzes a Neo-Latin poem devoted to the Ukrainian hetman Ivan Mazepa, which celebrates the conquest of a few Turkish fortresses along the Dnipro (1695. A peculiar feature of this poem is that, on the one side, it is one of the few, or even the only epic poem devoted to the Ukrainian hetman, while on the other it is modeled, at least partly, on Virgil’s Aeneid. The poem, however, also shows some features of the panegyric genre. The author points out the many linguistic-literary and historical reminiscences, especially those of Latin epic authors and Roman history, but also of the panegyric discourse elaborated by the Latin-Polish rhetorical tradition. Through these reminiscences, the author of the poem aspires to insert the history of Ukraine-Hetmanščyna into the European Latinitas by underlining the glorious deeds of its hetman Ivan Mazepa, whose fundamental contribution to the antemurale christianitatis and to Russian history only recently has begun to be assessed in an objective and unprejudiced manner.

  2. Ontario: prostitution-related provisions of Criminal Code struck down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    In September 2010, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that three provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution violated sex workers' constitutional rights, were not in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice and must be struck down.

  3. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina.

  4. Ivan Landek, Master of Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Landek defended his master's thesis Development of Topographic Map Production at the Scale of 1:25 000 in Croatia between 1990 and 2010 at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb on April 20, 2011. His mentor was Prof. Stanislav Frangeš, PhD. The Master’s thesis Committee for Evaluation consisted of Prof. Miljenko Lapaine, PhD, Prof. Stanislav Frangeš, PhD and Assist. Prof. Dubravko Gajski, PhD. The Committee for Defence consisted of the same members.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COASTAL WATERS FOLLOWING HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the morning of August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Biloxi, Mississippi, as a strong category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The massive winds and flooding had the potential for a tremendous environmental impac...

  6. Ivan Yakovych Gorbachevsky – Scientist, Patriot, Citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the facts about life and research activity of Ivan Ya. Gorbachevsky (1854-1942, the prominent scientist, Ukrainian by origin, doctor of medical sciences, professor, dean of the medical faculty and the rector of Charles University in Prague, member of the health board of the Czech Kingdom, a member of the Supreme Council of Health of Austria-Hungary in Vienna, a lifelong member of the House of Lords of the Austrian Parliament, first health minister of Austria-Hungary, rector of the Ukrainian Free University in Prague, professor of chemistry at the Padebradsk Economic Academy and the Ukrainian Pedagogical Dragomanov University, AUAS member in 1925, member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. His research works were devoted to digestion of proteins, public and food hygiene. He was the first who synthesized uric acid (1882 and discovered xanthine oxidase (1889.

  7. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures

  8. Comparing vegetation cover in the Santee Experimental Forest, South Carolina (USA), before and after hurricane Hugo: 1989-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni R. Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo struck the coast of South Carolina on September 21, 1989 as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Landsat Thematic mapper was utilized to determine the extent of damage experienced at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) (a part of Francis Marion National Forest) in South Carolina. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the...

  9. Kangur Ivan ajab triipu, naised lähevad arust ära / Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Rein, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Ivan Uvarovist, kes koob oma pisikeses töökojas Rakveres rahvarõivamustritega puuvillast triibukangast, mille järele on suur nõudmine. Ivan Uvarov on töötanud 30 aastat kangastelgede mehaanikuna

  10. Five Years Later: Recovery from Post Traumatic Stress and Psychological Distress Among Low-Income Mothers Affected by Hurricane Katrina

    OpenAIRE

    Paxson, Christina; Fussell, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Jean; Waters, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group—low income mothers—from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longi...

  11. Ivan Doig: Northwestern Writer for Secondary Students (Reclaiming the Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirinsky, Driek; Morache, Jette

    1989-01-01

    Reviews two books by Ivan Doig: "This House of Sky: Landscapes of a Western Mind" and "English Creek." Notes that both books provide a picture of life in the American West that is not pervaded by Western stereotypes of cowboys and Indians. (MM)

  12. Female hurricanes are deadlier than male hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kiju; Shavitt, Sharon; Viswanathan, Madhu; Hilbe, Joseph M

    2014-06-17

    Do people judge hurricane risks in the context of gender-based expectations? We use more than six decades of death rates from US hurricanes to show that feminine-named hurricanes cause significantly more deaths than do masculine-named hurricanes. Laboratory experiments indicate that this is because hurricane names lead to gender-based expectations about severity and this, in turn, guides respondents' preparedness to take protective action. This finding indicates an unfortunate and unintended consequence of the gendered naming of hurricanes, with important implications for policymakers, media practitioners, and the general public concerning hurricane communication and preparedness.

  13. Hurricane Katrina and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Serious and widely reported scientific analyses and assessments have called attention to climate changes and to the additional risks the world now faces. Through science has not yet provided proof positive of a connection between the increased intensity of extreme weather events and climate change, there can be no valid reason for failing to hedge the risk with preventive action. The catastrophe that struck New Orleans had can been predicted since the 1990s. The 2050 Coast Plan for reducing the vulnerability of the Louisiana coast and preventing hurricane disasters had been approved by the local authorities but not the federal government. Partly because of its cost, it was never carried into effect [it

  14. Hurricane Resource Reel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Reel Includes the Following Sections TRT 50:10 Hurricane Overviews 1:02; Hurricane Arthur 15:07; Cyclone Pam 19:48; Typhoon Hagupit 21:27; Hurricane Bertha...

  15. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  16. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  17. Ivan Landek, PhD in Technical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 12 June 2017, Ivan Landek, MSc defended his doctoral thesis Improvements to the Model of Topographic Data of the Republic of Croatia at the Faculty of Geodesy of the University of Zagreb, before a Commission whose members were Prof. Dr. Damir Medak, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Robert Župan and Assist. Prof. Dr. Slobodanka Ključanin, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institue of Geodesy. The mentor was Prof. Dr. Stanislav Frangeš.

  18. Evaluation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Ocean Model Response to Hurricane Ivan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the storm path in the control experiment is strongly influenced by the oceano graphic features. Over the northwest Caribbean and the LC (south of...1.5 li - sol -50M& L . mm Mm -0.5 0 0.5 1 Inerlial Periods 1.5 •0.5 0 0.5 1 Inerlial Periods 1.5 0.5 0 u

  19. Ocean-Wave Coupled Modeling in COAMPS-TC: A Study of Hurricane Ivan (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    America, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, United States a r t i c l e i n f oArticle history : Received 12 December 2012 Received in revised form 16 May 2013...Information for Society. Venice , Italy, 21– 25 September 2009. ESA Publication. Sullivan, P.P., McWilliams, J.C., Melville, W.K., 2007. Surface gravity

  20. Weathering the Superstorm: From Texts to Twitter--How Campus Communicators Overcame Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Gail

    2013-01-01

    By the time Superstorm Sandy struck New Jersey in late October 2012, Kathy Corbalis, executive director of communications and college relations at Atlantic Cape Community College, and her team were battle-tested. In the 15 months before the hurricane, the college experienced two bomb threats via Twitter, a lockdown due to gunfire, an on-campus…

  1. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  2. Ivan Landek, doktor tehničkih znanosti

    OpenAIRE

    Frangeš, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Mr. sc. Ivan Landek obranio je 12. lipnja 2017. na Geodetskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu doktorski rad Unapređenje modela topografskih podataka Republike Hrvatske. Doktorski rad obranjen je pred povjerenstvom u čijem su sastavu bili prof. dr. sc. Damir Medak, izv. prof. dr. sc. Robert Župan i doc. dr. sc. Slobodanka Ključanin, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, Građevinski fakultet, Odsjek za geodeziju. Mentor je bio prof. dr. sc. Stanislav Frangeš.

  3. Hurricane Harvey Building Damage Assessment Using UAV Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Chang, A.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey which was extremely destructive major hurricane struck southern Texas, U.S.A on August 25, causing catastrophic flooding and storm damages. We visited Rockport suffered severe building destruction and conducted UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) surveying for building damage assessment. UAV provides very high resolution images compared with traditional remote sensing data. In addition, prompt and cost-effective damage assessment can be performed regardless of several limitations in other remote sensing platforms such as revisit interval of satellite platforms, complicated flight plan in aerial surveying, and cloud amounts. In this study, UAV flight and GPS surveying were conducted two weeks after hurricane damage to generate an orthomosaic image and a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). 3D region growing scheme has been proposed to quantitatively estimate building damages considering building debris' elevation change and spectral difference. The result showed that the proposed method can be used for high definition building damage assessment in a time- and cost-effective way.

  4. Contrasting Hydrodynamic and Environmental Effects of Hurricanes Harvey and Ike in a Highly Industrialized Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    It is commonly believed that storm surge is the most destructive aspect of hurricanes. However, massive rainfall with a return period of 100 years or more induced by hurricanes can cause more catastrophic damage than losses caused by storm surge as demonstrated recently by hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria. In this study the hydrodynamics and environmental effects of hurricanes Ike and Harvey were compared and contrasted by linking hydrodynamic flow models with water quality models to simulate spills from storage tanks located in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC). Hurricane Ike with a maximum surge of 5.3 meters in Galveston Bay and Harvey with a maximum rainfall of 1.25 meters both struck the HSC region in Texas in 2008 and 2017, respectively. Both events resulted in numerous spills from municipal and industrial facilities, hazardous waste sites, superfund sites, and landfills. The Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) was coupled with the SWAN+ADCIRC hurricane simulation model to simulate Hurricane Ike and EFDC was coupled with USGS flow boundary conditions to model Hurricane Harvey. A conservative dye release was used to simulate a chemical release during each event. The results showed Hurricane Harvey caused higher water surface elevations within the HSC accompanied by longer and wider-spread land inundation. In contrast, higher water surface elevations were observed within the shallow side bays during Hurricane Ike that caused sediment resuspension and repartitioning of pollutants. Rapid spill mass transportation was observed for both hurricanes; 50% of total spill mass reached Galveston Bay in 20 and 22 hours after a spill event for Hurricane Harvey and Ike, respectively, and more than 90% of the spill mass reached the bay in 36 and 48 hours, respectively. Unlike Hurricane Harvey, the conservative tracer was spread almost 2.5 km upstream of the releasing point for Hurricane Ike due to surge. However, during Harvey, 35% more land was affected by the spilled

  5. "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" and multiple dimensions of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo Cesar

    2018-02-01

    The short story "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" (1886), Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) provides key elements for a reflection on the meaning of long-term illness. Based on Tolstoy's short story the present paper analyzes the multiple dimensions of the process of illness. It starts with the argument that illness is not an a priori totality, but a trajectory of associations between the sick person, the doctor, family members, friends and caregivers. Acting, being affected, thinking and feeling all come together in the development of these associations. The analysis of the Ivan Ilyich's illness will consider the following points: (a) illness as otherness and incomprehensibility (growing unfamiliarity with one's body and the stages by which the body is gradually objectified); (b) illness as trajectories in an field of practices that involves the development of skills and the "education of attention"; (c) modes of health care as a set of techniques, objects and discourses that are put together or associated throughout trajectories concerned with the establishment of health. Long-term illness is therefore a mode of immersion of the sick person in networks of relations that come to be a part of her everyday life.

  6. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  7. Hurricane Gustav Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Gustav poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Gustav having made landfall along the Louisiana coastline. Poster size is 36"x27"

  8. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  9. Hurricane Ike Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Ike poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-15 shows Hurricane Ike in the Gulf of Mexico heading toward Galveston Island, Texas. Poster size is 36"x27".

  10. Ivan Karlov’s “Tsaritsyn Anabasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvei I. Davydov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper acquaints the historians with a curious incident that took place in Suzdal in 1674. The present case surprisingly resembles a well-known plot twist of Jaroslav Hašek’s novel The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War – so called “Budějovice anabasis”, the protagonist’s epic grueling trek around Southern Czechia in the search for his regiment, which billeted in Budějovice. But if Švejk, despite all the vicissitudes, finally managed to achieve the ultimate objective successfully, Suzdal resident Ivan Karlov – a troublemaker and drunkard, sentenced to exile by local writ office and driven out from the city under the supervision of two constables to Tsaritsyn – conversely, some time later all of a sudden returned back to Suzdal teamwise with the convoy. The analysis of that episode revealed two facts worth mentioning. First of all, Suzdal writ office had a decentralized organizational structure: voyevoda’s court was located within the city whilst minor clerks worked apart from him at the Intercession of Theotokos convent. And secondly, it should be emphasized that for much of the 17th century not the voyevoda himself but the convent’s external administrator played the leading role in the writ office’s business routine. Expectedly, the functioning of the named governmental institution had been directly and very adversely affected by both those peculiarities, and only the nuns at the Intercession of Theotokos convent gained an advantage from that extraordinary situation. The publication of primary historical sources describing Ivan Karlov’s banishment complements the study.

  11. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility's actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities

  12. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, F.J. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  13. Music etnopedagogycal in the context of Ivan Franco's scientific and popular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Myron Vovk; Volodymyr Savchuk

    2018-01-01

    On the bases of study, analyses and systematization of archival materials, folk tendencies of development of music ethnopedagogics in Ivan Franco's creation are revealed. Key words: creation, music, traditions, customs, folk pedagogics.

  14. Lightning Burns and Electrical Trauma in a Couple Simultaneously Struck by Lightning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Eyerly-Webb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available More people are struck and killed by lightning each year in Florida than any other state in the United States. This report discusses a couple that was simultaneously struck by lightning while walking arm-in-arm. Both patients presented with characteristic lightning burns and were admitted for hemodynamic monitoring, serum labs, and observation and were subsequently discharged home. Despite the superficial appearance of lightning burns, serious internal electrical injuries are common. Therefore, lightning strike victims should be admitted and evaluated for cardiac arrhythmias, renal injury, and neurological sequelae.

  15. Racial Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vulnerability Following Hurricane Katrina Among a Sample of Adult Cigarette Smokers from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Adam C; Ali, Jeanelle; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Read, Mary; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-02-01

    Although blacks are more likely than whites to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a natural disaster, the reasons for this disparity are unclear. This study explores whether race is associated with PTSD after adjusting for differences in preexisting vulnerabilities, exposure to stressors, and loss of social support due to Hurricane Katrina using a representative sample of 279 black and white adult current and past smokers who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and identified it as the most traumatic event in their lifetime. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated whether differential vulnerability (pre-hurricane physical and mental health functioning, and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support deterioration reduced the association of race with PTSD. Blacks were more likely than whites to screen positive for PTSD (49 vs. 39 %, respectively, p = 0.030). Although blacks reported greater pre-hurricane vulnerability (worse mental health functioning and lower educational attainment) and hurricane-related stressor exposure and had less social support after the hurricane, only pre-hurricane mental health functioning attenuated the association of race with screening positive for PTSD. Thus, racial differences in pre-hurricane functioning, particularly poorer mental health, may partially explain racial disparities in PTSD after natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively using representative cohorts of black and whites and include measures of residential segregation and discrimination, which may further our understanding of racial disparities in PTSD after a natural disaster.

  16. Struck powerless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.

    1998-01-01

    An unprecedented combination of meteorological forces, persisting over a period of six days over vast tracts of open farmland, suburban and urban grids, and creating the storm of the century, if not the storm of the Millenium, was described. The ice storm provoked many dangerous situations, caused injury and death and left three million people in Eastern Canada and the northeastern United States blacked out, cold and isolated for several weeks in some parts, especially in rural areas. Ice gripped the land with a pressure that grew relentlessly. It bent steel transmission towers, damaged millions of trees, shattered wooden electric poles and dragged down lines, isolating millions of people for days and weeks on end. The death toll in Ontario and Quebec from falling ice, house fires, hypothermia and carbon monoxide poisoning reached 25. Property damage has been estimated at $500 million and losses from interrupted production at billions of dollars. The rains, a probable influence of El Nino, reached the St. Lawrence River Valley on January 4th, encountered an east-west front of southbound cold, dry air from northern Quebec, resulting in a classic stalemate of warm air above and cold air below - a textbook formula for freezing rain. More than 80 mm of ice rain fell over six days, covering the country with a frozen strata several inches thick. At the end of January, nearly a month later, there were still over 300 customers in eastern Ontario and 45,000 in Quebec without power. Approximately 5,500 dairy farmers in Ontario and Quebec had to dump an estimated 13.5 million litres of milk, worth approximately 8 million dollars, for lack of processing facilities. Sixteen thousand troops of the Canadian Armed Forces were deployed to clear trees, move citizens to shelters, operate field kitchens and maintain civil order. It was the largest humanitarian assistance mobilization of Canadian Forces in history. The storm brought home our utter dependence on electric power, and the dangers of relying exclusively on one source. More than all of that, it reminded us of the destructive power of Nature

  17. Struck powerless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, E.

    1998-03-01

    An unprecedented combination of meteorological forces, persisting over a period of six days over vast tracts of open farmland, suburban and urban grids, and creating the storm of the century, if not the storm of the Millenium, was described. The ice storm provoked many dangerous situations, caused injury and death and left three million people in Eastern Canada and the northeastern United States blacked out, cold and isolated for several weeks in some parts, especially in rural areas. Ice gripped the land with a pressure that grew relentlessly. It bent steel transmission towers, damaged millions of trees, shattered wooden electric poles and dragged down lines, isolating millions of people for days and weeks on end. The death toll in Ontario and Quebec from falling ice, house fires, hypothermia and carbon monoxide poisoning reached 25. Property damage has been estimated at $500 million and losses from interrupted production at billions of dollars. The rains, a probable influence of El Nino, reached the St. Lawrence River Valley on January 4th, encountered an east-west front of southbound cold, dry air from northern Quebec, resulting in a classic stalemate of warm air above and cold air below - a textbook formula for freezing rain. More than 80 mm of ice rain fell over six days, covering the country with a frozen strata several inches thick. At the end of January, nearly a month later, there were still over 300 customers in eastern Ontario and 45,000 in Quebec without power. Approximately 5,500 dairy farmers in Ontario and Quebec had to dump an estimated 13.5 million litres of milk, worth approximately 8 million dollars, for lack of processing facilities. Sixteen thousand troops of the Canadian Armed Forces were deployed to clear trees, move citizens to shelters, operate field kitchens and maintain civil order. It was the largest humanitarian assistance mobilization of Canadian Forces in history. The storm brought home our utter dependence on electric power, and the dangers of relying exclusively on one source. More than all of that, it reminded us of the destructive power of Nature.

  18. GERMAN EPISTOLARY HERITAGE OF IVAN FRANKO AND ITS DOMINANT FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Tkachivsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The epistolary heritage of Ivan Franko contains over six thousand letters. German epistolary correspondence addressed to Vienna, Berlin, Budapest, Heidelberg, Freiburg, Stanislav, Chernivtsi. The author of the article analyzes also the response letters sent to I. Franko. His first letters in German were addressed to Olha Roshkevych. They were written under the strong impression that the epistolary novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther” by J.W. von Goethe had had on I. Franko. The Ukrainian writer’s correspondence with H. Kanner and I. Singer the editors of the weekly newspaper “Zeit” is an evidence of their close cooperation. I. Franko had close professional ties with V. Adler one of the founders and leaders of the Austrian social-democratic party, the editor of Vienna newspaper “Arbeiterzeitung”, as well as with V. Adler’s wife Emma. I. Franko’s correspondence with a prominent Slavic scholar V. Yagic didn’t contain only private matters discussions. The third part of it is totally scientific which actually makes it valuable for researchers. I. Franko’s epistolary works reflect his artistic writer’s style neither in form nor in content. His letters are characterized by the depth of his thought, consistency of his statements, clearness of the sentence constructions, tendency to critical assessments of phenomena and scientific findings.

  19. HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ST. IVAN SPRING IN ISTRIA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vlahović

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to geological, hydrogeological investigations and groundwater tracing, detailed surveying of the groundwater quality is becoming particularly important for environmental impact monitoring on karst aquifers. Groundwater quality data contain two types of information i.e. the natural chemistry of water and its modifications caused by antropogenic impacts. The method of results presentation as well as the importance of water quality surveying particularly with respect to the indicators showing its natural chemistry, are shown here exemplified by the St. Ivan spring in Istria, Croatia. Natural chemistry of the groundwater is a consequence of hydrogeochemical facies, and it is used here for interpretation of spring generating conditions and the origin of groundwater. Results obtained so far confirm that the extent of recharge area of the spring change in dependence of the hydrological conditions. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the spring are presented graphically in the form of correlation diagrams showing major groundwater parameters, saturation conditions and trends of particular parameters as a function of time.

  20. THE MOTIF OF THE PRODIGAL SON IN IVAN TURGENEV'S NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ivanovna Gabdullina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author questions the perception of Ivan Turgenev as a “non- Christian writer” and studies the problem of the prodigal son motif functioning in a series of his novels. In his novels, Turgenev pictured different phases of the archetypal story, originating from the Gospel parable of the prodigal son. In the novel Rudin he depicted the phase of spiritual wanderings of the hero who had lost touch with his native land — Russia. In his next novels (Home of the Gentry, Fathers and Sons and Smoke, after leading his hero in circles and sending him back to his paternal home, Turgenev reconstructs the model of human behavior, represented in the parable, thereby recognizing the immutability of the idea formalized in the Gospel. The motif of the return to Russian land gets its completion in Turgenev's last novel Virgin Soil, in which the author paradoxically connects the Westernist idea with the Gospel imperative. Solomin, the son of a deacon, sent by his wise father out to Europe “to get education”, studies in England, masters the European knowledge and returns back “to his native land” to establish his own business in inland Russia. Thus, a series of Turgenev's novels, in which he portrayed different phases of social life, are interlinked with the motif of the prodigal son, who is represented by novels' main characters.

  1. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  2. Home care during the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubon, S J

    1992-06-01

    During the course of field observations for an ethnographic study of home care nurses' job stress, Hurricane Hugo struck the community, causing extensive damage. The nurses' office building was heavily damaged by wind and water, and their office was not habitable for almost a week. The author had observed the nurses' work practices over 10 weeks before the hurricane. In the aftermath of the storm, the nurses were simultaneously disaster victims and caregivers for other victims. They experienced grief, anger, and frustration about their losses, as well as conflict between their family- and work-related responsibilities. Their experiences and behaviors were consistent with those described in prior disaster research literature, lending further support to the earlier studies. A major asset for these nurses was their open, supportive work environment. They were able to accept and affirm one another's negative feelings and to provide support to each other as they dealt with their losses.

  3. Photography travel journal of Belgrade by Ivan Groman a different view of the photographic work of Ivan Groman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoš Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about a Russian photographer, Ivan Groman. His photographic work, originating in 1876 in the Principality of Serbia, was used repeatedly for illustrations, but has never been thoroughly analyzed as a historic document. Although his photographs, kept in the Archives of the City of Belgrade, the Museum of the City of Belgrade, and the Military Museum in Belgrade, may not represent his entire photographic opus, a thorough analysis of his work may serve the purpose of seeking for the message, and therefore for the aim of his work and stay in Belgrade. A small number of his photographs of Belgrade, constituting small series (‘stories’ of a relatively small area, clearly lead to the conclusion that I. V. Groman was not just a photographer – documentarist with an unquestionable and subtle artistic sense, but also a perceptive and possibly experienced “documentarist on a military mission”. It does not diminish the significance and value of his photographic work in Belgrade. Quite the opposite. His opus gains the documentary vigor of the travel journal photo-story, which in its expressiveness does not fall short of the travel journals of a more traditional kind.

  4. Hurricanes and coral bleaching linked to changes in coral recruitment in Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallela, J; Crabbe, M J C

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge of coral recruitment patterns helps us understand how reefs react following major disturbances and provides us with an early warning system for predicting future reef health problems. We have reconstructed and interpreted historical and modern-day recruitment patterns, using a combination of growth modelling and in situ recruitment experiments, in order to understand how hurricanes, storms and bleaching events have influenced coral recruitment on the Caribbean coastline of Tobago. Whilst Tobago does not lie within the main hurricane belt results indicate that regional hurricane events negatively impact coral recruitment patterns in the Southern Caribbean. In years following hurricanes, tropical storms and bleaching events, coral recruitment was reduced when compared to normal years (p=0.016). Following Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and the 2005-2006 bleaching event, coral recruitment was markedly limited with only 2% (n=6) of colonies estimated to have recruited during 2006 and 2007. Our experimental results indicate that despite multiple large-scale disturbances corals are still recruiting on Tobago's marginal reef systems, albeit in low numbers.

  5. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Litterfall Production Prior to and during Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Four Puerto Rican Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes Irma and Maria struck Puerto Rico on the 6th and 20th of September 2017, respectively. These two powerful Cat 5 hurricanes severely defoliated forest canopy and deposited massive amounts of litterfall in the forests across the island. We established a 1-ha research plot in each of four forests (Guánica State Forest, Río Abajo State Forest, Guayama Research Area and Luquillo Experiment Forest before September 2016, and had collected one full year data of litterfall production prior to the arrival of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Hurricane-induced litterfall was collected within one week after Hurricane Irma, and within two weeks after Hurricane Maria. Each litterfall sample was sorted into leaves, wood (branches and barks, reproductive organs (flowers, fruits and seeds and miscellaneous materials (mostly dead animal bodies or feces after oven-drying to constant weight. Annual litterfall production prior to the arrival of Hurricanes Irma and Maria varied from 4.68 to 25.41 Mg/ha/year among the four forests, and annual litterfall consisted of 50–81% leaffall, 16–44% woodfall and 3–6% fallen reproductive organs. Hurricane Irma severely defoliated the Luquillo Experimental Forest, but had little effect on the other three forests, whereas Hurricane Maria defoliated all four forests. Total hurricane-induced litterfall from Hurricanes Irma and Maria amounted to 95–171% of the annual litterfall production, with leaffall and woodfall from hurricanes amounting to 63–88% and 122–763% of their corresponding annual leaffall and woodfall, respectively. Hurricane-induced litterfall consisted of 30–45% leaves and 55–70% wood. Our data showed that Hurricanes Irma and Maria deposited a pulse of litter deposition equivalent to or more than the total annual litterfall input with at least a doubled fraction of woody materials. This pulse of hurricane-induced debris and elevated proportion of woody component may trigger changes in

  7. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  8. Comment peut-on lire Ivan Hadjiiski aujourd’hui ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koleva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Présentation de deux textes d’Ivan Hadjiiski (1907-1944 : « Les racines historiques de nos traditions démocratiques » paru pour la première fois dans la Revue Philosophique/Filossofski pregled, 1937, 9/1 ; et « Traits atypiques du développement de notre société », paru dans Problèmes sociologiques/Sotziologitcheski problemi, 1986, n° 3, et publiés ici avec l’autorisation des tenants des droits d’auteur.How to read Ivan Hadjiiski today? Introduction to two Ivan Hajiisji’s textsPresentation of Ivan Hadjiiski’s two texts:"Historical roots of our democratic traditions", first published in Philosophical Journal/Filossofski pregled, 1937, 9/1, and "Atypical features of our society’s development" first published in Sociological Problems/Sotziologitcheski problemi, 1986, n° 3, which are published here with the kind authorization of copyright owners.¿Como se puede leer hoy Ivan Hadjiiski?Introducción y análisis de dos textos de Ivan Hadjiiski: "Las raíces históricas de nuestras tradiciones democráticas", publicado por primera vez en EstudioFilosófico/Filossofski pregled, 1937, 9/1, y "Aspectos inhabituales del desarrollo de la sociedad actual" publicado por primera vez en Problemas sociológicos/Sotziologitcheski problemi, 1986, n° 3, y aquí publicados con la amable autorización de los teniendos de los derechos de autor.

  9. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  10. Hurricane Katrina Sediment Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  11. Hurricane Katrina Water Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  12. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  13. “AND THE TSAR BEGAN SOBBING BITTERLY...” (ON THE ISSUE OF IVAN THE TERRIBLE KILLING HIS SON 6 NOVEMBER 1581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Матвеевич Козьменко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue about the death of Prince Ivan, son of Ivan the terrible, examines the sources and historiography of the problem. The analysis allowed to establish that often coming today appeals to review this story for "the betterment" of the image of Ivan the terrible have no historical basis. The main conclusion of the article Tsarevich Ivan tragically died at the hands of his father, which was a deep shock to Ivan the terrible and accelerated his death.

  14. Bring back the Prestige of the Teacher's Profession. An Interview with Ivan Ivanovich Mel'nikov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnikina, Sveltlana

    1997-01-01

    Offers an interview with Ivan Ivanovich Mel'nikov, who is the chair of the newly created Russian legal base called the State Duma's Committee for Science and Education. Explains that this legal base will assist in the further development of general and higher education institutions and will help improve the teaching conditions in Russia. (CMK)

  15. Ivan Vladislavić and What-What: Among Writers, Readers and “other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay is an experimental quodlibet on some recent Johannesburg imaginative writing. It works outwards from a creative 'overview' of Ivan Vladislavić's position in South African literature to a perspective on versions of citiness represented by newer, black authors such as Niq Mhlongo and Phaswane Mpe. Unable to ...

  16. Trapped in Place? Segmented Resilience to Hurricanes in the Gulf Coast, 1970–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Issar, Sukriti; Xu, Zengwang

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes pose a continuing hazard to populations in coastal regions. This study estimates the impact of hurricanes on population change in the years 1970–2005 in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. Geophysical models are used to construct a unique data set that simulates the spatial extent and intensity of wind damage and storm surge from the 32 hurricanes that struck the region in this period. Multivariate spatial time-series models are used to estimate the impacts of hurricanes on population change. Population growth is found to be reduced significantly for up to three successive years after counties experience wind damage, particularly at higher levels of damage. Storm surge is associated with reduced population growth in the year after the hurricane. Model extensions show that change in the white and young adult population is more immediately and strongly affected than is change for blacks and elderly residents. Negative effects on population are stronger in counties with lower poverty rates. The differentiated impact of hurricanes on different population groups is interpreted as segmented withdrawal—a form of segmented resilience in which advantaged population groups are more likely to move out of or avoid moving into harm’s way while socially vulnerable groups have fewer choices. PMID:27531504

  17. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  18. Race differences in depression vulnerability following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jeanelle S; Farrell, Amy S; Alexander, Adam C; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether racial disparities in depression were present after Hurricane Katrina. Data were gathered from 932 New Orleans residents who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and who returned to New Orleans the following year. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated racial differences in screening positive for depression (a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and explored whether differential vulnerability (prehurricane physical and mental health functioning and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support moderated and/or reduced the association of race with depression. A univariate logistic regression analysis showed the odds for screening positive for depression were 86% higher for African Americans than for Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86 [1.28-2.71], p = .0012). However, after controlling simultaneously for sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors, race was no longer a significant correlate for screening positive for depression (OR = 1.54 [0.95-2.48], p = .0771). The racial disparity in postdisaster depression seems to be confounded by sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors. Nonetheless, even after adjusting for these factors, there was a nonsignificant trend effect for race, which could suggest race played an important role in depression outcomes following Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively, using stronger assessments for depression, and incorporate measures for discrimination and segregation, to further understand possible racial disparities in depression after Hurricane Katrina. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Comparison and validation of statistical methods for predicting power outage durations in the event of hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2011-12-01

    This article compares statistical methods for modeling power outage durations during hurricanes and examines the predictive accuracy of these methods. Being able to make accurate predictions of power outage durations is valuable because the information can be used by utility companies to plan their restoration efforts more efficiently. This information can also help inform customers and public agencies of the expected outage times, enabling better collective response planning, and coordination of restoration efforts for other critical infrastructures that depend on electricity. In the long run, outage duration estimates for future storm scenarios may help utilities and public agencies better allocate risk management resources to balance the disruption from hurricanes with the cost of hardening power systems. We compare the out-of-sample predictive accuracy of five distinct statistical models for estimating power outage duration times caused by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. The methods compared include both regression models (accelerated failure time (AFT) and Cox proportional hazard models (Cox PH)) and data mining techniques (regression trees, Bayesian additive regression trees (BART), and multivariate additive regression splines). We then validate our models against two other hurricanes. Our results indicate that BART yields the best prediction accuracy and that it is possible to predict outage durations with reasonable accuracy. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. 2004 USGS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Northern Gulf of Mexico, Post-Hurricane Ivan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz point cloud data were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced elevation measurements in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)...

  1. Impact of Hurricane Ivan on the regional longleaf pine growth study: is there a relation to site or stand conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    The US Forest Service Regional Longleaf Pine Growth Study (RLGS) began its eighth re-measurement (40th year) during 2004 autumn. The study has 305 plots of which 171 plots are located on the Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) in Brewton AL. EEF is operated by the U.S. Forest Service in cooperation with the T.R. Miller Mill Company. The RLGS has plots distributed across...

  2. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  3. Hurricane Katrina: A Teachable Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for integrating the phenomenon of hurricanes into the teaching of high school fluid mechanics. Students come to understand core science concepts in the context of their impact upon both the environment and human populations. Suggestions for using information about hurricanes, particularly Hurricane Katrina, in a…

  4. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  5. Järjest rohkem venelasi saab aru, et neid on petetud / Ivan Tšumakov ; intervjueerinud Taavi Minnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tšumakov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Venemaa ökonomisti ja poliitikaanalüütiku Ivan Tšumakoviga Venemaa majanduslikest perspektiividest ja sellest, mida võimude poliitika on Venemaa tavakodanikele viimastel aastatel kaasa toonud

  6. Calculation of transient potential rise on the wind turbine struck by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqing, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A circuit model is proposed in this paper for calculating the transient potential rise on the wind turbine struck by lightning. The model integrates the blade, sliding contact site, and tower and grounding system of the wind turbine into an equivalent circuit. The lightning current path from the attachment point to the ground can be fully described by the equivalent circuit. The transient potential responses are obtained in the different positions on the wind turbine by solving the circuit equations. In order to check the validity of the model, the laboratory measurement is made with a reduced-scale wind turbine. The measured potential waveform is compared with the calculated one and a better agreement is shown between them. The practical applicability of the model is also examined by a numerical example of a 2 MW Chinese-built wind turbine.

  7. Microseisms from Hurricane "Hilda".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bremaecker, J C

    1965-06-25

    As hurricane "Hilda" crossed the Gulf of Mexico the dominant period of the microseisms shifted from about 8 to 5 seconds as the eye reached water about 150 to 200 meters deep. The conversion of wind energy to microseismic energy is most efficient in water depths from 20 to 200 meters. There is no evidence that two periods, one twice the other, are present.

  8. Hurricane Isabel gives accelerators a severe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapan Chattopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel was at category five--the most violent on the Saffir-Simpson scale of hurricane strength--when it began threatening the central Atlantic seaboard of the US. Over the course of several days, precautions against the extreme weather conditions were taken across the Jefferson Lab site in south-east Virginia. On 18 September 2003, when Isabel struck North Carolina's Outer Banks and moved northward, directly across the region around the laboratory, the storm was still quite destructive, albeit considerably reduced in strength. The flood surge and trees felled by wind substantially damaged or even devastated buildings and homes, including many belonging to Jefferson Lab staff members. For the laboratory itself, Isabel delivered an unplanned and severe challenge in another form: a power outage that lasted nearly three-and-a-half days, and which severely tested the robustness of Jefferson Lab's two superconducting machines, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and the superconducting radiofrequency ''driver'' accelerator of the laboratory's free-electron laser. Robustness matters greatly for science at a time when microwave superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) are not only being considered, but in some cases already being built for projects such as neutron sources, rare-isotope accelerators, innovative light sources and TeV-scale electron-positron linear colliders. Hurricane Isabel interrupted a several-week-long maintenance shutdown of CEBAF, which serves nuclear and particle physics and represents the world's pioneering large-scale implementation of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology. The racetrack-shaped machine is actually a pair of 500-600 MeV SRF linacs interconnected by recirculation arc beamlines. CEBAF delivers simultaneous beams at up to 6 GeV to three experimental halls. An imminent upgrade will double the energy to 12 GeV and add an extra hall for ''quark confinement'' studies. On a smaller scale

  9. Generalized zeta function representation of groups and 2-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory: The example of GL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}) and PGL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Ph., E-mail: philippe.roche@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, L2C, IMAG, Montpellier (France)

    2016-03-15

    We recall the relation between zeta function representation of groups and two-dimensional topological Yang-Mills theory through Mednikh formula. We prove various generalisations of Mednikh formulas and define generalization of zeta function representations of groups. We compute some of these functions in the case of the finite group GL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}) and PGL(2, #Mathematical Double-Struck Capital F#{sub q}). We recall the table characters of these groups for any q, compute the Frobenius-Schur indicator of their irreducible representations, and give the explicit structure of their fusion rings.

  10. Academician Ivan Gams and his influence on development of geomorphology in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Bognar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the role of academician Ivan Gams in the reorientation and modernization of Croatian geomorphology during 1970's and 1980's. The causes for losing contact with contemporary development of geomorphology in the world are analyzed in detail, and the way of reestablishing the former reputation and importance of Croatian geomorphology is presented, especially through the implementation of detailed geomorphological mapping, new methods of geomorphological investigation and education of younger scientific personnel at the university of Zagreb.

  11. Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.

  12. Hurricane Katrina Poster (August 28, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Katrina poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows a very large Hurricane Katrina as a category 5 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on August 28, 2005....

  13. Hurricane Rita Poster (September 22, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Rita poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Rita as a category-4 hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22, 2005. Poster size is...

  14. The Analysis of Regional Disparities in Romania with Gini/Struck Coefficients of Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ANTONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of regional development policy is to reduce disparities between regions and to ensure a relatively balanced level of development. To achieve this goal studies and social and economic analysis based on certain techniques and methods of evaluation are necessary. In scientific literature, there are plenty of models that can be applied to assess regional disparities. One of the methods commonly used in practice is related to the calculation and analysis of the degree of concentration/diversification of activities within a region. The increase or decrease in the degree of concentration of certain activities or areas of activity in a region provides information on: - the level of overall economic development; - economic development and growth rate; - the specific features of the region, the potential, local traditions, etc. The expert analysis indicate that, in a high level of overall development or a sustained economic growth rate, there are favorable conditions for economic activities to locate in any region, so they are relatively uniformly distributed throughout the country.Knowing the degree of concentration and also the influence factors are useful in making decisions and setting regional policy measures.This article proposes a synthetic analysis of the development level of regions in Romania with the concentration/diversification model (Gini/Struck coefficients, based on the existing key statistical indicators.

  15. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  16. Flood Inundation Mapping and Emergency Operations during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N. Z.; Cotter, J.; Gao, S.; Bedient, P. B.; Yung, A.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Gulf Coast as Category 4 on August 25, 2017 with devastating and life-threatening floods in Texas. Harris County received up to 49 inches of rainfall over a 5-day period and experienced flooding level and impacts beyond any previous storm in Houston's history. The depth-duration-frequency analysis reveals that the areal average rainfall for Brays Bayou surpasses the 500-year rainfall in both 24 and 48 hours. To cope with this unprecedented event, the researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington and Rice University worked closely with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the National Weather Service (NWS), the Texas Division of Emergency Management (TDEM), Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc. and Halff Associates, to conduct a series of meteorological, hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to delineate flood inundation maps. Up to eight major watersheds in Harris County were delineated based the available QPE data from WGRFC. The inundation map over Brays Bayou with their impacts from Hurricane Harvey was delineated in comparison with those of 100-, 500-year, and Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) design storms. This presentation will provide insights for both engineers and planners to re-evaluate the existing flood infrastructure and policy, which will help build Houston stronger for future extreme storms. The collaborative effort among the federal, academic, and private entities clearly demonstrates an effective approach for flood inundation mapping initiatives for the nation.

  17. Biographic Parallels as a Basis for Typological Studying of George Orwell and Ivan Bahrianyi Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Korshunova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of biographic parallelism as a basis for typological research. The main task is to find out similarities and differences in the works by George Orwell and Ivan Bahrianyi, all of them being based of the real facts from the writers' lives. The peculiarities of the literary interpretation of the biography of the both authors become the comparative basis for revealing of the common processes in their works. The research sheds the light on the interdependence between authors' motivations and its literary results. It also highlights the problem of genres chosen by the writers and of the dependence of this choice on the biographic facts usage. The article compares the genres of the authors' works from the point of view of their artistic motivation. The subject under study includes such books of the authors as “Burmese Days”, “Keep the Aspidistra Flying” and other by George Orwell, as well as “The Getsyman Garden”, “The Hunters and the Hunted” and others by Ivan Bahrianyi. It deals with the problem of the influence of the writers' biographic facts on their creation of the literary images and characters, as well as on the plots of the stories. The similarities between authors and their characters are revealed and this allows us to say that writers used their own lives as a source of inspiration and artistic motivation for the sake of making their stories credible. The article also raises the question of the nature of the writers' characters with authors' being their possible prototypes. In general, the article studies the parallels of George Orwell and Ivan Bahrianyi lives, trying to prove their compatibility in the typological field while both use their biographies as a creative method.

  18. Hurricane Season: Are You Ready?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hurricanes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces. Host Bret Atkins talks with CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health Director Dr. Chris Portier about the main threats of a hurricane and how you can prepare.

  19. The Gerasim model of caregiving: reflections on Tolstoy's novella, The Death of Ivan Ilyich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L

    1997-01-01

    Count Leo Tolstoy's classic novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886/1981) is examined from the perspective of a health care professional for its portrayal of a helping relationship between the central character and his servant Gerasim. The purpose of the article is to extrapolate helping behaviors depicted in the story and construct a caregiving model. Tolstoy's work, literary critiques of the novel, biographies of Tolstoy, and principles from feminist ethics are used as sources. The model will be of assistance to those who care for the terminally ill.

  20. DESAIN PEMBELAJARAN UNTUK TRANSFORMASI SOSIAL (Studi Perbandingan Pemikiran Paulo Freire dan Ivan Illich tentang Pendidikan Pembebasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Hanif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich are prominent figures in contemporary education, who broke the stable system of education. Paulo Freire suggests to stop bank style education and to promote andragogy education, which views both teacher and students equally. Education should be actualized through facing problems and should be able to omit naïve and magic awareness replaced with critical and transformative awareness. Different from Freire, Illich offers to free the society from formal schools. Education should be run in an open learning network. Technical skills can be taught by drilling. In addition, social transformation will happen only if there are epimethean people that are minority in existence.

  1. Fourth year medical students’ reflective writing on “death of Ivan Ilych: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHID ZOHOURI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students should be familiar with the end of life ethical issues and its considerations. For teaching end of life care to medical students, literature is a source of excellent narratives of patients with experiences of terminally ill condition in their journey through suffering and one of the most favourite bioethics literature readings has been the death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy. We used this novel to show medical students end of life events and suffering and asked them to write a reflective essay on it. We aimed to find what students think about terminally ill patients and their journey to death. Methods: In an inductive qualitative content analysis model, 350 essays, collected by homogenous sampling, were analyzed. The fourth year medical students were provided with the Death of Ivan Ilych novel to read. They were asked to write a reflection essay based on the reflective stages defined by Sandars. These essays served as the unit of analysis, each being read several times and a coding model was formed according to main topics. The related concepts in each unit were named as themes and each theme was abstracted to a code and the related codes were compared and developed as categories. Results: Qualitative content analysis of 350 essays of fourth year medical students revealed three major categories in students’ reflection on reading Death of Ivan Ilych as an end of life human body. These included: 1 Emotional experience, 2 Empathy and effective communication, 3 Spirituality and dignity. Analysis of essays showed that this reflection activity may help medical students have a deeper idea of the end of life situation and feelings. Conclusion: This project suggests that literature can be used as an example to introduce new ethical concepts to less experienced medical trainees. The students acquired the concept of the story and reflected the major aspects of the suffering of a human being in their essays. Having used and

  2. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  3. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  4. THE IMPACT OF HURRICANE BETA ON THE FORESTS OF PROVIDENCIA ISLAND, COLOMBIA, SOUTHWEST CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of global warming in the Caribbean is an increase in thefrequency and intensity of hurricanes. Little is known on the impact of this naturalphenomenon on forests, particularly for dry tropical forests. Understanding this impactin terms of structure and species richness is important for forest management. Slowmoving Hurricane Beta, a category 1, struck Old Providence island, Colombia, inOctober 29, 2005. Before Beta woody vegetation was characterized by 88 2 x 50 mplots (0.01 ha established throughout the island following the protocol by Gentry(1982; 59 plots were studied fi ve years earlier and 29 plots four to fi ve monthsearlier. The impact of hurricane Beta was assessed within 11 plots located in the DryTropical Forests of Old Providence, six months after the hurricane. The These plotswere measured in species composition, diameter at breast height (DBH, and heightwere measured within these plots. There was a considerable reduction in the numberof individuals, stems, height, basal areas, and there was no signifi cant differencebetween DBH. Height damage was positively associated with increasing DHB class.Furthermore, based on the results of species richness, even after controlling for thedifferent number of individuals, through rarefaction, there was no major differencebefore and after Beta.

  5. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Hugo in eastern Puerto Rico, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.

    1992-01-01

    On the morning of September 18, 1989, a category-four hurricane struck eastern Puerto Rico with a sustained wind speed in excess of 46 m/s. The 24-h rainfall accumulation from the hurricane ranged from 100 to 339 mm. Average rainfall intensities ranging from 34 to 39 mm/h were calculated for 4 and 6 h periods, respectively, at a rain gage equipped with satellite telemetry, and at an observer station. The hurricane rainfall triggered more than 400 landslides in the steeply sloping, highly dissected mountains of eastern Puerto Rico. Of these landslides, 285 were mapped from aerial photography which covered 6474 ha. Many of the mapped landslides were on northeast- and northwest-facing slopes at the eastern terminus of the mountains, nearest the hurricane path. The surface area of individual landslides ranged from 18 m2 to 4500 m2, with a median size of 148 m2. The 285 landslides disturbed 0.11% of the land surface in the area covered by aerial photographs. An approximate denudation rate of 164 mm/1000 y was calculated from the volume of material eroded by landsliding and the 10-y rainfall recurrence interval.

  6. Effects of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Louisiana black bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Murrow, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) is comprised of 3 subpopulations, each being small, geographically isolated, and vulnerable to extinction. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts in 2005, potentially altering habitat occupied by this federally threatened subspecies. We used data collected on radio-telemetered bears from 1993 to 1995 and pre-hurricane landscape data to develop a habitat model based on the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic. We then applied that model to post-hurricane landscape data where the telemetry data were collected (i.e., occupied study area) and where bear range expansion might occur (i.e., unoccupied study area) to quantify habitat loss or gain. The D2 model indicated that quality bear habitat was associated with areas of high mast-producing forest density, low water body density, and moderate forest patchiness. Cross-validation and testing on an independent data set in central Louisiana indicated that prediction and transferability of the model were good. Suitable bear habitat decreased from 348 to 345 km2 (0.9%) within the occupied study area and decreased from 34,383 to 33,891 km2 (1.4%) in the unoccupied study area following the hurricanes. Our analysis indicated that bear habitat was not significantly degraded by the hurricanes, although changes that could have occurred on a microhabitat level would be more difficult to detect at the resolution we used. We suggest that managers continue to monitor the possible long-term effects of these hurricanes (e.g., vegetation changes from flooding, introduction of toxic chemicals, or water quality changes).

  7. Multi-proxy Characterization of Two Recent Storm Deposits Attributed to Hurricanes Rita and Ike in the Chenier Plain of Southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Liu, K. B.; Ryu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Chenier Plain in southwestern Louisiana owes its origin to dynamic depositional processes that are dominated by delta-switching of the Mississippi River to the east, while frequent hurricane activities also play an important role in its geomorphology and sedimentary history. However, despite several studies in the literature, the sediment-stratigraphic characteristics of recent or historic hurricane deposits are still not well documented from the Chenier Plain. In 2005 and 2008, Hurricane Rita (category 3) and Ike (category 2) made landfall on the coasts of Louisiana and Texas. Remote sensing images confirm that the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, located at the east end of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, was heavily impacted by both hurricanes. We analyzed the lithology and chemical stratigraphy of three 30 cm sediment monoliths (ROC-1, ROC-2, and ROC-3) recovered from a coastal saltmarsh in the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge to identify the event deposits attributed to these two storms. Each monolith contains 2 distinct light-colored clastic sediment layers imbedded in brown organic clay. The loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence results show that the hurricane layers have increased contents of Ca, Sr, Zr, and carbonates and decreased contents of water and organics. Surprisingly, despite its greater intensity and more severe impacts, Hurricane Rita left a much thinner storm deposit than did Hurricane Ike in all monoliths. Satellite data reveal that Hurricane Rita caused significant coastal erosion and shoreline recession, rendering the sampling sites much closer to the beach and ocean and therefore more prone to storm surges and overwash deposition than when Hurricane Ike struck three years later. Our results suggest that site-to-sea distance, which affects a study site's paleotempestological sensitivity, can play a bigger role in affecting the thicknesses of storm deposits than the intensity of the hurricane.

  8. IVAN FRANKO’S GERMAN HERITAGE IN FORMING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Rokitska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ivan Franko’s German heritage along with peculiarities of his intercultural activity, which is manifested in the poet’s works aiming at the German-speaking readers, and translations of his works. Versatile activity of I. Franko was based on European values, which contributed to high level of spiritual assets inherent to Ukrainian nation. Just as important condition for forming intercultural competencies through professional training of future teachers of foreign languages is a culturologic component with value attitude to national and foreign cultures, so it is brought forward to use creatively of the writer and thinker of genious, Ivan Franko. Franko’s Words are eternal and influence the minds of many people in Europe and the world. Franko was a great strategist of national culture. He set himself the task of making Ukrainian culture more European in general, attaching it to the themes and models of European and world literary process. German literary heritage of Franko should be viewed not only as an important facet of a prominent journalist, writer and scientist, an important means of rapprochement of peoples, mutual enrichment of cultures, but above all as a desire to educate native people, to awaken their national consciousness, to build their own state, and in this case, to form intercultural competence of future teachers, teachers of new generation.

  9. Il Vangelo di Ivan Aleksandăr nella tradizione testuale dei vangeli slavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alberti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Alberti, Marcello Garzaniti The Ivan Alexander Gospel in the Textual Tradition of the Slavic Gospels In this article, the Authors analyse the Slavic text of the Gospels in the light of the most recent developments in Greek New Testament studies. Particularly useful is the work carried out at the Institut für neutestamentliche Forschung (Münster. On the basis of the identifi cation of a series of ‘Test Passages’ (Teststellen, the Münster volumes offer all the readings of the Greek tradition (except for lectionaries. In this paper, the fi rst 10 chapters of the Gospel of John and the entire text of the synoptic Gospels are analysed from this point of view, comparing the Greek text with a corpus of 12 Slavic manuscripts. The text of the Ivan Alexander Gospel in some instances refl ects the process of harmonization to the Greek ‘Byzantine text’, but in general terms preserves many archaic features, which is quite unusual for a 14th century Gospel. The revision on the basis of Greek manuscripts is also illustrated by readings which are clearly in harmony with particular forms of the Greek text.

  10. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  11. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) was collected by the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which was a multi-band...

  12. Hurricane slams gulf operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage by Hurricane Andrew escalated last week as operators stepped up inspections of oil and gas installations in the Gulf of Mexico. By midweek, companies operating in the gulf and South Louisiana were beginning to agree that earlier assessments of damage only scratched the surface. Damage reports included scores of lost, toppled, or crippled platforms, pipeline ruptures, and oil slicks. By midweek the U.S. coast Guard had received reports of 79 oil spills. Even platforms capable of resuming production in some instances were begin curtailed because of damaged pipelines. Offshore service companies the another 2-4 weeks could be needed to fully assess Andrew's wrath. Lack of personnel and equipment was slowing damage assessment and repair

  13. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  14. Primo Levi and Ivan Denisovič: The Literary Act between Representation and Expressive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Tosco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se questo è un uomo di Primo Levi e Una giornata di Ivan Denisovič di Aleksandr Solženicyn sono due “atti letterari” che hanno contribuito in modo significativo alla conoscenza storica del XX secolo: il primo nell’Occidente dei campi di concentramento nazisti, il secondo nell’Oriente del Gulag. Perché sono così famosi? C’è qualcosa che li accomuna? Questo saggio si propone di analizzare la forza della letteratura come luogo di conoscenza e autocoscienza. Se le opere di Levi e Solženicyn hanno un grande valore come testimonianze, in esse la forza della testimonianza è data dal “gesto letterario” che le ha create, un gesto che produce una conoscenza sintetica in cui gli universali esistono solo nel particolare.

  15. Pobreza por subtração: A festa, de Ivan Ângelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Weiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Schwarz highlights the exclusion of marginalized classes from discus- sions about Brazilian national identity in “Nacional por subtração” (1987. Incorporating Schwarz’s claim, as well as Engbersen’s five discourses of poverty (1999, this article first contextualizes poverty and its discussion in Brazilian liter- ary history before arguing that Ivan Ângelo’s A Festa (1976 constitutes a type of literature of poverty by subtraction. Ângelo excludes the voice of the poor from the novel, yet he does so precisely in order to call attention to the problematic manner in which literature, journalism, and bureaucratic reports claim to repre- sent the disenfranchised.

  16. Optimization methods and applications in honor of Ivan V. Sergienko's 80th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos; Shylo, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners in computer science, optimization, operations research and mathematics will find this book useful as it illustrates optimization models and solution methods in discrete, non-differentiable, stochastic, and nonlinear optimization. Contributions from experts in optimization are showcased in this book showcase a broad range of applications and topics detailed in this volume, including pattern and image recognition, computer vision, robust network design, and process control in nonlinear distributed systems. This book is dedicated to the 80th birthday of Ivan V. Sergienko, who is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine and the director of the V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics. His work has had a significant impact on several theoretical and applied aspects of discrete optimization, computational mathematics, systems analysis and mathematical modeling.  .

  17. The death of Ivan Ilych: A blueprint for intervention at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw Pa

    2011-07-01

    Medical practice and the field of humanities frequently intersect. It is uncanny how problems presented or described in literature that are several hundred years old still present themselves to us on a regular basis. Often, our answers to these dilemmas are not perfect, but we continue our attempts at providing solutions through an enlightened evolution of our thought and approaches. Leo Tolstoy's novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych, is a classic piece of literature that allows a view of the dying process in an ordinary human being, and presents us with an opportunity to observe, not only the intersection of medicine and humanities, but also that of critical care and palliative medicine. Here Tolstoy, through his keen observation of the human condition at the end of life, allows us an opportunity to view a 19(th) century perspective that has an all too familiar persistence that needs a 21(st) century intervention.

  18. The discipline of architecture and freedom of spirit: Architect Ivan Antić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović-Marić Dijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Each epoch has its distinct characters who, by their talent, creativity knowledge and skills, manage to surmount the limiting context and come up as individuals. One among such creators is the architect – Ivan Antić, Member of Academy, who in his design projects and with his distinct architectural credo managed to express the ideals of time in which he was creating. His buildings – masterpieces of the Serbian modern architecture, e.g. Museum of the modern art located at Ušće in Belgrade; Museum for victims of execution in Šumarice sport arenas, public and business edifices, all of them represent unique architectural achievements. Those building forms are both functional and aesthetical, almost as a sublimate in fulfillment of content and construction requirements.

  19. The effects of Hurricane Sandy on trauma center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, T; Bogdanovski, D A; Hicks, A S; Bilaniuk, J W; Adams, J M; Siegel, B K; DiFazio, L T; Durling-Grover, R; Nemeth, Z H

    2018-02-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a particularly unusual storm with regard to both size and location of landfall. The storm landed in New Jersey, which is unusual for a tropical storm of such scale, and created hazardous conditions which caused injury to residents during the storm and in the months following. This study aims to describe differences in trauma center admissions and patterns of injury during this time period when compared to a period with no such storm. Data were collected for this study from patients who were admitted to the trauma center at Morristown Medical Center during Hurricane Sandy or the ensuing cleanup efforts (patients admitted between 29 October 2012 and 27 December 2012) as well as a control group consisting of all patients admitted to the trauma center between 29 October 2013 and 27 December 2013. Patient information was collected to compare the admissions of the trauma center during the period of the storm and cleanup to the control period. A total of 419 cases were identified in the storm and cleanup period. 427 were identified for the control. Striking injuries were more common in the storm and cleanup group by 266.7% (p = 0.0107); cuts were more common by 650.8% (p = 0.0044). Medical records indicate that many of these injuries were caused by Hurricane Sandy. Self-inflicted injuries were more common by 301.3% (p = 0.0294). There were no significant differences in the total number of patients, mortality, or injury severity score between the two cohorts. The data we have collected show that the conditions caused by Hurricane Sandy and the following cleanup had a significant effect on injury patterns, with more patients having been injured by being struck by falling or thrown objects, cut while using tools, or causing self-inflicted injuries. These changes, particularly during the cleanup period, are indicative of environmental changes following the storm which increase these risks of injury.

  20. Elements of regional architecture in the works of architect Ivan Antić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović-Marić Dijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The body of work of Ivan Antić (Belgrade, 1923-2005, one of the most important Serbian architects who created his works in the period from 1955 to 1990, represents almost a reification of ideals of the times he lived in, both in terms of form and in structural and substantive terms. His work is placed within a rationalistic concept which is essentially experienced as an undisturbed harmony between his personality and the contemporary architectural expression. However, besides such way of interpretation, his architecture also includes examples indicating the thinking about the folk tradition, architectural heritage, the primordial, as well as the archetypal, typical for a region. In the context of the body of work of architect Ivan Antić, this paper will particularly place accent and track such threads of thinking which are, in an obvious or transparent sense, expressed in a series of realized solutions and designs such as the Guard's Home in Dedinje (Belgrade, 1957-1958, Children's Home (Jermenovci, 1956-1957, Museum of the Genocide in Šumarice which he designed together with I. Raspopović (Kragujevac, 1968-1975, 'Politika' Cultural Centre (Krupanj, 1976-1981, '25th May' Sports Center (Belgrade, 1971-1973, or his own house in Lisović near Belgrade. All the abovementioned buildings, as well as numerous other, which belong at the top of Serbian architecture, reflect the spirit of the time in which he created them. They clearly indicate the unbreakable bond which exists in architecture between the inherited, vernacular, contemporary and personal architect's attitude.

  1. Hurricane Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to terabytes of data and generate 2-D or time-series plots and animation without downloading any software and data. HDAT includes data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the NASA Quick Scatterometer(QuikSCAT) and NECP Reanalysis, and the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N - 60 S) IR Dataset. The GES DISC archives TRMM data. The daily global rainfall product derived from the 3-hourly multi-satellite precipitation product (3B42 V6) is available in HDAT. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) sea surface temperature from the Remote Sensing Systems is in HDAT as well. The NASA QuikSCAT ocean surface wind and the NCEP Reanalysis provide ocean surface and atmospheric conditions, respectively. The global merged IR product, also known as, the NCEP/CPC half-hourly, 4-km Global (60 N -60 S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally-merged pixel-resolution IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 & GMS). The GES DISC has collected over 10 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution (every 30 minutes) dataset not only provides additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allows observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, hurricanes, typhoons, tropical cyclones, mesoscale convection system, etc. Basic functions include selection of area of

  2. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed interim...-ISG-024, ``Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles....221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit...

  3. Hurricane Hugo Poster (September 21, 1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Hugo poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-11 captures Hurricane Hugo slamming into South Carolina coast on September 21, 1989. Poster size is 36"x36".

  4. Hurricane Isabel Poster (September 18, 2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Isabel poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Isabel making landfall on the North Carolina Outer Banks on September 18, 2003. Poster...

  5. Hurricane Wilma Poster (October 24, 2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Wilma poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-18 shows Hurricane Wilma exiting Florida off the east Florida coast on October 24, 2005. Poster size is 34"x30".

  6. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  7. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  8. Hurricane Charley Poster (August 13, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Charley poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows a small but powerful hurricane heading toward southern Florida on August 13, 2004. Poster dimension...

  9. Hurricane Jeanne Poster (September 25, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Jeanne poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-16 shows Hurricane Jeanne near Grand Bahama Island on September 25, 2004. Poster size is 34"x30".

  10. NOAA predicts active 2013 Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    (discussion) El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion National Hurricane Preparedness Week in both English and Spanish, featuring NOAA hurricane experts and the FEMA administrator at

  11. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  12. Observations of Building Performance under Combined Wind and Surge Loading from Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Roueche, D. B.; Krupar, R. J.; Smith, D. J.; Soto, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Texas coastline on August 25, 2017, as a Category 4 hurricane - the first major hurricane to reach the US in twelve years. Wind gusts over 130 mph and storm surge as high as 12.5 ft caused widespread damage to buildings and critical infrastructure in coastal communities including Rockport, Fulton, Port Aransas and Aransas Pass. This study presents the methodology and preliminary observations of a coordinated response effort to document residential building performance under wind and storm surge loading. Over a twelve day survey period the study team assessed the performance of more than 1,000 individual, geo-located residential buildings. Assessments were logged via a smartphone application to facilitate rapid collection and collation of geotagged photographs, building attributes and structural details, and structural damage observations. Detailed assessments were also made of hazard intensity, specifically storm surge heights and both wind speed and direction indicators. Preliminary observations and findings will be presented, showing strong gradients in damage between inland and coastal regions of the affected areas that may be due in part to enhanced individual loading effects of wind and storm surge and potentially joint-hazard loading effects. Contributing factors to the many cases of disproportionate damage observed in close proximity will also be discussed. Ongoing efforts to relate building damage to near-surface hazard measurements (e.g., radar, anemometry) in close proximity will also be described.

  13. The effects of hurricane Rita and subsequent drought on alligators in southwest Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L; Merchant, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Hurricane Rita struck the coast of southwest Louisiana in September 2005. The storm generated an enormous tidal surge of approximately four meters in height that inundated many thousands of acres of the coastal marsh with full strength seawater. The initial surge resulted in the deaths of a number of alligators and severely stressed those who survived. In addition, a prolonged drought (the lowest rainfall in 111 years of recorded weather data) following the hurricane resulted in highly saline conditions that persisted in the marsh for several months. We had the opportunity to collect 11 blood samples from alligators located on Holly Beach less than a month after the hurricane, but were unable to collect samples from alligators on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge until February 2006. Conditions at Rockefeller Refuge did not permit systematic sampling, but a total of 201 samples were collected on the refuge up through August 2006. The blood samples were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolality, and corticosterone. Blood samples from alligators sampled on Holly Beach in October 2005, showed a marked elevation in plasma osmolality, sodium, chloride, potassium, corticosterone, and an elevated heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Blood samples from alligators on Rockefeller Refuge showed increasing levels of corticosterone as the drought persisted and elevated osmolality and electrolytes. After substantial rainfall in July and August, these indices of osmotic stress returned to within normal limits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Year-ahead prediction of US landfalling hurricane numbers: intense hurricanes

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Shree; Jewson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We continue with our program to derive simple practical methods that can be used to predict the number of US landfalling hurricanes a year in advance. We repeat an earlier study, but for a slightly different definition landfalling hurricanes, and for intense hurricanes only. We find that the averaging lengths needed for optimal predictions of numbers of intense hurricanes are longer than those needed for optimal predictions of numbers of hurricanes of all strengths.

  15. Direct and indirect mortality in Florida during the 2004 hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Nathan; Houser, Chris; Meyer-Arendt, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that natural disasters, and hurricanes in particular, have led to more deaths than those usually documented in short post-storm surveys. Such indirect deaths, thought to be related to dietary, stress or pre-existing medical conditions, can exceed the number of direct deaths and may persist for weeks or even months beyond the event itself. In the present study, cumulative sum of deviations plots are used to quantify the number of direct and indirect deaths resulting from Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne that made landfall in Florida in 2004. Results suggest that there was an elevated mortality for up to 2 months following each storm, resulting in a total of 624 direct and indirect deaths attributable to the storm. Trauma-related deaths that can be associated directly with the storm account for only ˜4% of the total storm-related mortality, while indirect mortality accounts for most storm-related deaths. Specifically, a large percentage of the elevated mortality was associated with heart (34%) and cancer-related deaths (19%), while diabetes (5%) and accident-related deaths (9%) account for a smaller but still significant percentage of the elevated mortality. The results further suggest that the elevated mortality was the result of additional deaths that would not have otherwise occurred within that 5 month period, and not simply a clustering of deaths that were inevitable between 1 August and 31 December 2004. The elevated mortality identified in this study is significantly greater than the official count of 31 direct and 113 indirect deaths resulting from the four hurricanes combined. This suggests a need for improved mortality counts and surveillance in order to better evaluate and identify effective prevention policies, and to identify preventable deaths.

  16. 7 CFR 701.50 - 2005 hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2005 hurricanes. 701.50 Section 701.50 Agriculture... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.50 2005 hurricanes. In addition benefits elsewhere allowed by this part, claims related to calendar year 2005 hurricane losses may be allowed to the extent provided for in §§ 701...

  17. Hurricane Katrina impacts on Mississippi forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher Oswalt; Jeffery Turner

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina triggered public interest and concern for forests in Mississippi that required rapid responses from the scientific community. A uniform systematic sample of 3,590 ground plots were established and measured in 687 days immediately after the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast. The hurricane damaged an estimated 521 million trees with more...

  18. Hurricane Season: Are You Ready?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-24

    Hurricanes are one of Mother Nature’s most powerful forces. Host Bret Atkins talks with CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health Director Dr. Chris Portier about the main threats of a hurricane and how you can prepare.  Created: 9/24/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 9/24/2012.

  19. Ivan Rančić: A forgotten painter of flowers and landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Kamenko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Rančić was born in the Kraljevo village, in eastern Serbia to a family of farmers on 19th, February, 1906. Very little data about him has been preserved, therefore, this paper is an attempt to make a reconstruction of his life and work. He attended primary school in his birth place, lower secondary school he finished in Knjazevac and Military Academy in Belgrade. After completing the National Academy in 1934, he was sent to Zagreb where he got his first post. He lived there with his wife and his son until the capitulation of the country in 1941. A few months after the collapse of the country, he was arrested and sent to Ljubljana and three months later to a concentration camp in Austria. He spent about fifteen months in that camp in during which time he intensively studied painting. He fled from the camp to Switzerland and stayed there until his death in 1987. According to some letters he sent to his wife in Nis, some of his paintings he created during his time in the camp, ne took to Switzerland where he eventually sold them. He did the toughest jobs there in order to survive and painted extensively. After World War II he graduated from the School of Fine Arts in Lausanne. Later on he had two exhibitions at the New Gallery of Modern Art. Ivan Rančić came a long way from an unknown beginner to a respected prominent artist. He left behind about 350 works, many of which he sold during his life, mainly landscapes and still life in oil, watercolor and pastel. He was neither concerned about styles and trends nor did he believe in the old and the new. If he came to a certain specific manner of painting, it is because at one point it was imposed on him as the only proper way of expression. The analysis of Rančić's paintings leads to the conclusion that his creation had gone through four phases. The first one (started in the concentration camp in Austria during which he painted still lifes without full sketches, previous studies, and the use

  20. Ivan IV, el Terrible, ¿padeció de un síndrome del lóbulo temporal?

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza G, Ricardo; Benavides S, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    Ivan IV "The Terrible" was the first Tsar of all Russias and was crowned in 1547. He extended Russian territories and opened the route to Siberia in successful campaigns against Tartars. He increased his personal power to the point of generating an autocracy that isolated him progressively from the council of Boyars. He had a complex personality and his acts were impregnated by a profound religiousness, episodes of rage, mood changes and a sense of "personal fate". All these traits configure ...

  1. The Status of Kasimov Chinggisids during the Reigns of Vasily II and Ivan III according to Written Sources

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Nesin

    2017-01-01

    Research objective: To study the issue both of the status of Kasimov Chinggisids as well as of the attitude toward the service Tatars and the Tatars who were allied to Moscow during the reigns of the great Moscow princes Vasily II and Ivan III. Research materials: Published and unpublished sources: books of official orders in the Russian state, chronicles, acts, diplomatic documents, etc. Results and novelty of the research: This work is the first comprehensive study of this topic. The ...

  2. ATTEMPTS TO FIND ETHOLOGY GENRE IN FAIRY TALE BY IVAN FRANKO “MYKYTA THE FOX”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Syrotenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to finding typology signs in the fairy-tale by Іvan Franko that characterize works of ethology genre. Turning to the genre descriptions of this particular work is not accidental, as until now there is no clearly defined genre theory, and it is foremost explained by the fact that literary reviewers understand the nature of genre content differently. Some people see in it nothing but formal displays, and others connect it with different vital realities that attract the writer’s attention. A fully original genre conception is offered by G. Pospelov, and its basis is presented in understanding the genre range of problems such as mythological, national and historical, novel and ethological. The determined typology signs of the ethological are the following: firstly, concentration on the analysis of public environment, finding out what is considered to be a stable state, as well as the display of the dominating conduct norms. Secondly, the characters display peculiar static, inwardly immobile features; they express certain “models” of people’s behaving in different social environments. Therefore the semantic and artistic features of Ivan Franko’s fairy-tale is examined through the prism of the typology of the ethology genre; that allows to specify the understanding of concept “genre”, “literary fairy-tale as a genre”, the value of the work of ethological range of problems at the moment when a literary work is being written and in social and literary periods that follow. Displays of ethological problem range the fairy-tale are manifested in its composition nature, in peculiarities of grouping the characters; that reflects definite conflict orientation of the work and thus display of dominant traits of the main characters at least. The plot structure of the fairy-tale, namely verse, "works" for underlining the ethological range of problems: with his inserted stories Ivan Franko depicts into details the dominant

  3. SERGEI DURYLIN'S ANCIENT TRIPTYCH AND IVAN SHMELYOV'S HOW DID IT ALL HAPPEN?: CHRISTIAN REALISM POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Alexandrovna Korshunova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the investigation of creative connections between Sergei Durylin and Ivan Shmyolev, two émigré writers of the fi rst half of the 20th century. They were brought together not only by common religious values, but also by their tragic destiny. That is why we believe the comparison of their artistic principles — through the example of Durylin’s Ancient Triptych (1919–1923 and Shmelyov’s How did it all happen? (1944 to be very productive, especially considering that no serious comparative analyze of these works has been done before. The comparison of two texts clearly shows that their problematic and poetics are quite closely connected. Both writers depict the final period of life of outwardly successful, but spiritually devastated personalities (professor of ancient history and general Patrikiy Patrikiyevich Drevlyaninov. Durylin and Shmelyov tried to help their heroes to overcome the spiritual deadlock, senselessness of existence and their personal obsessions (for the professor it is the idea of scientifi c labour corrupting the society, for the general it is gambling. Both the professor and the general travel their road of purifi cation, their ‘way of the Cross’, their Golgotha and their Resurrection. Durylin directly connects his character’s road with the liturgical cycle, because ‘fi ghting with the devil’ takes place during the Great Lent, while the grandfather sees his life-changing dream on the eve of Easter and the Passion Week. The hero’s pilgrimage to Easter forms the plot of this story, actualizing the importance of Easter archetype for Russian literature. The methods used by both authors to free their characters from spiritual emptiness (introduction of a ‘spirit character’ as a reference to the devil from Dostoyevsky’s novel The Karamazov Brothers are also similar. Stylistic features of Durylin’s and Shmelyov’s poetics — plotlessness, prevailing of metaphysical problematic, Easter

  4. LEGEND, STORY AND NARRATION IN THE GENRE STRUCTURE OF IVAN SHMELEV'S SHORT NOVEL INEXHAUSTIBLE CUP: THE PROBLEM OF SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Sobolev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the central episodes of Ivan Shmelev's short novel The Inexhaustible Chalice (Inexaustible Cup, or Non-intoxicating Chalice. The source of this episode was a legend, recorded by a priest Yakov Brilliantov. In 1912 he published the text of the legend calling it a Story of the Miraculous Icon of the Mother of God Called the “Inexhaustible Chalice”. The legend existed in the folk tradition for a long time. The paper presents a hypothesis that Ivan Shmelev reproduced an oral version or edition of the legend in his short novel. Comparison of Shmelev's novel and the old legend reveals similarities and discrepancies of texts, analysis of which can serve as the basis for important observations on lingvopoetics of the short novel and the author’s style. Ivan Shmelev uses the legend as a source of pious history: he connects it with his main text at all narrative levels, while leaving only functional elements in the recipient text. This type of creative editing can be defined as a form of a condensed narrative. Moreover, analysis of sources leads to a conclusion about the poetics of the chronotope and the main characters of the tale.

  5. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995

  6. Thoracic aortic injury in motor vehicle crashes: the effect of impact direction, side of body struck, and seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Franklyn, Melanie; Frampton, Richard; Yang, King; Morris, Andrew; Fildes, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Using in-depth, real-world motor vehicle crash data from the United States and the United Kingdom, we aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with thoracic aorta injuries. De-identified National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (U.S.) and Co-operative Crash Injury Study (U.K.) data formed the basis of this retrospective analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the level of risk of thoracic aorta injury associated with impact direction, seat belt use and, given the asymmetry of the thoracic cavity, whether being struck toward the left side of the body was associated with increased risk in side-impact crashes. A total of 13,436 U.S. and 3,756 U.K. drivers and front seat passengers were analyzed. The incidence of thoracic aorta injury in the U.S. and U.K. samples was 1.5% (n = 197) and 1.9% (n = 70), respectively. The risk was higher for occupants seated on the side closest to the impact than for occupants involved in frontal impact crashes. This was the case irrespective of whether the force was applied toward the left (belted: relative risk [RR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.1; p direction. Thoracic aorta injuries were found to be associated with high impact severity, and being struck by a sports utility vehicle relative to a passenger vehicle (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; p = 0.001). Aortic injuries have been conventionally associated with frontal impacts. However, emergency clinicians should be aware that occupants of side-impact crashes are at greater risk, particularly if the occupant was unbelted and involved in a crash of high impact severity.

  7. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  8. Ivane S. Beritashvili (1884-1974): from spinal cord reflexes to image-driven behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagareli, M G; Doty, R W

    2009-10-20

    Ivane Beritashvili ("Beritoff" in Russian, and often in Western languages) was a major figure in 20th-century neuroscience. Mastering the string galvanometer, he founded the electrophysiology of spinal cord reflexes, showing that inhibition is a distinctly different process from excitation, contrary to the concepts of his famous mentor, Wedensky. Work on postural reflexes with Magnus was cut short by World War I, but he later demonstrated that navigation in two-dimensional space without vision is a function solely of the vestibular system rather than of muscle proprioception. Persevering in his experiments despite postwar turmoil he founded an enduring Physiology Institute in Tbilisi, where he pursued an ingenious and extensive investigation of comparative memory in vertebrates. This revealed the unique nature of mammalian memory processes, which he forthrightly called "image driven," and distinguished them unequivocally from those underlying conditional reflexes. For some 30 years the Stalinist terror confined his publications to the Russian language. Work with his colleague, Chichinadze, discovering that memory confined to one cerebral hemisphere could be accessed by the other via a specific forebrain commissure, did reach the West, and ultimately led to recognition of the fascinating "split brain" condition. In the 1950s he was removed from his professorial position for 5 years as being "anti-Pavlovian." Restored to favor, he was honorary president of the "Moscow Colloquium" that saw the foundation of the International Brain Research Organization.

  9. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja)1 and the Belgrade School of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjus, Pavle R.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Cvijic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L’Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and bioenergetics. Djaja became member of the Serbian and Croatian academies of science and doctor honoris causa of Sorbonne. In 1952 for the seminal work on the behaviour of deep cooled warm blooded animals he becane associate member of the National Medical Academy in Paris. In 1955 the French Academy of Sciences elected him as associate member in place of deceased Sir Alexander Fleming. Djaja died in 1957 during a congress held in his honour. He left more than 200 scientific and other papers and the golden DaVincian credo “Nulla dies sine experimento”. His legacy was continued by several generations of researchers, the most prominent among them being Stefan Gelineo, Radoslav Andjus and Vojislav Petrović. PMID:21777022

  10. A segunda crítica social da Saúde de Ivan Illich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Passos Nogueira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Na Nêmesis da Medicina, Ivan Illich expôs os elementos essenciais da sua primeira crítica da saúde, afirmando que a ampla industrialização da saúde e medicalização da vida na sociedade moderna faz aparecer diversas formas de iatrogênese ou danos à saúde, como resultado da perda da capacidade de ação autônoma das pessoas perante a enfermidade, a dor e o envelhecimento. Na segunda crítica social da saúde, Illich trata do surgimento de uma nova iatrogênese social, a iatrogênese do corpo, que resulta de uma espécie de obsessão com a saúde corporal e com sua produção através de atividades físicas, dietas etc. em aparente condição de autonomia. Trata-se de um consumismo do corpo saudável, que responde menos à ação dos médicos e mais às informações difundidas pelos meios de comunicação e pelos agentes terapêuticos não-oficiais.

  11. The industrialization of fetishism or the fetishism of industrialization: a critique of Ivan Illich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1975-01-01

    This article critically assesses the ideology of industrialism in light of Ivan Illich's Medical Nemesis. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section is a description of the main features of that ideology, the most prevalent and influential one used in sociological literature to explain the state both of Western societies and of our health services. Also in this section, it is shown how these features appear in Illich's analysis of our societies, of our health services, and of the different clinical, social, and structural iatrogeneses that health services create. The second section examines the assumptions underlying Illich's analysis and discusses their validity to explain the nature and function of our Western health services and their iatrogenic effects. Where Illich's explanations are considered invalid, alternative explanations are presented. Among them, it is postulated that it is not industrialism, but the assumedly transcended category of capitalism that is the cause of the social and structural iatrogeneses. The third section discusses the political implications of Illich's analysis, in a moment when our Western societies are supposedly in crisis.

  12. Slovene poetry in the U.S.A.: the case of Ivan Zorman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Zorman was both a musician and a poet, born in 1889 in Šmarje near Grosuplje and died in 1957 in Cleveland (Ohio. In 1893 his family emigrated to the United States of America, first to Ely, Calumet, Cleveland and then to some other American towns. After a brief return to Slovenia in 1898/9, where Zorman attended elementary school in Velesovo near Kranj, they finally settled down in 1904 in Cleveland. In 1907 Zorman took up the study of modern languages (English, French and Italian, history and music at Western Reserve University and graduated only in music in 1912. For a number of years, during 1908 and 1956, he was chief organist and choir leader (like his father at the parish church of Sv. Lovrenc in Newburgh near Cleveland. During 1920 and 1925 he was professional director of the "Zorman Philharmonic". Not only was he known as a musician, he was very much present in the public life of the Slovene community living in Cleveland, as the enthusiastic teacher of Slovene literature in the Slovene school of the "Slovenski narodni dom", as a poet, translator and public speaker.

  13. Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion in Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lisowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations of Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion as the diagnoses of the weakness of the human intellect in confrontation with the world and the criticism of rationalism. Therefore, in the introduction I will present those fragments of the novel that characterize Ivan’s rebellion as highly abstract and theoretical. At the same time, this common literary context serves as the ground for reconstruction and comparison of the basic philosophical assumptions of each author. The intention of the remaining part of the paper is, firstly, to reconstruct A. Camus’ and K. Jaspers’ epistemology and, secondly, to analyse the arguments against Ivan’s attitude formulated by the writers. Their criticisms of the protagonist’s excessive trust in intellect is based on their own concepts of human epistemic capacity, which are related to the problems of the absurd in A. Camus’ and transcendence in K. Jaspers’ writings. The question of nihilism demands analysis of A. Camus’ idea of the nature of rebellion as both affirmative and negative, and of K. Jaspers’ notion of faith as pre-intellectual trust. Finally, their criticisms of the slogan “If there is no God, then anything is allowed” introduces the problem of freedom, which allows the comparison of the concepts of solidarity (A. Camus and communication (K. Jaspers. In the conclusion these two philosophical attitudes are discussed together. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

  14. Ivan Illich's Medical Nemesis and the 'age of the show': On the Expropriation of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Babette

    2018-01-01

    What Ivan Illich regarded in his Medical Nemesis as the 'expropriation of health' takes place on the surfaces and in the spaces of the screens all around us, including our cell phones but also the patient monitors and (increasingly) the iPads that intervene between nurse and patient. To explore what Illich called the 'age of the show', this essay uses film examples, like Creed and the controversial documentary Vaxxed, and the television series Nurse Jackie. Rocky's cancer in his last film (submitting to chemo to 'fight' cancer) highlights what Illich along with Petr Skrabanek called the 'expropriation of death'. In contrast to what Illich denotes as 'Umsonstigkeit' - grace or gift, given undeservedly, i.e., gratuitously - medical science tends to be tempted by what Illich terms scientistic 'black magic', taking over (expropriating) the life and the death of the patient in increasingly technological ways, a point underscored in the concluding section on the commercial prospects of xenotransplants using factory farm or mass-produced human-pig mosaics or chimeras. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Safety and design impact of hurricane Andrew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, Ching N.

    2004-01-01

    Turkey Point completed the IPE in June of 1991. Hurricane Andrew landed at Turkey Point on August 24, 1992. Although the safety related systems, components and structures were not damaged by the Hurricane Andrew, certain nonsafety related components and the neighboring fossil plant sustained noticeable damage. Among the major components that were nonsafety related but would affect the PRA of the plant included the service water pumps and the high tower. This paper discusses the safety and design impact of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. The risk of hurricanes on the interim and evolving plant configurations are briefly described. The risk of the plant from internal events as a result of damage incurred during Hurricane Andrew are discussed. The design change as the result of Hurricane Andrew and its impact on the PRA are presented. (author)

  16. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas....... Especially in the initial phase of floating foundation concept development, site specific metocean data are usually not available. As the areas of interest are furthermore not covered by any design standard, in terms of design sea states, generic and in engineering terms applicable environmental background...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...

  17. Illustrations to “Gespräche in dem Reiche derer Todten zwischen dem vortreflichen Moscowitischen Czaar Petro Magno und dem grossen Tyrannen Ivan Basilowiz II” (Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible by David Fassmann (1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Skvortcova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The journal created by David Fassmann (1683–1744, Gespräche in dem Reiche derer Todten, edited in Leipzig, was a huge success. Each of the 240 issues presents a dialogue between two historical figures from the afterworld. In the 83rd–86th Entrevuë, the interlocutors are Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible. The texts of the four conversations were thoroughly examined by Eckhard Matthes (1987. The present paper explores how the illustrations to the 83rd–86th Entrevuë visualize the texts, which is significant as they were an important instrument for disseminating certain notions about Russia. While the illustration to the first dialogue of the suite juxtaposes Peter and Ivan, the illustration to the second one emphasizes the similarities between them. So the image of the “tyrant” and “barbarian” Ivan becomes a reference point with which a reader is urged to compare Peter’s deeds, seeing not only the differences but also the similarities. This greatly contributes to the creation of the multifaceted image of Russia of the early 18th century. The characters of the second illustration—a tiger and an executioner—can be identified as Ivan and Peter only if the reader takes into consideration an epigram to the illustration, the illustration to the previous dialogue, the text of the next Entrevuë, and facts about the execution of the strel’tsy known from other texts and images, about which Fassmann remains silent in the spirit of ars dissimulandi, which was typical for baroque culture. The paper offers an attempt to trace the iconography of the tyrant as a tiger. In the frontispiece to the 85th Entrevuë, a secretary bringing news from the world of the living and a portrait of Catherine I emphasize the connection of the past and the present, i.e., history and policy. Finally, the illustration to the last dialogue of the series returns to the glorification of Peter the Great declared in the first dialogue.

  18. Illustrations to “Gespräche in dem Reiche derer Todten zwischen dem vortreflichen Moscowitischen Czaar Petro Magno und dem grossen Tyrannen Ivan Basilowiz II” (Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible) by David Fassmann (1725)

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina A. Skvortcova

    2017-01-01

    The journal created by David Fassmann (1683–1744), Gespräche in dem Reiche derer Todten, edited in Leipzig, was a huge success. Each of the 240 issues presents a dialogue between two historical figures from the afterworld. In the 83rd–86th Entrevuë, the interlocutors are Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible. The texts of the four conversations were thoroughly examined by Eckhard Matthes (1987). The present paper explores how the illustrations to the 83rd–86th Entrevuë visualize the texts, w...

  19. Lessons Learnt From Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akundi, Murty

    2008-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and its suburbs on Monday August 29^th, 2005. The previous Friday morning, August 26, the National Hurricane Center indicated that Katrina was a Category One Hurricane, which was expected to hit Florida. By Friday afternoon, it had changed its course, and neither the city nor Xavier University was prepared for this unexpected turn in the hurricane's path. The university had 6 to 7 ft of water in every building and Xavier was closed for four months. Students and university personnel that were unable to evacuate were trapped on campus and transportation out of the city became a logistical nightmare. Email and all electronic systems were unavailable for at least a month, and all cell phones with a 504 area code stopped working. For the Department, the most immediate problem was locating faculty and students. Xavier created a list of faculty and their new email addresses and began coordinating with faculty. Xavier created a web page with advice for students, and the chair of the department created a separate blog with contact information for students. The early lack of a clear method of communication made worse the confusion and dismay among the faculty on such issues as when the university would reopen, whether the faculty would be retained, whether they should seek temporary (or permanent) employment elsewhere, etc. With the vision and determination of President Dr. Francis, Xavier was able to reopen the university in January and ran a full academic year from January through August. Since Katrina, the university has asked every department and unit to prepare emergency preparedness plans. Each department has been asked to collect e-mail addresses (non-Xavier), cell phone numbers and out of town contact information. The University also established an emergency website to communicate. All faculty have been asked to prepare to teach classes electronically via Black board or the web. Questions remain about the longer term issues of

  20. Hurricane feedback research may improve intensity forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Forecasts of a hurricane's intensity are generally much less accurate than forecasts of its most likely path. Large-scale atmospheric patterns dictate where a hurricane will go and how quickly it will get there. The storm's intensity, however, depends on small-scale shifts in atmospheric stratification, upwelling rates, and other transient dynamics that are difficult to predict. Properly understanding the risk posed by an impending storm depends on having a firm grasp of all three properties: translational speed, intensity, and path. Drawing on 40 years of hurricane records representing 3090 different storms, Mei et al. propose that a hurricane's translational speed and intensity may be closely linked.

  1. Monte-Carlo simulation of the dynamic behavior of a CMOS inverter struck by a heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisset, C.; Dollfus, P.; Hesto, P.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a theoretical study using Monte-Carlo simulation of the behavior of a CMOS inverter struck by an ionizing particle. The inverter is made of two complementary enhancement-mode MOSFETs according to a SIMOX self-aligned technology with an effective gate length of 0.35 μm. The effect of the ionizing particle (heavy ion) is simulated by electron-hole pairs generation with an energy of 1 eV for each carrier. The authors studied the return to the steady-state of the device after a transient irradiation. Either the P-channel transistor or the N-channel transistor is irradiated, and the gate operating is considered in both cases of 0 V and 5 V input voltage. The irradiation of the off-state transistors induces a significant transient variation of the output voltage whereas irradiation of the on-state transistor has weak effects on the output. The return to the stationary regime, which is reached after about 50 ps in all irradiation cases, is achieved by evacuation of the carriers in excess through the different electrodes without trapping effect in the device

  2. Catherine Merridale, Ivan's War, the Red Army 1939-1945, London: Faber and Faber, 2005, 396 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Van Bladel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Merridale's first well reviewed and much appraised book “Night of Stone, Death and Memory in Russia” (Granta, 2000  examined the culture of suffering in Russia during the Soviet period. One key chapter in this previous book detailed the ordeals undergone by the Russian Armed Forces and the people at large, during the Great Patriotic War. Five years later, the British historian brings her expertise to this topic in  Ivan's War.At first glance, the topic of suffering and endurance of...

  3. Comparative analysis of the frequency and the severity of diagnosed lesions between pedestrians struck by motor vehicles and other blunt trauma mechanisms victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ GUSTAVO PARREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:to compare the frequency and the severity of diagnosed injuries between pedestrians struck by motor vehicles and victims of other blunt trauma mechanisms.Methods:retrospective analysis of data from the Trauma Registry, including adult blunt trauma patients admitted from 2008 to 2010. We reviewed the mechanism of trauma, vital signs on admission and the injuries identified. Severity stratification was carried using RTS, AIS-90, ISS e TRISS. Patients were assigned into group A (pedestrians struck by motor vehicle or B (victims of other mechanisms of blunt trauma. Variables were compared between groups. We considered p<0.05 as significant.Results:a total of 5785 cases were included, and 1217 (21,0% of which were in group A. Pedestrians struck by vehicles presented (p<0.05 higher mean age, mean heart rate upon admission, mean ISS and mean AIS in head, thorax, abdomen and extremities, as well as lower mean Glasgow coma scale, arterial blood pressure upon admission, RTS and TRISS. They also had a higher frequency of epidural hematomas, subdural hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain swelling, cerebral contusions, costal fractures, pneumothorax, flail chest, pulmonary contusions, as well as pelvic, superior limbs and inferior limbs fractures.Conclusion:pedestrian struck by vehicles sustained intracranial, thoracic, abdominal and extremity injuries more frequently than victims of other blunt trauma mechanism as a group. They also presented worse physiologic and anatomic severity of the trauma.

  4. Modeling lost production from destroyed platforms in the 2004-2005 Gulf of Mexico hurricane seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Yu, Yunke; Jablonowski, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita passed through the Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 and resulted in the largest number of destroyed and damaged offshore oil and gas structures in the history of Gulf operations. In the final official government assessment, a total of 126 platforms were destroyed and over 183 structures were identified as having extensive damage. Production associated with wells and structures that are not redeveloped are classified as lost. The purpose of this paper is to derive functional relations that describe the likely contribution the collection of destroyed assets would have made to future production in the Gulf of Mexico. We estimate that the total remaining reserves from the set of destroyed structures range in value between 1.3 and 4.5 billion depending on the assumptions employed. We summarize the impact of the storms on the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas infrastructure and discuss the main issues involved in redevelopment decision making. A meta-model analytic framework is applied to perform sensitivity analysis and to explore the interactions of assumptions on model output. A discussion of the limitations of the analysis is presented. (author)

  5. Two-dimensional time dependent hurricane overwash and erosion modeling at Santa Rosa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, R.T.; Van Theil de Vries, J. S. M.; Plant, N.G.; Van Dongeren, A. R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Thompson, D.M.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    A 2DH numerical, model which is capable of computing nearshore circulation and morphodynamics, including dune erosion, breaching and overwash, is used to simulate overwash caused by Hurricane Ivan (2004) on a barrier island. The model is forced using parametric wave and surge time series based on field data and large-scale numerical model results. The model predicted beach face and dune erosion reasonably well as well as the development of washover fans. Furthermore, the model demonstrated considerable quantitative skill (upwards of 66% of variance explained, maximum bias - 0.21 m) in hindcasting the post-storm shape and elevation of the subaerial barrier island when a sheet flow sediment transport limiter was applied. The prediction skill ranged between 0.66 and 0.77 in a series of sensitivity tests in which several hydraulic forcing parameters were varied. The sensitivity studies showed that the variations in the incident wave height and wave period affected the entire simulated island morphology while variations in the surge level gradient between the ocean and back barrier bay affected the amount of deposition on the back barrier and in the back barrier bay. The model sensitivity to the sheet flow sediment transport limiter, which served as a proxy for unknown factors controlling the resistance to erosion, was significantly greater than the sensitivity to the hydraulic forcing parameters. If no limiter was applied the simulated morphological response of the barrier island was an order of magnitude greater than the measured morphological response.

  6. Hurricane Sandy and Adaptation Pathways in New York: Lessons from a First-Responder City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    2014-01-01

    Two central issues of climate change have become increasingly evident: Climate change will significantly affect cities; and rapid global urbanization will increase dramatically the number of individuals, amount of critical infrastructure, and means of economic production that are exposed and vulnerable to dynamic climate risks. Simultaneously, cities in many settings have begun to emerge as early adopters of climate change action strategies including greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation. The objective of this paper is to examine and analyze how officials of one city - the City of New York - have integrated a flexible adaptation pathways approach into the municipality's climate action strategy. This approach has been connected with the City's ongoing response to Hurricane Sandy, which struck in the October 2012 and resulted in damages worth more than US$19 billion. A case study narrative methodology utilizing the Wise et al. conceptual framework (see this volume) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the flexible adaptation pathways approach in New York City. The paper finds that Hurricane Sandy serves as a ''tipping point'' leading to transformative adaptation due to the explicit inclusion of increasing climate change risks in the rebuilding effort. The potential for transferability of the approach to cities varying in size and development stage is discussed, with elements useful across cities including the overall concept of flexible adaptation pathways, the inclusion of the full metropolitan region in the planning process, and the co-generation of climate-risk information by stakeholders and scientists.

  7. Measuring the Impact of Disasters Using Publicly Available Data: Application to Hurricane Sandy (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongin, Steven J; Baron, Sherry L; Schwartz, Rebecca M; Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela; Kim, Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The unexpected nature of disasters leaves little time or resources for organized health surveillance of the affected population, and even less for those who are unaffected. An ideal epidemiologic study would monitor both groups equally well, but would typically be decided against as infeasible or costly. Exposure and health outcome data at the level of the individual can be difficult to obtain. Despite these challenges, the health effects of a disaster can be approximated. Approaches include 1) the use of publicly available exposure data in geographic detail, 2) health outcomes data-collected before, during, and after the event, and 3) statistical modeling designed to compare the observed frequency of health outcomes with the counterfactual frequency hidden by the disaster itself. We applied these strategies to Hurricane Sandy, which struck the northeastern United States in October 2012. Hospital admissions data from the state of New York with information on primary payer as well as patient demographic characteristics were analyzed. To illustrate the method, we present multivariate logistic regression results for the first 2 months after the hurricane. Inferential implications of admissions data on nearly the entire target population in the wake of a disaster are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Race, Income Inequality, and Impervious Surfaces in Relation to Flooding Associated with Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Mills, J.; Borkovska, O.

    2017-12-01

    Differential vulnerability is a concept that suggests that certain demographic groups - the poor, less educated, or minorities - are likely to be more impacted by climate extremes such as floods owing to their higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity. Differential exposure represents the concept that these same groups may be more highly exposed to flood events by virtue of their residing in less desirable, low-lying neighborhoods with higher percentages of impervious surface cover. This paper tests the hypothesis that poor communities of color were differentially exposed to flood risks in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, which struck Houston, Texas in August 2017. We explore the spatial relationship among census tracts with high percentages of low income communities of color, those with high percentages of impervious surface, and those most impacted by floods. We incorporat datasets disseminated by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) - the Global Man-made Impervious Surface (GMIS) data set and the U.S. Census Grids 2010 - together with the American Community Survey (ACS) 2011-2015 and flood extent and depth data from FEMA. Preliminary analysis suggests that predominantly non-white neighborhoods have higher percentages of impervious surface cover, but that impervious surface cover is negatively correlated with flood risk. This paper will situate these findings in the context of a larger body of research exploring differential exposure to flood risks during Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, as well as differential exposure to extreme heat in urban environments in Houston and beyond.

  9. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  10. An integrated program to train local health care providers to meet post-disaster mental health needs Programa integrado para entrenar a proveedores de servicios sanitarios locales a satisfacer las necesidades de salud mental después de un desastre

    OpenAIRE

    Stan Kutcher; Sonia Chehil; Thorne Roberts

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a post-disaster mental health training program developed by the International Section of the Department of Psychiatry at Dalhousie University (Halifax, Canada) and delivered in Grenada after Hurricane Ivan struck the country in September 2004. This train-the-trainer program used an integrated community health model to help local health care providers develop the necessary skills for the identification and evidenced-based treatment of mental disorders occurring after a nat...

  11. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  12. Deschooling for all? The thought of Ivan Illich in the era of education (and learning for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Igelmo Zaldívar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after its publication in 1971, Ivan Illich’s Deschooling Society made a significant impact on reports written at the most influential levels of international institutions, such as Edgar Faure’s report for UNSECO, titled Learning to Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow (1972. However, Deschooling Society is but one of many aspects in the overall set of criticisms Illich constructed regarding education and its institutions throughout his entire career. With this matter in mind, this article presents a study on the usefulness of Illich’s thoughts on education and its institutions in the debate on the «post-2015 agenda» being promoted by organisations such as UNESCO and the World Bank. The aim is to reclaim this author’s works as key referents in the questioning of the theoretical grounds predominating many international development policies that advocate «Education for All» and «Learning for All» in the 21st century.How to reference this articleIgelmo Zaldívar, J. (2015. Deschooling for all? The thought of Ivan Illich in the era of education (and learning for all. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 93-109. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.005

  13. The Status of Kasimov Chinggisids during the Reigns of Vasily II and Ivan III according to Written Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nesin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: To study the issue both of the status of Kasimov Chinggisids as well as of the attitude toward the service Tatars and the Tatars who were allied to Moscow during the reigns of the great Moscow princes Vasily II and Ivan III. Research materials: Published and unpublished sources: books of official orders in the Russian state, chronicles, acts, diplomatic documents, etc. Results and novelty of the research: This work is the first comprehensive study of this topic. The author comes to the conclusion that Kasimov’s rulers during this period were considered servitors, vassals in relation to the Moscow principality. This was facilitated by the demesnial position of Kasimov, which was considered part of the grand prince’s domain rather than a sovereign splinter of the Golden Horde. Kasimov Chinggisids did not have a large military force in order to create an independent khanate in the steppe capable of competing, for example, with Kazan, and they relied on the strong Moscow principality performing military service for it, receiving money for proper maintenance and obeying the grand prince’s orders. At the same time, Ivan III even considered the possibility of replacing Daniyar in Kasimov with another serving prince during his lifetime. In addition, the author shows how much the attitude towards the service Tatars and the Tatar detachments, who were allied to Moscow, differed in different Russian lands.

  14. Genesis of tornadoes associated with hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The climatological history of hurricane-tornadoes is brought up to date through 1982. Most of the tornadoes either form near the center of the hurricane, from the outer edge of the eyewall outward, or in an area between north and east-southeast of the hurricane center. The blackbody temperatures of the cloud tops which were analyzed for several hurricane-tornadoes that formed in the years 1974, 1975, and 1979, did not furnish strong precursor signals of tornado formation, but followed one of two patterns: either the temperatures were very low, or the tornado formed in areas of strong temperature gradients. Tornadoes with tropical cyclones most frequently occur at 1200-1800 LST, and although most are relatively weak, they can reach the F3 intensity level. Most form in association with the outer rainbands of the hurricane.

  15. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  16. 48 CFR 1852.236-73 - Hurricane plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Hurricane plan. 1852.236-73... Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and place all materials...

  17. Ecohydrological Responses to Hurricane Harvey across South-Central Texas a Multidisciplinary Approach of the Texas Water Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, A.; Gaur, N.; Aparecido, L. M. T.; Everett, M. E.; Knappett, P.; Lawing, M.; Majumder, S.; Miller, G. R.; Moore, G. W.; Morgan, C.; Mitra, B.; Noormets, A.; Mohanty, B.

    2017-12-01

    The unprecedented destructive hurricane Harvey struck eastern Texas from August 25th to 29th, 2017. As the hurricane moved through the region, it dropped the equivalent of one year of precipitation within a five-day period, with peak accumulations near 165 cm. Rainfall intensity and distribution varied across the region but Harris County and portions of the lower Brazos River Basin experienced devastating flooding due to high run-off and water accumulation in the built-up area. In this study, we use a multidisciplinary approach to quantify the dynamics of carbon and water flux at different spatiotemporal resolution across land types both in and outside of the path of hurricane Harvey using a combination of remote sensing and fixed monitoring platforms of the Texas Water Observatory (TWO). We used LANDSAT imagery to compute Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and Normalized Difference Moisture Index. MODIS ET, GPP, and sap flow data were used in combination with eddy covariance and meteorological data from seven sites of the TWO representative of biomes ranging from low tidal salt marsh of the Gulf Coastal Plain, Shrubland, Improved Pasture, Mixed and Native Prairies, and Crop sites. We hypothesize alteration in ecohydrological characteristics across land types, which were in the path of hurricane due to changes in vegetation structure. Specifically we used trend analysis to detect structural changes in temporal dynamics of sap flow, ET, and carbon to pulse response. In addition, we monitored trace metal concentration of soil and water pores before and immediately after the hurricane in order to predict the potential of any of the toxic metal (loid)s being mobilized in the natural water resources as a function of the changes in the redox gradient. Preliminary results indicated that tree water use was reduced on average 30% below normal days. Porewater concentration of some of the metal (loid) concentration increased (Fe, Mn, Co, As, Sb, Pb

  18. Hurricane shuts down gulf activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that producers in the Gulf of Mexico and plant operators in South Louisiana last week were checking for damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew. In its wake Andrew left evacuated rigs and platforms in the gulf and shuttered plants across a wide swath of the Gulf Coast. Operations were beginning to return to normal late last week. Not all gulf operators, especially in the central gulf, expected to return to offshore facilities. And even producers able to book helicopters did not expect to be able to fully assess damage to all offshore installations before the weekend. MMS officials in Washington estimated that 37,500 offshore workers were evacuated from 700 oil and gas installations on the gulf's Outer Continental Shelf. Gulf oil and gas wells account for about 800,000 b/d of oil and one fourth of total U.S. gas production. MMS was awaiting an assessment of hurricane damage before estimating how soon and how much gulf oil and gas production would be restored

  19. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  20. XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

  1. Estimating cellular network performance during hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Graham; Torres, Jacob; Guikema, Seth; Sprintson, Alex; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Cellular networks serve a critical role during and immediately after a hurricane, allowing citizens to contact emergency services when land-line communication is lost and serving as a backup communication channel for emergency responders. However, due to their ubiquitous deployment and limited design for extreme loading events, basic network elements, such as cellular towers and antennas are prone to failures during adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes. Accordingly, a systematic and computationally feasible approach is required for assessing and improving the reliability of cellular networks during hurricanes. In this paper we develop a new multi-disciplinary approach to efficiently and accurately assess cellular network reliability during hurricanes. We show how the performance of a cellular network during and immediately after future hurricanes can be estimated based on a combination of hurricane wind field models, structural reliability analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and cellular network models and simulation tools. We then demonstrate the use of this approach for assessing the improvement in system reliability that can be achieved with discrete topological changes in the system. Our results suggest that adding redundancy, particularly through a mesh topology or through the addition of an optical fiber ring around the perimeter of the system can be an effective way to significantly increase the reliability of some cellular systems during hurricanes.

  2. Recovery from PTSD following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Berglund, Patricia; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    We examined patterns and correlates of speed of recovery of estimated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people who developed PTSD in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey 7-19 months following the hurricane and again 24-27 months posthurricane. The baseline survey assessed PTSD using a validated screening scale and assessed a number of hypothesized predictors of PTSD recovery that included sociodemographics, prehurricane history of psychopathology, hurricane-related stressors, social support, and social competence. Exposure to posthurricane stressors and course of estimated PTSD were assessed in a follow-up interview. An estimated 17.1% of respondents had a history of estimated hurricane-related PTSD at baseline and 29.2% by the follow-up survey. Of the respondents who developed estimated hurricane-related PTSD, 39.0% recovered by the time of the follow-up survey with a mean duration of 16.5 months. Predictors of slow recovery included exposure to a life-threatening situation, hurricane-related housing adversity, and high income. Other sociodemographics, history of psychopathology, social support, social competence, and posthurricane stressors were unrelated to recovery from estimated PTSD. The majority of adults who developed estimated PTSD after Hurricane Katrina did not recover within 18-27 months. Delayed onset was common. Findings document the importance of initial trauma exposure severity in predicting course of illness and suggest that pre- and posttrauma factors typically associated with course of estimated PTSD did not influence recovery following Hurricane Katrina. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Prevention of the appearance of light-struck taste in white wine = Prevenzione della comparsa del gusto di luce nel vino bianco

    OpenAIRE

    Fracassetti, D.; Gabrielli, M.; Encinas, J.; Manara, M.; Pellegrino, L.; Tirelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The light-struck taste is a defect of bottled white wine due to the light exposure and involving the riboflavin (RF), as a photosensitizer, and methionine. The reaction pathways lead to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, methanethiol and dimethyldisulphide, conferring cabbage-like aromas. The development of this defect is limited at low RF concentrations. In this study, the yeast-mediated release of RF, RF degradation kinetics in model solution and white wine, and RF removal by using...

  4. Satellite sar detection of hurricane helene (2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Lian; Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the wind structure of hurricane Helene (2006) over the Atlantic Ocean is investigated from a C-band RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired on 20 September 2006. First, the characteristics, e.g., the center, scale and area of the hurricane eye (HE) are determined. ...... observations from the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) on NOAA P3 aircraft. All the results show the capability of hurricane monitoring by satellite SAR. Copyright © 2013 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  5. The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane outlook and optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Practices Treatments That Work Screening and Assessment Psychological First Aid and SPR Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Trauma- ... Measure Reviews All Measure Reviews Usage and Glossary Psychological First Aid and SPR About PFA About SPR NCTSN Resources ...

  7. Disaster imminent--Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, J B

    1990-04-01

    Response to a disaster situation depends upon the type of circumstances presented. In situations where the disaster is the type that affects the hospital as well as a wide surrounding area directly, the hospital and pharmacy itself may be called upon to continue functioning for some period of time without outside assistance. The ability to function for prolonged periods of time requires the staff to focus on the job at hand and the administrative staff to provide security, compassion, and flexibility. Plans for a disaster of the nature of a hurricane require that attention be paid to staffing, medication inventories, supplies, and services being rendered. Recognition of the singular position occupied by a hospital in the community and the expectations of the local population require that hospitals and the pharmacy department have the ability to respond appropriately.

  8. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  9. Hurricane Irene Poster (August 27, 2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Irene poster. Color composite GOES image shows Irene moving through the North Carolina Outer Banks on August 27, 2011. Poster size is 36"x27"

  10. Spectral Growth of Hurricane Generated Seas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finlayson, William

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of a growing sea during hurricanes are significantly different from those observed in ordinary storms since the source of energy generating waves is moving and the rate of change...

  11. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  12. Tsunamis and Hurricanes A Mathematical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Tsunamis and hurricanes have had a devastating impact on the population living near the coast during the year 2005. The calculation of the power and intensity of tsunamis and hurricanes are of great importance not only for engineers and meteorologists but also for governments and insurance companies. This book presents new research on the mathematical description of tsunamis and hurricanes. A combination of old and new approaches allows to derive a nonlinear partial differential equation of fifth order describing the steepening up and the propagation of tsunamis. The description includes dissipative terms and does not contain singularities or two valued functions. The equivalence principle of solutions of nonlinear large gas dynamics waves and of solutions of water wave equations will be used. An extension of the continuity equation by a source term due to evaporation rates of salt seawater will help to understand hurricanes. Detailed formula, tables and results of the calculations are given.

  13. Hurricane Katrina - Murphy Oil Spill Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  14. Spatial grids for hurricane climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, James B.; Hodges, Robert E.; Jagger, Thomas H. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The authors demonstrate a spatial framework for studying hurricane climatology. The framework consists of a spatial tessellation of the hurricane basin using equal-area hexagons. The hexagons are efficient at covering hurricane tracks and provide a scaffolding to combine attribute data from tropical cyclones with spatial climate data. The framework's utility is demonstrated using examples from recent hurricane seasons. Seasons that have similar tracks are quantitatively assessed and grouped. Regional cyclone frequency and intensity variations are mapped. A geographically-weighted regression of cyclone intensity on sea-surface temperature emphasizes the importance of a warm ocean in the intensification of cyclones over regions where the heat content is greatest. The largest differences between model predictions and observations occur near the coast. The authors suggest the framework is ideally suited for comparing tropical cyclones generated from different numerical simulations. (orig.)

  15. Isentropic Analysis of a Simulated Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Pauluis, Olivier; Zhang, Fuqing

    2016-01-01

    Hurricanes, like many other atmospheric flows, are associated with turbulent motions over a wide range of scales. Here the authors adapt a new technique based on the isentropic analysis of convective motions to study the thermodynamic structure of the overturning circulation in hurricane simulations. This approach separates the vertical mass transport in terms of the equivalent potential temperature of air parcels. In doing so, one separates the rising air parcels at high entropy from the subsiding air at low entropy. This technique filters out oscillatory motions associated with gravity waves and separates convective overturning from the secondary circulation. This approach is applied here to study the flow of an idealized hurricane simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. The isentropic circulation for a hurricane exhibits similar characteristics to that of moist convection, with a maximum mass transport near the surface associated with a shallow convection and entrainment. There are also important differences. For instance, ascent in the eyewall can be readily identified in the isentropic analysis as an upward mass flux of air with unusually high equivalent potential temperature. The isentropic circulation is further compared here to the Eulerian secondary circulation of the simulated hurricane to show that the mass transport in the isentropic circulation is much larger than the one in secondary circulation. This difference can be directly attributed to the mass transport by convection in the outer rainband and confirms that, even for a strongly organized flow like a hurricane, most of the atmospheric overturning is tied to the smaller scales.

  16. Ivan IV. – Kindheit und Jugend des „schrecklichen“ Zaren. Eine Untersuchung der Darstellung des jungen Zaren in der Frühen Neuzeit und die Beeinflussung des Geschichtsbewusstseins über den Zaren durch das Medium Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Menderetska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The enquiry focuses mainly upon the differing narratives concerning Tsar Ivan the IV’s youth. The author scrutinizes the historical sources of the Early Modern Period, dealing with a broad spectrum of sources incorporating official Russian chronicles as well as foreign accounts. Subsequently Menderetska analyzes the narrative representations of the Tsar’s juvenile years and also examines his depiction in well-known movies such as—among others—Eisenstein’s „Ivan Groznyj“.

  17. Tracks of Major Hurricanes of the Western Hemisphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 36"x24" National Hurricane Center poster depicts the complete tracks of all major hurricanes in the north Atlantic and eastern north Pacific basins since as...

  18. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  19. Identification of Caribbean basin hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Herrera, R. [Depto. Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Ribera, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Fernandez, G. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain); Hernandez, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper analyses five hurricanes that occurred in the period 1600 to 1800. These examples were identified during a systematic search in the General Archive of the Indies (AGI) in Seville. The research combined the expertise of climatologists and historians in order to optimise the search and analysis strategies. Results demonstrate the potential of this archive for the assessment of hurricanes in this period and show some of the difficulties involved in the collection of evidence of hurricane activity. The documents provide detailed descriptions of a hurricane's impacts and allow us to identify previously unreported hurricanes, obtain more precise dates for hurricanes previously identified, better define the area affected by a given hurricane and, finally, better assess a hurricane's intensity.

  20. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  1. Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Serrano, Mayra I.; Foster, David Russell

    2004-01-01

    Puerto Rico is subject to frequent and severe impacts from hurricanes, whose long-term ecological role must be assessed on a scale of centuries. In this study we applied a method for reconstructing hurricane disturbance regimes developed in an earlier study of hurricanes in New England. Patterns of actual wind damage from historical records were analyzed for 85 hurricanes since European settlement in 1508. A simple meteorological model (HURRECON) was used to reconstruct the impacts of 43 hurr...

  2. BOOK REVIEW - Adrian Liviu Ivan, Teorii și practice ale integrării europene [Theories and Practices of European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Daniel STAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teorii și practice ale integrării europene [Theories and Practices of European Integration] is a genuine contribution to understanding how the European Union’s particular character has been adjusted in more than half of century of institutional growth and development. Professor Ivan`s key argument for this book is that the European Union has been shaped as a functional project taking into consideration the diverse heritage and traditions of its Member States. The opening chapter of this book focuses on the particularities of international relations discipline after the Second World War in order to introduce the theme of European Integration Process. This chapter must be analysed in a series of contributions dedicated to the European Integration process and to the theories that made this integration possible because professor Ivan has previously published books such as: Statele Unite ale Europei [The United States of Europe], Sub zodia Statelor Unite ale Europei [Under the Sign of the United States of Europe], in which he debates the origins of the European construction and brings forward arguments to support the importance of each theoretical and functional pillar of this “Common European Project”.

  3. Evaluation of TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis)'s predictive skill for hurricane-triggered landslides: A case study in Macon County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D.; Adler, R.F.; Gourley, J.J.; Wooten, R.

    2011-01-01

    The key to advancing the predictability of rainfall-triggered landslides is to use physically based slope-stability models that simulate the transient dynamical response of the subsurface moisture to spatiotemporal variability of rainfall in complex terrains. TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis) is a USGS landslide prediction model, coded in Fortran, that accounts for the influences of hydrology, topography, and soil physics on slope stability. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the spatiotemporal predictability of a Matlab version of TRIGRS (MaTRIGRS) in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina where Hurricanes Ivan triggered widespread landslides in the 2004 hurricane season. High resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data (6-m LiDAR), USGS STATSGO soil database, and NOAA/NWS combined radar and gauge precipitation are used as inputs to the model. A local landslide inventory database from North Carolina Geological Survey is used to evaluate the MaTRIGRS' predictive skill for the landslide locations and timing, identifying predictions within a 120-m radius of observed landslides over the 30-h period of Hurricane Ivan's passage in September 2004. Results show that within a radius of 24 m from the landslide location about 67% of the landslide, observations could be successfully predicted but with a high false alarm ratio (90%). If the radius of observation is extended to 120 m, 98% of the landslides are detected with an 18% false alarm ratio. This study shows that MaTRIGRS demonstrates acceptable spatiotemporal predictive skill for landslide occurrences within a 120-m radius in space and a hurricane-event-duration (h) in time, offering the potential to serve as a landslide warning system in areas where accurate rainfall forecasts and detailed field data are available. The validation can be further improved with additional landslide information including the exact time of failure for each

  4. 75 FR 54918 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1247, “Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    .... This series was developed to describe and make available to the public such information as methods that... maximum hurricane windspeeds for hurricanes that originate in the Atlantic and make landfall along the... connected and provides an aerodynamic sail area on which the wind can act. An automobile hurricane missile...

  5. THE SEMANTICS OF COLORATIVES IN TOLSTOY’S NARRATIVES (“THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH”, “THE KREUTZER SONATA”, “THE DEVIL”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Masolova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Tolstoy’s stories of the 1870s the coloratives have negative semantics. In “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” the yellow color “implicates” a movement to death. In “The Kreutzer Sonata” this color aggravates Pozdnyshev’s moral sufferings and embodies deception and lust. In “The Devil” the description of Lisa’s yellow complexion reveals Irtenev’s negative attitude to her. In “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” the pink and green cretonne of a “fashionable” living room loses its grandiosity in the house of the deceased man. In “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” the white color of clothes initially associated by the character with confidence in the future, then resulted in the patient’s dislike and was seen as evidence of inconsiderateness of people. In “The Kreutzer Sonata” the white color, in Trukhachevsky’s portrait, turned Pozdnyshev against him even more. In “The Devil” the white color Lisa was accompanied with provoked the growth of Irtenev’s irritation. In “The Kreutzer Sonata” the semantics of the red color is disturbing, ominous, and associated with debauchery and lie. In “The Devil” the description of the red clothes replaces the portrait characteristics of Stepanida; for Irtenev the red panyova and the red headscarf of his mistress became the symbols of the devilish temptation. In “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” the black color, being an attribute of mental and physical illness of the character, began to correspond to the image of a black sack devouring the person. In “The Kreutzer Sonata” an infernal black and red color scale contributes to the presentiment of tragedy. In “The Devil” the black color discovers Irtenev’s increasing dependence on delusion. In “The Kreutzer Sonata” the coloratives with the root “light” are related to Pozdnyshev’s insight concerning his family life, based on deception. In “The Death of Ivan Ilyich” “light” liberates the character of death anxiety

  6. The vow of Ivan Crnojević to the Virgin Mary in Loreto under the shadow of the ottoman conquest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the circumstances in which Ivan Crnojević, a fifteenth-century ruler of Zeta (historic region in present-day Montenegro, made a vow to the Virgin in a famous pilgrimage shrine, the Santa Casa in Loreto (Italy, where he was in exile fleeing another Ottoman offensive. The focus of the paper is on a few issues which need to be re-examined in order to understand Ivan’s vow against a broader background. His act is analyzed in the context of the symbolic role that the Virgin of Loreto played as a powerful antiturca protectress. On the other hand, much attention is paid to the institutional organization of Slavs (Schiavoni who found refuge in Loreto and nearby towns, which may serve as a basis for a more comprehensive understanding of the process of religious and social adjustment of Orthodox Slav refugees to their new Catholic environment. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177003: Medieval heritage of the Balkans: institutions and culture

  7. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the "Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid" (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  8. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, Schools and Nobel Prizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alonso Rozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid (Medicine International Congress in Madrid in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  9. Worldwide historical hurricane tracks from 1848 through the previous hurricane season

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Historical Hurricane Tracks web site provides visualizations of storm tracks derived from the 6-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and...

  10. On the Influence of Global Warming on Atlantic Hurricane Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. R.; Scaioni, M.; Marani, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane's intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR). The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82). In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  11. Hurricane Katrina-linked environmental injustice: race, class, and place differentials in attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Francis O; Picou, J Steven

    2017-04-01

    Claims of environmental injustice, human neglect, and racism dominated the popular and academic literature after Hurricane Katrina struck the United States in August 2005. A systematic analysis of environmental injustice from the perspective of the survivors remains scanty or nonexistent. This paper presents, therefore, a systematic empirical analysis of the key determinants of Katrina-induced environmental injustice attitudes among survivors in severely affected parishes (counties) in Louisiana and Mississippi three years into the recovery process. Statistical models based on a random sample of survivors were estimated, with the results revealing significant predictors such as age, children in household under 18, education, homeownership, and race. The results further indicate that African-Americans were more likely to perceive environmental injustice following Katrina than their white counterparts. Indeed, the investigation reveals that there are substantial racial gaps in measures of environmental injustice. The theoretical, methodological, and applied policy implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  12. Preparing for a Hurricane: Prescription Medications

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    What you should do to protect yourself and your family from a hurricane. As you evacuate, remember to take your prescription medicines with you.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/17/2008.

  13. Investigation of long-term hurricane activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, B.M.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of applying numerical methods to model storm processes. A storm empirical track technique is utilized to simulate the full tracks of hurricanes, starting with their initial points over the sea and ending with their landfall locations or final dissipations. The

  14. Wind and waves in extreme hurricanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuijsen, L.H.; Powell, M.D.; Pietrzak, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Waves breaking at the ocean surface are important to the dynamical, chemical and biological processes at the air-sea interface. The traditional view is that the white capping and aero-dynamical surface roughness increase with wind speed up to a limiting value. This view is fundamental to hurricane

  15. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy for port resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    New York Harbor was directly in the path of the most damaging part of Hurricane Sandy causing significant impact on many of the : facilities of the Port of New York and New Jersey. The U.S. Coast Guard closed the entire Port to all traffic before the...

  16. Fire management ramifications of Hurricane Hugo

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Saveland; D. D. Wade

    1991-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo passed over the Francis Marion National Forest on September 22, 1989, removing almost 75 percent of the overstory. The radically altered fuel bed presented new and formidable challenges to fire managers. Tractor-plows, the mainstay of fire suppression, were rendered ineffective. The specter of wind-driven escaped burns with no effective means of ground...

  17. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  18. Climate Prediction Center - Atlantic Hurricane Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News ; Seasonal Climate Summary Archive The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season outlook is an official product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC). The outlook is

  19. Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    "Hurricane Sandy demonstrated the strengths and limits of the transportation infrastructure in New York City and the surrounding region. As a result of the timely and thorough preparations by New York City and the MTA, along with the actions of city ...

  20. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  1. Economic impacts of hurricanes on forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of the economic impacts of hurricanes on timber producers and consumers, offer a framework indicating how welfare impacts can be estimated using econometric estimates of timber price dynamics, and illustrate the advantages of using a welfare theoretic model, which includes (1) welfare estimates that are consistent with neo-classical...

  2. Elements of extreme wind modeling for hurricanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Kelly, Mark C.

    The report summarizes characteristics of the winds associated with Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes, Typhoons). It has been conducted by the authors across several years, from 2012-2015, to identify the processes and aspects that one should consider when building at useful computer support system...

  3. Pioneers in CNS inhibition: 1. Ivan M. Sechenov, the first to clearly demonstrate inhibition arising in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Douglas G; Schaefer, Andreas T; Massion, Jean; Graham, Brett A; Callister, Robert J

    2014-02-22

    This article reviews the contributions of Ivan Michailovich Sechenov [1829-1905] to the neurophysiological concept of central inhibition. He first studied this concept in the frog and on himself. Later his trainees extended the study of central inhibition to other mammalian species. Outside his own country, Sechenov is better known for his prescient contributions to physiological psychology. In Russia, however, he is also revered as "the father of Russian physiology," because of his contributions to neurophysiology and other aspects of physiology including blood gases and respiration, the physiology and biomechanics of movement, and general physiology concepts that appeared in his textbooks and later works he helped translate from largely German sources. After graduation from Moscow University Medical School in 1856 he spent 3½ years in Germany and Austria where he attended lectures and conducted research under the direction of several prominent physiologists and biochemists. In his subsequent academic career he held positions at universities in St. Petersburg (1860-1870; 1876-1888), Odessa (1871-1876) and Moscow (1890-1905). From 1860 onwards he was acclaimed as a physiologist in academic circles. He was also well known in Russian society for his public lectures on physiology and his views on physiological psychology. The latter resulted in him being branded "politically unreliable" by the tsarist bureaucracy from 1863 onwards. Sechenov's first (1862) study on central inhibition remains his most memorable. He delayed the withdrawal of a frog's foot from a weak acid solution by chemical or electrical stimulation of selected parts of the central nervous system. He also noted similar effects on his own hand during co-activation of other sensory inputs by tickling or teeth gnashing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping and Visualization of Storm-Surge Dynamics for Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The damages caused by the storm surges from Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita were significant and occurred over broad areas. Storm-surge maps are among the most useful geospatial datasets for hurricane recovery, impact assessments, and mitigation planning for future storms. Surveyed high-water marks were used to generate a maximum storm-surge surface for Hurricane Katrina extending from eastern Louisiana to Mobile Bay, Alabama. The interpolated surface was intersected with high-resolution lidar elevation data covering the study area to produce a highly detailed digital storm-surge inundation map. The storm-surge dataset and related data are available for display and query in a Web-based viewer application. A unique water-level dataset from a network of portable pressure sensors deployed in the days just prior to Hurricane Rita's landfall captured the hurricane's storm surge. The recorded sensor data provided water-level measurements with a very high temporal resolution at surveyed point locations. The resulting dataset was used to generate a time series of storm-surge surfaces that documents the surge dynamics in a new, spatially explicit way. The temporal information contained in the multiple storm-surge surfaces can be visualized in a number of ways to portray how the surge interacted with and was affected by land surface features. Spatially explicit storm-surge products can be useful for a variety of hurricane impact assessments, especially studies of wetland and land changes where knowledge of the extent and magnitude of storm-surge flooding is critical.

  5. Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning

    Hurricanes present major hazards to the United States. Associated with extreme winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surge, landfalling hurricanes often cause enormous structural damage to coastal regions. Hurricane damage risk assessment provides the basis for loss mitigation and related policy-making. Current hurricane risk models, however, often oversimplify the complex processes of hurricane damage. This dissertation aims to improve existing hurricane risk assessment methodology by coherently modeling the spatial-temporal processes of storm landfall, hazards, and damage. Numerical modeling technologies are used to investigate the multiplicity of hazards associated with landfalling hurricanes. The application and effectiveness of current weather forecasting technologies to predict hurricane hazards is investigated. In particular, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), with Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL)'s hurricane initialization scheme, is applied to the simulation of the wind and rainfall environment during hurricane landfall. The WRF model is further coupled with the Advanced Circulation (AD-CIRC) model to simulate storm surge in coastal regions. A case study examines the multiple hazards associated with Hurricane Isabel (2003). Also, a risk assessment methodology is developed to estimate the probability distribution of hurricane storm surge heights along the coast, particularly for data-scarce regions, such as New York City. This methodology makes use of relatively simple models, specifically a statistical/deterministic hurricane model and the Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH) model, to simulate large numbers of synthetic surge events, and conducts statistical analysis. The estimation of hurricane landfall probability and hazards are combined with structural vulnerability models to estimate hurricane damage risk. Wind-induced damage mechanisms are extensively studied. An innovative windborne debris risk model is

  6. Decision Science Perspectives on Hurricane Vulnerability: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Atlantic Hurricane Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Milch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the field has seen great advances in hurricane prediction and response, the economic toll from hurricanes on U.S. communities continues to rise. We present data from Hurricanes Earl (2010, Irene (2011, Isaac (2012, and Sandy (2012 to show that individual and household decisions contribute to this vulnerability. From phone surveys of residents in communities threatened by impending hurricanes, we identify five decision biases or obstacles that interfere with residents’ ability to protect themselves and minimize property damage: (1 temporal and spatial myopia, (2 poor mental models of storm risk, (3 gaps between objective and subjective probability estimates, (4 prior storm experience, and (5 social factors. We then discuss ways to encourage better decision making and reduce the economic and emotional impacts of hurricanes, using tools such as decision defaults (requiring residents to opt out of precautions rather than opt in and tailoring internet-based forecast information so that it is local, specific, and emphasizes impacts rather than probability.

  7. PUBLICISTIC WRITING OF IVAN FRANKO: THE EVOLUTION OF HIS ECONOMIC VIEWS AND THEIR MEANING FOR THE MODERN TIMES (TO THE 160TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UKRAINIAN PHILOSOPHER'S BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Protsyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main directions of economic research in the early and late publicistic works of Ivan Franko and traces the evolution of the economic outlook of the Ukrainian researcher. The authors elucidate economic views of the thinker on the socio-economic development of Galicia, the problems of poverty, migration, fiscal and monetary policies, economic statistics. The authors substantiate the role and importance of Franko 's economically-oriented publicistic heritage for the formation of Ukrainian and world economic thought.

  8. ON THE INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ATLANTIC HURRICANE FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Hosseini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possible connection between the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes to the climate change, mainly the variation in the Atlantic Ocean surface temperature has been investigated. The correlation between the observed hurricane frequency for different categories of hurricane’s intensity and Sea Surface Temperature (SST has been examined over the Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis Regions (ACR. The results suggest that in general, the frequency of hurricanes have a high correlation with SST. In particular, the frequency of extreme hurricanes with Category 5 intensity has the highest correlation coefficient (R = 0.82. In overall, the analyses in this work demonstrates the influence of the climate change condition on the Atlantic hurricanes and suggest a strong correlation between the frequency of extreme hurricanes and SST in the ACR.

  9. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  10. Evolution of Subjective Hurricane Risk Perceptions: A Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    David Kelly; David Letson; Forest Nelson; David S. Nolan; Daniel Solis

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how individuals update subjective risk perceptions in response to hurricane track forecast information, using a unique data set from an event market, the Hurricane Futures Market (HFM). We derive a theoretical Bayesian framework which predicts how traders update their perceptions of the probability of a hurricane making landfall in a certain range of coastline. Our results suggest that traders behave in a way consistent with Bayesian updating but this behavior is based on t...

  11. Hurricane Impacts to Tropical and Temperate Forest Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Foster, David Russell; Fluet, Marcheterre

    1994-01-01

    Hurricanes represent an important natural disturbance process to tropical and temperate forests in many coastal areas of the world. The complex patterns of damage created in forests by hurricane winds result from the interaction of meteorological, physiographic, and biotic factors on a range of spatial scales. To improve our understanding of these factors and of the role of catastrophic hurricane wind as a disturbance process, we take an integrative approach. A simple meteorological model (HU...

  12. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-04-09

    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  13. Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.

  14. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  15. Performance of Oil Infrastructure during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, C.; Kameshwar, S.; Padgett, J.

    2017-12-01

    Three major refining centers - Corpus Christi, Houston, and Beaumont/Port Arthur - were affected during Hurricane Harvey. Damage to oil infrastructure, especially aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), caused the release of more than a million gallons of hazardous chemicals in the environment. The objective of this presentation is to identify and gain a better understanding of the different damage mechanisms that occurred during Harvey in order to avoid similar failures during future hurricane events. First, a qualitative description of the damage suffered by ASTs during Hurricane Harvey is presented. Analysis of aerial imagery and incident reports indicate that almost all spills were caused by rainfall and the associated flooding. The largest spill was caused by two large ASTs that floated due to flooding in the Houston Ship Channel releasing 500,000 gallons of gasoline. The vulnerability of ASTs subjected to flooding was already well known and documented from previous storm events. In addition to flooding, Harvey also exposed the vulnerability of ASTs with external floating roof to extreme rainfall; more than 15 floating roofs sank or tilted due to rain water accumulation on them, releasing pollutants in the atmosphere. Secondly, recent fragility models developed by the authors are presented which allow structural vulnerability assessment of floating roofs during rainfall events and ASTs during flood events. The fragility models are then coupled with Harvey rainfall and flood empirical data to identify the conditions (i.e.: internal liquid height or density, drainage system design and efficiency, etc.) that could have led to the observed failures during Hurricane Harvey. Finally, the conditions causing tank failures are studied to propose mitigation measures to prevent future AST failures during severe storm, flood, or rainfall events.

  16. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Glantz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time.

    Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region.

    The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1.

    Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on

  17. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginning of Lent. People refer to the city as the "Big Easy". A recent biography of the city refers to it as the place where the emergence of modern tourism began. A multicultural city with a heavy French influence, it was part of the Louisiana Purchase from France in early 1803, when the United States bought it, doubling the size of the United States at that time. Today, in the year 2007, New Orleans is now known for the devastating impacts it withstood during the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Eighty percent of the city was submerged under flood waters. Almost two years have passed, and many individuals and government agencies are still coping with the hurricane's consequences. And insurance companies have been withdrawing their coverage for the region. The 2005 hurricane season set a record, in the sense that there were 28 named storms that calendar year. For the first time in hurricane forecast history, hurricane forecasters had to resort to the use of Greek letters to name tropical storms in the Atlantic and Gulf (Fig.~1). Hurricane Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane when it was in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico, after having passed across southern Florida. At landfall, Katrina's winds decreased in speed and it was relabeled as a Category 4. It devolved into a Category 3 hurricane as it passed inland when it did most of its damage. Large expanses of the city were inundated, many parts under water on the order of 20 feet or so. The Ninth Ward, heavily

  18. Jansenism in the Evaluation of the Graduates of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy: from Ivan Troitsky to St. Tikhon (Bellavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhova Nataliia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study continues a series of publications exploring “augustiniana” within the Russian ecclesiastical scholarship, i.e. the work of professors and students of Theological academies devoted to Saint Augustine and conducted prior to the Russian Revolution. In this paper we switch our attention from the person and heritage of the bishop of Hippo to so called Augustinian movements of the 17th century and in particular to Jansenism. We predominantly focus on two texts: Magister’s thesis of an alumni of Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy Ivan Troitsky (1859 — a future professor of his Alma Mater, and a paper of his pupil Vasily Bellavin — in future the Most Holy Patriarch Tikhon. The latter document dates back to 1891 and is based on currently unavailable Candidate’s thesis of Vasiliy Bellavin (1888. Our analysis has shown that although the content of the two explored documents is out of date (now that 150 years have elapsed since they were written, their signifi cance for the history of theology is out of doubt. The questions posed by Jansenism turned out highly relevant for the church life in Russia in the late 1850s as well as in the late 1880s — early 1890s. Jansenists reflected upon church hierarchy and its authority, the “enigma of humanity”, actual and potential state of human nature, grace and freedom, the role Holy Scripture in the life of the Church and every christian, religious upbringing and education. Another factor that elevated interest to Jansenists’ movements of the 17th century during the second of the above mentioned periods was the preparation to a new stage of the dialog with the Old Catholics who had joined the followers of Jansenists, i.e. with the Church of Utrecht. Treating Jansenists’ thought with sympathy the young Russian theologians proved open to consider without bias all truth seeking attempts leading to Orthodox tradition. However in both cases our authors soberly realised that

  19. Brain tissue strains vary with head impact location: A possible explanation for increased concussion risk in struck versus striking football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Gabler, Lee F; Panzer, Matthew B; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-03-29

    On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model. Peak kinematics, injury metrics and brain strain varied significantly with impact location. Differences in impact location explained 33 to 37% of the total variance in brain strain for the whole brain and cerebrum, considerably more than the variance explained by impact location for the peak resultant head kinematics (8 to 23%) and slightly more than half of the variance explained by the difference in closing speed (57 to 61%). Both finite element models generated similar strain results, with minor variations for impacts that generated multi-axial rotations, larger variations in brainstem strains for some impact locations and a small bias for the cerebellum. Based on this experimental and computational simulation study, impact location on the football helmet has a large effect on regional brain tissue strain. We also found that the lowest strains consistently occurred in impacts to the crown and forehead, helmet locations commonly associated with the striking player. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention of the appearance of light-struck taste in white wine / Prevenzione della comparsa del gusto di luce nel vino bianco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracassetti Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The light-struck taste is a defect of bottled white wine due to the light exposure and involving the riboflavin (RF, as a photosensitizer, and methionine. The reaction pathways lead to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, methanethiol and dimethyldisulphide, conferring cabbage-like aromas. The development of this defect is limited at low RF concentrations. In this study, the yeast-mediated release of RF, RF degradation kinetics in model solution and white wine, and RF removal by using insoluble adjuvants were investigated. The results showed the RF release was a strain-dependent property and the fermentation rate did not affect the RF synthesis. The RF degradation followed a 1st order kinetic in both model solution and white wine in which the degradation rate was halved. Among the adjuvants tested, bentonite and active charcoal were the most effective in RF removal and higher concentrations were needed for effectively treating white wine. The selection of low RF-producing yeasts and the treatment with active charcoal could represent useful tools to avoid the white wine spoilage during the shelf-life.

  1. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  2. Predicting hurricane wind damage by claim payout based on Hurricane Ike in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Myong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of natural disasters and their related damage have led to a growing demand for models that predict financial loss. Although considerable research on the financial losses related to natural disasters has found significant predictors, there has been a lack of comprehensive study that addresses the relationship among vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and the economic losses of individual buildings. This study identifies the vulnerability indicators for hurricanes to establish a metric to predict the related financial loss. We classify hurricane-prone areas by highlighting the spatial distribution of losses and vulnerabilities. This study used a Geographical Information System (GIS to combine and produce spatial data and a multiple regression method to establish a wind damage prediction model. As the dependent variable, we used the value of the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association (TWIA claim payout divided by the appraised values of the buildings to predict real economic loss. As independent variables, we selected a hurricane indicator and built environment vulnerability indicators. The model we developed can be used by government agencies and insurance companies to predict hurricane wind damage.

  3. Avifauna response to hurricanes: regional changes in community similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon; Thomas P. Albright; Patrick D. Culbert; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Chengquan Huang; Jeffrey G. Masek; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Global climate models predict increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as hurricanes, which may abruptly alter ecological processes in forests and thus affect avian diversity. Developing appropriate conservation measures necessitates identifying patterns of avifauna response to hurricanes. We sought to answer two questions: (1) does...

  4. Long-term response of Caribbean palm forests to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J.L. Frangi

    2016-01-01

    We studied the response of Prestoea montana (Sierra Palm, hereafter Palm) brakes and a Palm floodplain forest to hurricanes in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Over a span of 78 years, 3 hurricanes passed over the study sites for which we have 64 years of measurements for Palm brakes and 20 years for the Palm floodplain forest. For each stand, species...

  5. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  6. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  7. Post-hurricane forest damage assessment using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu; J.A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    This study developed a rapid assessment algorithm for post-hurricane forest damage estimation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. The performance of five commonly used vegetation indices as post-hurricane forest damage indicators was investigated through statistical analysis. The Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) was...

  8. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  9. Resilience of Professional Counselors Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simone F.; Lawson, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Professional counselors who provided services to those affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita completed the K6+ (screen for severe mental illness), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Results indicated that participants who survived the hurricanes had higher levels of posttraumatic growth than…

  10. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  11. A Climatological Study of Hurricane Force Extratropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    extratropical cyclone by months in the Pacific basin. Most of the storms occur from October through March...hurricane force extratropical cyclone. Starting from left to right; the first column is the storm name, second column is the year, month, day, hour (UTC...2000 through 2007 illustrates that the number of hurricane-force extratropical cyclones is quite significant: approximately 500 storms , nearly evenly

  12. Teacher Guidelines for Helping Students after a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Being in a hurricane can be very frightening, and the days, weeks, and months following the storm can be very stressful. Most families recover over time, especially with the support of relatives, friends, and their community. But different families may have different experiences during and after a hurricane, and how long it takes them to recover…

  13. Hurricane Maria, 2017 Hydrographic Response for Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands by the NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, D.; Klemm, A.; van Westendorp, C.; Wood, D. A.; Doroba, J.

    2017-12-01

    After many coastal natural disasters, ports and harbors must be surveyed for navigation dangers, cleared, and opened as quickly as possible to facilitate recovery and reconstruction. The appropriate survey asset to use varies by location and condition. Routinely, hydrographic response to a natural disaster is conducted by survey teams with trailer-hitched vessels deployed quickly by land. This was the case for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Nate which struck mainland U.S. In the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands post-Hurricane Maria, however, the devastation to the regional infrastructure resulted in a dearth of adequate accommodations, fuel, security and passable roads required to support a land-based response. On September 24th, 2017, NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson (TJ), a 208-foot-long hydrographic survey vessel with a 38-person complement and two 28-foot-long survey launches, began an uninterrupted 20-day cruise to survey major ports around the islands. The ship's crew acquired high-resolution multibeam echo sounder (MBES) and concurrent object-detection side scan sonar (SSS) in and around 18 individual port facilities in 13 areas. The TJ is the appropriate platform for sustained remote response due to a self-contained infrastructure that supports deployment and recovery of survey launches, as well as 24/7 data processing facilities. The TJ crew produced digital terrain models and SSS mosaics, in addition to developing new reports on specific hazards overnight. These products quickly informed responders, stakeholders and responsible authorities about the efficacy of waterways.

  14. Hedzhirovanije / Ivan Luiska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luiska, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    Ettevõtluses levinuim riskide vähendamise meetod on riskiturve - "hedging", mis seisneb selles, et optsiooni- või futuuribörsil sooritatakse valuuta või väärtpaberitehinguid, et kindlustada ettevõtete hindade kõikumise vastu

  15. Ohutus / Ivan Kappanen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kappanen, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: 2003 : annual report : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 37-39; 2003 : godovoi ottshjot : [Eesti Raudtee]. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 37-39. 2003. aastal registreeriti Eesti Raudteel kokku 8 töötraumat ja 17 raudteeveeremi kokkupõrget autotranspordiga. Diagrammid

  16. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  17. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  18. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  19. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  20. Hurricane Harvey Report : A fact-finding effort in the direct aftermath of Hurricane Harvey in the Greater Houston Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, A.G.; Lendering, K.T.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Brand, A.D.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Kolen, B.; Comes, M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Meesters, K.J.M.G.; van de Walle, B.A.; Ebrahimi Fard, A.; Cunningham, S.; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Nespeca, V.

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Rockport, Texas as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of approximately 200 km/hour. Harvey caused severe damages in coastal Texas due to extreme winds and storm surge, but will go down in history for record-setting rainfall

  1. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  2. Estimating hurricane hazards using a GIS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taramelli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a GIS-based integrated approach to the Multi-Hazard model method, with reference to hurricanes. This approach has three components: data integration, hazard assessment and score calculation to estimate elements at risk such as affected area and affected population. First, spatial data integration issues within a GIS environment, such as geographical scales and data models, are addressed. Particularly, the integration of physical parameters and population data is achieved linking remotely sensed data with a high resolution population distribution in GIS. In order to assess the number of affected people, involving heterogeneous data sources, the selection of spatial analysis units is basic. Second, specific multi-hazard tasks, such as hazard behaviour simulation and elements at risk assessment, are composed in order to understand complex hazard and provide support for decision making. Finally, the paper concludes that the integrated approach herein presented can be used to assist emergency management of hurricane consequences, in theory and in practice.

  3. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  4. Weathering the storm: hurricanes and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2013-05-01

    A growing literature suggests that stressful events in pregnancy can have negative effects on birth outcomes. Some of the estimates in this literature may be affected by small samples, omitted variables, endogenous mobility in response to disasters, and errors in the measurement of gestation, as well as by a mechanical correlation between longer gestation and the probability of having been exposed. We use millions of individual birth records to examine the effects of exposure to hurricanes during pregnancy, and the sensitivity of the estimates to these econometric problems. We find that exposure to a hurricane during pregnancy increases the probability of abnormal conditions of the newborn such as being on a ventilator more than 30min and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Although we are able to reproduce previous estimates of effects on birth weight and gestation, our results suggest that measured effects of stressful events on these outcomes are sensitive to specification and it is preferable to use more sensitive indicators of newborn health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  6. Geologic record of Hurricane impacts on the New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Daria; Horton, Benjamin; Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Shaw, Timothy; Enache, Mihaela; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nick; Potapova, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Hurricanes along the US Atlantic coast have caused significant damage and loss of human life over the last century. Recent studies suggest that intense-hurricane activity is closely related to changes of sea surface temperatures and therefore the risk of hurricane strikes may increase in the future. A clear understanding of the role of recent warming on tropical cyclone activity is limited by the shortness of the instrumental record. However, the sediment preserved beneath coastal wetlands is an archive of when hurricanes impacted the coast. We present two complimenting approaches that help to extend pre-historic record and assess frequency and intensity of hurricane landfalls along the New Jersey cost; dating overwash deposits and hurricane-induced salt-marsh erosion documented at multiple sites. The stratigraphic investigation of estuarine salt marshes in the southern New Jersey documented seven distinctive erosion events that correlate among different sites. Radiocarbon dates suggest the prehistoric events occurred in AD 558-673, AD 429-966, AD 558-673, Ad 1278-1438, AD 1526-1558 or AD 1630-1643 (Nikitina et al., 2014). Younger sequences correspond with historical land-falling hurricanes in AD 1903 and AD 1821 or AD 1788. Four events correlate well with barrier overwash deposits documented along the New Jersey coast (Donnelley et al., 2001 and 2004). The stratigraphic sequence of salt High resolution sedimentary-based reconstructions of past intense-hurricane landfalls indicate that significant variability in the frequency of intense hurricanes occurred over the last 2000 years.

  7. Hurricane Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibra, Besart [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Finucane, Zachary [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Foley, Benjamin [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Hall, Rudy [Keystone Engineering Inc., Vonore, TN (United States); Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Zachary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wendt, Fabian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andersen, Mads Boel Overgaard [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Standish, Kevin [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark); Lee, Ken [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Raina, Amool [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Wetzel, Kyle [Wetzel Engineering Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schreck, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Hurricanes occur over much of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, from Long Island to the U.S.-Mexico border, encompassing much of the nation's primary offshore wind resource. Category 5 hurricanes have made landfall as far north as North Carolina, with Category 3 hurricanes reaching New York with some frequency. Along the US West coast, typhoons strike with similar frequency and severity. At present, offshore wind turbine design practices do not fully consider the severe operating conditions imposed by hurricanes. Although universally applied to most turbine designs, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards do not sufficiently address the duration, directionality, magnitude, or character of hurricanes. To assess advanced design features that could mitigate hurricane loading in various ways, this Hurricane-Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study considered a concept design study of a 500-megawatt (MW) wind power plant consisting of 10-MW wind turbines deployed in 25-meter (m) water depths in the Western Gulf of Mexico. This location was selected because hurricane frequency and severity provided a unique set of design challenges that would enable assessment of hurricane risk and projection of cost of energy (COE) changes, all in response to specific U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) objectives. Notably, the concept study pursued a holistic approach that incorporated multiple advanced system elements at the wind turbine and wind power plant levels to meet objectives for system performance and reduced COE. Principal turbine system elements included a 10-MW rotor with structurally efficient, low-solidity blades; a lightweight, permanent-magnet, direct-drive generator, and an innovative fixed substructure. At the wind power plant level, turbines were arrayed in a large-scale wind power plant in a manner aimed at balancing energy production against capital, installation, and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs to achieve significant overall reductions in

  8. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  9. Forecasting Hurricane Tracks Using a Complex Adaptive System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lear, Matthew R

    2005-01-01

    Forecast hurricane tracks using a multi-model ensemble that consists of linearly combining the individual model forecasts have greatly reduced the average forecast errors when compared to individual...

  10. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... evacuation decision-making. To accomplish this, the study provides information on the extent and severity of potential flooding from hurricanes, the associated vulnerable population, capacities of existing public shelters...

  11. A Complex Adaptive System Approach to Forecasting Hurricane Tracks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lear, Matthew R

    2005-01-01

    Forecast hurricane tracks using a multi-model ensemble that consists of linearly combining the individual model forecasts have greatly reduced the average forecast errors when compared to individual...

  12. Hurricane Inner-Core Structure as Revealed by GPS Dropwindsondes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leejoice, Robert

    2000-01-01

    New high-resolution information of the vertical thermodynamic and kinematic structure of the hurricane inner-core is now available from aircraft released Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes...

  13. Hurricane Wind Vector Estimates from WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Ian S; Hennon, Christopther C; Jones, W. L; Ahmad, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    .... In late 2004, the first preliminary oceanic wind vector results were released, and this paper presents the first evaluation of this product for several Atlantic hurricanes during the 2003 season...

  14. Extreme Hurricane-Generated Waves in Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto, Carlos; Fernandes, Santos

    2005-01-01

    .... Although WaveWatchIII (WW3) is used by many operational forecasting centers around the world, there is a lack of field studies to evaluate its accuracy in regional applications and under extreme conditions, such as Hurricanes...

  15. The Repopulation of New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin; Peterson, D. J; Sastry, Narayan; Pollard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    What the future size and composition of the population of New Orleans will be in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina is a topic of intense interest and discussion among current and displaced residents of the city...

  16. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  17. Nurses respond to Hurricane Hugo victims' disaster stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S; Hardin, S B; Johnson, M

    1990-06-01

    Hugo, a class IV hurricane, hit South Carolina September 22, 1989, and left behind a wake of terror and destruction. Sixty-one nursing students and five faculty were involved in disaster relief with families devastated by the hurricane. A review of the literature led these authors to propose a formulation of the concept of disaster stress, a synthesis of theories that explains response to disaster as a crisis response, a stress response, or as posttraumatic stress. With the concept of disaster stress serving as a theoretical foundation, the nurses observed, assessed, and intervened with one population of hurricane Hugo victims, noting their immediate psychosocial reactions and coping mechanisms. Victims' reactions to disaster stress included confusion, irritability, lethargy, withdrawal, and crying. The most frequently observed coping strategy of these hurricane Hugo victims was talking about their experiences; other coping tactics involved humor, religion, and altruism.

  18. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to provide the Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency and Rhode Island coastal communities with realistic data quantifying the major factors involved in hurricane...

  19. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. A team approach to preparing for hurricanes and other disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Applying lessons learned in Hurricane Floyd in 1999, a three-hospital system located on Florida's exposed Space Coast was able to better deal with the devastation caused by hurricanes in 2004 and make changes in its plans to better prepare for the named storms which hit its area in 2008. Each new disaster, the author points out, brings with it new challenges which have to be considered in disaster planning.

  1. Mangrove forest recovery in the Everglades following Hurricane Wilma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Daniel; Barr, Jordan; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Zieman, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    On October 24th, 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on the south western shore of the Florida peninsula. This major disturbance destroyed approximately 30 percent of the mangrove forests in the area. However, the damage to the ecosystem following the hurricane provided researchers at the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) LTER site with the rare opportunity to track the recovery process of the mangroves as determined by carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy exchanges, measured along daily and seasonal time scales.

  2. Identification of Caribbean basin hurricanes from Spanish documentary sources

    OpenAIRE

    García Herrera, Ricardo; Gimeno, Luis; Ribera, Pedro; Hernández, Emiliano; González, Ester; Fernández, Guadalupe

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses five hurricanes that occurred in the period 1600 to 1800. These examples were identified during a systematic search in the General Archive of the Indies (AGI) in Seville. The research combined the expertise of climatologists and historians in order to optimise the search and analysis strategies. Results demonstrate the potential of this archive for the assessment of hurricanes in this period and show some of the difficulties involved in the collection of evidence of hurric...

  3. Hurricane Impact on Seepage Water in Larga Cave, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, Rolf; Warken, Sophie; Winter, Amos; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Hurricane-induced rainfall over Puerto Rico has characteristic δ18O values which are more negative than local rainfall events. Thus, hurricanes may be recorded in speleothems from Larga cave, Puerto Rico, as characteristic oxygen isotope excursions. Samples of 84 local rainfall events between 2012 and 2013 ranged from -6.2 to +0.3‰, whereas nine rainfall samples belonging to a rainband of hurricane Isaac (23-24 August 2012) ranged from -11.8 to -7.1‰. Cave monitoring covered the hurricane season of 2014 and investigated the impact of hurricane rainfall on drip water chemistry. δ18O values were measured in cumulative monthly rainwater samples above the cave. Inside the cave, δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples were analyzed and drip rates were recorded at six drip sites. Most effective recharge appears to occur during the wet months (April-May and August-November). δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples ranged from -3.5 to -2.4‰. In April 2014 and April 2015 some drip sites showed more negative δ18O values than the effective rainfall (-2.9‰), implying an influence of hurricane rainfall reaching the cave via stratified seepage flow months to years after the event. Speleothems from these drip sites in Larga cave have a high potential for paleotempestology studies.

  4. Oceanic control of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Ruby Leung, L; Yoon, Jin-ho

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is not the only oceanic parameter that can play a key role in the interannual variability of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity. Using several observational data sets and the statistical technique of multiple linear regression analysis, we show that, along with SST, the thermocline depth (TD) plays an important role in hurricane activity at interannual timescales in this basin. Based on the parameter that dominates, the ocean basin can be divided into two sub-regions. In the Southern sub-region, which includes the hurricane main development area, interannual variability of the upper-ocean heat content (OHC) is primarily controlled by TD variations. Consequently, the interannual variability in the hurricane power dissipation index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of hurricane activity, is driven by that of the TD. On the other hand, in the Northern sub-region, SST exerts the major control over the OHC variability and, in turn, the PDI. Our study suggests that both SST and TD have a significant influence on the Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales and that their respective roles are more clearly delineated when sub-regions along an approximate north–south demarcation are considered rather than the basin as a whole. (letter)

  5. High Resolution Modeling of Hurricanes in a Climate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    Modeling of tropical cyclone activity in a climate context initially focused on simulation of relatively weak tropical storm-like disturbances as resolved by coarse grid (200 km) global models. As computing power has increased, multi-year simulations with global models of grid spacing 20-30 km have become feasible. Increased resolution also allowed for simulation storms of increasing intensity, and some global models generate storms of hurricane strength, depending on their resolution and other factors, although detailed hurricane structure is not simulated realistically. Results from some recent high resolution global model studies are reviewed. An alternative for hurricane simulation is regional downscaling. An early approach was to embed an operational (GFDL) hurricane prediction model within a global model solution, either for 5-day case studies of particular model storm cases, or for "idealized experiments" where an initial vortex is inserted into an idealized environments derived from global model statistics. Using this approach, hurricanes up to category five intensity can be simulated, owing to the model's relatively high resolution (9 km grid) and refined physics. Variants on this approach have been used to provide modeling support for theoretical predictions that greenhouse warming will increase the maximum intensities of hurricanes. These modeling studies also simulate increased hurricane rainfall rates in a warmer climate. The studies do not address hurricane frequency issues, and vertical shear is neglected in the idealized studies. A recent development is the use of regional model dynamical downscaling for extended (e.g., season-length) integrations of hurricane activity. In a study for the Atlantic basin, a non-hydrostatic model with grid spacing of 18km is run without convective parameterization, but with internal spectral nudging toward observed large-scale (basin wavenumbers 0-2) atmospheric conditions from reanalyses. Using this approach, our

  6. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  7. Hurricane Impacts on Small Island Communities: Case study of Hurricane Matthew on Great Exuma, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen; Bowleg, John

    2017-04-01

    Great Exuma has been a UNESCO Eco-hydrology Project Site with a focus on coastal restoration and flood management. Great Exuma and its largest settlement, George Town, support a population of just over 8.000 people on an island dominated by extensive coastal wetlands. The Victoria Pond Eco-Hydrology project restored flow and drainage to highly-altered coastal wetlands to reduce flooding of the built environment as well as regain ecological function. The project was designed to show the value of a protected wetland and coastal environment within a populated settlement; demonstrating that people can live alongside mangroves and value "green" infrastructure for flood protection. The restoration project was initiated after severe storm flooding in 2007 with Tropical Storm Noel. In 2016, the passing of Hurricane Matthew had unprecedented impacts on the coastal communities of Great Exuma, challenging past practices in restoration and flood prevention. This talk reviews the loss of natural capital (for example, fish populations, mangroves, salt water inundation) from Hurricane Matthew based on a rapid response survey of Great Exuma. The surprisingly find was the impact of storm surge on low-lying areas used primarily for personal farms and small-scale agriculture. Although women made up the overwhelming majority of people who attended Coastal Restoration workshops, women were most adversely impacted by the recent hurricane flooding with the loss of their small low-lying farms and gardens. Although increasing culverts in mangrove creeks in two areas did reduce building flood damage, the low-lying areas adjacent to mangroves, mostly ephemeral freshwater wetlands, were inundated with saltwater, and seasonal crops in these areas were destroyed. These ephemeral wetlands were designed as part of the wetland flooding system, it was not known how important these small areas were to artisanal farming on Great Exuma. The size and scope of Hurricane Matthew passing through the

  8. Aftermath of Hurricane Ike along Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three weeks after Hurricane Ike came ashore near Galveston, TX, residents returned to find their houses in ruins. From the coast to over 15 km inland, salt water saturated the soil as a result of the 7m storm surge pushed ashore by the force of the hurricane. The right image was acquired on September 28; the left image was acquired August 15, 2006. Vegetation is displayed in red, and inundated areas are in blue-green. Within the inundated area are several small 'red islands' of high ground where salt domes raised the level of the land, and protected the vegetation. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 37 by 49.5 kilometers (22.8 by 30.6 miles) Location: 29.8 degrees North latitude, 94.4 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and

  9. Spatial structure of directional wave spectra in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Osuna, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The spatial structure of the wave field during hurricane conditions is studied using the National Data Buoy Center directional wave buoy data set from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The buoy information, comprising the directional wave spectra during the passage of several hurricanes, was referenced to the center of the hurricane using the path of the hurricane, the propagation velocity, and the radius of the maximum winds. The directional wave spectra were partitioned into their main components to quantify the energy corresponding to the observed wave systems and to distinguish between wind-sea and swell. The findings are consistent with those found using remote sensing data (e.g., Scanning Radar Altimeter data). Based on the previous work, the highest waves are found in the right forward quadrant of the hurricane, where the spectral shape tends to become uni-modal, in the vicinity of the region of maximum winds. More complex spectral shapes are observed in distant regions at the front of and in the rear quadrants of the hurricane, where there is a tendency of the spectra to become bi- and tri-modal. The dominant waves generally propagate at significant angles to the wind direction, except in the regions next to the maximum winds of the right quadrants. Evidence of waves generated by concentric eyewalls associated with secondary maximum winds was also found. The frequency spectra display some of the characteristics of the JONSWAP spectrum adjusted by Young (J Geophys Res 111:8020, 2006); however, at the spectral peak, the similarity with the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum is clear. These results establish the basis for the use in assessing the ability of numerical models to simulate the wave field in hurricanes.

  10. Price Increases in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Authority to Limit Price Gouging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welborn, Angie A; Flynn, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    .... Specifically, questions have arisen regarding increased prices in the areas affected by Hurricane Katrina and the effect that the damage caused by the hurricane will have on prices, specifically...

  11. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) FLIGHT REPORTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Flight Reports provide information about flights flown by the WB-57 and Global Hawk aircrafts during the Hurricane and...

  12. Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Inundation for Categories 2 and 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The file geodatabase (fgdb) contains the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Maximum of Maximums (MOM) model for hurricane categories 2 and 4. The...

  13. Comparison of hurricane exposure methods and associations with county fetal death rates, adjusting for environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse effects of hurricanes are increasing as coastal populations grow and events become more severe. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy can influence fetal death rates through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, nutrition, and injury. Estimation of hu...

  14. 2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  15. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  16. Hurricane Recovery and Ecological Resilience: Measuring the Impacts of Wetland Alteration Post Hurricane Ike on the Upper TX Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reja, Md Y.; Brody, Samuel D.; Highfield, Wesley E.; Newman, Galen D.

    2017-12-01

    Recovery after hurricane events encourages new development activities and allows reconstruction through the conversion of naturally occurring wetlands to other land uses. This research investigates the degree to which hurricane recovery activities in coastal communities are undermining the ability of these places to attenuate the impacts of future storm events. Specifically, it explores how and to what extent wetlands are being affected by the CWA Section 404 permitting program in the context of post-Hurricane Ike 2008 recovery. Wetland alteration patterns are examined by selecting a control group (Aransas and Brazoria counties with no hurricane impact) vs. study group (Chambers and Galveston counties with hurricane impact) research design with a pretest-posttest measurement analyzing the variables such as permit types, pre-post Ike permits, land cover classes, and within-outside the 100-year floodplain. Results show that permitting activities in study group have increased within the 100-year floodplain and palustrine wetlands continue to be lost compare to the control group. Simultaneously, post-Ike individual and nationwide permits increased in the Hurricane Ike impacted area. A binomial logistic regression model indicated that permits within the study group, undeveloped land cover class, and individual and nationwide permit type have a substantial effect on post-Ike permits, suggesting that post-Ike permits have significant impact on wetland losses. These findings indicate that recovery after the hurricane is compromising ecological resiliency in coastal communities. The study outcome may be applied to policy decisions in managing wetlands during a long-term recovery process to maintain natural function for future flood mitigation.

  17. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  18. An Axisymmetric View of Concentric Eyewall Evolution in Hurricane Rita (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1237–1259. Martinez, Y., G. Brunet, and M. K. Yau, 2010: On the dynamics of two-dimensional hurricane ...An Axisymmetric View of Concentric Eyewall Evolution in Hurricane Rita (2005) MICHAEL M. BELL Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, and... Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida WEN-CHAU LEE National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript received 23 June 2011, in

  19. Hurricane preparedness among elderly residents in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleier, Jo Ann; Krause, Deirdre; Ogilby, Terry

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors associated with hurricane preparation and to test a theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process among a group of elderly residents living in a high-risk geographical area. This is a descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample consisted of 188 English-speaking individuals who were aged 55 years or older. In addition to demographic information, two survey instruments were used. Theoretical constructs were operationalized through Moon's Hurricane Preparation Questionnaire. Hurricane preparedness was measured by self-reported responses to FEMA's inventory checklist, which addresses the recommended basic steps of preparation. The theoretical model of hurricane preparation decision process was supported. Main barriers to preparation are the need for cooperation from others and cost of preparation. Participants reported having taken many preparatory steps to shelter-in-place, but too few are prepared if their home were storm-damaged or they should have to evacuate. Findings are consistent with previous studies of samples drawn from similar populations. This report provides guidance as to how public health nurses can become involved with the population and develop interventions based on the constructs of the theoretical model. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how perturbations to the Florida Current caused by hurricanes are relevant to the spread of invasive lionfish from Florida to the Bahamas. Without such perturbations, this current represents a potential barrier to the transport of planktonic lionfish eggs and larvae across the Straits of Florida. We further show that once lionfish became established in the Bahamas, hurricanes significantly hastened their spread through the island chain. We gain these insights through: (1) an analysis of the direction and velocity of simulated ocean currents during the passage of hurricanes through the Florida Straits and (2) the development of a biophysical model that incorporates the tolerances of lionfish to ocean climate, their reproductive strategy, and duration that the larvae remain viable in the water column. On the basis of this work, we identify 23 occasions between the years 1992 and 2006 in which lionfish were provided the opportunity to breach the Florida Current. We also find that hurricanes during this period increased the rate of spread of lionfish through the Bahamas by more than 45% and magnified its population by at least 15%. Beyond invasive lionfish, we suggest that extreme weather events such as hurricanes likely help to homogenize the gene pool for all Caribbean marine species susceptible to transport. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hurricane Risk Variability along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Jill C.; Ellis, Kelsey N.; Tucker, Clay S.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locations, along the borders of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Using a geographically weighted regression model, the relationship of these parameters to sea surface temperature (SST) is found to assess sensitivity to change. It is shown that as SSTs increase near the coast, the frequency of hurricanes in these grids decrease significantly. This reinforces the importance of SST in areas of likely tropical cyclogenesis in determining the number of hurricanes near the coast, along with SSTs along the lifespan of the storm, rather than simply local SST. The range of hurricane wind speeds experienced near Florida is shown to increase with increasing SSTs (insignificant), suggesting that increased temperatures may allow hurricanes to maintain their strength as they pass over the Florida peninsula. The modifiable areal unit problem is assessed using multiple grid sizes. Moran’s I and the local statistic G are calculated to examine spatial autocorrelation in the parameters. This research opens up future questions regarding rapid intensification and decay close to the coast and the relationship to changing SSTs. PMID:25767885

  2. Hurricane risk variability along the Gulf of Mexico coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier, Jill C; Ellis, Kelsey N; Tucker, Clay S

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane risk characteristics are examined across the U. S. Gulf of Mexico coastline using a hexagonal tessellation. Using an extreme value model, parameters are collected representing the rate or λ (frequency), the scale or σ (range), and the shape or ξ (intensity) of the extreme wind distribution. These latent parameters and the 30-year return level are visualized across the grid. The greatest 30-year return levels are located toward the center of the Gulf of Mexico, and for inland locations, along the borders of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Using a geographically weighted regression model, the relationship of these parameters to sea surface temperature (SST) is found to assess sensitivity to change. It is shown that as SSTs increase near the coast, the frequency of hurricanes in these grids decrease significantly. This reinforces the importance of SST in areas of likely tropical cyclogenesis in determining the number of hurricanes near the coast, along with SSTs along the lifespan of the storm, rather than simply local SST. The range of hurricane wind speeds experienced near Florida is shown to increase with increasing SSTs (insignificant), suggesting that increased temperatures may allow hurricanes to maintain their strength as they pass over the Florida peninsula. The modifiable areal unit problem is assessed using multiple grid sizes. Moran's I and the local statistic G are calculated to examine spatial autocorrelation in the parameters. This research opens up future questions regarding rapid intensification and decay close to the coast and the relationship to changing SSTs.

  3. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  4. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  5. Numerical study of sediment dynamics during hurricane Gustav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhengchen; Xue, Z. George; Bao, Shaowu; Chen, Qin; Walker, Nan D.; Haag, Alaric S.; Ge, Qian; Yao, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-and-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was employed to explore sediment dynamics in the northern Gulf of Mexico during hurricane Gustav in 2008. The performance of the model was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively against in-situ and remote sensing measurements, respectively. After Gustav's landfall in coastal Louisiana, the maximum significant wave heights reached more than 8 m offshore and they decreased quickly as it moved toward the inner shelf, where the vertical stratification was largely destroyed. Alongshore currents were dominant westward on the eastern sector of the hurricane track, and offshoreward currents prevailed on the western sector. High suspended sediment concentrations (>1000 mg/l) were confined to the inner shelf at surface layers and the simulated high concentrations at the bottom layer extended to the 200 m isobaths. The stratification was restored one week after landfall, although not fully. The asymmetric hurricane winds induced stronger hydrodynamics in the eastern sector, which led to severe erosion. The calculated suspended sediment flux (SSF) was convergent to the hurricane center and the maximum SSF was simulated near the south and southeast of the Mississippi river delta. The averaged post-hurricane deposition over the Louisiana shelf was 4.0 cm, which was 3.2-26 times higher than the annual accumulation rate under normal weather conditions.

  6. Changes in trace metals in Thalassia testudinum after hurricane impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T; Van Tussenbroek, B I; Santos, M G Barba

    2011-12-01

    Major hurricanes Emily and Wilma hit the Mexican Caribbean in 2005. Changes in trace metals in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum prior to (May 2004, 2005) and following passage of these hurricanes (May, June 2006) were determined at four locations along a ≈ 130 km long stretch of coast. Before the hurricanes, essential metals were likely limiting and concentrations of potentially toxic Pb were high in a contaminated lagoon (27.5 μg g(-1)) and near submarine springs (6.10 μg g(-1)); the likely sources were inland sewage disposal or excessive boat traffic. After the hurricanes, Pb decreased to 2.0 μg g(-1) in the contaminated lagoon probably through flushing. At the northern sites, essential Fe increased >2-fold (from 26.8 to 68.3 μg g(-1) on average), possibly from remobilization of anoxic sediments or upwelling of deep seawater during Wilma. Thus, hurricanes can be beneficial to seagrass beds in flushing toxic metals and replenishing essential elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nombrar lo innombrable, o lo difícil que resulta criticar el poder profesional - desde la profesión (a propósito de Ivan Illich/Innombrable name, o how hard it is critical power training - from the profession (a purpose of Ivan Illich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La reciente muerte de Ivan Illich ha traído a la memoria un nombre, un hombre y unas ideas que, hace un cuarto de siglo, tuvieron una importante repercusión en el mundo de la enseñanza, para luego pasar rápidamente al olvido sin pena ni gloria. La pregunta es: ¿por qué? ¿Por qué nadie se acuerda de Illich, aunque todos se acuerdan de Freire, Bourdieu, Bernstein o Milani, por citar sólo otros nombres vinculados al cuestionamiento radical de la institución escolar en los inicios de la década de los setenta? O, mejor dicho: ¿por qué apenas se recuerda de Illich su provocadora, por no decir exótica, propuesta, desescolarizar la sociedad, pero no así los argumentos en que se sustentaba? Ivan's recent death Illich has brought to the memory a name, a man and some ideas that, a century room ago, they had an important repercussion in the world of the teaching, it stops then to pass quickly to the forgetfulness without pain neither glory. The question is: why? Why does nobody remember Illich, although all remember of I will Fry, Bourdieu, Bernstein or Milani, to only mention other names linked to the radical question of the school institution in the beginnings of the decade of the seventy? Or, rather: why do you grieve he/she remembers of Illich their provocative one, for not saying exotic, proposal, desescolarizar the society, but didn't I seize the arguments in that it was sustained?

  8. From the "Modern Synthesis" to cybernetics: Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen (1884-1963) and his research program for a synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2006-03-15

    Ivan I. Schmalhausen was one of the central figures in the Russian development of the "Modern Synthesis" in evolutionary biology. He is widely cited internationally even today. Schmalhausen developed the main principles of his theory facing the danger of death in the totalitarian Soviet Union. His great services to evolutionary and theoretical biology are indisputable. However, the received view of Schmalhausen's contributions to evolutionary biology makes an unbiased reading of his texts difficult. Here we show that taking all of his works into consideration (including those only available in Russian) paints a much more dynamic and exciting picture of what he tried to achieve. Schmalhausen pioneered the integration of a developmental perspective into evolutionary thinking. A main tool for achieving this was his approach to living objects as complex multi-level self-regulating systems. Schmalhausen put enormous effort into bringing this idea into fruition during the final stages of his career by combining evolutionary theory with cybernetics. His results and ideas remain thought-provoking, and his texts are of more than just historical interest. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Ivan Grohar and Oskar Dev – An Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Fragment Comparison of Their Artistic Works in Škofja Loka/Slovenia (1905-1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Križnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Grohar’s room in the Škofja Loka Mu¬seum that is located in a more than a thousand years old town, some kilometres northwest of Ljubljana, Slove¬nia, represents one of the new possibilities to popularize old local history. Ivan Grohar (1867−1911 is one of the four well-known Slovenian painters from the beginning of the 20th century, together with Rihard Jakopič, Matija Jama and Matej Sternen. These Slovenian painters are the founders of Impressionism within the modern style. Škofja Loka became the so called Slovenian “Barbizon” (i.e. French village near Fontainebleau, once the settle-ment of painters and this art and old tradition inspired another Slovenian (music artist Oskar Dev (1868−1932, who composed some of his musical works (songs and choirs in Škofja Loka, too. His and Grohar’s period in Škofja Loka resulted in some extraordinary art works i.e. paintings and musical works. They both were inspired by the countryside that reflected on their works. This is now one of the new Slovenian’s challenges of museology and musicology in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach so the art of painting and music could be a benefit for the visitors of this and other museums.

  10. "Just-in-Time" Personal Preparedness: Downloads and Usage Patterns of the American Red Cross Hurricane Application During Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Circh, Ryan; Bissell, Richard A; Goldfeder, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Personal preparedness is a core activity but has been found to be frequently inadequate. Smart phone applications have many uses for the public, including preparedness. In 2012 the American Red Cross began releasing "disaster" apps for family preparedness and recovery. The Hurricane App was widely used during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Patterns of download of the application were analyzed by using a download tracking tool by the American Red Cross and Google Analytics. Specific variables included date, time, and location of individual downloads; number of page visits and views; and average time spent on pages. As Hurricane Sandy approached in late October, daily downloads peaked at 152,258 on the day of landfall and by mid-November reached 697,585. Total page views began increasing on October 25 with over 4,000,000 page views during landfall compared to 3.7 million the first 3 weeks of October with a 43,980% increase in views of the "Right Before" page and a 76,275% increase in views of the "During" page. The Hurricane App offered a new type of "just-in-time" training that reached tens of thousands of families in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy. The app allowed these families to access real-time information before and after the storm to help them prepare and recover. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  11. Assessment of Risk of Cholera in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rakib; Anwar, Rifat; Akanda, Shafqat; McDonald, Michael D; Huq, Anwar; Jutla, Antarpreet; Colwell, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Damage to the inferior and fragile water and sanitation infrastructure of Haiti after Hurricane Matthew has created an urgent public health emergency in terms of likelihood of cholera occurring in the human population. Using satellite-derived data on precipitation, gridded air temperature, and hurricane path and with information on water and sanitation (WASH) infrastructure, we tracked changing environmental conditions conducive for growth of pathogenic vibrios. Based on these data, we predicted and validated the likelihood of cholera cases occurring past hurricane. The risk of cholera in the southwestern part of Haiti remained relatively high since November 2016 to the present. Findings of this study provide a contemporary process for monitoring ground conditions that can guide public health intervention to control cholera in human population by providing access to vaccines, safe WASH facilities. Assuming current social and behavioral patterns remain constant, it is recommended that WASH infrastructure should be improved and considered a priority especially before 2017 rainy season.

  12. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  13. Low ionospheric reactions on tropical depressions prior hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Radovanović, Milan; Milovanović, Boško; Kovačević, Andjelka; Bajčetić, Jovan; Popović, Luka Č.

    2017-10-01

    We study the reactions of the low ionosphere during tropical depressions (TDs) which have been detected before the hurricane appearances in the Atlantic Ocean. We explore 41 TD events using very low frequency (VLF) radio signals emitted by NAA transmitter located in the USA and recorded by VLF receiver located in Belgrade (Serbia). We found VLF signal deviations (caused ionospheric turbulence) in the case of 36 out of 41 TD events (88%). Additionally, we explore 27 TDs which have not been developed in hurricanes and found similar low ionospheric reactions. However, in the sample of 41 TDs which are followed by hurricanes the typical low ionosphere perturbations seem to be more frequent than other TDs.

  14. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  15. Psychological distress of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C

    1994-07-01

    To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.

  16. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  17. Biogeochemical Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Texas Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, P.; Hu, X.; Walker, L.; Wetz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey made landfall Friday 25 August 2017 as a Category 4 hurricane, which is the strongest hurricane to hit the middle Texas coast since Carla in 1961. After the wind storm and storm surge, coastal flooding occurred due to the storm lingering over Texas for four more days, dumping as much as 50" of rain near Houston, producing 1:1000 year flood event. The Texas coast is characterized by lagoons behind barrier islands, and their ecology and biogeochemistry are strongly influenced by coastal hydrology. The ensuing inflow event replaced brackish water with fresh water that was high in inorganic an organic matter, significantly enhancing respiration of coastal blue carbon, and dissolved oxygen went to zero for a long period of time. Recovery will likely take months or nearly one year.

  18. Impact of a Hurricane Shelter Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak on a Responding Medical Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Joshua B; Page, Rianne; Prather, Caren; Paavola, Fred; Garrett, Andrew L

    2015-08-01

    Introduction In late October of 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the northeast United States and shelters were established throughout the impacted region. Numerous cases of infectious viral gastroenteritis occurred in several of these shelters. Such outbreaks are common and have been well described in the past. Early monitoring for, and recognition of, the outbreak allowed for implementation of aggressive infection control measures. However, these measures required intensive medical response team involvement. Little is known about how such outbreaks affect the medical teams responding to the incident. Hypothesis/Problem Describe the impact of an infectious viral gastroenteritis outbreak within a single shelter on a responding medical team. The number of individuals staying in the single shelter each night (as determined by shelter staff) and the number of patients treated for symptoms of viral gastroenteritis were recorded each day. On return from deployment, members of a single responding medical team were surveyed to determine how many team members became ill during, or immediately following, their deployment. The shelter population peaked on November 5, 2012 with 811 individuals sleeping in the shelter. The first patients presented to the shelter clinic with symptoms of viral gastroenteritis on November 4, 2012, and the last case was seen on November 21, 2012. A total of 64 patients were treated for nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea over the 17-day period. A post-deployment survey was sent to 66 deployed medical team members and 45 completed the survey. Twelve (26.7%) of the team members who responded to the survey experienced symptoms of probable viral gastroenteritis. Team members reported onset of symptoms during deployment as well as after returning home. Symptoms started on days 4-8, 8-14, on the trip home, and after returning home in four, four, two, and two team members, respectively. Medical teams providing shelter care during viral gastroenteritis outbreaks are

  19. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  20. Maternal exposure to hurricane destruction and fetal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Breunig, Ian M; Link, Bruce G; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Mielke, Howard W

    2014-08-01

    The majority of research documenting the public health impacts of natural disasters focuses on the well-being of adults and their living children. Negative effects may also occur in the unborn, exposed to disaster stressors when critical organ systems are developing and when the consequences of exposure are large. We exploit spatial and temporal variation in hurricane behaviour as a quasi-experimental design to assess whether fetal death is dose-responsive in the extent of hurricane damage. Data on births and fetal deaths are merged with Parish-level housing wreckage data. Fetal outcomes are regressed on housing wreckage adjusting for the maternal, fetal, placental and other risk factors. The average causal effect of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction is captured by difference-in-differences analyses. The adjusted odds of fetal death are 1.40 (1.07-1.83) and 2.37 (1.684-3.327) times higher in parishes suffering 10-50% and >50% wreckage to housing stock, respectively. For every 1% increase in the destruction of housing stock, we observe a 1.7% (1.1-2.4%) increase in fetal death. Of the 410 officially recorded fetal deaths in these parishes, between 117 and 205 may be attributable to hurricane destruction and postdisaster disorder. The estimated fetal death toll is 17.4-30.6% of the human death toll. The destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita imposed significant measurable losses in terms of fetal death. Postdisaster migratory dynamics suggest that the reported effects of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction on fetal death may be conservative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  2. An Observational Study of Tropical Cyclone Spin-Up in Supertyphoon Jangmi and Hurricane Georges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Marks et al. (2008) flight level and radar observations from Hurricane Hugo shown in Figure 9 (their Figure 3) and Hurricane Isabel (Montgomery et al...Figure 3c and Figure 6c) and Persing and Montgomery (2003, their Figures 8, 9, and 12). For the case of Hurricane Hugo , a cross-section of the... Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 1237–1259. McTaggart-Cowan, R., L. F. Bosart, J. R. Gyakum, and E. H. Atallah, 2007: Hurricane Katrina

  3. Hurricane Harvey Report: A fact-finding effort in the direct aftermath of Hurricane Harvey in the Greater Houston Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian, A.G.; Lendering, K.T.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Brand, A.D.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Kolen, B.; Comes, M.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Meesters, K.J.M.G.; van de Walle, B.A.; Ebrahimi Fard, A.; Cunningham, S.; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Nespeca, V.

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Rockport, Texas as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of approximately 200 km/hour. Harvey caused severe damages in coastal Texas due to extreme winds and storm surge, but will go down in history for record-setting rainfall totals and flood-related damages. Across large portions of southeast Texas, rainfall totals during the six-day period between August 25 and 31, 2017 were amongst the highest ever recorded, causing flo...

  4. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporta, Diego; Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods . A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results . Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  5. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  6. Observational Estimates of the Horizontal Eddy Diffusivity and Mixing Length in the Low-Level Region of Intense Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    flight-level data collected by research aircraft that penetrated the eyewalls of Category 5 Hurricane Hugo (1989), Category 4 Hurricane Allen (1980) and...data collected by research aircraft that penetrated the eyewalls of Category 5 Hurricane Hugo 42 (1989), Category 4 Hurricane Allen (1980) and Category...understood. 87 Using the data from the periods of eyewall penetrations in the intense Hurricanes Hugo 88 (1989) and Allen (1980), Zhang et al. (2011a

  7. THE BIBLICAL CONTEXT OF SELF-REJECTION MOTIF IN THE PLOT OF IVAN TURGENEV’S “A STRANGE STORY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav M. Golovko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the functional role of  biblical reminiscence in  Ivan S.  Turgenev’s short novel  “A Strange Story”  (1870. A  pretextual function of  the Bible and interpretations of  certain biblical theses, sayings and maxims are revealed through the artistic analysis of  moral choice of Sophie and the embodiment of the existential motif. In the ethics of selfexpression the main character of the short novel relies on the Old Testament dogmas and evangelical preaching as well as asserts her own understanding of  the necessity of  self-renunciation in  the  name of  implementation of  the  moral ideal. Sophie’s moral views despite being formed under the infl uence of  religious ethics are not limited by  the very ethics. Her faith in Christ is accompanied with the consciousness of her duty to people. The biblical ethics of self-dedication is based on antinomy of self-obsession and renunciation of  one’s own self. The personal is  sacrifi ced for the sake of  the  public. This unites Sophie with the selfl ess girls, participants of  the populist movement, and describes the world perception of  a  new person of the watershed times in the “national history”.

  8. Stress and Support in Family Relationships after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Megan; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors merge the study of support, strain, and ambivalence in family relationships with the study of stress to explore the ways family members provide support or contribute to strain in the disaster recovery process. The authors analyze interviews with 71 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, and identify three family…

  9. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroij, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, B.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males

  10. Hurricane disturbance benefits nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.; Schulte, Shiloh A.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activity, introduced species, sea level rise, and storm activity. Hurricanes are a powerful destructive force, but can also renew coastal habitats. In 2003, Hurricane Isabel altered the barrier islands of North Carolina, flattening dunes and creating sand flats. American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) are large shorebirds that inhabit the coastal zone throughout the year. Alternative survival models were evaluated for 699 American Oystercatcher nests on North Core Banks and South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, from 1999–2007. Nest survival on North Core Banks increased from 0.170 (SE = 0.002) to 0.772 (SE = 0.090) after the hurricane, with a carry-over effect lasting 2 years. A simple year effects model described nest survival on South Core Banks. Habitat had no effect on survival except when the overall rate of nest survival was at intermediate levels (0.300–0.600), when nests on open flats survived at a higher rate (0.600; SE = 0.112) than nests in dune habitat (0.243; SE = 0.094). Predator activity declined on North Core Banks after the hurricane and corresponded with an increase in nest survival. Periodic years with elevated nest survival may offset low annual productivity and contribute to the stability of American Oystercatcher populations.

  11. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  12. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  13. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  14. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  15. Attribution of extreme rainfall from Hurricane Harvey, August 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Van Der Wiel, Karin; Sebastian, A.G.; Singh, Roop; Arrighi, Julie; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; Li, Sihan; Vecchi, Gabriel; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    During August 25-30, 2017, Hurricane Harvey stalled over Texas and caused extreme precipitation, particularly over Houston and the surrounding area on August 26-28. This resulted in extensive flooding with over 80 fatalities and large economic costs. It was an extremely rare event: the return

  16. The puzzle of Fran: home healthcare in a hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1998-10-01

    A natural disaster in the form of Hurricane Fran resulted not only in stories of ingenuity and compassion, but in a major performance improvement (PI) process for the entire agency. Through this PI process we learned about ourselves as a home health agency and discovered ways to improve our performance. More importantly we discovered ways to improve patient tracking and care during a disaster.

  17. Hurricane Irene: a Wake Up Call for New York City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The weakening of Irene from a Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm resulted in less damage in New York City (NYC) than initially was anticipated. It is widely recognized that the storm surge and associated flooding could have been much more severe. In a recent study, we showed that a direct hit

  18. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  19. Staying Safe in Your Home During a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If you are not ordered to evacuate, and you stay in your home through a hurricane, there are things you can do to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 8/13/2008.

  20. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  1. Lightning and radar observations of hurricane Rita landfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Bradley G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Suszcynsky, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamlin, Timothy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeffery, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Kyle C [TEXAS TECH U.; Orville, R E [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) owns and operates an array of Very-Low Frequency (VLF) sensors that measure the Radio-Frequency (RF) waveforms emitted by Cloud-to-Ground (CG) and InCloud (IC) lightning. This array, the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA), has approximately 15 sensors concentrated in the Great Plains and Florida, which detect electric field changes in a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 500 kHz (Smith et al., 2002). Recently, LANL has begun development of a new dual-band RF sensor array that includes the Very-High Frequency (VHF) band as well as the VLF. Whereas VLF lightning emissions can be used to deduce physical parameters such as lightning type and peak current, VHF emissions can be used to perform precise 3d mapping of individual radiation sources, which can number in the thousands for a typical CG flash. These new dual-band sensors will be used to monitor lightning activity in hurricanes in an effort to better predict intensification cycles. Although the new LANL dual-band array is not yet operational, we have begun initial work utilizing both VLF and VHF lightning data to monitor hurricane evolution. In this paper, we present the temporal evolution of Rita's landfall using VLF and VHF lightning data, and also WSR-88D radar. At landfall, Rita's northern eyewall experienced strong updrafts and significant lightning activity that appear to mark a transition between oceanic hurricane dynamics and continental thunderstorm dynamics. In section 2, we give a brief overview of Hurricane Rita, including its development as a hurricane and its lightning history. In the following section, we present WSR-88D data of Rita's landfall, including reflectivity images and temporal variation. In section 4, we present both VHF and VLF lightning data, overplotted on radar reflectivity images. Finally, we discuss our observations, including a comparison to previous studies and a brief conclusion.

  2. Estimating the human influence on Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, M. F.; Patricola, C. M.; Risser, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Attribution of the human-induced climate change influence on the physical characteristics of individual extreme weather events has become an advanced science over the past decade. However, it is only recently that such quantification of anthropogenic influences on event magnitudes and probability of occurrence could be applied to very extreme storms such as hurricanes. We present results from two different classes of attribution studies for the impactful Atlantic hurricanes of 2017. The first is an analysis of the record rainfall amounts during Hurricane Harvey in the Houston, Texas area. We analyzed observed precipitation from the Global Historical Climatology Network with a covariate-based extreme value statistical analysis, accounting for both the external influence of global warming and the internal influence of ENSO. We found that human-induced climate change likely increased Hurricane Harvey's total rainfall by at least 19%, and likely increased the chances of the observed rainfall by a factor of at least 3.5. This suggests that changes exceeded Clausius-Clapeyron scaling, motivating attribution studies using dynamical climate models. The second analysis consists of two sets of hindcast simulations of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) at 4.5 km resolution. The first uses realistic boundary and initial conditions and present-day greenhouse gas forcings while the second uses perturbed conditions and pre-industrial greenhouse has forcings to simulate counterfactual storms without anthropogenic influences. These simulations quantify the fraction of Harvey's precipitation attributable to human activities and test the super Clausius-Clapeyron scaling suggested by the observational analysis. We will further quantify the human influence on intensity for Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

  3. Modeling hurricane evacuation traffic : testing the gravity and intervening opportunity models as models of destination choice in hurricane evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The test was conducted by estimating the models on a portion of evacuation data from South Carolina following Hurricane Floyd, and then observing how well the models reproduced destination choice at the county level on the remaining data. The tests s...

  4. Linking soils and streams: Response of soil solution chemistry to simulated hurricane disturbance mirrors stream chemistry following a severe hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McDowell; Daniel Liptzin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of forest ecosystem response to major disturbance events is an important topic in forest ecology and ecosystem management. Because of the multiple elements included in most major disturbances such as hurricanes, fires, or landslides, it is often difficult to ascribe a specific driver to the observed response. This is particularly true for the...

  5. Mother and Child Reports of Hurricane Related Stressors: Data from a Sample of Families Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S.; Beaulieu, Brooke; Ogokeh, Constance E.; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families exposed to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina are at risk for numerous adverse outcomes. While previous literature suggests that the degree of disaster exposure corresponds with experiencing negative outcomes, it is unclear if parents and children report similar levels of disaster exposure. Objective: The purpose of this…

  6. Nonlinear analysis of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rojo-Garibaldi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are complex systems that carry large amounts of energy. Their impact often produces natural disasters involving the loss of human lives and materials, such as infrastructure, valued at billions of US dollars. However, not everything about hurricanes is negative, as hurricanes are the main source of rainwater for the regions where they develop. This study shows a nonlinear analysis of the time series of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea obtained from 1749 to 2012. The construction of the hurricane time series was carried out based on the hurricane database of the North Atlantic basin hurricane database (HURDAT and the published historical information. The hurricane time series provides a unique historical record on information about ocean–atmosphere interactions. The Lyapunov exponent indicated that the system presented chaotic dynamics, and the spectral analysis and nonlinear analyses of the time series of the hurricanes showed chaotic edge behavior. One possible explanation for this chaotic edge is the individual chaotic behavior of hurricanes, either by category or individually regardless of their category and their behavior on a regular basis.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Garibaldi, Berenice; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Adela Monreal-Gómez, María; Sánchez-Santillán, Norma Leticia; Salas-Monreal, David

    2018-04-01

    Hurricanes are complex systems that carry large amounts of energy. Their impact often produces natural disasters involving the loss of human lives and materials, such as infrastructure, valued at billions of US dollars. However, not everything about hurricanes is negative, as hurricanes are the main source of rainwater for the regions where they develop. This study shows a nonlinear analysis of the time series of the occurrence of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea obtained from 1749 to 2012. The construction of the hurricane time series was carried out based on the hurricane database of the North Atlantic basin hurricane database (HURDAT) and the published historical information. The hurricane time series provides a unique historical record on information about ocean-atmosphere interactions. The Lyapunov exponent indicated that the system presented chaotic dynamics, and the spectral analysis and nonlinear analyses of the time series of the hurricanes showed chaotic edge behavior. One possible explanation for this chaotic edge is the individual chaotic behavior of hurricanes, either by category or individually regardless of their category and their behavior on a regular basis.

  8. Impacts of Hurricane Rita on the beaches of western Louisiana: Chapter 5D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Fauver, Laura A.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Rita made landfall as a category 3 storm in western Louisiana in late September 2005, 1 month following Hurricane Katrina's devastating landfall in the eastern part of the State. Large waves and storm surge inundated the lowelevation coastline, destroying many communities and causing extensive coastal change including beach, dune, and marsh erosion.

  9. Hurricanes and Climate: the U.S. CLIVAR Working Group on Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Camargo, Suzana J.; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Daloz, Anne Sophie; Elsner, James; Emanuel, Kerry; Horn, Michael; Lim, Young-Kwon; Roberts, Malcolm; Patricola, Christina; hide

    2015-01-01

    While a quantitative climate theory of tropical cyclone formation remains elusive, considerable progress has been made recently in our ability to simulate tropical cyclone climatologies and understand the relationship between climate and tropical cyclone formation. Climate models are now able to simulate a realistic rate of global tropical cyclone formation, although simulation of the Atlantic tropical cyclone climatology remains challenging unless horizontal resolutions finer than 50 km are employed. The idealized experiments of the Hurricane Working Group of U.S. CLIVAR, combined with results from other model simulations, have suggested relationships between tropical cyclone formation rates and climate variables such as mid-tropospheric vertical velocity. Systematic differences are shown between experiments in which only sea surface temperature is increases versus experiments where only atmospheric carbon dioxide is increased, with the carbon dioxide experiments more likely to demonstrate a decrease in numbers. Further experiments are proposed that may improve our understanding of the relationship between climate and tropical cyclone formation, including experiments with two-way interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere and variations in atmospheric aerosols.

  10. Concept of Gesamtkunstwerk in Ivan Meštrović’s oeuvre: at the intersection of art, politics, religion and self-reflection / Il concetto di Gesamtkunstwerk nell’opera di Ivan Meštrović: all’intersezione di arte, politica, religione e autoriflessione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Prančević

    2017-12-01

    In questo intervento sono esaminati tre progetti architettonico-scultorei di Ivan Meštrović, nei quali è visibile la comprensione e l’applicazione della Gesamtkunstwerk, intesa come una forma particolare di partecipazione alla creazione artistica: il Tempio di Vidovdan, la Chiesa di Nostra Signora degli Angeli a Cavtat e la Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore a Otavice. Nell’articolo viene analizzato fino a che punto il protocollo della Gesamtkunstwerk sia veramente importante per l’interpretazione delle realizzazioni architettoniche di Meštrović. Inoltre, viene spiegato e dimostrato quanto Meštrović, come nessun altro artista del modernismo in Croazia, abbia riunito la progettazione architettonica e quella scultorea – fino ad allora quasi sempre scollegate – in un’unità artistica indissolubile, inserendole in seguito nello spettro di differenti e problematici contesti sociali, politici, religiosi o autoriflessivi. Nell’intervento, quindi, viene mostrato come la natura del protocollo della Gesamtkunstwerk cambi da un edificio impiegato per l’attivismo politico, prima e durante la prima guerra mondiale, fino ai luoghi sacrali e memoriali di natura più riflessiva, costruiti dopo la guerra e negli anni Venti. È importante rilevare come venga abbandonata l’interpretazione dell’«opera d’arte totale» come questione esclusivamente estetica, predeterminata dalla concezione dell’art pour l’art, e come a questa vengano aggiunte altre funzioni dell’opera nel suo più ampio contesto sociale, storico-politico e religioso.

  11. The 2017 Hurricane Season: A Revolution in Geostationary Weather Satellite Imaging and Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A. M.; Gundy, J.; Brown-Bertold, B.; Yates, H.; Dobler, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Since their introduction, geostationary weather satellites have enabled us to track hurricane life-cycle movement from development to dissipation. During the 2017 hurricane season, the new GOES-16 geostationary satellite demonstrated just how far we have progressed technologically in geostationary satellite imaging, with hurricane imagery showing never-before-seen detail of the hurricane eye and eyewall structure and life cycle. In addition, new ground system technology, leveraging high-performance computing, delivered imagery and data to forecasters with unprecedented speed—and with updates as often as every 30 seconds. As additional satellites and new products become operational, forecasters will be able to track hurricanes with even greater accuracy and assist in aftermath evaluations. This presentation will present glimpses into the past, a look at the present, and a prediction for the future utilization of geostationary satellites with respect to all facets of hurricane support.

  12. High Temporal Resolution Tropospheric Wind Profile Observations at NASA Kennedy Space Center During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Huddleston, Lisa; Brauer, Thomas; Wilfong, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) operates a 48-MHz Tropospheric/Stratospheric Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (TDRWP) on a continual basis generating wind profiles between 2-19 km in the support of space launch vehicle operations. A benefit of the continual operability of the system is the ability to provide unique observations of severe weather events such as hurricanes. Over the past two Atlantic Hurricane seasons the TDRWP has made high temporal resolution wind profile observations of Hurricane Irma in 2017 and Hurricane Matthew in 2016. Hurricane Irma was responsible for power outages to approximately 2/3 of Florida's population during its movement over the state(Stein,2017). An overview of the TDRWP system configuration, brief summary of Hurricanes Irma and Matthew storm track in proximity to KSC, characteristics of the tropospheric wind observations from the TDRWP during both events, and discussion of the dissemination of TDRWP data during the event will be presented.

  13. Extreme Wind, Rain, Storm Surge, and Flooding: Why Hurricane Impacts are Difficult to Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 hurricane season is estimated as one of the costliest in the U.S. history. The damage and devastation caused by Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Irma in Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico are distinctly different in nature. The complexity of hurricane impacts from extreme wind, rain, storm surge, and flooding presents a major challenge in hurricane forecasting. A detailed comparison of the storm impacts from Harvey, Irma, and Maria will be presented using observations and state-of-the-art new generation coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean hurricane forecast model. The author will also provide an overview on what we can expect in terms of advancement in science and technology that can help improve hurricane impact forecast in the near future.

  14. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Hurricane Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) developed hurricane models that specify wind speed, inundation, and erosion around Rhode Island with enough precision to incorporate impacts on individual facilities. At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Visualization Lab (MAVL) developed a way to realistically visualize these impacts in 3-D. Since climate change visualizations and water resource simulations have been shown to promote resiliency action (Sheppard, 2015) and increase credibility (White et al., 2010) when local knowledge is incorporated, URI's hurricane models and visualizations may also more effectively enable hurricane resilience actions if they include Facility Manager (FM) and Emergency Manager (EM) perceived hurricane impacts. This study determines how FM's and EM's perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale while exploring methods to elicit this information from FMs and EMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI GSO's hurricane models.

  15. Nécrologie: Ivan Impens (1935-2014. Celui qui ne dépasse pas son maître est un pauvre disciple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogaert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obituary: Ivan Impens (1935-2014. Poor is the disciple who does not surpass his master. La gale sarcoptique ovine est la forme de gale la plus répandue au Nord-est algérien. Elle est due à Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis. Une vaste enquête a été entreprise afin de déterminer la prévalence et le profil saisonnier de la maladie. Durant une période d'une année, plusieurs aspects ont été étudiés au Nord-est algérien. La prévalence moyenne de la maladie s'élevait à 12,02% sur les marchés à bestiaux de trois régions (Souk Ahras, Guelma et Tebessa. La période à haut risque s'est étalée de décembre à mars; quant au reste de l'année, le taux d'infestation est faible voire nul. L'infestation clinique a atteint 60% des cheptels de la région d'El-Tarf, et 49,5% des ovins examinés se sont révélés galeux. La maladie frappe les animaux de tout âge avec un taux d'infestation de 50,5% chez les brebis, 37% chez les agneaux et 22,3% chez les béliers. L'étude des aspects lésionnels et cliniques de la population ovine parasitée à El-Tarf a révélé que 55% d'individus présentaient une atteinte du museau, 30% montraient une extension des lésions crouteuses vers le chanfrein et le front, 10% avaient la tête totalement envahie par les croutes et uniquement 5% révélaient une extension vers les extrémités. Il semble que la charge parasitaire totale a une forte corrélation avec l'étendue des lésions.

  16. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  17. Calculations of the hurricane eye motion based on singularity propagation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Danilov

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of using calculating singularities to forecast the dynamics of hurricanes. Our basic model is the shallow-water system. By treating the hurricane eye as a vortex type singularity and truncating the corresponding sequence of Hugoniot type conditions, we carry out many numerical experiments. The comparison of our results with the tracks of three actual hurricanes shows that our approach is rather fruitful.

  18. Water and erosion damage to coastal structures: South Carolina Coast, Hurricane Hugo, 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsiang

    1990-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo hit U.S. Mainland on September 21, 1989 just north of Charleston, South Carolina. It was billed as the most costly hurricane on record. The loss on the mainland alone exceeded 7 billion dollars, more than 15,000 homes were destroyed and the loss of lives exceeded forty. This article documents one aspect of the multi-destructions caused by the hurricane - the water and erosion damage on water front or near water front properties. A general damage surve...

  19. On the Existence of the Logarithmic Surface Layer in the Inner Core of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of eyewall boundary layer of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 1447-1462. Zhang, JA, Montgomery MT. 2012 Observational...the inner core of hurricanes Roger K. Smitha ∗and Michael T. Montgomeryb a Meteorological Institute, University of Munich, Munich, Germany b Dept. of...logarithmic surface layer”, or log layer, in the boundary layer of the rapidly-rotating core of a hurricane . One such study argues that boundary-layer

  20. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  1. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.

    2011-02-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  2. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarieva, A.M., E-mail: ammakarieva@gmail.co [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, V.G. [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-14

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  3. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  4. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  5. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  6. Transformative experiences for Hurricanes Katrina and Rita disaster volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Lory

    2010-07-01

    The massive destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 provided an opportunity for many volunteers to be involved with disaster relief work. Exposure to devastation and personal trauma can have long-lasting and sometimes detrimental effects on people providing help. This qualitative study explored the experience of volunteer relief workers who provided disaster relief services after the hurricanes. Three major themes emerged: emotional reactions that included feelings of shock, fatigue, anger and grief as well as sleep disturbances; frustration with leadership; and life-changing personal transformation. Stress reactions were noted but appeared to be mitigated by feelings of compassion for the victims and personal satisfaction in being able to provide assistance. Suggestions are provided for further research.

  7. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Kryvasheyeu

    Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  8. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  9. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive ``digital traces'' of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  10. Pearl Harbor and South Coast of OAHU Hurricane Haven Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LASNIS. (TERN Is. NEKE 1 /AA*s**OAH/ DISAPPEARING IS. /NIHOA MOLOKAI NIIHAU MU 20ON LANAI-’ ’ KAHOOLAWE 0 0 lo HAWAII (0 U) Figure 1...of Niihau and Kauai near 240300Z. Its closest point of approach to Oahu occurred when it was northwest of the island at approximatly 240430Z and...Section 4.2, the most exten- sively documented occurrence of storm surge in the Hawaiian Islands came with Hurricane Iwa. Kauai and Niihau bore the

  11. Facts and effects of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandi, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This work resumes the facts and the effects involved by the two strongest hurricanes that recently hit the Gulf of Mexico producing strong reductions in oil and gas supply and a huge lack of refining capacity. Today, in spite of the partial recovery of activities and the price decrease, the way of the reconstruction is still long to achieve and chasing of the winter season could prompt a new rise of oil prices [it

  12. Are recent hurricane (Harvey, Irma, Maria) disasters natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Lijing, C.; Jacobs, P.; Abraham, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Yes and no! Hurricanes are certainly natural, but human-caused climate change is supersizing them, and unbridled growth is exacerbating risk of major damages. The addition of heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere has led to observed increases in upper ocean heat content (OHC). This human-caused increase in OHC supports higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric moisture. These elevated temperatures and increased moisture availability fuel tropical storms, allowing them to grow larger, longer lasting, and more intense, and with widespread heavy rainfalls. Our preliminary analysis of OHC through the August of 2017 shows not only was it by far the highest on record globally, but it was also the highest on record in the Gulf of Mexico prior to hurricane Harvey occurring. The human influence on the climate is also evident in rising sea levels, which increases risks from storm surges. These climatic changes are taking place against a background of growing habitation along coasts, which further increases the risk storms pose to life and property. This combination of planning choice and climatic change illustrates the tragedy of global warming, as evidenced by Harvey in Houston, Irma in the Caribbean and Florida, and Maria in Puerto Rico. However, future damages and loss of life can be mitigated, by stopping or slowing human-caused climate change, and through proactive planning (e.g., better building codes, increased-capacity drainage systems, shelters, and evacuation plans). We discuss the climatic and planning contexts of the unnatural disasters of the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season, including novel indices of climate-hurricane influence.

  13. New Orleans Levees and Floodwalls: Hurricane Damage Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Nicole T

    2005-01-01

    .... The breaches occurred at the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Project being constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and maintained by local levee districts. Those observers questioning why infrastructure providing a greater level of hurricane protection was not available are countered by those arguing that structural protections carry their own risks. This report will be updated as needed to track significant developments.

  14. Hurricane Gustav: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Guy, Kristy K.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, currents, and wave field. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and surface waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is also a significant aspect of the coastal change observed during extreme storms. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes) strives to provide hazard information to those concerned about the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure morphological changes associated with Hurricane Gustav, which made landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana, on September 1, 2008. Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography, airborne topographic surveys, and ground-based topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and

  15. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  16. Monitoring and Mapping the Hurricane Harvey Flooding in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring and Mapping the Hurricane Harvey Flooding in Houston, Texas.Urban flooding is a hazard that causes major destruction and loss of life. High intense precipitation events have increased significantly in Houston, Texas in recent years resulting in frequent river and bayou flooding. Many of the historical storm events such as Allison, Rita and Ike have caused several billion dollars in losses for the Houston-Galveston Region. A category 4 Hurricane Harvey made landfall on South Texas resulting in heavy precipitation from Aug 25 to 29 of 2017. About 1 trillion gallons of water fell across Harris County over a 4-day period. This amount of water covers Harris County's 1,800 square miles with an average of 33 inches of water. The long rain event resulted in an average 40inch rainfall across the area in several rain gauges and the maximum rainfall of 49.6 inches was recorded near Clear Creek. The objectives of our study are to 1) Process the Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite data from the pre and post Hurricane Harvey event in Houston, Texas and 2) Analyze the satellite imagery to map the nature and pattern of the flooding in Houston-Galveston Region. The GIS data of the study area was downloaded and processed from the various publicly available resources such as Houston Galveston Area Council (HGAC), Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas Natural Resource Information Systems (TNRIS). The satellite data collected soon after the Harvey flooding event were downloaded and processed using the ERDAS image processing software. The flood plain areas surrounding the Brazos River, Buffalo Bayou and the Addicks Barker reservoirs showed severe inundation. The different watershed areas affected by the catastrophic flooding in the wake of Hurricane Harvey were mapped and compared with the pre flooding event.

  17. Combined VLF and VHF lightning observations of Hurricane Rita landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. G.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Wiens, K. C.; Hamlin, T.; Jeffery, C. A.; Orville, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Hurricane Rita displayed abundant lightning in its northern eyewall as it made landfall at 0740 UTC 24 Sep 2005 near the Texas/Louisiana border. For this work, we combined VHF and VLF lightning data from Hurricane Rita, along with radar observations from Gulf Coast WSR-88D stations, for the purpose of demonstrating the combined utility of these two spectral regions for hurricane lightning monitoring. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. As Rita approached the Gulf coast, the VHF lightning emissions were distinctly periodic with a period of 1.5 to 2 hours, which is consistent with the rotational period of hurricanes. VLF lightning emissions, measured by LASA and NLDN, were present in some of these VHF bursts but not all of them. At landfall, there was a significant increase in lightning emissions, accompanied by a significant convective surge observed in radar. Furthermore, VLF and VHF lightning source heights clearly increase as a function of time. The evolution of the IC/CG ratio is consistent with that seen in thunderstorms, showing a dominance of IC activity during storm development, followed by an increase in CG activity at the storm’s peak. The periodic VHF lightning events are correlated with increases in convective growth (quantified by the volume of radar echo >40 dB) above 7 km altitude. VLF can discriminate between lightning types, and in the LASA data, Rita landfall lightning activity was dominated by Narrow Bi-polar Events (NBEs)—high-energy, high-altitude, compact intra-cloud discharges. The opportunity to locate NBE lightning sources in altitude may be particularly useful in quantifying the vertical extent (strength) of the convective development and in possibly deducing vertical charge distributions.

  18. A Climatological Study of Hurricane Force Extratropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Laiyemo, Razaak O.

    2012-01-01

    Using data compiled by the National Weather Service Ocean Prediction Center, a hurricane force extratropical cyclone climatology is created for three cold seasons. Using the criteria of Sanders and Gyakum (1980), it is found that 75% of the 259 storms explosively deepened. The frequency maximum in the Atlantic basin is located to the southeast of Greenland. In the Pacific, two maxima to the east of Japan are identified. These results are in good agreement with previous studies, despite differ...

  19. Hurricane Agnes rainfall and floods, June-July 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James F.; Patterson, James Lee; Paulhus, Joseph Louis Hornore

    1975-01-01

    Hurricane Agnes originated in the Caribbean Sea region in mid-June. Circulation barely reached hurricane intensity for a brief period in the Gulf of Mexico. The storm crossed the Florida Panhandle coastline on June 19, 1972, and followed an unusually extended overland trajectory combining with an extratropical system to bring very heavy rain from the Carolinas northward to New York. This torrential rain followed the abnormally wet May weather in the Middle Atlantic States and set the stage for the subsequent major flooding. The record-breaking floods occurred in the Middle Atlantic States in late June and early July 1972. Many streams in the affected area experienced peak discharges several times the previous maxima of record. Estimated recurrence intervals of peak flows at many gaging stations on major rivers and their tributaries exceeded 100 years. The suspended-sediment concentration and load of most flooded streams were also unusually high. The widespread flooding from this storm caused Agnes to be called the most destructive hurricane in United States history, claiming 117 lives and causing damage estimated at $3.1 billion in 12 States. Damage was particularly high in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. The detailed life history of Hurricane Agnes, including the tropical depression and tropical storm stages, is traced. Associated rainfalls are analyzed and compared with climatologic recurrence values. These are followed by a detailed description of the flood and streamflows of each affected basin. A summary of peak stages and discharges and comparison data for previous floods at 989 stations are presented. Deaths and flood damage estimates are compiled.

  20. Estimating the spatial distribution of power outages during hurricanes in the Gulf coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.-R.; Guikema, Seth D.; Quiring, Steven M.; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Rosowsky, David; Davidson, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the US, and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing power outage risk and preparing for post-storm recovery efforts requires accurate methods for estimating the number and location of power outages. This paper builds on past work on statistical power outage estimation models to develop, test, and demonstrate a statistical power outage risk estimation model for the Gulf Coast region of the US. Previous work used binary hurricane-indicator variables representing particular hurricanes in order to achieve a good fit to the past data. To use these models for predicting power outages during future hurricanes, one must implicitly assume that an approaching hurricane is similar to the average of the past hurricanes. The model developed in this paper replaces these indicator variables with physically measurable variables, enabling future predictions to be based on only well-understood characteristics of hurricanes. The models were developed using data about power outages during nine hurricanes in three states served by a large, investor-owned utility company in the Gulf Coast region

  1. Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bea, Keith; Halchin, Elaine; Hogue, Henry; Kaiser, Frederick; Love, Natalie; McCarthy, Francis X; Reese, Shawn; Schwemle, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    ...), among others, concluded that the losses caused by Hurricane Katrina and other disasters were due, in part, to deficiencies such as questionable leadership decisions and capabilities, organizational...

  2. A Pilot Study of Post-Hurricane Katrina Floodwater Pumping on Marsh Infauna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    ... and consequences of structural failures to the New Orleans area following Hurricane Katrina. This evaluation includes determining environmental impacts to habitat and other biological resources...

  3. Hurricane Havoc - Mapping the Mayhem with NOAA's National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, G. R.; Stone, M.

    2017-12-01

    With Hurricane Irene as an example, this work demonstrates the versatility of NOAA's new National Water Model (NWM) as a tool for analyzing hydrologic hazards before, during, and after events. Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina on August 27, 2011, and made its way up the East Coast over the next 3 days. This storm caused widespread flooding across the Northeast, where rain totals over 20" and wind speeds of 100mph were recorded, causing loss of life and significant damage to infrastructure. Large portions of New York and Vermont were some of the hardest hit areas. This poster will present a suite of post-processed products, derived from NWM output, that are currently being developed at NOAA's National Water Center in Tuscaloosa, AL. The National Water Model is allowing NOAA to expand its water prediction services to the approximately 2.7 million stream reaches across the U.S. The series of forecasted and real-time analysis products presented in this poster will demonstrate the strides NOAA is taking to increase preparedness and aid response to severe hydrologic events, like Hurricane Irene.

  4. Simulating the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) with AIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Braun, Scott A.; Qu, John J.; Hao, Xianjun

    2006-02-01

    Using the AIRS retrieved temperature and humidity profiles, the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) influence on the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) is simulated numerically with the MM5 model. The warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is assimilated by use of the nudging technique, which enables the model thermodynamic state to be relaxed to the profiles of the AIRS retrieved data for the regions without cloud contamination. By incorporating the AIRS data, MM5 better simulates the large-scale flow patterns and the timing and location of the formation of Hurricane Isabel and its subsequent track. By comparing with an experiment without nudging of the AIRS data, it is shown that the SAL may have delayed the formation of Hurricane Isabel and inhibited the development of another tropical disturbance to the east. This case study confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  5. Emergency Response Imagery Related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, A. V.; Madore, B.; Imahori, G.; Woolard, J.; Sellars, J.; Halbach, A.; Helmricks, D.; Quarrick, J.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Remote Sensing Division acquired and rapidly disseminated emergency response imagery related to the three recent hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Aerial imagery was collected using a Trimble Digital Sensor System, a high-resolution digital camera, by means of NOAA's King Air 350ER and DeHavilland Twin Otter (DHC-6) Aircraft. The emergency response images are used to assess the before and after effects of the hurricanes' damage. The imagery aids emergency responders, such as FEMA, Coast Guard, and other state and local governments, in developing recovery strategies and efforts by prioritizing areas most affected and distributing appropriate resources. Collected imagery is also used to provide damage assessment for use in long-term recovery and rebuilding efforts. Additionally, the imagery allows for those evacuated persons to see images of their homes and neighborhoods remotely. Each of the individual images are processed through ortho-rectification and merged into a uniform mosaic image. These remotely sensed datasets are publically available, and often used by web-based map servers as well as, federal, state, and local government agencies. This poster will show the imagery collected for these three hurricanes and the processes involved in getting data quickly into the hands of those that need it most.

  6. Bibliographic work of Ivan Franjo Jukić and the end of cultural history. Bibliographies as a source for the history of books and cultural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Harni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bosnian Franciscan Ivan Franjo Jukić (1818-1857 died a hundred and fifty years ago. He was one of the most prominent figures in the 19th century cultural life of Bosnia and Herzegovina, credited with the development of a wide-ranging set of aspects of cultural life in Bosnia and Herzegovina, organised in the unpropitious conditions of the Turkish occupation. Among other things, he studied the non-religious cultural history of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, in particular, the literary work of his Franciscan predecessors who were active in pastoral work for many years on the entire Croatian cultural territory and, in some periods, outside this territory. Preaching in the tongue of the people, they contributed greatly to the standardisation of the Croatian language and to the development and use of bosanica as a specific form of the Croatian Cyrillic script. Jukić was one of the first, if not the first Croatian student of this script. The study of bosanica was an inspiration to him to collect and bibliographically describe books written in this script and, also, books written in the Latin script. Thus emerged the core of his text, Bosnian Literature, which is in fact a general bibliography of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was the first book to set as a criterion the secular and not the religious borders of Bosnia. The text was published in two installments in the first literary journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosanski prijatelj, started and edited by Jukić. The paper is to commemorate the anniversary of his death. It provides an insight into the results of the bibliographic, cultural and historic study of Jukić’s text. The bibliographic study focuses on the bibliographic structure, bibliographic descriptions and on the criteria applied in the selection of the material. The bibliographic features are analysed as part of the cultural and historic context, in the synchronic and diachronic sense of the word. The method applied in the contextualised

  7. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Post-Hurricane Katrina Floodwater Pumping on the Chemistry and Toxicity of Violet Marsh Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suedel, Burton C; Steevens, Jeffery A; Splichal, David E

    2006-01-01

    The Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force (IPET) is investigating the environmental impacts of the future of the hurricane protection system around New Orleans, Louisiana, during Hurricane Katrina...

  8. Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography

  9. 'Struck; in the midst of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhm, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    . The effects of these critical events upon the incident commanders are analysed in dialogical sessions. The dialogical sessions reveal vulnerability when critical events affect them cognitively, but especially when affected emotionally and physically. Acknowledging and understanding the effect......This paper investigates micro-sociological events which affect the construction and negotiation of sense in the handling of emergency situations. Through participatory observation and action-cameras attached to fire brigade incident commanders, critical events are identified and condensed...

  10. Struck by a lance through his side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Boldsen, Jesper Lier

    2010-01-01

    The Danish King Canute the Saint was killed in St Alban church in Odense July 1086. According to a legend the king was kneeling in prayers when a lance thrust to his side killed him. Our re-examination of the skeleton presumed to belong to Canute showed a slimly build man with an approximate stat...

  11. Using data envelopment analysis to evaluate the performance of post-hurricane electric power restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Allison C.; Davidson, Rachel A.; Nozick, Linda K.; Chen, Thomas; Guikema, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Post-hurricane restoration of electric power is attracting increasing scrutiny as customers’ tolerance for even short power interruptions decreases. At the peak, 8.5 million customers were without power after Hurricane Sandy and over 1 million customers were without power more than a week after the storm made landfall. Currently, restoration processes are typically evaluated on a case-by-case basis by a regional public service commission or similar body and lack systematic comparisons to other restoration experiences. This paper introduces a framework using data envelopment analysis to help evaluate post-hurricane restorations through comparison with the experiences of other companies in similar storms. The method accounts for the variable severity of the hurricanes themselves, so that companies are not penalized for outages that are long only because the hurricane that caused them was particularly severe. The analysis is illustrated through an application comparing 27 recent post-hurricane restoration experiences across 13 different electric power companies in the United States. The results of the study show some consistency in performance among individual utilities after the hurricanes they experience. The method could be applied to other types of infrastructure systems and other extreme events as well. - Highlights: • A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is developed to compare post- hurricane power-outage restoration performance. • Hurricane severity is considered, so that utilities are not penalized for long outages caused by severe storms. • A case study using real data compares 27 recent post-hurricane restoration experiences. • The results of the study show utilities tend to perform consistently after the hurricanes they experience.

  12. A tool for rapid post-hurricane urban tree debris estimates using high resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltan Szantoi; Sparkle L Malone; Francisco Escobedo; Orlando Misas; Scot Smith; Bon Dewitt

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities in the southeast United States have regularly experienced severe hurricane impacts. To better facilitate recovery efforts in these communities following natural disasters, state and federal agencies must respond quickly with information regarding the extent and severity of hurricane damage and the amount of tree debris volume. A tool was developed...

  13. Non-arborescent vegetation trajectories following repeated hurricane disturbance: ephemeral versus enduring responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Tamara Heartsill-Scalley; Samuel Moya; Fred N. Scatena

    2011-01-01

    Hurricanes strongly influence short-term patterns of plant community structure, composition, and abundance and are a major contributor to the maintenance of plant diversity in many forests. Although much research has focused on the immediate and long-term effects of hurricane disturbance on tree diversity, far less attention has been devoted to the non-arborescent...

  14. Geospatial relationships of tree species damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in south Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Garrigues; Zhaofei Fan; David L. Evans; Scott D. Roberts; William H. Cooke III

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina generated substantial impacts on the forests and biological resources of the affected area in Mississippi. This study seeks to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to determine which variables are significant in predicting hurricane damage (shear or windthrow) in the Southeast Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory District. Logistic regressions...

  15. Predicting the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association claim payout of commercial buildings from Hurricane Ike

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J. M.; Woods, P. K.; Park, Y. J.; Son, K.

    2013-01-01

    Following growing public awareness of the danger from hurricanes and tremendous demands for analysis of loss, many researchers have conducted studies to develop hurricane damage analysis methods. Although researchers have identified the significant indicators, there currently is no comprehensive research for identifying the relationship among the vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and economic losses associated with individual bu...

  16. How Disasters Affect Local Labor Markets: The Effects of Hurricanes in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasen, Ariel R.; Polachek, Solomon W.

    2009-01-01

    This study improves upon the Difference in Difference approach by examining exogenous shocks using a Generalized Difference in Difference (GDD) technique that identifies economic effects of hurricanes. Based on the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data, worker earnings in Florida counties hit by a hurricane increase up to 4 percent,…

  17. Hurricanes, Coral Reefs and Rainforests: Resistance, Ruin and Recovery in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; C. S. Rogers; S. W Nixon

    2000-01-01

    The coexistence of hurricanes, coral reefs, and rainforests in the Caribbean demonstrates that highly structured ecosystems with great diversity can flourish in spite of recurring exposure to intense destructive energy. Coral reefs develop in response to wave energy and resist hurricanes largely by virtue of their structural strength. Limited fetch also protects some...

  18. Lessons from Crisis Recovery in Schools: How Hurricanes Impacted Schools, Families and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, Holly; Curtis, Nikki; Landry, Shauna; Farmer, Kara; Kroll, Tobias; Douglass, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This article examines school and school district-level efforts to reopen schools after significant damage from hurricanes. Through an empirical, qualitative research design, four themes emerged as critical to the hurricane recovery process: the importance of communication, resolving tension, coordinating with other services and learning from the…

  19. Predicting the Texas Windstorm Insurance Association claim payout of commercial buildings from Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. M.; Woods, P. K.; Park, Y. J.; Son, K.

    2013-08-01

    Following growing public awareness of the danger from hurricanes and tremendous demands for analysis of loss, many researchers have conducted studies to develop hurricane damage analysis methods. Although researchers have identified the significant indicators, there currently is no comprehensive research for identifying the relationship among the vulnerabilities, natural disasters, and economic losses associated with individual buildings. To address this lack of research, this study will identify vulnerabilities and hurricane indicators, develop metrics to measure the influence of economic losses from hurricanes, and visualize the spatial distribution of vulnerability to evaluate overall hurricane damage. This paper has utilized the Geographic Information System to facilitate collecting and managing data, and has combined vulnerability factors to assess the financial losses suffered by Texas coastal counties. A multiple linear regression method has been applied to develop hurricane economic damage predicting models. To reflect the pecuniary loss, insured loss payment was used as the dependent variable to predict the actual financial damage. Geographical vulnerability indicators, built environment vulnerability indicators, and hurricane indicators were all used as independent variables. Accordingly, the models and findings may possibly provide vital references for government agencies, emergency planners, and insurance companies hoping to predict hurricane damage.

  20. Divergent responses of leaf herbivory to simulated hurricane effects in a rainforest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelse Prather

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are major disturbances in many forests, but studies showing effects of natural hurricanes on herbivory rates have yielded mixed results. Forest managers could benefit from a better understanding of the effects of disturbances on herbivory to manage for particular recovery or restoration goals after anthropogenic or natural disturbances, such as logging and...

  1. Just-in-Time Training: The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina, 10 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina reshaped college workforce development programs as thoroughly as it did the coastline--but in this case, the changes were for the good of students, employers and the community. This article discusses the effects and changes made by 4 community colleges who were effected by Hurricane Katrina: (1) Louisiana Community and Technical…

  2. A chronology of hurricane landfalls at Little Sippewissett Marsh, Massachusetts, USA, using optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Duller, G.A.T.; Donnelly, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Optical dating has been applied to sediments preserved in Little Sippewissett Marsh, Massachusetts, USA, which are associated with overwashing of the beach barrier during hurricane strikes on the coast. The aims were to determine the hurricane landfall frequency, and make comparisons with indepen...

  3. Sleep disturbance and its relationship to psychiatric morbidity after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, T A; David, D; Kulick-Bell, R; Hebding, J; Nolan, B

    1995-11-01

    Sleep disturbance is an important dimension of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but most of the limited available data were obtained years after the original traumatic event. This study provides information on sleep disturbance and its relationship to posttraumatic morbidity from evaluations done within a year after the trauma. Sleep and psychiatric symptoms of 54 victims (12 men and 42 women) of Hurricane Andrew who had no psychiatric illness in the 6 months before the hurricane were evaluated. A subset of hurricane victims with active psychiatric morbidity (N = 10) and nine comparison subjects who were unaffected by the hurricane were examined in a sleep laboratory. A broad range of sleep-related complaints were rated as being greater after the hurricane, and psychiatric morbidity (which was most commonly PTSD, followed by depression) had a significant effect on most of the subjective sleep measures. In addition, subjects with active morbidity endorsed greater frequencies of "bad dreams" and general sleep disturbances before the hurricane. Polysomnographic results for the hurricane victims revealed a greater number of arousals and entries into stage 1 sleep. REM density correlated positively with both the PTSD symptom of reexperiencing trauma and global distress. Subjects affected by Hurricane Andrew reported sleep disturbances, particularly those subjects with psychiatric morbidity. Tendencies to experience bad dreams and interrupted sleep before a trauma appear to mark vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity. Results of sleep laboratory evaluations suggested brief shifts toward higher arousal levels during sleep for PTSD subjects and a relationship of REM phasic activity and symptom severity.

  4. Predicting Mothers' Reports of Children's Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Godoy, Leandra; Rhodes, Jean E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time…

  5. An Organic Molecular Approach towards the Reconstruction of Past Hurricane Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J. M.; van Soelen, E.; Liebrand, D.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between global warming and hurricane activity is the focus of considerable interest and intensive research. The available instrumental record, however, is still too short to document and understand the long term climatic controls on hurricane generation. Only by extending the

  6. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  7. How Schools Responded to Student Mental Health Needs Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a study that examined how schools in the U.S. Gulf Coast region perceived the mental health needs of students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and how schools responded. According to the report, despite strong initial efforts to support the mental health needs of students displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, many…

  8. NOAA predicts near-normal or below-normal 2014 Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Related link: Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season Outlook Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO ) Diagnostic Discussion National Hurricane Preparedness Week FEMA Media Contact Maureen O'Leary 301-427-9000 tips, along with video and audio public service announcements in both English and Spanish, featuring

  9. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer Wind Speed and Rain Rate Retrievals during the 2010 GRIP Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Saleem; Farrar, Spencer; Johnson, James; Jones, W. Linwood; Roberts, Jason; Biswas, Sayak; Cecil, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing observations of hurricanes, from NOAA and USAF hurricane surveillance aircraft, provide vital data for hurricane research and operations, for forecasting the intensity and track of tropical storms. The current operational standard for hurricane wind speed and rain rate measurements is the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is a nadir viewing passive microwave airborne remote sensor. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, HIRAD, will extend the nadir viewing SFMR capability to provide wide swath images of wind speed and rain rate, while flying on a high altitude aircraft. HIRAD was first flown in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes, GRIP, NASA hurricane field experiment in 2010. This paper reports on geophysical retrieval results and provides hurricane images from GRIP flights. An overview of the HIRAD instrument and the radiative transfer theory based, wind speed/rain rate retrieval algorithm is included. Results are presented for hurricane wind speed and rain rate for Earl and Karl, with comparison to collocated SFMR retrievals and WP3D Fuselage Radar images for validation purposes.

  10. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the

  11. Retrieving hurricane wind speeds using cross-polarization C-band measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zadelhoff, G.J.; Stoffelen, A.; Vachon, P.W.; Wolfe, J.; Horstmann, J.; Belmonte Rivas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane-force wind speeds can have a large societal impact and in this paper microwave C-band cross-polarized (VH) signals are investigated to assess if they can be used to derive extreme wind-speed conditions. European satellite scatterometers have excellent hurricane penetration capability at

  12. Caribbean Brain coral tracks the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Past Hurricane Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetzinger, S.; Pfeiffer, M.; Dullo, W.-C.; Keenlyside, N.; Latif, M.; Zinke, J.

    2008-01-01

    It is highly debated whether global warming contributed to the strong hurricane activity observed during the last decade. The crux of the recent debate is the limited length of the reliable instrumental record that exacerbates the detection of possible long-term changes in hurricane activity, which

  13. Hurricane recovery at Cabezas de San Juan, Puerto Rico, and research opportunities at Conservation Trust Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver; Elizabeth Padilla Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    The Cabezas de San Juan Natural Reserve (El Faro), an exposed peninsular area located in the Subtropical dry forest of northeastern Puerto Rico, was impacted by hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Georges (1998). From 1998 to 2008, a 0.10 ha plot was used to assess forest structure, species composition, and stem growth. During post-hurricane recovery, stem density, tree height...

  14. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  15. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances

  16. The Psychological Impact from Hurricane Katrina: Effects of Displacement and Trauma Exposure on University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…

  17. Initial estimates of hurricane Katrina impacts of Mississippi gulf coast forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Glass; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pummeled the Gulf Coast of Mississippi on August 29, 2005. The eye wall of the storm passed directly over Hancock and Pearl River Counties. Harrison, Jackson, Stone, and George Counties on the windward side of the hurricane's path sustained severe damage before the storm's strength dissipated as it moved farther inland (fig. 1).

  18. Hurricane-related emergency department visits in an inland area: an analysis of the public health impact of Hurricane Hugo in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, R D; Morris, P D; Cole, T B

    1994-04-01

    To evaluate the public health impact of a hurricane on an inland area. Descriptive study. Seven hospital emergency departments. Patients who were treated from September 22 to October 6, 1989, for an injury or illness related to Hurricane Hugo. None. Over the two-week study period, 2,090 patients were treated for injuries or illnesses related to the hurricane. Of these, 1,833 (88%) were treated for injuries. Insect stings and wounds accounted for almost half of the total cases. A substantial proportion (26%) of the patients suffering from stings had a generalized reaction (eg, hives, wheezing, or both). Nearly one-third of the wounds were caused by chain saws. Hurricanes can lead to substantial morbidity in an inland area. Disaster plans should address risks associated with stinging insects and hazardous equipment and should address ways to improve case reporting.

  19. Geologic hazards in the region of the Hurricane fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Complex geology and variable topography along the 250-kilometer-long Hurricane fault in northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah combine to create natural conditions that can present a potential danger to life and property. Geologic hazards are of particular concern in southwestern Utah, where the St. George Basin and Interstate-15 corridor north to Cedar City are one of Utah's fastest growing areas. Lying directly west of the Hurricane fault and within the Basin and Range - Colorado Plateau transition zone, this region exhibits geologic characteristics of both physiographic provinces. Long, potentially active, normal-slip faults displace a generally continuous stratigraphic section of mostly east-dipping late Paleozoic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlain by Tertiary to Holocene sedimentary and igneous rocks and unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Geologic hazards (exclusive of earthquake hazards) of principal concern in the region include problem soil and rock, landslides, shallow ground water, and flooding. Geologic materials susceptible to volumetric change, collapse, and subsidence in southwestern Utah include; expansive soil and rock, collapse-prone soil, gypsum and gypsiferous soil, soluble carbonate rocks, and soil and rock subject to piping and other ground collapse. Expansive soil and rock are widespread throughout the region. The Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation is especially prone to large volume changes with variations in moisture content. Collapse-prone soils are common in areas of Cedar City underlain by alluvial-fan material derived from the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations in the nearby Hurricane Cliffs. Gypsiferous soil and rock are subject to dissolution which can damage foundations and create sinkholes. The principal formations in the region affected by dissolution of carbonate are the Kaibab and Toroweap Formations; both formations have developed sinkholes where crossed by perennial streams. Soil piping is

  20. Investigation of the relationship between hurricane waves and extreme runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    In addition to storm surge, the elevation of wave-induced runup plays a significant role in forcing geomorphic change during extreme storms. Empirical formulations for extreme runup, defined as the 2% exceedence level, are dependent on some measure of significant offshore wave height. Accurate prediction of extreme runup, particularly during hurricanes when wave heights are large, depends on selecting the most appropriate measure of wave height that provides energy to the nearshore system. Using measurements from deep-water wave buoys results in an overprediction of runup elevation. Under storm forcing these large waves dissipate across the shelf through friction, whitecapping and depth-limited breaking before reaching the beach and forcing swash processes. The use of a local, shallow water wave height has been shown to provide a more accurate estimate of extreme runup elevation (Stockdon, et. al. 2006); however, a specific definition of this local wave height has yet to be defined. Using observations of nearshore waves from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC during Hurricane Isabel, the most relevant measure of wave height for use in empirical runup parameterizations was examined. Spatial and temporal variability of the hurricane wave field, which made landfall on September 18, 2003, were modeled using SWAN. Comparisons with wave data from FRF gages and deep-water buoys operated by NOAA's National Data Buoy Center were used for model calibration. Various measures of local wave height (breaking, dissipation-based, etc.) were extracted from the model domain and used as input to the runup parameterizations. Video based observations of runup collected at the FRF during the storm were used to ground truth modeled values. Assessment of the most appropriate measure of wave height can be extended over a large area through comparisons to observations of storm- induced geomorphic change.

  1. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  2. Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harville Emily W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR. Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.08–2.89 and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52. Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.

  3. The Impact of Microphysical Schemes on Hurricane Intensity and Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn Jong; Chen, Shuyi S.; Lang, Stephen; Lin, Pay-Liam; Hong, Song-You; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models [e.g. the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF)] have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. WRF is a next-generation meso-scale forecast model and assimilation system. It incorporates a modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numerics and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. WRF can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options. At NASA Goddard, four different cloud microphysics options have been implemented into WRF. The performance of these schemes is compared to those of the other microphysics schemes available in WRF for an Atlantic hurricane case (Katrina). In addition, a brief review of previous modeling studies on the impact of microphysics schemes and processes on the intensity and track of hurricanes is presented and compared against the current Katrina study. In general, all of the studies show that microphysics schemes do not have a major impact on track forecasts but do have more of an effect on the simulated intensity. Also, nearly all of the previous studies found that simulated hurricanes had the strongest deepening or intensification when using only warm rain physics. This is because all of the simulated precipitating hydrometeors are large raindrops that quickly fall out near the eye-wall region, which would hydrostatically produce the lowest pressure. In addition, these studies suggested that intensities become unrealistically strong when evaporative cooling from cloud droplets and melting from ice particles are removed as this results in much weaker downdrafts in the simulated

  4. Polarimetric Radar Retrievals in Southeast Texas During Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Marks, D. A.; Pippitt, J. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey hit the Texas Gulf Coast as a major hurricane on August 25, 2017 before exiting the state as a tropical storm on September 1, 2017. In its wake, it left a flood of historic proportions, with some areas measuring 60 inches of rain over a five-day period. Although the storm center stayed west of the immediate Houston area training bands of precipitation impacted the Houston area for five full days. The National Weather Service (NWS) WSR88D dual-polarimetric radar (KHGX), located southeast of Houston, maintained operations for the entirety of the event. The Harris County Flood Warning System (HCFWS) had 150 rain gauges deployed in its network and seven NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) rain gauges are also located in the area. In this study, we used the full radar data set to retrieve daily and event-total precipitation estimates within 120 km of the KHGX radar for the period August 25-29, 2017. These estimates were then compared to the HCFWS and ASOS gauges. Three different polarimetric hybrid rainfall retrievals were used: Ciffeli et al. 2011; Bringi et al. 2004; and, Chen et al. 2017. Each of these hybrid retrievals have demonstrated robust performance in the past. However, both daily and event-total comparisons from each of these retrievals compared to those of HCFWS and ASOS rain gauge networks resulted in significant underestimates by the radar retrievals. These radar underestimates are concerning. Sources of error and variance will be investigated to understand the source of radar-gauge disagreement. One current hypothesis is that due to the large number of small drops often found in hurricanes, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase are relatively small so that the hybrid algorithms use only the reflectivity/rain rate procedure (so called Z-R relationships), and hence rarely invoke the ZDR or KDP procedures. Thus, an alternative Z-R relationship must be invoked to retrieve accurate rain rate estimates.

  5. Dependence of US hurricane economic loss on maximum wind speed and storm size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Alice R; Jiang, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical hurricane economic loss models consider only wind speed and neglect storm size. These models may be inadequate in accurately predicting the losses of super-sized storms, such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In this study, we examined the dependences of normalized US hurricane loss on both wind speed and storm size for 73 tropical cyclones that made landfall in the US from 1988 through 2012. A multi-variate least squares regression is used to construct a hurricane loss model using both wind speed and size as predictors. Using maximum wind speed and size together captures more variance of losses than using wind speed or size alone. It is found that normalized hurricane loss (L) approximately follows a power law relation with maximum wind speed (V max ) and size (R), L = 10 c V max a R b , with c determining an overall scaling factor and the exponents a and b generally ranging between 4–12 and 2–4 respectively. Both a and b tend to increase with stronger wind speed. Hurricane Sandy’s size was about three times of the average size of all hurricanes analyzed. Based on the bi-variate regression model that explains the most variance for hurricanes, Hurricane Sandy’s loss would be approximately 20 times smaller if its size were of the average size with maximum wind speed unchanged. It is important to revise conventional empirical hurricane loss models that are only dependent on maximum wind speed to include both maximum wind speed and size as predictors. (letters)

  6. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  7. Building infrastructure to prevent disasters like Hurricane Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Phuong, J.; Mooney, S.; Stephens, K.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Pieper, K.; Rhoads, W.; Edwards, M.; Pruden, A.; Bales, J.; Clark, E.; Brazil, L.; Leon, M.; McDowell, W. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Jones, A. S.; Hutton, E.; Tucker, G. E.; McCready, L.; Peckham, S. D.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Idaszak, R.

    2017-12-01

    2000 words Recovery efforts from natural disasters can be more efficient with data-driven information on current needs and future risks. We aim to advance open-source software infrastructure to support scientific investigation and data-driven decision making with a prototype system using a water quality assessment developed to investigate post-Hurricane Maria drinking water contamination in Puerto Rico. The widespread disruption of water treatment processes and uncertain drinking water quality within distribution systems in Puerto Rico poses risk to human health. However, there is no existing digital infrastructure to scientifically determine the impacts of the hurricane. After every natural disaster, it is difficult to answer elementary questions on how to provide high quality water supplies and health services. This project will archive and make accessible data on environmental variables unique to Puerto Rico, damage caused by Hurricane Maria, and will begin to address time sensitive needs of citizens. The initial focus is to work directly with public utilities to collect and archive samples of biological and inorganic drinking water quality. Our goal is to advance understanding of how the severity of a hazard to human health (e.g., no access to safe culinary water) is related to the sophistication, connectivity, and operations of the physical and related digital infrastructure systems. By rapidly collecting data in the early stages of recovery, we will test the design of an integrated cyberinfrastructure system to for usability of environmental and health data to understand the impacts from natural disasters. We will test and stress the CUAHSI HydroShare data publication mechanisms and capabilities to (1) assess the spatial and temporal presence of waterborne pathogens in public water systems impacted by a natural disaster, (2) demonstrate usability of HydroShare as a clearinghouse to centralize selected datasets related to Hurricane Maria, and (3) develop a

  8. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-04-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males (70 %) and people over 50 years old (56 %) were overrepresented in the dataset. More than half of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area (n = 37), where heavy rainfall and dam releases caused unprecedented urban flooding. The majority of fatalities were recovered outside the designated 100- and 500-year flood hazard areas.

  9. Attribution of extreme rainfall from Hurricane Harvey, August 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Van Der Wiel, Karin; Sebastian, A.G.; Singh, Roop; Arrighi, Julie; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; Li, Sihan; Vecchi, Gabriel; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    During August 25-30, 2017, Hurricane Harvey stalled over Texas and caused extreme precipitation, particularly over Houston and the surrounding area on August 26-28. This resulted in extensive flooding with over 80 fatalities and large economic costs. It was an extremely rare event: the return period of the highest observed three-day precipitation amount, 1043.4 mm 3dy-1 at Baytown, is more than 9000 years (97.5% one-sided confidence interval) and return periods exceeded 1000 yr (750 mm 3dy-1)...

  10. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed......The hurricanes can be detected by many remote sensors, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can yield high-resolution (sub-kilometer) and low-level wind information that cannot be seen below the cloud by other sensors. In this paper, an assessment of SAR capability of monitoring high...

  11. Geotechnical Impacts of Hurricane Harvey Along the Texas, USA Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegan, S. M.; Stark, N.; Jafari, N.; Ravichandran, N.; Shafii, I.; Bassal, P.; Figlus, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association response to Hurricane Harvey, a team of engineers and scientists mobilized to the coastal cities of Texas, USA from 1 to 5 September 2017. Damage to coastal and riverine structures due to erosion by storm surge, waves, and coastal and riverine flooding was assessed in a wide coastal zone between Corpus Christi and Galveston. Making initial landfall near Rockport, Texas on 26 August 2017, Hurricane Harvey was classified as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with wind speeds exceeding 130 mph and an atmospheric pressure of 938 mbar. The storm stalled over the Houston area, pouring 40 inches of rain on an area encompassing more than 3,000 square miles. Hurricane Harvey, which remained a named storm for 117 hours after initial landfall, slowly moved east into the Gulf of Mexico and made final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana on 30 August. The GEER team surveyed sixteen main sites, extending from Mustang Island in the southwest to Galveston in the northeast and as far inland as Rosenburg. In Port Aransas, beach erosion and undercutting along a beach access road near Aransas Pass were observed. Due to several tide gauge failures in this area, the nearest NOAA tide gauge (#8775870 near Corpus Christi) was used to estimate water levels of 1.35 m, approximately 1.0 m above the predicted tide. In Holiday Beach, anchored retaining walls were inundated, causing backside scour along the entire length and exposing the sheetpile wall anchors. Along the Colorado River at the Highway 35 bridge near Bay City, active riverbank failure was observed and a sheet pile wall was found collapsed. Significant sediment deposits lined the vegetated riverbanks. A USGS stream gage recorded gage heights greater than 45 ft, exceeding the flood stage of 44 ft. Fronting a rubblemound seawall in Surfside Beach, a runnel and ridge formation was observed. Nearby at San Luis Pass, infilled scour

  12. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation

  13. Significant Wave Height under Hurricane Irma derived from SAR Sentinel-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S.; Pleskachevsky, A.; Soloviev, A.; Fujimura, A.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was with three major hurricanes a particular active one. The Category 4 hurricane Irma made landfall on the Florida Keys on September 10th 2017 and was imaged several times by ESAs Sentinel-1 satellites in C-band and the TerraSAR-X satellite in X-band. The high resolution TerraSAR-X imagery showed the footprint of individual tornadoes on the sea surface together with their turbulent wake imaged as a dark line due to increased turbulence. The water-cloud structures of the tornadoes are analyzed and their sea surface structure is compared to optical and IR cloud imagery. An estimate of the wind field using standard XMOD algorithms is provided, although saturating under the strong rain and high wind speed conditions. Imaging the hurricanes by space radar gives the opportunity to observe the sea surface and thus measure the wind field and the sea state under hurricane conditions through the clouds even in this severe weather, although rain features, which are usually not observed in SAR become visible due to damping effects. The Copernicus Sentinel-1 A and B satellites, which are operating in C-band provided several images of the sea surface under hurricane Irma, Jose and Maria. The data were acquired daily and converted into measurements of sea surface wind field u10 and significant wave height Hs over a swath width of 280km about 1000 km along the orbit. The wind field of the hurricanes as derived by CMOD is provided by NOAA operationally on their web server. In the hurricane cases though the wind speed saturates at 20 m/sec and is thus too low in the area of hurricane wind speed. The technique to derive significant wave height is new though and does not show any calibration issues. This technique provides for the first time measurements of the areal coverage and distribution of the ocean wave height as caused by a hurricane on SAR wide swath images. Wave heights up to 10 m were measured under the forward quadrant of the hurricane

  14. Science and the storms: The USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, G. S.; Smith, G.J.; Crane, M.P.; Demas, C.R.; Robbins, L.L.; Lavoie, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    This report is designed to give a view of the immediate response of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to four major hurricanes of 2005: Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Some of this response took place days after the hurricanes; other responses included fieldwork and analysis through the spring. While hurricane science continues within the USGS, this overview of work following these hurricanes reveals how a Department of the Interior bureau quickly brought together a diverse array of its scientists and technologies to assess and analyze many hurricane effects. Topics vary from flooding and water quality to landscape and ecosystem impacts, from geotechnical reconnaissance to analyzing the collapse of bridges and estimating the volume of debris. Thus, the purpose of this report is to inform the American people of the USGS science that is available and ongoing in regard to hurricanes. It is the hope that such science will help inform the decisions of those citizens and officials tasked with coastal restoration and planning for future hurricanes. Chapter 1 is an essay establishing the need for science in building a resilient coast. The second chapter includes some hurricane facts that provide hurricane terminology, history, and maps of the four hurricanes’ paths. Chapters that follow give the scientific response of USGS to the storms. Both English and metric measurements are used in the articles in anticipation of both general and scientific audiences in the United States and elsewhere. Chapter 8 is a compilation of relevant ongoing and future hurricane work. The epilogue marks the 2-year anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. An index of authors follows the report to aid in finding articles that are cross-referenced within the report. In addition to performing the science needed to understand the effects of hurricanes, USGS employees helped in the rescue of citizens by boat and through technology by “geoaddressing” 911 calls after Katrina and Rita so that other

  15. Engineering education in the wake of hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marybeth

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living through hurricane Katrina and its aftermath and reflecting on these experiences from technical and non-technical standpoints has led me to reconsider my thoughts and philosophy on engineering education. I present three ideas regarding engineering education pedagogy that I believe will prepare future engineers for problem-solving in an increasingly complex world. They are (1 we must practice radical (to the root engineering, (2 we must illustrate connections between engineering and public policy, and (3 we will join the charge to find sustainable solutions to problems. Ideas for bringing each of these concepts into engineering curricula through methods such as case study, practicing broad information gathering and data interpretation, and other methods inside and outside the classroom, are discussed. I believe that the consequences of not considering the root issues of problems to be solved, and of not including policy and sustainability considerations when problems to be solved are framed will lead our profession toward well meaning but insufficient utility. Hurricane Katrina convinced me that we must do better as educators to prepare our students for engineering for a sustainable world.

  16. Quality Assurance After a Natural Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Collin; Hsu, Yanshen; Mendoza, Sandra; Osman, Iman; Ogilvie, Jennifer; Patel, Kepal; Moreira, Andre L

    2018-04-01

    Biospecimen quality can vary depending on many pre- and post-collection variables. In this study, we consider a natural disaster as a post-collection variable that may have compromised the quality of frozen tissue specimens. To investigate this possible link, we compared the quality of nucleic acids, the level of antigenicity, and the preservation of histology from frozen specimens collected before and after the power outage caused by Hurricane Sandy. To analyze nucleic acid quality, we extracted both DNA and RNA and performed capillary electrophoresis to compare the quality and concentrations of the nucleic acids. To compare antigenicity, frozen sections were cut and immunostained for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), a nuclear transcription protein commonly used as a diagnostic biomarker for multiple cancer types, including thyroid and lung cancers. Positive expression of TTF-1, as noted by homogenous nuclear staining, would demonstrate that the TTF-1 proteins could still bind antibodies and, therefore, that these proteins were not significantly degraded. Furthermore, representative frozen sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were also assessed qualitatively by a trained pathologist to examine any possible histologic aberrations. Due to the similar quality of the tissue samples collected before and after the storm, Hurricane Sandy had no discernable effect on the quality of frozen specimens, and these specimens exposed to the natural disaster are still valuable research tools.

  17. New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina: An Unnatural Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B.; Kelso, A.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by destruction in New Orleans following hurricane Katrina, we use a numerical model to explore how natural processes, economic development, hazard mitigation measures and policy decisions intertwine to produce long periods of quiescence punctuated by disasters of increasing magnitude. Physical, economic and policy dynamics are modeled on a grid representing the subsiding Mississippi Delta region surrounding New Orleans. Water flow and resulting sediment erosion and deposition are simulated in response to prescribed river floods and storms. Economic development operates on a limited number of commodities and services such as agricultural products, oil and chemical industries and port services, with investment and employment responding to both local conditions and global constraints. Development permitting, artificial levee construction and pumping are implemented by policy agents who weigh predicted economic benefits (tax revenue), mitigation costs and potential hazards. Economic risk is reduced by a combination of private insurance, federal flood insurance and disaster relief. With this model, we simulate the initiation and growth of New Orleans coupled with an increasing level of protection from a series of flooding events. Hazard mitigation filters out small magnitude events, but terrain and hydrological modifications amplify the impact of large events. In our model, "natural disasters" are the inevitable outcome of the mismatch between policy based on short-time-scale economic calculations and stochastic forcing by infrequent, high-magnitude flooding events. A comparison of the hazard mitigation response to river- and hurricane-induced flooding will be discussed. Supported by NSF Geology and Paleontology and the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

  18. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  19. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  20. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  1. The Impact of Microphysics on Intensity and Structure of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shi, Jainn; Lang, Steve; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, both research and operational numerical weather prediction models, e.g. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, have started using more complex microphysical schemes originally developed for high-resolution cloud resolving models (CRMs) with a 1-2 km or less horizontal resolutions. WFW is a next-generation mesoscale forecast model and assimilation system that has incorporated modern software framework, advanced dynamics, numeric and data assimilation techniques, a multiple moveable nesting capability, and improved physical packages. WFW model can be used for a wide range of applications, from idealized research to operational forecasting, with an emphasis on horizontal grid sizes in the range of 1-10 km. The current WRF includes several different microphysics options such as Lin et al. (1983), WSM 6-class and Thompson microphysics schemes. We have recently implemented three sophisticated cloud microphysics schemes into WRF. The cloud microphysics schemes have been extensively tested and applied for different mesoscale systems in different geographical locations. The performances of these schemes have been compared to those from other WRF microphysics options. We are performing sensitivity tests in using WW to examine the impact of six different cloud microphysical schemes on hurricane track, intensity and rainfall forecast. We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes @e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes.

  2. The Historical Context of the 2017 Hurricane Season's Ocean Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Akella, S.; Trenberth, K. E.; Lijing, C.; Abraham, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Public discussion of the unusually active 2017 North Atlantic Hurricane Season quickly focused on the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic. Some meteorologists characterized them as near-normal, while climate-focused voices tended to characterize them as warmer than average, placing them in the context of anthropogenic warming. Much of this divergence in views can be explained by the relatively recent, relatively warm baseline (1981-2010) used for daily SST information, such as provided by OISSTv2. Longer term records of SSTs, such as HadISST, HadSST, and ERSST only attempt to provide monthly averages, while tropical cyclones have lifetimes on the timescale of days. Further, hurricanes create a cold wake which can impact storm movement and intensity, as well as subsequent storms, but is gradually wiped out by the sun. This process is further complicated by the role of ocean heat content (OHC), an increase in which can mitigate the impact of upwelled water. Here we examine the statistical characteristics of daily SSTs and OHC during the satellite record, including their temporal autocorrelation, and use this information in conjunction with longer term monthly records to bound what we can and cannot confidently say about the longer term historical context of the storms Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

  3. Hurricane coastal flood analysis using multispectral spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogashawara, I.; Ferreira, C.; Curtarelli, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Flooding is one of the main hazards caused by extreme events such as hurricanes and tropical storms. Therefore, flood maps are a crucial tool to support policy makers, environmental managers and other government agencies for emergency management, disaster recovery and risk reduction planning. However traditional flood mapping methods rely heavily on the interpolation of hydrodynamic models results, and most recently, the extensive collection of field data. These methods are time-consuming, labor intensive, and costly. Efficient and fast response alternative methods should be developed in order to improve flood mapping, and remote sensing has been proved as a valuable tool for this application. Our goal in this paper is to introduce a novel technique based on spectral analysis in order to aggregate knowledge and information to map coastal flood areas. For this purpose we used the Normalized Diference Water Index (NDWI) which was derived from two the medium resolution LANDSAT/TM 5 surface reflectance product from the LANDSAT climate data record (CDR). This product is generated from specialized software called Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS). We used the surface reflectance products acquired before and after the passage of Hurricane Ike for East Texas in September of 2008. We used as end member a classification of estimated flooded area based on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm surge network that was deployed for Hurricane Ike. We used a dataset which consisted of 59 water levels recording stations. The estimated flooded area was delineated interpolating the maximum surge in each location using a spline with barriers method with high tension and a 30 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the National Elevation Dataset (NED). Our results showed that, in the flooded area, the NDWI values decreased after the hurricane landfall on average from 0.38 to 0.18 and the median value decreased from 0.36 to 0.2. However

  4. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  5. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen F.; Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews

  6. Hazardous substances releases associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in industrial settings, Louisiana and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)], E-mail: afp4@cdc.gov; Orr, Maureen F. [Division of Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lanier, Kenneth; Koehler, Allison [Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The scientific literature concerning the public health response to the unprecedented hurricanes striking the Gulf Coast in August and September 2005 has focused mainly on assessing health-related needs and surveillance of injuries, infectious diseases, and other illnesses. However, the hurricanes also resulted in unintended hazardous substances releases in the affected states. Data from two states (Louisiana and Texas) participating in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were analyzed to describe the characteristics of hazardous substances releases in industrial settings associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. HSEES is an active multi-state Web-based surveillance system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). In 2005, 166 hurricane-related hazardous substances events in industrial settings in Louisiana and Texas were reported. Most (72.3%) releases were due to emergency shut downs in preparation for the hurricanes and start-ups after the hurricanes. Emphasis is given to the contributing causal factors, hazardous substances released, and event scenarios. Recommendations are made to prevent or minimize acute releases of hazardous substances during future hurricanes, including installing backup power generation, securing equipment and piping to withstand high winds, establishing procedures to shutdown process operations safely, following established and up-to-date start-up procedures and checklists, and carefully performing pre-start-up safety reviews.

  7. Land area change analysis following hurricane impacts in Delacroix, Louisiana, 2004--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide improved estimates of Louisiana wetland land loss due to hurricane impacts between 2004 and 2009 based upon a change detection mapping analysis that incorporates pre- and post-landfall (Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) fractional water classification of a combination of high resolution (QuickBird, IKONOS and Geoeye-1) and medium resolution (Landsat) satellite imagery. This second dataset focuses on Hurricanes Katrina and Gustav, which made landfall on August 29, 2005, and September 1, 2008, respectively. The study area is an approximately 1208-square-kilometer region surrounding Delacroix, Louisiana, in the eastern Delta Plain. Overall, 77 percent of the area remained unchanged between 2004 and 2009, and over 11 percent of the area was changed permanently by Hurricane Katrina (including both land gain and loss). Less than 3 percent was affected, either temporarily or permanently, by Hurricane Gustav. A related dataset (SIM 3141) focused on Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on the Louisiana/Texas border on September 24, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane.

  8. Performance assessment of topologically diverse power systems subjected to hurricane events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, James; Duenas-Osorio, Leonardo; Stein, Robert; Subramanian, Devika

    2010-01-01

    Large tropical cyclones cause severe damage to major cities along the United States Gulf Coast annually. A diverse collection of engineering and statistical models are currently used to estimate the geographical distribution of power outage probabilities stemming from these hurricanes to aid in storm preparedness and recovery efforts. Graph theoretic studies of power networks have separately attempted to link abstract network topology to transmission and distribution system reliability. However, few works have employed both techniques to unravel the intimate connection between network damage arising from storms, topology, and system reliability. This investigation presents a new methodology combining hurricane damage predictions and topological assessment to characterize the impact of hurricanes upon power system reliability. Component fragility models are applied to predict failure probability for individual transmission and distribution power network elements simultaneously. The damage model is calibrated using power network component failure data for Harris County, TX, USA caused by Hurricane Ike in September of 2008, resulting in a mean outage prediction error of 15.59% and low standard deviation. Simulated hurricane events are then applied to measure the hurricane reliability of three topologically distinct transmission networks. The rate of system performance decline is shown to depend on their topological structure. Reliability is found to correlate directly with topological features, such as network meshedness, centrality, and clustering, and the compact irregular ring mesh topology is identified as particularly favorable, which can influence regional lifeline policy for retrofit and hardening activities to withstand hurricane events.

  9. Effects of track and threat information on judgments of hurricane strike probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Che; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Samuelson, Charles D

    2014-06-01

    Although evacuation is one of the best strategies for protecting citizens from hurricane threat, the ways that local elected officials use hurricane data in deciding whether to issue hurricane evacuation orders is not well understood. To begin to address this problem, we examined the effects of hurricane track and intensity information in a laboratory setting where participants judged the probability that hypothetical hurricanes with a constant bearing (i.e., straight line forecast track) would make landfall in each of eight 45 degree sectors around the Gulf of Mexico. The results from 162 participants in a student sample showed that the judged strike probability distributions over the eight sectors within each scenario were, unsurprisingly, unimodal and centered on the sector toward which the forecast track pointed. More significantly, although strike probability judgments for the sector in the direction of the forecast track were generally higher than the corresponding judgments for the other sectors, the latter were not zero. Most significantly, there were no appreciable differences in the patterns of strike probability judgments for hurricane tracks represented by a forecast track only, an uncertainty cone only, or forecast track with an uncertainty cone-a result consistent with a recent survey of coastal residents threatened by Hurricane Charley. The study results suggest that people are able to correctly process basic information about hurricane tracks but they do make some errors. More research is needed to understand the sources of these errors and to identify better methods of displaying uncertainty about hurricane parameters. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. The effects of hurricanes on birds, with special reference to Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Wunderle, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests. The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments. Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover

  11. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  12. Infrasonic ray tracing applied to mesoscale atmospheric structures: refraction by hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Alfred J; Jones, R Michael

    2013-11-01

    A ray-tracing program is used to estimate the refraction of infrasound by the temperature structure of the atmosphere and by hurricanes represented by a Rankine-combined vortex wind plus a temperature perturbation. Refraction by the hurricane winds is significant, giving rise to regions of focusing, defocusing, and virtual sources. The refraction of infrasound by the temperature anomaly associated with a hurricane is small, probably no larger than that from uncertainties in the wind field. The results are pertinent to interpreting ocean wave generated infrasound in the vicinities of tropical cyclones.

  13. Brief communication "Hurricane Irene: a wake-up call for New York City?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. J. H. Aerts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The weakening of Irene from a Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm resulted in less damage in New York City (NYC than initially was anticipated. It is widely recognized that the storm surge and associated flooding could have been much more severe. In a recent study, we showed that a direct hit to the city from a hurricane may expose an enormous number of people to flooding. A major hurricane has the potential to cause large-scale damage in NYC. The city's resilience to flooding can be increased by improving and integrating flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies.

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  15. Land Area Change and Fractional Water Maps in the Chenier Plain, Louisiana, following Hurricane Rita (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the changes in land and water coverage of a 1,961-square-kilometer (km2) area in Louisiana's Chenier Plain. The study area is roughly centered on the Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, which was impacted by Hurricane Rita on September 24, 2005. The objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide pre- and post-Hurricane Rita moderate-resolution (30-meter (m)) fractional water maps based upon multiple source images, and (2) to quantify land and water coverage changes due to Hurricane Rita.

  16. Coastal Sediment Distribution Patterns Following Category 5 Hurricanes (Irma and Maria): Pre and Post Hurricane High Resolution Multibeam Surveys of Eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, T. N.; Sawyer, D. E.; Russell, P.

    2017-12-01

    In August of 2017 we collected high resolution multibeam data of the seafloor in a large embayment in eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands (USVI). One month later, the eyewall of Category 5 Hurricane Irma directly hit St. John as one of the largest hurricanes on record in the Atlantic Ocean. A week later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria passed over St. John. While the full extent of the impacts are still being assessed, the island experienced a severe loss of vegetation, infrastructure, buildings, roads, and boats. We mobilized less than two months afterward to conduct a repeat survey of the same area on St. John. We then compared these data to document and quantify the sediment influx and movement that occurred in coastal embayments as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. The preliminary result of the intense rain, wind, and storm surge likely yields an event deposit that can be mapped and volumetrically quantified in the bays of eastern St. John. The results of this study allow for a detailed understanding of the post-hurricane pulse of sediment that enters the marine environment, the sediment flux seaward, and the morphological changes to the bay floor.

  17. Fiji's worst natural disaster: the 1931 hurricane and flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Stephen W; Blong, Russell J

    2010-07-01

    At least 225 people in the Fiji Islands died as a result of the 1931 hurricane and flood, representing the largest loss of life from a natural disaster in Fiji's recent history. This paper explores the causes of disaster and the potential for recurrence. The disaster occurred because a rare event surprised hundreds of people-especially recently settled Indian farmers-occupying highly exposed floodplains in north-west Viti Levu island. The likelihood of a flood disaster of such proportions occurring today has been diminished by changed settlement patterns and building materials; however, a trend towards re-occupancy of floodplains, sometimes in fragile dwellings, is exposing new generations to flood risks. The contribution of this paper to the global hazards literature is set out in three sections: the ethnicity, gender and age of flood fatalities; the naturalness of disasters; and the merit of choice and constraint as explanations for patterns of vulnerability.

  18. Hurricane Val in American Samoa: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, D.A.; Henderson, H.

    1993-01-01

    On Monday, December 9, 1991, Hurricane Val hit American Samoa. Along with the many homes and buildings that had been destroyed, nine abandoned fishing vessels were torn from their mooring and washed up onto the reef in Pago Pago Harbor. Several hundred gallons of diesel fuel were released into the water; about 12,000 gallons remained onboard the vessels. The efforts of the US Coast Guard (USCG), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), and local contractors helped mitigate the damage. The USCG Pacific Strike Team (PST) was tasked with monitoring, removing, and disposing of the petroleum products that remained onboard the vessels. The strike team also investigated reports of chemical spills throughout the island

  19. Age differences in the psychological consequences of Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M P; Norris, F H; Hanacek, B

    1993-12-01

    At 12, 18, and 24 months after Hurricane Hugo, 831 adults were interviewed regarding their disaster-related stressors and present psychological state. The study's purposes were to assess whether age influenced one's vulnerability to postdisaster stress and to evaluate four different perspectives on disaster recovery that have been previously used to explain age differences. Regression analyses demonstrated that disaster exposure had substantial and pervasive psychological effects. The analyses also revealed a curvilinear interaction between disaster exposure and age. Younger people exhibited the most distress in the absence of disaster, but middle-aged people did so in its presence. Differential exposure, resources, and inoculation all failed to explain these differences, however, the burden perspective had considerable explanatory power.

  20. Hazards of neoliberalism: delayed electric power restoration after Hurricane Ike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; Antonio, Robert J; Bonanno, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    This case study explores how neoliberal policies shape the impacts of a natural disaster. We investigate the reactions to major damages to the electric power system and the restoration of power in the wake of Hurricane Ike, which devastated the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area in September 2008. We argue that the neoliberal policy agenda insured a minimalist approach to the crisis and generated dissatisfaction among many residents. The short-term profitability imperative shifted reconstruction costs to consumers, and prevented efforts to upgrade the electric power infrastructure to prepare for future disasters. We illustrate the serious obstacles for disaster mitigation and recovery posed by neoliberal policies that privatize public goods and socialize private costs. Neoliberalism neither addresses the needs of a highly stratified public nor their long-term interests and safety. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  1. Longwave emission trends over Africa and implications for Atlantic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Rechtman, Thomas; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Li, Laifang; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kossin, James P.

    2017-09-01

    The latitudinal gradient of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over Africa is a skillful and physically based predictor of seasonal Atlantic hurricane activity. The African OLR gradient is observed to have strengthened during the satellite era, as predicted by state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Prior to the satellite era and the U.S. and European clean air acts, the African OLR gradient weakened due to aerosol forcing of the opposite sign. GCMs predict a continuation of the increasing OLR gradient in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Assuming a steady linear relationship between African easterly waves and tropical cyclogenesis, this result suggests a future increase in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency by 10% (20%) at the end of the 21st century under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) forcing scenario.

  2. Impact of Hurricane Andrew on FPL generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, W.F.; Adams, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the pre-dawn hours of August 25, 1992, Hurricane Andrew made landfall in southern Dade County, Florida. The storm approached directly from the east and moved rapidly across the State and into the Gulf of Mexico. Andrew's intense winds caused unprecedented devastation to structures and facilities in its path. Not surprisingly, Florida Power and Light's (FPL) generation, transmission and distribution facilities in south Florida also suffered extensive damage. Two of FPL's electrical generating sites were located in the direct path of the storm and received its full brunt. This paper presents a review of the damage sustained by those plants, an overview of the unique recovery challenges encountered and a summary of the lessons learned from this experience

  3. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Jonkman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %, particularly in and around vehicles. Males (70 % and people over 50 years old (56 % were overrepresented in the dataset. More than half of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area (n  =  37, where heavy rainfall and dam releases caused unprecedented urban flooding. The majority of fatalities were recovered outside the designated 100- and 500-year flood hazard areas.

  4. Case Study of Hurricane Felix (2007) Rapid Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Pagan, I. C.; Davis, C. A.; Holland, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    The forecasting of tropical cyclones (TC) rapid intensification (RI) is one of the most challenging problems that the operational community experiences. Research advances leading to improvements in predicting this phenomenon would help government agencies make decisions that could reduce the impact on communities that are so often affected by these weather-related events. It has been proposed that TC RI is associated to various factors, including high sea-surface temperatures, weak vertical wind shear, and the ratio of inertial to static stability, which improves the conversion of diabatic heating into circulation. While a cyclone develops, the size of the region of high inertial stability (IS) decreases whereas the magnitude of IS increases. However, it’s unknown whether this is a favorable condition or a result of RI occurrences. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to determine if the IS follows, leads or changes in sync with the intensity change by studying Hurricane Felix (2007) RI phase. Results show a trend of increasing IS before the RI stage, followed by an expansion of the region of high IS. This episode is eventually followed by a decrease in both the intensity and region of positive IS, while the maximum wind speed intensity of the TC diminished. Therefore, we propose that monitoring the IS may provide a forecast tool to determine RI periods. Other parameters, such as static stability, tangential wind, and water vapor mixing ratio may help identify other features of the storm, such as circulation and eyewall formation. The inertial stability (IS) trend during the period of rapid intensification, which occurred between 00Z and 06Z of September 3rd. Maximum values of IS were calculated before and during this period of RI within a region located 30-45 km from the center. In fact, this region could represent the eye-wall of Hurricane Felix.

  5. Dynamics of the chemical composition of rainwater throughout Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mullaugh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential sampling of rainwater from Hurricane Irene was carried out in Wilmington, NC, USA on 26 and 27 August 2011. Eleven samples were analyzed for pH, major ions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Hurricane Irene contributed 16% of the total rainwater and 18% of the total chloride wet deposition received in Wilmington NC during all of 2011. This work highlights the main physical factors influencing the chemical composition of tropical storm rainwater: wind speed, wind direction, back trajectory and vertical mixing, time of day and total rain volume. Samples collected early in the storm, when winds blew out of the east, contained dissolved components indicative of marine sources (salts from sea spray and low DOC. The sea-salt components in the samples had two maxima in concentration during the storm the first of which occurred before the volume of rain had sufficiently washed out sea salt from the atmosphere and the second when back trajectories showed large volumes of marine surface air were lifted. As the storm progressed and winds shifted to a westerly direction, the chemical composition of the rainwater became characteristic of terrestrial storms (high DOC and NH4+ and low sea salt. This work demonstrates that tropical storms are not only responsible for significant wet deposition of marine components to land, but terrestrial components can also become entrained in rainwater, which can then be delivered to coastal waters via wet deposition. This study also underscores why analysis of one composite sample can lead to an incomplete interpretation of the factors that influence the chemically divergent analytes in rainwater during extreme weather events.

  6. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S N Lam

    Full Text Available We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  7. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  8. Baseline Design of a Hurricane-Resilient Wind Turbine (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Schreck, S.; Maples, B.; Anderson, M.; Finucane, Z.; Raina, A.

    2014-10-01

    Under U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored research FOA 415, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led a team of research groups to produce a complete design of a large wind turbine system to be deployable in the western Gulf of Mexico region. As such, the turbine and its support structure would be subjected to hurricane-loading conditions. Among the goals of this research was the exploration of advanced and innovative configurations that would help decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the design, and the expansion of the basic IEC design load cases (DLCs) to include hurricane environmental conditions. The wind turbine chosen was a three-bladed, downwind, direct-drive, 10-MW rated machine. The rotor blade was optimized based on an IEC load suite analysis. The drivetrain and nacelle components were scaled up from a smaller sized turbine using industry best practices. The tubular steel tower was sized using ultimate load values derived from the rotor optimization analysis. The substructure is an innovative battered and raked jacket structure. The innovative turbine has also been modeled within an aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool, and future papers will discuss results of the dynamic response analysis for select DLCs. Although multiple design iterations could not be performed because of limited resources in this study, and are left to future research, the obtained data will offer a good indication of the expected LCOE for large offshore wind turbines to be deployed in subtropical U.S. waters, and the impact design innovations can have on this value.

  9. Impact of hurricanes katrina and rita on the anesthesiology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Larry R; Vega, Jorge; Schubert, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita impacted a large portion of the medical community in Louisiana. We attempt to determine their impact on the anesthesiology workforce in Louisiana. In May 2006, a survey was mailed to 368 Louisiana anesthesiologists, collecting demographic data, retirement plans, impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, position vacancies, practice conditions, and the general state of healthcare in their area. All 3 anesthesiology residency programs in the state were contacted regarding their recent graduates. The 2010 RAND survey of the anesthesiology workforce was reviewed with respect to findings relevant to the state and region. One hundred seventy surveys were returned, yielding a 46.2% response rate. Among the respondents, 13.9% intended to retire within 5 years and another 24% in 5 to 10 years. Since 2005, 63.9% had seen an increase in their daily caseload, 46.9% saw an increase in work hours, and 36.8% stated that their practices were trying to hire new anesthesiologists and were having difficulty filling these positions. Since 2005, the number of anesthesiology residents in Louisiana had declined by almost 50%, and the number of graduates remaining to practice in Louisiana had decreased by 43% from 7 to 4 annually. Our 2006 survey provided qualitative evidence for a shortage of anesthesiologists in the state of Louisiana after the natural disasters in 2005 that was likely to worsen as residency output plummeted, fewer residents stayed in the state, and projected retirement increased. The regional data from the RAND survey a year later confirmed the impressions from our survey, with an estimate of an anesthesiologist shortage as high as 39% of the workforce. State membership surveys may serve as accurate barometers in the wake of major environmental upheavals affecting regional anesthesiology workforce conditions.

  10. Gusts and Shear in an Idealized LES-modeled Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, R.; Lundquist, J. K.; Bryan, G. H.; Damiani, R.; Musial, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclone winds can cause extreme loading and damage to coastal structures such as buildings and energy infrastructure. Offshore wind energy development is underway along the US East Coast where hurricanes pose a substantial risk. Understanding wind gusts, gust factor, shear, and veer in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) can help manufacturers assess risk and design wind turbines to better withstand these extreme wind conditions. Because of the paucity of observational data at low-levels (200 m and below), we use the Cloud Model Version I (CM1) large-eddy simulation numerical model to simulate high spatial- (10 m) and temporal- (0.1 s) resolution data. This unique dataset is used to answer the following questions: do severe mean wind speeds and gusts that exceed current design limits occur?; how does the gust factor vary with distance from the eye?; and lastly, how does wind direction vary horizontally and with height? We find that mean winds and gusts near the eyewall can exceed current turbine design thresholds of 50 m s-1 and 70 m s-1, respectively. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface just inward of the peak gust location and can exceed the 1.4 value used to convert a 50 m s-1 reference wind speed to a 50-year 3-second gust. Strong veer (15-30 degrees) across a 120 m-layer suggests that veer should be assessed against standard design prescriptions. Lastly, wind directions can shift 10-25 degrees in durations shorter than 10 minutes, which can challenge structures designed to endure winds from a consistent direction for periods longer than 10 minutes, including wind turbines.

  11. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  12. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  13. Report: EPA Provided Quality and Timely Information on Hurricane Katrina Hazardous Material Releases and Debris Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00023, May 2, 2006. After Hurricane Katrina, EPA was the agency with lead responsibility to prevent, minimize, or mitigate threats to public health and the environment caused by hazardous materials and oil spills in inland zones.

  14. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing of the Mandeville Hurricane Protection Project, Mandeville, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Luis

    1996-01-01

    ...). The survey was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, in response to planned construction activities associated with a hurricane protection project that would enclose Mandeville at Causeway Boulevard, Lake...

  15. Logistics: Use of DoD Resources Supporting Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Wanda A; Bloomer, Donald A; Owens, Keith M; Bryant, Leon D; Matthews, Takia A; Chavez, Bryan M; Torres, Anthony M; Woolard, Alan J; Pugh, Jacqueline N

    2006-01-01

    We performed the audit in response to a September 2005 request by the Principal Deputy Inspector General, DoD to assess the use of DoD resources in providing relief efforts in support of the Hurricane...

  16. The Military and Domestic Disaster Response: Lead Role Revealed Through the Eye of Hurricane Katrina?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Juliana M

    2006-01-01

    .... During and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina however the slow and perceived inept response to the massive disaster prompted a national debate on the appropriate role of the military in major domestic disasters...

  17. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  18. Development of a time-dependent hurricane evacuation model for the New Orleans area : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When hurricanes threaten coastal cities, the most eff ective strategy to mitigate mortality is to evacuate the population : at risk. However, public offi cials face several transportation challenges when managing evacuations from a large city : like ...

  19. Strongest Tropical cyclones: 1980-2009: A 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Strongest Tropical Cyclones: 1980-2009 poster - a 30-year collage of Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) data. This poster depicts a series of 5 degree grids where within...

  20. Life course transitions and natural disaster: marriage, birth, and divorce following Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Catherine L; Cole, Steve W

    2002-03-01

    Change in marriage, birth, and divorce rates following Hurricane Hugo in 1989 were examined prospectively from 1975 to 1997 for all counties in South Carolina. Stress research and research on economic circumstances suggested that marriages and births would decline and divorces would increase in affected counties after the hurricane. Attachment theory suggested that marriages and births would increase and divorces would decline after the hurricane. Time-series analysis indicated that the year following the hurricane, marriage, birth, and divorce rates increased in the 24 counties declared disaster areas compared with the 22 other counties in the state. Taken together, the results suggested that a life-threatening event motivated people to take significant action in their close relationships that altered their life course.

  1. Mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal Mississippi community after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Evans, Christopher L; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the Gulf Coast in August 2005. We collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. The most abundant mosquito species was Culex nigripalpus, which constituted 73.6% of all specimens. No arboviruses were detected in any of the mosquitoes collected in this survey, which did not support the assertion that human risk for arboviral infection was increased in the coastal community 6 wk after the hurricane.

  2. 2005 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina Levee Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic data were collected for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by a helicopter-mounted LiDAR sensor over the New Orleans Hurricane Protection Levee...

  3. Measuring the Storm: Methods of Quantifying Hurricane Exposure in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing coastal populations and storm intensity may lead to more adverse health effects from tropical storms and hurricanes. Exposure during pregnancy can influence birth outcomes through mechanisms related to healthcare, infrastructure disruption, stress, nutrition, and inju...

  4. On the molecular dynamics in the hurricane interactions with its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriel; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    By resorting to the Burgers model for hurricanes, we study the molecular motion involved in the hurricane dynamics. We show that the Lagrangian canonical formalism requires the inclusion of the environment degrees of freedom. This also allows the description of the motion of charged particles. In view of the role played by moist convection, cumulus and cloud water droplets in the hurricane dynamics, we discuss on the basis of symmetry considerations the role played by the molecular electrical dipoles and the formation of topologically non-trivial structures. The mechanism of energy storage and dissipation, the non-stationary time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and the vortex equation are studied. Finally, we discuss the fractal self-similarity properties of hurricanes.

  5. Hurricane Gladys, Gulf of Mexico as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Hurricane Gladys, Gulf of Mexico, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 91st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 99 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 144 hours and 27 minutes.

  6. A look into hurricane Maria rapid intensification using Meteo-France's Arome-Antilles model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, R.; Faure, G.; Dupont, T.; Chauvin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Category 5 Hurricane Maria created a string of humanitarian crises. It caused billions of dollars of damage over the Caribbean but is also one of the worst natural disaster in Dominica.The hurricane took approximately 29 hours to strengthen from a tropical storm to a major category 5 hurricane. Here we present real-time forecasts of high resolution (2.5 km) Arome-Antilles regional model forced by real-time ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System. The model was able to relatively represent well the rapid intensification of the hurricane whether it was in timing or in location of the eye and strength of its eye wall.We will present an outline of results.

  7. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  8. Hurricane Humberto Aerial Photography: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regions after Hurricane Humberto made landfall. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA...

  9. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  10. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  11. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  12. MODELING HOW A HURRICANE BARRIER IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS, AFFECTS THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND RESIDENCE TIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport models were used to simulate tidal and subtidal circulation, residence times, and the longitudinal distributions of conservative constituents in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, before and after a hurricane barrier was constructed. The...

  13. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from derived International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B1 observations of tropical cyclones worldwide. The B1 data...

  14. Administrative Relief for Grantees impacted by Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 26, 2017, the Office of Management and Budget issued the attached memorandum, Administrative Relief for Grantees impacted by Hurricanes, to provide Federal agencies with flexibility to assist their grant applicants and recipients.

  15. Gusts and shear within hurricane eyewalls can exceed offshore wind turbine design standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, Rochelle P.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Bryan, George H.; Damiani, Rick; Musial, Walt

    2017-06-01

    Offshore wind energy development is underway in the U.S., with proposed sites located in hurricane-prone regions. Turbine design criteria outlined by the International Electrotechnical Commission do not encompass the extreme wind speeds and directional shifts of hurricanes stronger than category 2. We examine a hurricane's turbulent eyewall using large-eddy simulations with Cloud Model 1. Gusts and mean wind speeds near the eyewall of a category 5 hurricane exceed the current Class I turbine design threshold of 50 m s-1 mean wind and 70 m s-1 gusts. Largest gust factors occur at the eye-eyewall interface. Further, shifts in wind direction suggest that turbines must rotate or yaw faster than current practice. Although current design standards omit mention of wind direction change across the rotor layer, large values (15-50°) suggest that veer should be considered.

  16. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  17. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  18. Morphological responses of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, to Hurricanes Rita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the morphodynamic response of a deltaic system to extreme weather events. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD in Louisiana, USA, is used to illustrate the impact of extreme events (hurricanes on a river-dominated deltaic system. Simulations using the open source Delft3D model reveal that Hurricane Rita, which made landfall 120 km to the west of WLD as a Category 3 storm in 2005, caused erosion on the right side and deposition on the left side of the hurricane eye track on the continental shelf line (water depth 10 m to 50 m. Erosion over a wide area occurred both on the continental shelf line and in coastal areas when the hurricane moved onshore, while deposition occurred along the Gulf coastline (water depth < 5 m when storm surge water moved back offshore. The numerical model estimated that Hurricane Rita’s storm surge reached 2.5 m, with maximum currents of 2.0 m s–1, and wave heights of 1.4 m on the WLD. The northwestern-directed flow and waves induced shear stresses, caused erosion on the eastern banks of the deltaic islands and deposition in channels located west of these islands. In total, Hurricane Rita eroded more than 500,000 m3 of sediments on the WLD area. Including waves in the analysis resulted in doubling the amount of erosion in the study area, comparing to the wave-excluding scenario. The exclusion of fluvial input caused minor changes in deltaic morphology during the event. Vegetation cover was represented as rigid rods in the model which add extra source terms for drag and turbulence to influence the momentum and turbulence equations. Vegetation slowed down the floodwater propagation and decreased flow velocity on the islands, leading to a 47% reduction in the total amount of erosion. Morphodynamic impact of the hurricane track relative to the delta was explored. Simulations indicate that the original track of Hurricane Rita (landfall 120 km west of the WLD produced twice as much erosion and deposition at the delta

  19. Hurricane Wind Speed Estimation Using WindSat 6 and 10 GHz Brightness Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The realistic and accurate estimation of hurricane intensity is highly desired in many scientific and operational applications. With the advance of passive microwave polarimetry, an alternative opportunity for retrieving wind speed in hurricanes has become available. A wind speed retrieval algorithm for wind speeds above 20 m/s in hurricanes has been developed by using the 6.8 and 10.7 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures of WindSat. The WindSat measurements for 15 category 4 and category 5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2010 and the corresponding H*wind analysis data are used to develop and validate the retrieval model. In addition, the retrieved wind speeds are also compared to the Remote Sensing Systems (RSS global all-weather product and stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The statistical results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the retrieved wind speeds with respect to the H*wind analysis data are 0.04 and 2.75 m/s, respectively, which provides an encouraging result for retrieving hurricane wind speeds over the ocean surface. The retrieved wind speeds show good agreement with the SFMR measurements. Two case studies demonstrate that the mean bias and RMS difference are 0.79 m/s and 1.79 m/s for hurricane Rita-1 and 0.63 m/s and 2.38 m/s for hurricane Rita-2, respectively. In general, the wind speed retrieval accuracy of the new model in hurricanes ranges from 2.0 m/s in light rain to 3.9 m/s in heavy rain.

  20. Condensation-induced kinematics and dynamics of cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.

    2009-01-01

    A universal equation is obtained for air pressure and wind velocity in cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes as dependent on the distance from the center of the considered wind pattern driven by water vapor condensation. The obtained theoretical estimates of the horizontal profiles of air pressure and wind velocity, eye and wind wall radius in hurricanes and tornadoes and maximum values of the radial, tangential and vertical velocity components are in good agreement with empirical evidence.