Sample records for huronian supergroup canada

  1. Redox conditions in the atmosphere and shallow-marine environments during the first Huronian deglaciation: Insights from Os isotopes and redox-sensitive elements (United States)

    Goto, Kosuke T.; Sekine, Yasuhito; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Tajika, Eiichi; Senda, Ryoko; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Tada, Ryuji; Goto, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Shinji; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Ogawa, Nanako O.


    The Paleoproterozoic (2.5-2.0 Ga) is one of the most important periods in Earth's history, and was characterized by a rise in atmospheric oxygen levels and repeated (at least three) severe glaciations (the Huronian glaciations). In this study, we investigate redox conditions in the atmosphere and in shallow-marine environments immediately after the first Huronian glaciation based on the isotopic composition of Os, and the abundance of redox-sensitive elements (Os, Re, and Mo) in sedimentary rocks from the Huronian Supergroup, Canada. We found no significant authigenic enrichment of Os in the sedimentary rocks deposited during the first Huronian deglaciation. The initial isotopic composition of Os in the sediments was close to that of chondrite at the time of deposition (Os187/188Os=∼0.11). These results suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were insufficient to mobilize radiogenic Os through continental weathering (pO210-8-10-5 PAL). Despite the Re enrichment, low abundances of Mo imply possible non-sulfidic conditions in shallow-marine environments at the time of deposition. Together with the results of organic carbon and sulfur analyses, we suggest that atmospheric O2 remained at relatively low levels of around 10-8-10-5 PAL after the first Huronian deglaciation, which contrasts with proposed dramatic increases in O2 after the second and third Huronian deglaciations. These results imply that the second and third Huronian glaciations may have been global events, associated with climatic jumps from severe glaciations to super-greenhouse conditions and the subsequent blooming of photosynthetic cyanobacteria in the glacial aftermath.

  2. Integrated chemostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Windermere Supergroup, northwestern Canada: implications for Neoproterozoic correlations and the early evolution of animals. (United States)

    Narbonne, G M; Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H


    The thick, richly fossiliferous succession of the upper Windermere Supergroup, Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada, provides a test of integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic frameworks in terminal Proterozoic correlation. The C- and Sr-isotopic abundances of lower Keele Formation carbonates approximate those for other pre-Varanger samples, confirming that the simple disc-like fossils of the underlying Twitya Formation predate all known diverse Ediacaran faunas. "Tepee" and Sheepbed carbonates record strong post-glacial isotopic excursions; in contrast, delta13C values for Gametrail through Risky carbonates vary only within the narrow range of about +l% to +2%. A second negative excursion occurs in Ingta Formation carbonates that immediately underlie the paleontologically determined Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The upper Windermere profile as a whole compares closely with curves determined for other terminal Proterozoic successions. The lowermost diverse Ediacaran assemblages in the Sheepbed Formation correlate chemostratigraphically with the oldest fauna in Namibia, but the two assemblages differ in taxonomic composition. Blueflower assemblages correlate both chemostratigraphically and taxonomically with faunas from Australia, China, Siberia, and elsewhere. Increasing data support the hypothesis that paleontological and geochemical data together provide a reliable means of correlating terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks throughout the world.

  3. Families from Supergroups

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, S M


    As was shown in 1984 by Caneschi, Farrar, and Schwimmer, decomposing representations of the supergroup SU(M|N), can give interesting anomaly-free sets of fermion representations of SU(M) x SU(N) x U(1). It is shown here that such groups can be used to construct realistic grand unified models with non-abelian gauged family symmetries. A particularly simple three-family example based on SU(5) x SU(2) x U(1) is studied. The forms of the mass matrices, including that of the right-handed neutrinos, are determined in terms of SU(2) Clebsch coefficients. Models of this type would have a rich phenomenology if part of the family symmetry is broken near the electroweak scale.

  4. Supergroup. (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.


    Supersymmetry is a newly developed principle with which theorists are attempting to continue the work of unification. This article examines the principle of supersymmetry at the subatomic level and relates it to the quest for a unity theory. (MA)

  5. Free fermion resolution of supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, T.; Schomerus, V.


    Extending our earlier work on PSL(2 vertical stroke 2), we explain how to reduce the solution of WZNW models on general type I supergroups to those defined on the bosonic subgroup. The new analysis covers in particular the supergroups GL(M vertical stroke N) along with several close relatives such as PSL(N vertical stroke N), certain Poincar'e supergroups and the series OSP(2 vertical stroke 2N). This remarkable progress relies on the use of a special Feigin-Fuchs type representation. In preparation for the field theory analysis, we shall exploit a minisuperspace analogue of a free fermion construction to deduce the spectrum of the Laplacian on type I supergroups. The latter is shown to be non-diagonalizable. After lifting these results to the full WZNW model, we address various issues of the field theory, including its modular invariance and the computation of correlation functions. In agreement with previous findings, supergroup WZNW models allow to study chiral and non-chiral aspects of logarithmic conformal field theory within a geometric framework. We shall briefly indicate how insights from WZNW models carry over to non-geometric examples, such as e.g. the W(p) triplet models.

  6. Boundary correlators in supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V.


    We investigate correlation functions for maximally symmetric boundary conditions in the WZNW model on GL(11). Special attention is payed to volume filling branes. Generalizing earlier ideas for the bulk sector, we set up a Kac-Wakimotolike formalism for the boundary model. This first order formalism is then used to calculate bulk-boundary 2-point functions and the boundary 3-point functions of the model. The note ends with a few comments on correlation functions of atypical fields, point-like branes and generalizations to other supergroups. (orig.)

  7. Nilpotent symmetries in supergroup field cosmology (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker


    In this paper, we study the gauge invariance of the third quantized supergroup field cosmology which is a model for multiverse. Further, we propose both the infinitesimal (usual) as well as the finite superfield-dependent BRST symmetry transformations which leave the effective theory invariant. The effects of finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations on the path integral (so-called void functional in the case of third quantization) are implemented. Within the finite superfield-dependent BRST formulation, the finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations with specific parameter switch the void functional from one gauge to another. We establish this result for the most general gauge with the help of explicit calculations which holds for all possible sets of gauge choices at both the classical and the quantum levels.

  8. Super-group field cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker


    In this paper, we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation, we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  9. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker


    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  10. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae). (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael


    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  11. The Ursa Major cluster redefined as a `supergroup'

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfinger, K; Ryan-Weber, E V; Koribalski, B S


    We identify gravitationally bound structures in the Ursa Major region using positions, velocities and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7) and the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3). A friends-of-friends algorithm is extensively tested on mock galaxy lightcones and then implemented on the real data to determine galaxy groups whose members are likely to be physically and dynamically associated with one another. We find several galaxy groups within the region that are likely bound to one another and in the process of merging. We classify 6 galaxy groups as the Ursa Major `supergroup', which are likely to merge and form a poor cluster with a mass of ~8x10^13 Msun. Furthermore, the Ursa Major supergroup as a whole is likely bound to the Virgo cluster, which will eventually form an even larger system in the context of hierarchical structure formation. [abridged

  12. Negative Branes, Supergroups and the Signature of Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Jefferson, Patrick; Vafa, Cumrun


    We study the realization of supergroup gauge theories using negative branes in string theory. We show that negative branes are intimately connected with the possibility of timelike compactification and exotic spacetime signatures previously studied by Hull. Isolated negative branes dynamically generate a change in spacetime signature near their worldvolumes, and are related by string dualities to a smooth M-theory geometry with closed timelike curves. Using negative D3 branes, we show that $SU(0|N)$ supergroup theories are holographically dual to an exotic variant of type IIB string theory on $dS_{3,2} \\times \\bar S^5$, for which the emergent dimensions are timelike. Using branes, mirror symmetry and Nekrasov's instanton calculus, all of which agree, we derive the Seiberg-Witten curve for $\\mathcal N=2 ~SU(N|M)$ gauge theories. Together with our exploration of holography and string dualities for negative branes, this suggests that supergroup gauge theories may be non-perturbatively well-defined objects, thoug...

  13. The First Fundamental Theorem of Invariant Theory for the Orthosymplectic Supergroup (United States)

    Lehrer, G. I.; Zhang, R. B.


    We give an elementary and explicit proof of the first fundamental theorem of invariant theory for the orthosymplectic supergroup by generalising the geometric method of Atiyah, Bott and Patodi to the supergroup context. We use methods from super-algebraic geometry to convert invariants of the orthosymplectic supergroup into invariants of the corresponding general linear supergroup on a different space. In this way, super Schur-Weyl-Brauer duality is established between the orthosymplectic supergroup of superdimension (m|2n) and the Brauer algebra with parameter m - 2n. The result may be interpreted either in terms of the group scheme OSp(V) over C, where V is a finite dimensional super space, or as a statement about the orthosymplectic Lie supergroup over the infinite dimensional Grassmann algebra {Λ} . We take the latter point of view here, and also state a corresponding theorem for the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra, which involves an extra invariant generator, the super-Pfaffian.

  14. The First Fundamental Theorem of Invariant Theory for the Orthosymplectic Supergroup (United States)

    Lehrer, G. I.; Zhang, R. B.


    We give an elementary and explicit proof of the first fundamental theorem of invariant theory for the orthosymplectic supergroup by generalising the geometric method of Atiyah, Bott and Patodi to the supergroup context. We use methods from super-algebraic geometry to convert invariants of the orthosymplectic supergroup into invariants of the corresponding general linear supergroup on a different space. In this way, super Schur-Weyl-Brauer duality is established between the orthosymplectic supergroup of superdimension ( m|2 n) and the Brauer algebra with parameter m - 2 n. The result may be interpreted either in terms of the group scheme OSp( V) over C, where V is a finite dimensional super space, or as a statement about the orthosymplectic Lie supergroup over the infinite dimensional Grassmann algebra {Λ}. We take the latter point of view here, and also state a corresponding theorem for the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra, which involves an extra invariant generator, the super-Pfaffian.

  15. Anomalous dimensions in deformed WZW models on supergroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie


    We investigate a class of current-current, Gross-Neveu like, perturbations of WZW models in which the full left-right affine symmetry is broken to the diagonal global algebra only. Our analysis focuses on those supergroups for which such a perturbation preserves conformal invariance. A detailed calculation of the 2-point functions of affine primary operators to 3-loops is presented. Furthermore, we derive an exact formula for the anomalous dimensions of a large subset of fields to all orders in perturbation theory. Possible applications of our results, including the study of non-perturbative dualities, are outlined.

  16. Biomarkers from Huronian oil-bearing fluid inclusions: An uncontaminated record of life before the Great Oxidation Event (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger


    We report detailed molecular geochemistry of oil-bearing fluid inclusions from a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. The presence of abundant biomarkers for cyanobacteria and eukaryotes derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before the Great Oxidation Event is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis than previously thought and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. It also implies that eukaryotes survived several extreme climatic events, including the Paleoproterozoic “snowball Earth” glaciations. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Paleoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution of life through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

  17. Age of the Vindhyan Supergroup: A review of recent findings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotiranjan S Ray


    The Vindhyan Supergroup of India is one of the largest and thickest sedimentary successions of the world.Deposited in an intra-cratonic basin,it is composed mostly of shallow marine deposits. It is believed to have recorded a substantial portion of Proterozoic time and therefore,likely to contain valuable information on the evolution of the atmosphere,climate,and life on our planet. It also contains some of the most disputed fossils of earliest animal life.Despite their importance, the absolute age of these rocks had remained unknown until recently.In this work I evaluate all the recent chronological information and discuss their implications.From the present findings it appears that the issues surrounding the age of the Lower Vindhyans in the Son valley are now resolved,whereas problems with the age of the Upper Vindhyans and that with the stratigraphic correlations remain to be answered.

  18. Nilpotent Symmetries in Super-Group Field Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker


    In this paper we study the gauge invariance of the third quantized super-group field cosmology which is a model for multiverse. Further, we propose both the nfinitesimal (usual) as well as the finite superfield-dependent BRST symmetry transformations which leave the effective theory invariant. The effects of finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations on the path integral (so-called void functional in the case of third quantization) are implemented. Within the finite superfield-dependent BRST formulation, the finite superfield-dependent BRST transformations with specific parameter switch the void functional from one gauge to another. We establish this result for the most general gauge with the help of explicit calculations which holds for all possible sets of gauge choices at both the classical and the quantum levels.

  19. Nitrile Hydratase Genes Are Present in Multiple Eukaryotic Supergroups (United States)

    Marron, Alan O.; Akam, Michael; Walker, Giselle


    Background Nitrile hydratases are enzymes involved in the conversion of nitrile-containing compounds into ammonia and organic acids. Although they are widespread in prokaryotes, nitrile hydratases have only been reported in two eukaryotes: the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the stramenopile Aureococcus anophagefferens. The nitrile hydratase gene in M. brevicollis was believed to have arisen by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote, and is a fusion of beta and alpha nitrile hydratase subunits. Only the alpha subunit has been reported in A. anophagefferens. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the detection of nitrile hydratase genes in five eukaryotic supergroups: opisthokonts, amoebozoa, archaeplastids, CCTH and SAR. Beta-alpha subunit fusion genes are found in the choanoflagellates, ichthyosporeans, apusozoans, haptophytes, rhizarians and stramenopiles, and potentially also in the amoebozoans. An individual alpha subunit is found in a dinoflagellate and an individual beta subunit is found in a haptophyte. Phylogenetic analyses recover a clade of eukaryotic-type nitrile hydratases in the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, SAR and CCTH; this is supported by analyses of introns and gene architecture. Two nitrile hydratase sequences from an animal and a plant resolve in the prokaryotic nitrile hydratase clade. Conclusions/Significance The evidence presented here demonstrates that nitrile hydratase genes are present in multiple eukaryotic supergroups, suggesting that a subunit fusion gene was present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes. The absence of nitrile hydratase from several sequenced species indicates that subunits were lost in multiple eukaryotic taxa. The presence of nitrile hydratases in many other eukaryotic groups is unresolved due to insufficient data and taxon sampling. The retention and expression of the gene in distantly related eukaryotic species suggests that it plays an important metabolic role. The novel family of eukaryotic

  20. Characterization of alunite supergroup minerals by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Maubec, N; Lahfid, A; Lerouge, C; Wille, G; Michel, K


    Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular structure of different natural minerals of the alunite supergroup (AB(3)(XO(4))(2)(OH)(6)), with A=K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), B=Al(3+), Fe(3+) and X=S(6+), P(5+). The influence of the ions, in A-, B- and X-sites, is highlighted in the Raman spectra by variations in the position of certain vibrations and is discussed in association with published crystallographic data in order to describe the observed differences. It was found that A-site substitutions are characterized by wavenumber shifts of the vibrations involving hydroxyl groups. The positions of these vibrational bands vary linearly with the ionic radius of the ions in this site. B-site substitutions induce shifts of all bands due to structural modifications that lead to differences in the chemical environment around the hydroxyl and XO(4) groups and changes in B-O bond lengths. A correlation showed that these shifts correlate well with the ionic radii of the B-ions. The spectra of compounds containing both sulfate and phosphate groups are described by numerous vibration bands caused by a complex elemental composition and a symmetry change of the XO(4) groups. This study has also made it possible to generalize substitution effects on the wavenumbers of several vibrations and show that Raman spectroscopy could be a powerful tool for identifying and distinguishing minerals of the alunite supergroup. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supergroup C Wolbachia, mutualist symbionts of filarial nematodes, have a distinct genome structure. (United States)

    Comandatore, Francesco; Cordaux, Richard; Bandi, Claudio; Blaxter, Mark; Darby, Alistair; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide


    Wolbachia pipientis is possibly the most widespread endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes. While all Wolbachia strains have historically been defined as a single species, 16 monophyletic clusters of diversity (called supergroups) have been described. Different supergroups have distinct host ranges and symbiotic relationships, ranging from mutualism to reproductive manipulation. In filarial nematodes, which include parasites responsible for major diseases of humans (such as Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness) and companion animals (Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm), Wolbachia has an obligate mutualist role and is the target of new treatment regimens. Here, we compare the genomes of eight Wolbachia strains, spanning the diversity of the major supergroups (A-F), analysing synteny, transposable element content, GC skew and gene loss or gain. We detected genomic features that differ between Wolbachia supergroups, most notably in the C and D clades from filarial nematodes. In particular, strains from supergroup C (symbionts of O. volvulus and D. immitis) present a pattern of GC skew, conserved synteny and lack of transposable elements, unique in the Wolbachia genus. These features could be the consequence of a distinct symbiotic relationship between C Wolbachia strains and their hosts, highlighting underappreciated differences between the mutualistic supergroups found within filarial nematodes.

  2. Did prolonged two-stage fragmentation of the supercontinent Kenorland lead to arrested orogenesis on the southern margin of the Superior province?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grant M. Young


    Recent geochronological investigations reinforce the early suggestion that the upper part of the Paleo-proterozoic Huronian Supergroup of Ontario, Canada is present in the Animikie Basin on the south shore of Lake Superior. These rocks, beginning with the glaciogenic Gowganda Formation, are interpreted as passive margin deposits. The absence of the lower Huronian (rift succession) from the Animikie Basin may be explained by attributing the oldest Paleoroterozoic rocks in the Animikie Basin (Chocolay Group) to deposition on the upper plate of a north-dipping detachment fault, which lacks sediments of the rift phase. Following thermal uplift that led to opening of the Huronian Ocean on the south side of what is now the Superior province, renewed uplift (plume activity) caused large-scale gravitational folding of the Huronian Supergroup accompanied by intrusion of the Nipissing diabase suite and Senneterre dikes at about 2.2 Ga. Termination of passive margin sedimentation is normally followed by ocean closure but in the Huronian and Animikie basins there was a long hiatus–the Great Stratigraphic Gap–which lasted for about 350 Ma. This hiatus is attributed to a second prolonged thermal uplift of part of Kenorland that culminated in complete dismemberment of the supercontinent shortly before 2.0 Ga by opening of the Circum-Superior Ocean. These events caused regional uplift (the Great Stratigraphic Gap) and delayed completion of the Huronian Wilson Cycle until a regional compressional tectonic episode, including the Penokean orogeny, belatedly flooded the southern margin of the Superior province with foreland basin deposits, established the limits of the Superior structural province and played an important role in constructing Laurentia.

  3. Did prolonged two-stage fragmentation of the supercontinent Kenorland lead to arrested orogenesis on the southern margin of the Superior province?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Young


    Full Text Available Recent geochronological investigations reinforce the early suggestion that the upper part of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup of Ontario, Canada is present in the Animikie Basin on the south shore of Lake Superior. These rocks, beginning with the glaciogenic Gowganda Formation, are interpreted as passive margin deposits. The absence of the lower Huronian (rift succession from the Animikie Basin may be explained by attributing the oldest Paleoroterozoic rocks in the Animikie Basin (Chocolay Group to deposition on the upper plate of a north-dipping detachment fault, which lacks sediments of the rift phase. Following thermal uplift that led to opening of the Huronian Ocean on the south side of what is now the Superior province, renewed uplift (plume activity caused large-scale gravitational folding of the Huronian Supergroup accompanied by intrusion of the Nipissing diabase suite and Senneterre dikes at about 2.2 Ga. Termination of passive margin sedimentation is normally followed by ocean closure but in the Huronian and Animikie basins there was a long hiatus -- the Great Stratigraphic Gap -- which lasted for about 350 Ma. This hiatus is attributed to a second prolonged thermal uplift of part of Kenorland that culminated in complete dismemberment of the supercontinent shortly before 2.0 Ga by opening of the Circum-Superior Ocean. These events caused regional uplift (the Great Stratigraphic Gap and delayed completion of the Huronian Wilson Cycle until a regional compressional tectonic episode, including the Penokean orogeny, belatedly flooded the southern margin of the Superior province with foreland basin deposits, established the limits of the Superior structural province and played an important role in constructing Laurentia.

  4. The Hopf algebra structure of the h-deformed Z3-graded quantum supergroup GLh,j(1|1) (United States)

    Yasar, Ergün


    In this work, we define a new proper singular g matrix to construct a Z3-graded calculus on the h-deformed quantum superplane. Using the obtained calculus, we construct a new h-deformed Z3-graded quantum supergroup and give some features of it. Finally, we build up the Hopf algebra structure of this supergroup.

  5. Topological M-strings and supergroup Wess-Zumino-Witten models (United States)

    Okazaki, Tadashi; Smith, Douglas J.


    We study the boundary conditions in topologically twisted Chern-Simons matter theories with the Lie 3-algebraic structure. We find that the supersymmetric boundary conditions and the gauge-invariant boundary conditions can be unified as complexified gauge-invariant boundary conditions which lead to supergroup Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) models. We propose that the low-energy effective field theories on the two-dimensional intersection of multiple M2-branes on a holomorphic curve inside K3 with two nonparallel M5-branes on the K3 are supergroup WZW models from the topologically twisted Bagger-Lambert-Gustavson model and the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model.

  6. Mesoproterozoic syntectonic garnet within Belt Supergroup metamorphic tectonites: Evidence of Grenville-age metamorphism and deformation along northwest Laurentia (United States)

    Nesheim, T.O.; Vervoort, J.D.; McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Lang, H.M.


    Northern Idaho contains Belt-Purcell Supergroup equivalent metamorphic tectonites that underwent two regional deformational and metamorphic events during the Mesoproterozoic. Garnet-bearing pelitic schists from the Snow Peak area of northern Idaho yield Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock ages of 1085??2. Ma, 1198??79. Ma, 1207??8. Ma, 1255??28. Ma, and 1314??2. Ma. Garnet from one sample, collected from the Clarkia area, was micro-drilled to obtain separate core and rim material that produced ages of 1347??10. Ma and 1102??47. Ma. The core versus rim ages from the micro-drilled sample along with the textural and spatial evidence of the other Lu-Hf garnet ages indicate two metamorphic garnet growth events at ~. 1330. Ma (M1) and ~. 1080. Ma (M2) with the intermediate ages representing mixed ages. Some garnet likely nucleated and grew M1 garnet cores that were later overgrown by younger M2 garnet rims. Most garnet throughout the Clarkia and Snow Peak areas are syntectonic with a regional penetrative deformational fabric, preserved as a strong preferred orientation of metamorphic matrix minerals (e.g., muscovite and biotite). The syntectonic garnets are interpreted to represent one regional, coeval metamorphic and deformation event at ~. 1080. Ma, which overlaps in time with the Grenville Orogeny. The older ~. 1330. Ma ages may represent an extension of the East Kootenay Orogeny described in western Canada. These deformational and metamorphic events indicate that western Laurentia (North America) was tectonically active in the Mesoproterozoic and during the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee (United States)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia


    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  8. Steranes and triterpanes in the Beacon Supergroup samples from southern Victoria Land in Antarctica (United States)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Machihara, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Funaki, Minoru; Watanuki, Kunihiko


    Steranes and triterpanes in Beacon Supergroup samples (sedimentary rock and silicified wood) from Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak of southern Victoria Land in Antarctica were studied to elucidate sources of organic materials, sedimentary paleoenvironment and thermal history after deposition. Relative abundances of C 27, C 28 and C 29 steranes and visual kerogen results of Beacon Supergroup samples from Allan Hills imply that organic materials in the sedimentary paleoenvironments are contributed mainly by vascular plants with some influence of microorganisms, while those of the Carapace Nunatak sample may be largely due to fern spores. The pristane/phytane and pristane/heptadecane ratios of the samples were generally close to unity and between 0.50 and 0.99, respectively, suggesting that the sedimentary paleoenvironment was shallow lacustrine with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions. The ( 22S/22R)-17α(H),21β(H)-C 31-C 33 triterpane ratios are approximately at thermal equilibrium values ( ca. 1.5) in most samples, while the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and the (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios vary from 0.0 to 1.1 and from 0.0 to 1.4, respectively. Most of the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios did not reach thermal equilibrium values. The correlation coefficient between the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29, sterane ratios is very high (0.96). These variable maturities probably reflect thermal effects of basaltic dikes on the Beacon Supergroup at Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak during Jurassic time. Thermal stresses on the Beacon Supergroup prior to basaltic intrusion have been estimated to be quite low, so the paleotemperatures of this formation have been quite low.

  9. The quantum general linear supergroup, canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel, Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting. This result is generalized in several directions. We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra; then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m, n) × (m, n)-supermatrix; and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  10. Integrable quantum field theories with supergroup symmetries the $OSP(1\\/2)$ case

    CERN Document Server

    Saleur, H; Saleur, Hubert; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit


    As a step to understand general patterns of integrability in 1+1 quantum field theories with supergroup symmetry, we study in details the case of $OSP(1/2)$. Our results include the solutions of natural generalizations of models with ordinary group symmetry: the $UOSP(1/2)_{k}$ WZW model with a current current perturbation, the $UOSP(1/2)$ principal chiral model, and the $UOSP(1/2)\\otimes UOSP(1/2)/UOSP(1/2)$ coset models perturbed by the adjoint. Graded parafermions are also discussed. A pattern peculiar to supergroups is the emergence of another class of models, whose simplest representative is the $OSP(1/2)/OSP(0/2)$ sigma model, where the (non unitary) orthosymplectic symmetry is realized non linearly (and can be spontaneously broken). For most models, we provide an integrable lattice realization. We show in particular that integrable $osp(1/2)$ spin chains with integer spin flow to $UOSP(1/2)$ WZW models in the continuum limit, hence providing what is to our knowledge the first physical realization of a ...

  11. A Windows program for calculation and classification of tourmaline-supergroup (IMA-2011) (United States)

    Yavuz, Fuat; Karakaya, Necati; Yıldırım, Demet K.; Karakaya, Muazzez Ç.; Kumral, Mustafa


    A Microsoft Visual Basic program, WinTcac, has been developed to calculate structural formulae of tourmaline analyses based on the Subcommittee on Tourmaline Nomenclature (STN) of the International Mineralogical Association's Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (IMA-CNMCN) scheme. WinTcac calculates and classifies tourmaline-supergroup minerals based on 31 O atoms for complete tourmaline analyses. For electron-microprobe-derived tourmaline analyses site occupancy can be estimated by using the stoichiometric H2O (wt%) and B2O3 (wt%) contents. This program also allows the user to process tourmaline analyses using 15 cations and 6 silicons normalization schemes. WinTcac provides the user to display tourmaline analyses in a various classification, environmental, substitution, and miscellaneous plots by using the Golden Software's Grapher program. The program is developed to predict cation site-allocations at the different structural positions, including the T, Z, Y, and X sites, as well as to estimate the OH1-, F1-, Cl1-, and O2- contents. WinTcac provides editing and loading Microsoft Excel files to calculate multiple tourmaline analyses. This software generates and stores all the calculated results in the output of Microsoft Excel file, which can be displayed and processed by any other software for verification, general data manipulation, and graphing purposes. The compiled program code is distributed as a self-extracting setup file, including a help file, test data files and graphic files, which are designed to produce a high-quality printout of the related plotting software. We developed a Windows program, called WinTcac, for calculation and classification of tourmaline-supergroup based on the current IMA-2011 scheme. The program calculates tourmaline-supergroup minerals according to 31 O atoms for complete tourmaline analyses. Electron-microprobe-derived tourmaline analyses are carried out based on site occupancy by using the stoichiometric

  12. The Big Bang of picorna-like virus evolution antedates the radiation of eukaryotic supergroups. (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I; Nagasaki, Keizo; Dolja, Valerian V


    The recent discovery of RNA viruses in diverse unicellular eukaryotes and developments in evolutionary genomics have provided the means for addressing the origin of eukaryotic RNA viruses. The phylogenetic analyses of RNA polymerases and helicases presented in this Analysis article reveal close evolutionary relationships between RNA viruses infecting hosts from the Chromalveolate and Excavate supergroups and distinct families of picorna-like viruses of plants and animals. Thus, diversification of picorna-like viruses probably occurred in a 'Big Bang' concomitant with key events of eukaryogenesis. The origins of the conserved genes of picorna-like viruses are traced to likely ancestors including bacterial group II retroelements, the family of HtrA proteases and DNA bacteriophages.

  13. The quantum general linear supergroup,canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HeChun


    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel,Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting.This result is generalized in several directions.We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra;then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m,n) x (m,n)-supermatrix;and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  14. Weathering Intensity on Laurentia in the Mesoproterozoic: Evidence From CIA of the Lower Belt Supergroup (United States)

    Kerrich, R.; Gonzalez-Alvarez, I.


    The Belt Supergroup siliciclastic sequence was deposited between 1.47 to 1.40 Ga in a passive rift on the margin of Laurentia associated with the opening of the Grenville Ocean. Nominal CIA values of the Appekunny and Grinnell siltstones are 49 to 68. Given pervasive secondary enrichment of K due to basinal brines, corrected values are 66 to 85 using the procedure of Fedo et al., (1995). Red and green colored siltstones from the Appekunny and Grinnell formations in the lower Belt Supergroup, have abundances of CaO, Na(2)O, and Sr depleted up to 6 times relative to PA-UCC, stemming from intense weathering of the provenance. In contrast, there are pronounced additions of K (x 1.5) as well as high Li, Rb, and Cs, hence high Rb/Sr ratios, and negative anomalies of Eu/Eu* relative to PA-UCC. Red siltstones have an average K/Cs ratio of 1600. This post-depositional potassic alteration is a common feature of siliciclastic sedimentary sequences, and has been documented in several Precambrian sedimentary basins. Interpretation of corrected CIA values is complex, as CIA reflects some combination of contemporaneous weathering and recycled sediments in the source area. Low Sr contents in conjunction with high Rb/Sr ratios, relative to Archean or post-Archean UCC, have been reported in other studies of several Archean and Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences as a proxy for deeply weathered cratonic rocks. Low Sr contents coupled with high Rb/Sr, with an average of 5.5 for red siltstones in the Appekunny and Grinnell formations, whereas the Aldridge and Fort Steele formations in the lower Belt Supergroup have Rb/Sr averages of 2.0 and 2.2 respectively. This stratigraphic trend is interpreted as a secular enlargement in the area of the drainage basin to erode more recycled sedimentary rocks, and/or an increase in weathering intensity. A mantle plume associated with the opening of the Grenville Ocean ~1.5 Ga ago may have degassed massive quantities of CO(2), resulting in intense

  15. Dinosaur egg deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup, Korea: Diversity and paleobiological implications (United States)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min


    The taphonomy and depositional environments of dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, Korea, are described and their paleobiological implications are discussed in the context of global geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup is interpreted as dry floodplains with a semi-arid climate and intermittent volcanic activity. The diverse floodplain paleoenvironments include fluvial plains with meandering rivers to alluvial plains with episodic sheet-flooding. Both global and Korean dinosaur-egg-bearing deposits are generally restricted to the Late Cretaceous, a phenomenon for which two possible explanations are proposed. The first possible explanation for the temporal limitation of dinosaur egg preservation involves the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic, the Late Cretaceous ecological dispersion of angiosperm trees into swamps and floodplains, and the attendant change in herbivorous dinosaurs' diets. The second possible reason is related to nesting behavior in the Cretaceous. By contrast to the temporally limited occurrence of dinosaur eggs, paleoenvironments of nesting areas are diverse, ranging from inland areas to coastal areas. These hypotheses may provide new directions for the study and understanding of dinosaur egg distribution in the context of geologic time.

  16. Superstring theories as low-energy limit of supergroup gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Alexander D


    We consider Yang-Mills theory with $N=2$ super translation group in $d=10$ auxiliary dimensions as the structure group. The gauge theory is defined on a direct product manifold $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and $H^2$ is the open disc in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ with the boundary $S^1=\\partial H^2$. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the metric on $H^2$ is scaled down, the Yang-Mills action supplemented by the $d=5$ Chern-Simons term becomes the Green-Schwarz superstring action. More concretely, the Yang-Mills action in the infrared limit flows to the kinetic part of the superstring action and the $d=5$ Chern-Simons action, defined on a 5-manifold with the boundary $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, flows to the Wess-Zumino part of the superstring action. The same kind of duality between gauge fields and strings is established for type IIB superstring on AdS$_5\\times S^5$ background and a supergroup gauge theory with PSU(2,2$|$4) as the structure group.

  17. The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes (United States)

    Nikolaev, Sergey I.; Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José F.; Bolivar, Ignacio; Polet, Stephane; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Aleshin, Vladimir V.; Petrov, Nikolai B.; Pawlowski, Jan


    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed the extraordinary diversity of single-celled eukaryotes. However, the proper assessment of this diversity and accurate reconstruction of the eukaryote phylogeny are still impeded by the lack of molecular data for some major groups of easily identifiable and cultivable protists. Among them, amoeboid eukaryotes have been notably absent from molecular phylogenies, despite their diversity, complexity, and abundance. To partly fill this phylogenetic gap, we present here combined small-subunit ribosomal RNA and actin sequence data for the three main groups of “Heliozoa” (Actinophryida, Centrohelida, and Desmothoracida), the heliozoan-like Sticholonche, and the radiolarian group Polycystinea. Phylogenetic analyses of our sequences demonstrate the polyphyly of heliozoans, which branch either as an independent eukaryotic lineage (Centrohelida), within stramenopiles (Actinophryida), or among cercozoans (Desmothoracida), in broad agreement with previous ultrastructure-based studies. Our data also provide solid evidence for the existence of the Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of mainly amoeboid eukaryotes that includes desmothoracid heliozoans, all radiolarians, Sticholonche, and foraminiferans, as well as various filose and reticulose amoebae and some flagellates. PMID:15148395

  18. Paleobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup of Korea (United States)

    Paik, In Sung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Huh, Min


    Dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in Korea is described in taphonomic aspect, their paleoenvironments are interpreted, and geobiological implications of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits in the world and Korea are analyzed in geographic occurrences, geological ages, paleoenvironments, and lithology. Dinosaur eggs with spheroolithids, faveoloolithid, and elongatoolithid structural types occur in several stratigraphic formations of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, and most of the egg-bearing formations are the Late Cretaceous. The dinosaur eggs usually occur as clutches in purple sandy mudstone of floodplain deposits preserved as calcic paleosol with association of vertic paleosol features in places. Most of the eggs are top-broken and filled with surrounding sediments. The general depositional environment of dinosaur egg deposits in the Gyeongsang Supergroup are interpreted as a dried floodplain where volcanic activity occurred intermittently in the vicinity of the nesting sites. Their depositional settings on which floodplains developed are diverse from fluvial plain with meandering rivers to alluvial plain with episodic sheet flooding. The nesting areas in the Gyeongsang Basin are deemed to have been under semi-arid climate, which resulted in formation of calcic soils facilitating preservation of the dinosaur eggs. The geochronologic occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits are mostly restricted to the Late Cretaceous in the world as well as in Korea. If it has not been resulted from biased discoveries and reports of dinosaur eggs, biological rather than physical and chemical conditions for preservation of dinosaur eggs might be related with the restricted occurrences in the Late Cretaceous. Two hypotheses are suggested for probable biological causes to the geochronologically restricted occurrences of dinosaur egg-bearing deposits. One is related with the appearance of angiosperms in the Late Jurassic and the spreading

  19. Risk Evaluation for CO{sub 2} Geosequestration in the Knox Supergroup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetaru, Hannes


    This report describes a process and provides seed information for identifying and evaluating risks pertinent to a hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration (CCS) project. In the envisioned project, the target sequestration reservoir rock is the Potosi Formation of the Knox Supergroup. The Potosi is identified as a potential target formation because (1) at least locally, it contains vuggy to cavernous layers that have very high porosity, and (2) it is present in areas where the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone (a known potential reservoir unit) is absent or nonporous. The key report content is discussed in Section 3.3, which describes two lists of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that should be considered during the design stage of such a project. These lists primarily highlight risk elements particular to the establishment of the Potosi as the target formation in general. The lists are consciously incomplete with respect to risk elements that would be relevant for essentially all CCS projects regardless of location or geology. In addition, other risk elements specific to a particular future project site would have to be identified. Sources for the FEPs and scenarios listed here include the iconic Quintessa FEPs list developed for the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas (IEAGHG) Programme; previous risk evaluation projects executed by Schlumberger Carbon Services; and new input solicited from experts currently working on aspects of CCS in the Knox geology. The projects used as sources of risk information are primarily those that have targeted carbonate reservoir rocks similar in age, stratigraphy, and mineralogy to the Knox-Potosi. Risks of using the Potosi Formation as the target sequestration reservoir for a CCS project include uncertainties about the levels of porosity and permeability of that rock unit; the lateral consistency and continuity of those properties; and the ability of the project team to identify suitable (i

  20. Frequency of infection with A and B supergroup Wolbachia in insects and pests associated with mulberry and silkworm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M Prakash; H P Puttaraju


    Wolbachia is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative, vertically transmitted, alpha-proteobacterium that causes an array of reproductive abnormalities including cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminization of genetic males, parthenogenesis in a number of insect species, among others. Wolbachia is now being exploited as an agent for pest and vector control. Previous surveys indicated that it is commonly seen in 16–76% of arthropods. In this paper, using polymerase chain reaction assay based on specific amplification of the ftsZ-A and -B supergroup Wolbachia gene fragments, we found that 30% of insects and pests screened were positive for Wolbachia. Among them 66.7% harbour double Wolbachia infection, while 33.3% harbour single Wolbachia infection. These results indicate widespread infection with both double and single Wolbachia, and provide a wealth of information to exploit this endobacterium for the management of pests and vectors.

  1. Canada`s oceans: Experiences and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada has the world`s longest coastline. In recent years, growth in Canada`s oceans sector has resulted in increased pressures on the ocean environment. In many areas the biodiversity and ecological integrity of marine ecosystems are being threatened. There is a need to proactively conserve, restore, and protect marine ecosystem functions, species, and habitats for future generations. This document provides an overview of the economic contributions of the oceans sector to Canada`s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), explains Canada`s oceans management strategy, the national system of marine protected areas, and programs of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities. The broad objectives of Canada`s Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, and the Program of Living Marine Resource Management are reviewed. Harmonization of Canada`s shipping policy and its marine safety and environmental policies with international maritime laws are discussed, along with offshore energy and mineral resource development, and the integral role that oceans play in the earth`s climate. Oceans management and development assistance provided by Canada through the Canadian International Development Agency and the International Development Research Centre, especially in the areas of management of the uses of the ocean and seabed, protection of the marine environment, and fisheries management and development are also highlighted. Establishing a framework for sustainable ocean development, an ocean policy and related law, and further development of the knowledge bases in fisheries and marine science are some of the other priorities of CIDA`s oceans-related programs. 21 refs.

  2. Species in Wolbachia? Proposal for the designation of 'Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia onchocercicola', 'Candidatus Wolbachia blaxteri', 'Candidatus Wolbachia brugii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia taylori', 'Candidatus Wolbachia collembolicola' and 'Candidatus Wolbachia multihospitum' for the different species within Wolbachia supergroups. (United States)

    Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Delaye, Luis; Martínez, Julio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza


    Wolbachia are highly extended bacterial endosymbionts that infect arthropods and filarial nematodes and produce contrasting phenotypes on their hosts. Wolbachia taxonomy has been understudied. Currently, Wolbachia strains are classified into phylogenetic supergroups. Here we applied phylogenomic analyses to study Wolbachia evolutionary relationships and examined metrics derived from their genome sequences such as average nucleotide identity (ANI), in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), G+C content, and synteny to shed light on the taxonomy of these bacteria. Draft genome sequences of strains wDacA and wDacB obtained from the carmine cochineal insect Dactylopius coccus were included. Although all analyses indicated that each Wolbachia supergroup represents a distinct evolutionary lineage, we found that some of the analyzed supergroups showed enough internal heterogeneity to be considered as assemblages of more than one species. Thus, supergroups would represent supraspecific groupings. Consequently, Wolbachia pipientis nomen species would apply only to strains of supergroup B and we propose the designation of 'Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia onchocercicola', 'Candidatus Wolbachia blaxterii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia brugii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia taylorii', 'Candidatus Wolbachia collembolicola' and 'Candidatus Wolbachia multihospitis' for other supergroups.

  3. Geoneutrinos and reactor antineutrinos at SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoncini, M; Wipperfurth, S A; Fiorentini, G; Mantovani, F; McDonough, W F; Ricci, B


    In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores ($\\sim$55\\% of the total reactor signal), which generally burn natural uranium. Approximately 18\\% of the total geoneutrino signal is generated by the U and Th present in the rocks of the Huronian Supergroup-Sudbury Basin: the 60\\% uncertainty on the signal produced by this lithologic unit plays a crucial role on the discrimination power on the mantle signal as well as on the geoneutrino spectral shape reconstruction, which can in principle provide a direct measurement of the Th/U ratio in the Earth.

  4. Geology and geochemistry of palaeoproterozoic low-grade metabasic volcanic rocks from Salumber area, Aravalli Supergroup, NW India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Shekhawat; M K Pandit; D W Joshi


    The Palaeoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup in Salumber region includes a basal unit of metabasic volcanic rocks (Salumber volcanic rocks) overlain by a volcaniclastic/conglomerate one. Although these volcanic rocks have been metamorphosed to green-schist facies, some primary volcanic features are still preserved. This metabasic volcanic sequence can be further differentiated on the basis of textural variations, and the mineral assemblages are: (a) oligoclase + actinolite + chlorite + epidote; and (b) oligoclase + hornblende+ chlorite + biotite + Fe-Ti oxides. The SiO2 content ranges from ∼47.7 to 55.8% and MgO from ∼4.2 to 12.8%. Geochemical characteristics allow their subdivision into high Mg and Fe tholeiites. Inverse relationship of MgO with silica, alkalis and Zr is generally consistent with fractionation mechanism, also suggested by a change in colour of the rocks from dark greenish to light greenish towards the upper parts of the sequence. These metabasic volcanic rocks are enriched in incompatible trace elements and LREE (La = 30 − 40 × chondrite, Lu = 2 − 5 × chondrite), and demonstrate affinity mainly with MORB and within plate settings in geochemical tectonic discrimination schemes. The geochemical characteristics suggest a complex evolutionary history envisaging derivation of the melt from an enriched heterogeneous lithospheric source.

  5. Age and position of the sedimentary basin of the Ocoee Supergroup western Blue Ridge tectonic province, southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrug, R.; Unrug, S. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Ausich, W.I. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Cuffey, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Mamet, B.L. (Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Geologie); Palmes, S.L. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    The stratigraphic continuity of the Ocoee Supergroup established recently allows one to extrapolate the Paleozoic age of the Walden Creek Group determined on paleontological evidence to the entire Ocoee succession. The Walden Creek Group rocks contain a fossil assemblage of fenestrate bryozoan, algal, trilobite, ostracod, brachiopod and echinozoan fragments and agglutinated foraminifer tests that indicate Silurian or younger Paleozoic age. The fossils occur in carbonate clasts in polymict conglomerates, and debris-flow breccia beds, and in olistoliths of bedded carbonate and shale, and calcarenite turbidite beds. These carbonate lithologies form a minor, but characteristic constituent of the Walden Creek Group. Fossil have been found also in shale and mudstone siliciclastic lithologies of the Walden Creek Group. The fossils are fragmented and poorly preserved because of several cycles of cementation and solution in the carbonate rocks and a pervasive cleavage in the fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Recently reported Mississippian plant fossils from the Talladega belt indicate widespread occurrence of Middle Paleozoic basins in the Western Blue Ridge. These pull-apart basins formed in the stress field generated by northward movement of Laurentia past the western margin of Gondwana after the Taconian-Famatinian collision in the Ordovician.

  6. Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. (United States)

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo


    The discovery of giant viruses with genome and physical size comparable to cellular organisms, remnants of protein translation machinery and virus-specific parasites (virophages) have raised intriguing questions about their origin. Evidence advocates for their inclusion into global phylogenomic studies and their consideration as a distinct and ancient form of life. Here we reconstruct phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses). Trees of proteomes define viruses as a 'fourth supergroup' along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Trees of domains indicate they have evolved via massive and primordial reductive evolutionary processes. The distribution of domain structures suggests giant viruses harbor a significant number of protein domains including those with no cellular representation. The genomic and structural diversity embedded in the viral proteomes is comparable to the cellular proteomes of organisms with parasitic lifestyles. Since viral domains are widespread among cellular species, we propose that viruses mediate gene transfer between cells and crucially enhance biodiversity. Results call for a change in the way viruses are perceived. They likely represent a distinct form of life that either predated or coexisted with the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and constitute a very crucial part of our planet's biosphere.

  7. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  8. Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup of South Africa and Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Catuneanu


    Full Text Available Complex structures in the sandstones of the Lower Jurassic aeolian Clarens Formation (Karoo Supergroup are found at numerous localities throughout southern Africa, and can be assigned to five distinct architectural groups: (1 up to 3.3-m high, free-standing, slab-shaped forms of bioturbated sandstones with elliptical bases, orientated buttresses and an interconnecting large burrow system; (2 up to 1.2-m high, free-standing, irregular forms of bioturbated sandstones with 2-cm to 4-cm thick, massive walls, empty chambers and vertical shafts; (3 about 0.15-m to 0.25-m high, mainly bulbous, multiple forms with thin walls (larger than 2 cm, hollow chambers with internal pillars and bridges; (4 about 0.15-m to 0.2-m (maximum 1-m high, free-standing forms of aggregated solitary spheres associated with massive horizontal, orientated capsules or tubes, and meniscate tubes; and (5 about 5 cmin diameter, ovoid forms with weak internal shelving in a close-fitting cavity. Based on size, wall thickness, orientation and the presence of internal chambers, these complex structures are tentatively interpreted as ichnofossils of an Early Jurassic social organism; the different architectures are reflective of the different behaviours of more than one species, the history of structural change in architectural forms (ontogenetic series or an architectural adaptation to local palaeoclimatic variability. While exact modern equivalents are unknown, some of these ichnofossils are comparable to nests (or parts of nests constructed by extant termites, and thus these Jurassic structures are very tentatively interpreted here as having been made by a soil-dwelling social organism, probably of termite origin. This southern African discovery, along with reported Triassic and Jurassic termite ichnofossils from North America, supports previous hypotheses that sociality in insects, particularity in termites, likely evolved prior to the Pangea breakup in the Early Mesozoic.

  9. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前


    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  10. Preliminary palynological zonation of the Chinle formation, southwestern U.S.A., and its correlation to the Newark supergroup (eastern U.S.A.) (United States)

    Litwin, R.J.; Traverse, A.; Ash, S.R.


    Three informal palynological assemblage zones can be distinguished in samples from Chinle Formation outcrops in Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. The oldest zone (zone I) is in the Temple Mountain Member in southeastern Utah; the middle zone (zone II) is in the Shinarump, Moss Back, Monitor Butte and (lower part of the) Petrified Forest Members (Utah, Arizona and New Mexico); the youngest zone (zone III) is in the upper Petrified Forest Member and silstone member in Arizona and Utah and the silstone member in northcentral New Mexico. Present palynological evidence suggests that Chinle deposition on the Colorado Plateau began locally in late Carnian time and continued at least into the early part of Norian time of the Late Triassic period. Because the upper boundary of the Chinle Formation is an unconformity and the overlying formations are palynologically barren, the length of time represented by this stratigraphic hiatus is not known with certainty. Current palynological evidence suggests, however, that the unconformity at the top of the Chinle cannot be older than early Norian nor younger than Hettangian. Zones I, II and III can now be recognized in the palynomorph assemblage sequences from the Eastern Mesozoic basins, which modifies earlier palynological zonations for the lower portions of the Newark Supergroup. This is based on our identification of palynomorphs not previously known from portions of the Newark Supergroup and the discovery that specific biomarker taxa combinations are the same for both the western and eastern palynomorph sequences. At present palynomorph assemblages from the Chinle Formation and Newark Supergroup compare more closely for zones II and III than they do for zone I, but research is still in progress. ?? 1991.

  11. Canada and veterinary parasitology. (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D


    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  12. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, India: Implications towards non-plume intrusive activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyabrata Das; Kaushik Das; Partha Pratim Chakraborty; S Balakrishnan


    Besides offering significant clues towards tracking the geochemical evolution of the mantle and architectural reconstruction of different ‘supercontinent’, geochronological and geochemical appraisal of igneous inputs are also important to bracket the depositional time frame of any lithopackage, particularly, the unfossiliferous sedimentary successions. The present study deals with diabasic intrusive within Mesoproterozoic Saraipalli Formation, which is an argillaceous constituent present at the basal part of nearly 400 m thick four-tiered unmetamorphosed but deformed sedimentary succession of Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, central India. The SE–NW trending intrusive comprises mainly of plagioclase and augite together with minor orthopyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals. Though some plagioclase laths are partially sericitized, the ophitic-to-subophitic texture of the rock is well preserved. Major and trace element geochemical data indicate that this intrusive is basalt-to-basaltic andesite in character and of subalkaline basalt affinity. Multi-element plot shows overall LILE-enrichment and enrichment of Pb and slight depletion of Nb and P, coupled with moderate La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios. Zr, Y and Nb ternary diagrams plot in the fields of within plate basalt. Selected HFSE ratios indicate a non-plume source with crustal assimilation/sediment mixing. Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data show that the intrusive has Srinitial and Ndinitial of 0.709377–0.706672 and 0.510919–0.510815, respectively. Positive tNd [t = 1420 Ma] values (+0.3 to + 2.3) indicate depleted isotopic nature of their protolith. The calculated DM age is 1.7–1.9 Ga. The mineral-whole rock isochron data (Sm–Nd systematics) of the intrusive implies an emplacement age of ca. 1420 Ma. Considering synchronous terrain boundary shear zone development in Bastar craton on the southeastern part of the Singhora basin, mafic magmatism in Eastern Ghats and large-scale basic intrusion in Sausar

  13. Sampling gene diversity across the supergroup Amoebozoa: large EST data sets from Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, Physarum polycephalum, Hyperamoeba dachnaya and Hyperamoeba sp. (United States)

    Watkins, Russell F; Gray, Michael W


    From comparative analysis of EST data for five taxa within the eukaryotic supergroup Amoebozoa, including two free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis) and three slime molds (Physarum polycephalum, Hyperamoeba dachnaya and Hyperamoeba sp.), we obtained new broad-range perspectives on the evolution and biosynthetic capacity of this assemblage. Together with genome sequences for the amoebozoans Dictyostelium discoideum and Entamoeba histolytica, and including partial genome sequence available for A. castellanii, we used the EST data to identify genes that appear to be exclusive to the supergroup, and to specific clades therein. Many of these genes are likely involved in cell-cell communication or differentiation. In examining on a broad scale a number of characters that previously have been considered in simpler cross-species comparisons, typically between Dictyostelium and Entamoeba, we find that Amoebozoa as a whole exhibits striking variation in the number and distribution of biosynthetic pathways, for example, ones for certain critical stress-response molecules, including trehalose and mannitol. Finally, we report additional compelling cases of lateral gene transfer within Amoebozoa, further emphasizing that although this process has influenced genome evolution in all examined amoebozoan taxa, it has done so to a variable extent.

  14. Multiparameter quantum supergroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, M.


    This paper is supplementary to my paper ``Multiparameter Quantum Groups and Multiparameter $R$-Matrices'', [5]. Its main purpose is to point out that among the single block solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation given in [5] there occurs an ${n+m choose 2 +1$ parameter quantum deformation of the supe

  15. Chuaria circularis from the early Mesoproterozoic Suket Shale, Vindhyan Supergroup, India: Insights from light and electron microscopy and pyrolysis–gas chromatography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryendu Dutta; Michael Steiner; Santanu Banerjee; Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann; Silambuchelvan Jeevankumar; Ulrich Mann


    Chuaria circularis (Walcott 1899) from the Suket Shale of the Vindhyan Supergroup (central India) has been reinvestigated for its morphology and chemical composition using biostatistics,electron microscopy and pyrolysis –gas chromatography.Morphology and microscopic investigations provide little clues on the specific biological affinity of Chuaria as numerous preservational artifacts seem to be incorporated.On the contrary,the predominance of -aliphatic pyrolysates of presently studied Chuaria from India rather supports an algal affinity.Moreover,the reflectance of C. circularis can be used to obtain a comparative maturity parameter of the Precambrian sediments.The review of the age and geographical distribution of C. circularis constrains that this species cannot be considered as an index fossil for the Proterozoic time.

  16. In Canada: Friendly Fire (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane


    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  17. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.


    Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K E


    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  18. IYPE in Canada (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.


    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  19. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  20. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions. (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin


    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  1. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada (United States)

    Conly, John


    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  3. Midwifery education in Canada. (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S


    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stratigraphy of the Roraima Supergroup along the Brazil-Guyana border in the Guiana shield, Northern Amazonian Craton - results of the Brazil-Guyana Geology and Geodiversity Mapping Project


    Reis,Nelson Joaquim; Nadeau, Serge; Fraga,Leda Maria; BETIOLLO, Leandro Menezes; Faraco,Maria Telma Lins; Reece,Jimmy; Lachhman,Deokumar; Ault,Randy


    ABSTRACT: The Geological and Geodiversity Mapping binational program along the Brazil-Guyana border zone allowed reviewing and integrating the stratigraphy and nomenclature of the Roraima Supergroup along the Pakaraima Sedimentary Block present in northeastern Brazil and western Guyana. The area mapped corresponds to a buffer zone of approximately 25 km in width on both sides of the border, of a region extending along the Maú-Ireng River between Mount Roraima (the triple-border region) and Mu...

  5. Canada Finance Minster:Welcome China's Investment in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ To forward the relationship between China and Canada in financial and trade sectors and strengthen the cooperation in avoiding the worse impact of international financial crisis,Canadian financial high-level leaders involving Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney,Canada's Minister of Finance Jim Flaherty,Federal Superintendent of Financial Institutions Julie well as tive malor banks and the two biggest insurance companies in Canada,who are lpoking to strengthen and expand business ties with China,visited China from August 8 to August 14,2009.

  6. Indicateurs cles au Canada


    Warren, Paul


    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  7. Geochemistry of sericite deposits at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup, Rajasthan, India: Evidence for metamorphosed and metasomatised Precambrian Paleosol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sreenivas; A B Roy; R Srinivasan


    Fine grained sericite deposits occur at the interface between Archean Mewar Gneiss Complex and the Proterozoic Aravalli Supergroup independent of shearing. They show a gradational contact with the basement granites and gneisses and a sharp contact with the overlying quartz pebble conglomeratic quartzites. Rip-up clasts of these sericite schists are found in the overlying conglomerates. The sericite schists are rich in sericite towards the top and contain chlorite towards the base. The sericite in these schists was formed by metasomatic alteration of kyanite and not from the feldspars of the basement granitoids and gneisses. Uni-directional variations of SiO2 and Al2O3, high Al2O3 content (>30%), positive correlation between Al2O3 and TiO2 , Ti/Al and Ti/Zr ratios, high pre-metasomatic chemical indices of alteration (>90), and enrichment of heavy rare earth elements relative to the parent granites and gneisses — all these chemical characteristics combined with field evidence suggest that the sericite schists are formed from a paleosol protolith, which developed on Archean basement between 2.5 and ∼2.1 Ga in the Precambrian of Rajasthan. The superimposed metasomatic alteration restricts the use of Fe2+/Ti and Fe3+/Ti ratios of these paleosols for interpretation of PO2 conditions in the atmosphere.

  8. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan


    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  9. Canada and the Third World. (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.


    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  10. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada (United States)


    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.


    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  12. Compromised wounds in Canada. (United States)

    Denny, Keith; Lawand, Christina; Perry, Sheril D


    Wounds are a serious healthcare issue with profound personal, clinical and economic implications. Using a working definition of compromised wounds, this study examines the prevalence of wounds by type and by healthcare setting using data from hospitals, home care, hospital-based continuing care and long-term care facilities within fiscal year 2011-2012 in Canada. It also evaluates several risk factors associated with wounds, such as diabetes, circulatory disease and age. Compromised wounds were reported in almost 4% of in-patient acute hospitalizations and in more than 7% of home care clients, almost 10% of long-term care clients and almost 30% of hospital-based continuing care clients. Patients with diabetes were much more likely to have a compromised wound than were patients without the disease. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  13. Food control systems in Canada. (United States)

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J


    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  14. SHRIMP U–Pb and REE data pertaining to the origins of xenotime in Belt Supergroup rocks: evidence for ages of deposition, hydrothermal alteration, and metamorphism (United States)

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen; Fanning, C. Mark


    The Belt–Purcell Supergroup, northern Idaho, western Montana, and southern British Columbia, is a thick succession of Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks with an age range of about 1470–1400 Ma. Stratigraphic layers within several sedimentary units were sampled to apply the new technique of U–Pb dating of xenotime that sometimes forms as rims on detrital zircon during burial diagenesis; xenotime also can form epitaxial overgrowths on zircon during hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Belt Supergroup units sampled are the Prichard and Revett Formations in the lower Belt, and the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite in the upper Belt. Additionally, all samples that yielded xenotime were also processed for detrital zircon to provide maximum age constraints for the time of deposition and information about provenances; the sample of Prichard Formation yielded monazite that was also analyzed. Ten xenotime overgrowths from the Prichard Formation yielded a U–Pb age of 1458 ± 4 Ma. However, because scanning electron microscope – backscattered electrons (SEM–BSE) imagery suggests complications due to possible analysis of multiple age zones, we prefer a slightly older age of 1462 ± 6 Ma derived from the three oldest samples, within error of a previous U–Pb zircon age on the syn-sedimentary Plains sill. We interpret the Prichard xenotime as diagenetic in origin. Monazite from the Prichard Formation, originally thought to be detrital, yielded Cretaceous metamorphic ages. Xenotime from the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite formed at about 1160– 1050 Ma, several hundred million years after deposition, and probably also experienced Early Cretaceous growth. These xenotime overgrowths are interpreted as metamorphic–diagenetic in origin (i.e., derived during greenschist facies metamorphism elsewhere in the basin, but deposited in sub-greenschist facies rocks). Several xenotime grains are older detrital grains of igneous

  15. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all refuge...

  16. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  17. Obstetric medical care in Canada. (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie


    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  18. Dating low-grade metamorphism and deformation of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, NE Brazil: a K/Ar fine-fraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Süssenberger

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the northernmost part of the Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup that crops out in the Chapada Diamantina. The fine-fraction K/Ar dating obtained on slightly metamorphosed sediments of the siliciclastic Espinhaço Supergroup shows a polyphase deformation history that corresponds to the Brasiliano (Pan-African orogenic cycle. The isotopic results are interpreted to indicate three age domains coincident with three structurally different domains. Constrained by the Kübler Index ('illite crystallinity' and illite polytypism, the thermal conditions generated during the tectonic activity show a gradual trend from the craton margins to the interior from epizonal to diagenetic. The northern Chapada Diamantina is situated in the foreland of the Riacho do Pontal belt and comprises the sediments of the Espinhaço Supergroup northeast of the Irecê basin. The K/Ar ages for < 2 µm illite fractions range between 645 and 621 Ma [mean 637±9 Ma (2s] and for < 0.2 µm fraction range between 625 and 603 Ma [mean 614±9 Ma (2s]. Samples from the central Chapada Diamantina east of the Irecê basin are not affected by a Brasiliano deformation event and therefore, the N-S-trending structures are assumed to be older. The deformation of the southern Chapada Diamantina was established in conjunction with the formation of the Araçuai orogenesis and the inversion and reactivation of the Paramirim impactogen. The last stage of deformation in this area is recorded by the K/Ar fine-fraction dating between 470 and 460 Ma.

  19. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)


    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada. (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin


    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  1. [History of trachoma in canada]. (United States)

    Milot, Jean


    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  2. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  3. Supergroups and economies of scale. (United States)

    Schlossberg, Steven


    With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice.

  4. Numero Special: La Communication Technique au Canada. (United States)

    Harris, Randy; Russell, Pamela


    Introduces (in the French language) a special issue on technical communication in Canada. Describes aspects of employment, academia, organizations, conferences, and journals in the field of technical communication in Canada. (SR)

  5. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  6. Canada-U.S. Relations (United States)


    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses

  7. Teaching Composition Theory in Canada. (United States)

    Graves, Roger


    Describes one teacher's experience of teaching composition theory on the graduate level at a Canadian university. Explains that there are only two rhetoric and composition programs in Canada and that, generally, Canadian universities have been slow to make the transition from neocolonialism to postcolonialism. (TB)

  8. Mosaic composition of ribA and wspB genes flanking the virB8-D4 operon in the Wolbachia supergroup B-strain, wStr. (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Li, Yang Grace; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M


    The obligate intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), is a widespread, vertically transmitted endosymbiont of filarial nematodes and arthropods. In insects, Wolbachia modifies reproduction, and in mosquitoes, infection interferes with replication of arboviruses, bacteria and plasmodia. Development of Wolbachia as a tool to control pest insects will be facilitated by an understanding of molecular events that underlie genetic exchange between Wolbachia strains. Here, we used nucleotide sequence, transcriptional and proteomic analyses to evaluate expression levels and establish the mosaic nature of genes flanking the T4SS virB8-D4 operon from wStr, a supergroup B-strain from a planthopper (Hemiptera) that maintains a robust, persistent infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. Based on protein abundance, ribA, which contains promoter elements at the 5'-end of the operon, is weakly expressed. The 3'-end of the operon encodes an intact wspB, which encodes an outer membrane protein and is co-transcribed with the vir genes. WspB and vir proteins are expressed at similar, above average abundance levels. In wStr, both ribA and wspB are mosaics of conserved sequence motifs from Wolbachia supergroup A- and B-strains, and wspB is nearly identical to its homolog from wCobU4-2, an A-strain from weevils (Coleoptera). We describe conserved repeated sequence elements that map within or near pseudogene lesions and transitions between A- and B-strain motifs. These studies contribute to ongoing efforts to explore interactions between Wolbachia and its host cell in an in vitro system.

  9. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada. (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian


    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  10. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships


    Scott Elaine


    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  11. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  12. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon


    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  13. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history. (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender


    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  14. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012


    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  15. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott


    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  16. History of geriatrics in Canada. (United States)

    Hogan, David B


    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  17. Canada. (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia


    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  18. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, A. [Engage Energy Canada, L.P., Mississauga, ON (Canada)


    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs.

  19. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade. (United States)

    Kilgour, David


    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  20. Current Trends in Leisure Sports in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The purpose of this study was to explore the current trends in leisure sports in Canada. Based on physical activity and sport participation levels investigation conducted by Statistics Canada and the Ca-nadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute,this paper provided an overview of the most recent findings on participation of leisure,sport,physical activity,and exercise of Canadians.

  1. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015 (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne


    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  2. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History" (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney


    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  3. Paint removal activities in Canada (United States)

    Foster, Terry


    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  4. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  5. Cinéma / Canada


    Berthomé, Jean-Pierre; Coulombe, Michel; Dvorak, Marta; Garel, Sylvain; Noguez, Dominique; Suchet, Simone; Vimenet, Pascal


    Longtemps connue en France par le biais de cinéastes québécois tels que Claude Jutra, Gilles Carle, ou Pierre Perrault, l'industrie cinématographique du Canada a dû se développer dans l'ombre d'Hollywood. Elle s'est forgée une réputation internationale d'excellence dans les domaines qui ne concurrençaient pas les studios américains : le documentaire, le court-métrage, et les films d'animation. Nous sommes en présence d'un cinéma fortement subventionné (et même d'un cinéma d'État) qui repose s...

  6. Canada's population: growth and dualism. (United States)

    Beaujot, R P


    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  7. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y


    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  8. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.


    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011


    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  10. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009


    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  11. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  12. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada. (United States)


    ... period. (b) Horses of United States origin that are imported into Canada under an export health... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in...

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  14. Energy policy and free trade in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslaner, E.M. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA))


    Canada and the USA signed a free trade agreement that went into effect on 1 January 1989. The USA saw the accord as having the potential to open markets in both countries for the mutual advantage of each. Americans have become more protectionist in recent years, but the object of such protectionism has been Japan rather than Canada. Canadians worried that the accord might lead to further economic and cultural domination by the USA. Many Canadians view their energy resources as a national birthright that can play a key role in fostering a sense of nationalism. Other Canadians consider energy resources to be provincial birthrights and worry that the federal government will interfere in free trade with other countries (especially the USA) to impose a feeling of nationalism on Canada. The debate over free trade thus mirrors that on energy in Canada. (author).

  15. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  16. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera (United States)

    Price, J.I.


    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  17. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker


    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  18. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada. (United States)

    Gray, James V.


    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  19. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  20. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  1. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  2. Plating effluent management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)


    There are some 600 firms in Canada classified as metal finishers, employing about 8,000 people; 60 per cent of these firms are located in Ontario. Annual sales are in the range of $800 million. About 25 per cent of the total effort is devoted to the automotive industry. Regulatory initiatives are based on the Toxic Substance Management Policy 1995 Framework, and involve multi-stakeholder consultation to identify, evaluate and recommend goals, targets, and management options to reduce exposure to hexavalent chromium, maximize the recycling of nickel and minimize the releases of cadmium from industry operations by promoting and encouraging appropriate P2 practices. Other regulatory initiatives follow from the Fisheries Act of 1970, the Metal Finishing Liquid Effluent Guidelines of 1977, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1988. There are also non-regulatory initiatives, such as the Metal Finishing Industry Pollution Project, a voluntary cooperative effort directed towards formulating plans to reduce toxic effluents from metal finishing operations and to develop and implement site-specific P2 plans. The various treatment technologies such as physico-chemical treatment of multi-metal rinse waters and periodic bath dumpings at on-site waste water treatment plants, water reduction practices to make more effective use of rinse water, evaporation, ion exchange, packed bed scrubbers, fume suppressants, composite mesh pads and separate ventilation for degreasing are also described. Specific case studies are cited to illustrate the various treatment technologies.

  3. Bombardier Inc. Factory, Valcourt, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)


    Bombardier Inc. of Montreal, Canada has installed over 15,000 m{sup 2} of unglazed solar air collectors at its various manufacturing plants in Quebec. The solar collectors decrease operating expenses and significantly improve indoor air quality. Bombardier's engineers compared the cost of this system with other methods of recladding and improving ventilation and found the costs to be the same. With no extra costs for free solar heating, the system has an immediate payback, along with other benefits of improved air quality and attractive architecturally designed walls that utilize solar energy. Bombardier's first solar heating installation at their Sea Doo manufacturing plant has a solar wall area of 740 m{sup 2}. The heat-absorbing surface area is 611 m{sup 2} of a custom dark olive-green colour, with the balance being the white canopy plenum along the top and vertical dividers. The entire surface of the solar panel is separated into six sections with one fan per section. Wall-mounted ventilation fans were installed to bring in a total of 71,400 m{sup 3}/h of heated ventilation air. Monitored solar and destratification savings for the year 1993-94 were CA $33,000 (ECU 20,440) based on energy savings of 894,000 kWh. (author)

  4. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  5. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović


    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  6. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions (United States)

    Hiebert, Al


    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…

  7. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions (United States)

    Hiebert, Al


    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  8. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.


    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) ( USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  9. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada. (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim


    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  10. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon. (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar


    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  11. Relative influence of surficial, climatic, and plate tectonic processes on the development of thick Paleoproterozoic quartz arenite successions (United States)

    Corcoran, P.; Bynoe, L.


    Quartz arenites are significant components of the rock record and appear to be most abundant during specific time intervals in Earth history. Thick quartz arenite successions are typical in Precambrian strata and have been associated with extensive cratonization during the late Archean to early Proterozoic. These supermature sandstones can also be attributed to the intense weathering conditions of early Earth’s atmosphere, source rocks rich in quartz, recycling and diagenesis, or simply the higher preservation potential of quartz compared with other minerals. Modern quartz-rich sands develop in low relief settings where high residence times contribute to chemical breakdown of labile grains. The lack of land vegetation during the Precambrian would have precluded confined sedimentation patterns and stabilization of soils, both of which enhance sediment residence times. Thus, the generation of first-cycle late Archean quartz arenites in fault-controlled, high relief basins necessitates periods of intense chemical weathering. The inferred change from a greenhouse to oxygenated atmosphere at around 2.3-2.2 Ga could have been the major control on the relative change to thinner units of pure sandstones with time. In order to test this hypothesis, detailed facies and compositional analyses are being conducted on the ca. 2.2 Ga Bar River Formation of the Huronian Supergroup, Canada. Four groups comprise Huronian stratigraphy, three of which contain basal glaciogenic conglomerates, followed by mudstone-dominated then quartz-rich formations. It has been suggested that these tripartite cycles could have been climatically controlled. Detailed facies analysis of the 500-750 m thick quartz arenite indicates shallow water, wave-influenced settings, akin to shoreface environments along extensive stable shelves. Thin mudstone interbeds, representing brief periods of suspension sedimentation, have been sampled for geochemical analysis in order to determine the degree of chemical

  12. NEPTUNE Canada Community Science Experiments (United States)

    Juniper, S.; Bornhold, B.; Barnes, C.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.


    In 2007 NEPTUNE Canada will install the first stage of a regional cabled observatory (RCO) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Stage 2 of the RCO is being developed by the US-based ORION Project Office, through the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI). For Stage 1, a 800km fiber-optic cable will loop out from a shore station on Vancouver Island to the Juan de Fuca volcanic spreading ridge. Two seafloor nodes are planned, one to support studies of tectonic and hydrothermal activity on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the other for investigation of a broad range of processes in Barkley Canyon, on the continental slope of Vancouver Island. Each node will provide power and Ethernet communications to instruments that comprise multi-disciplinary community science experiments. These experiments were developed through a 2-year series of workshops and a final competition. Data from all instruments will be available on-line, through the NEPTUNE data management and archive system. Investigations at the Endeavour node will focus on links between seismic activity and hydrothermal emissions and their resulting impact on hydrothermal vent organisms and regional oceanic circulation and geochemical fluxes. This area provides a number of technical challenges, including the laying of the backbone cable over a volcanic terrain, and the placement of instruments and extension cables in areas of abundant high-temperature venting. Planned instruments include broad-band seismometers, acoustic Doppler current meters, video and digital still cameras and chemical sensors. Experiments at the Barkley Canyon site will emphasis the effects of water currents passing through the canyon, and seismic activity. Combined biological and physical oceanographic instruments will monitor the interaction between sediment transport along the axis of the canyon and the bioturbation activity of the fauna. A combined physical/biological experiment in the water column

  13. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale


    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  14. Satellite mobile data service for Canada (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  15. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  16. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  17. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience


    Terry Norman


    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  18. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada. (United States)


    ... transiting Canada from point to point in the United States will be manifested on United States-Canada Transit... certified. The driver will be allowed to break any seals affixed by Canadian Customs upon presentation of...

  19. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski


    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  20. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada. (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah


    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  1. Return migration from Canada to Britain. (United States)

    Richmond, A H


    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  2. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha


    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  3. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany. (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  4. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada. (United States)

    Sass, R


    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  5. Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.



    Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials.

  6. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography). (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  7. Aging amongst immigrants in Canada: population drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Durst


    for policy development and service delivery. As immigrants age in Canada, they will have very different expectations for services than non-immigrants and immigrants who aged in their home country. This paper offers recommendations for policy planners and service providers in health and social welfare services.

  8. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations. (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  9. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years, bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active. According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference, Chinese overseas investment is displayingan increasing trend, with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  10. New Saffold cardioviruses in 3 children, Canada. (United States)

    Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy


    In Canada, cardiovirus isolates related to Saffold virus were detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 3 children with respiratory symptoms. Polyprotein sequence of the Can112051-06 isolate had 91.2% aa identity with Saffold virus; however, EF and CD loops of the viral surface varied substantially.

  11. New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada


    Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy


    In Canada, cardiovirus isolates related to Saffold virus were detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 3 children with respiratory symptoms. Polyprotein sequence of the Can112051-06 isolate had 91.2% aa identity with Saffold virus; however, EF and CD loops of the viral surface varied substantially.

  12. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada (United States)

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie


    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  13. First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>An official visit to China in December 2009 by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and the holding of the First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue in Beijing a month earlier gave the two countries unique opportunities to further promote friendly cooperation. The two sides agreed to make concerted efforts to safeguard and consolidate the non-governmental basis

  14. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany. (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  15. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2. (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  16. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou


    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  17. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron


    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  18. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape. (United States)

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  19. Hurricane Hazel: Canada's storm of the century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gifford, Jim


    ... For EleanorHurricane_Hazel_Interior.qxd 6/22/04 3:35 PM Page 3 HURRICANE HAZEL Canada's Storm of the Century Jim Gifford The dundurn Group Toronto * OxfordHurricane_Hazel_Interior.qxd 6/22/04 3:35...

  20. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  1. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron


    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  2. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  3. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  4. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography). (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  5. The core health science library in Canada. (United States)

    Huntley, J L


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  6. The Core Health Science Library in Canada * (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  7. Illegal Immigrants in Canada: Recent Developments. (United States)

    Robinson, W. G.


    Naturally protected by its distance from most migrant routes and with a long undefended border with the U.S., a parliamentary system capable of responding rapidly to problems, and a small legal and even smaller illegal immigrant population, Canada has experimented with novel immigration policies to encourage and control its population increase.…

  8. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin


    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  9. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.


    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  10. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.


    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  11. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository? (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv


    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  12. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.


    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  13. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository? (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv


    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  14. A trace element and Pb isotopic investigation into the provenance and deposition of stromatolitic carbonates, ironstones and associated shales of the ∼3.0 Ga Pongola Supergroup, Kaapvaal Craton (United States)

    Bolhar, Robert; Hofmann, Axel; Siahi, Mehrnaz; Feng, Yue-xing; Delvigne, Camille


    Major and trace element, and Pb isotopic data for chemical and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Mesoarchaean Pongola Supergroup are employed to infer aspects of the provenance and depositional environment, including ambient seawater composition. Stromatolitic carbonates of the Nsuze Group were formed in a tidal-flat setting, whereas ironstones of the Mozaan Group were deposited in an outer-shelf setting during marine transgression. Geochemical criteria, employed to test for crustal contamination and diagenetic/metamorphic overprinting, demonstrate that carbonates and ironstones preserved their primary chemical signature. In comparison to other documented Precambrian stromatolites, shale-normalised REE+Y patterns for Nsuze carbonates show pronounced enrichment in middle REE, but lack strong elemental anomalies (La, Gd, Y) that are diagnostic for derivation from open marine waters. In contrast, normalised REE+Y for ironstones exhibit distinct positive La, Gd and Y anomalies. Both rock types are devoid of normalised Ce anomalies and show only minor enrichment in Eu, suggesting deposition in anoxic environments (with respect to the Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple) accompanied by minor high-temperature hydrothermal input. Trace element geochemical data are most consistent with deposition of Nsuze carbonates in a shallow-water epicontinental basin with restricted but variable exchange to the open-ocean and dominant fluvial input, whereas ironstone precipitated in a deeper-water, epicontinental sea. Estuarine fractionation and organic complexation due to microbial activity is possibly indicated by MREE enrichment of the carbonates, also consistent with a restricted environment. Shales belonging to the Mozaan Group are characterised by high concentrations of Al and K relative to Ca, Na and Sr, indicative of pronounced in-situ weathering, coupled with K-metasomatism. The provenance is mixed, comprising (ultra)mafic and granitic source rocks. Pb isotope regression for Nsuze

  15. US-Canada Free-Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US-Canada Free Trade Agreement is an historic agreement that will yield major benefits for the US and Canadian economies, for US-Canadian bilateral trade relations, and for the international trade regime. The energy section of the Agreement is one of its most important. Energy trade between the US and Canada amounts to over $10 billion per year, the largest such bilateral trade in the world. Canada is our largest oil supplier and provides virtually all of our natural gas and electricity imports. While these volumes are a small fraction of US needs, they provide an important margin of energy security. Canada also is an important market for US energy exports, buying 16 million tons or $700 million worth of coal in 1987, 20% of US coal exports. The Free Trade Agreement ensures that the US and Canada can continued to enjoy unrestricted trade in energy, provides benefits to US consumers and producers, and enhances our energy security. The Agreement: prohibits future restrictions on energy trade, such as quantitative restriction, import or export taxes, and minimum prices; ensures that US consumers will be treated equitably with Canadian consumers; provides added assurance of supply in the event of disruptions; will lower costs to consumers, including our energy intensive industries, and help make US industry more competitive in world markets; will provide more certainty to producers and consumers, which should expand energy trade and be more conducive to energy investment; and will, over time, reduce US oil imports by encouraging continued market penetration of Canadian and US natural gas, and greater use of Canadian hydroelectric power.

  16. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada. (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M


    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  17. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis


    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  18. Biomaterials in Canada: the first four decades. (United States)

    Brash, John L


    Biomaterials research in Canada began in the 1960s. Over the past four decades significant contributions have been made across a broad spectrum covering dental, orthopaedic, cardiovascular, neuro, and ocular biomaterials. Canadians have also been active in the derivative area of tissue engineering. Biomaterials laboratories are now established in universities and research institutes from coast to coast, supported mainly by funding from the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Canadian Biomaterials Society was formed in 1971 and has played an important role in the development of the field. The Society played host to the 5th World Biomaterials Congress in Toronto in 1996. The work of Canadian researchers over the past four decades is summarized briefly. It is concluded that biomaterials and tissue engineering is a mature, strong area of research in Canada and appears set to continue as such into the future.

  19. GEOID '88: A gravimetric geoid for Canada (United States)

    Nagy, Dezso


    Using Stokes' formula, a gravimetric geoid was calculated for Canada. The input data are as follows: 15 x 15' block averages were used for Canada and the USA and 1 x 1 deg block averages and satellite model (GEM-T1) provided values for the remaining part of the Earth. The geoid was calculated at 6398 points covering the area within the points rho(sub i)(phi sub i; lambda sub i) (lambda is + west): rho sub 1(40,125); rho sub 2(75,184); rho sub 3(75,10); and rho sub 4(40,60). The computed geoid refers to the GRS1980 and reaches a local minimum of -47.3 meters around the western part of Hudson Bay. A contour map of the geoid is shown.

  20. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Da Porto


    Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.

  1. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John


    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  2. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years,bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active.According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference,Chinese overseas investment is displaying an increasing trend,with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  3. Harnessing Canada's wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.


    Canada's latest wind farm, the 20-turbine Magrath Wind Power project, a $48 million joint venture between Suncor, EHN Wind Power Canada Inc., and Enbridge Inc. is described. This latest addition to Canada's growing renewable energy generation capacity is situated near the town of Magrath in Alberta, 40 km south of Lethbridge. The 20 turbines are erected along a distance of eight kilometres; they are capable of generating enough electricity to light approximately 13,000 homes. Each hub stands 65 metres above the ground, equivalent in height to a 23-story building; the turbine's bladespan is 34 metres, which is close to the wingspan of a Boeing 737-900 airliner. The Magrath is Suncor's second wind power project, and is part of the oil giant's continuing commitment to the development of renewable energy sources as a means of providing a reliable source of electricity and protect the environment at the same time. The construction activity took three months over a 12-month period and provided employment for 70 people at the peak construction period. Each turbine generates 1.5 megawatts of energy, and will offset 82,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually (equivalent to the removal of 12,000 cars from Canadian roads). At present, the cost of generating wind energy ranges between 6 cents and 12 cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on location, compared to about 5 cents for electricity generated by hydro power. The Magrath Wind Power project joins 30 other wind farms currently in operation in Canada.

  4. A history of neurosurgery in Canada. (United States)

    Weir, Bryce


    Canada existed for more than half a century before there were glimmerings of modern neurosurgical activity. Neurosurgery had advanced significantly in Europe and the United States prior to its being brought to Toronto and Montreal from American centers. The pioneers responsible for the rapid evolution in practice, teaching and research are described. The interplay of scientific, professional, demographic and economic forces with general historical trends has produced dramatic changes in the way that neurosurgery is now practiced.

  5. Aetiology of hyperthyroidism in Canada and Wales.


    Williams, I; Ankrett, V O; Lazarus, J. H.; Volpe, R.


    A retrospective, comparative review of 100 consecutive new outpatients presenting with hyperthyroidism in Cardiff, South Wales, and in Toronto, Canada, was performed. The aim was to quantify the causes of hyperthyroidism with particular emphasis on the prevalence of viral thyroiditis and "silent" thyroiditis. The proportional morbidity of Graves' disease (approximately 70%) was similar in the two groups. Toxic multinodular goitre and toxic adenoma (Plummers' disease) occurred significantly mo...

  6. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada. (United States)


    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  7. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  8. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber


    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  9. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada. (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon


    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  10. Canada: psychosis in the immigrant Caribbean population. (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V


    Many reports from European countries suggest that acute episodes of psychosis are more frequent among immigrants from the Caribbean than among their non-immigrant peers. The aim of this selective review is to examine how the social correlates of migration to Canada interact with biological mechanisms to contribute to psychosis in the Caribbean population. PubMed and JSTOR social science databases (between 1966 and 2010) were searched using the following search terms: psychiatric genetics; dopamine pathways; Caribbean family structure and child rearing; cannabis and psychosis; obstetric complications and schizophrenia; social defeat; social capital; racial discrimination; urbanicity; immigration; assimilation; and immigration. This was followed by the cross-checking of references pertinent to Canada. There was no information about the prevalence of psychosis in Afro-Caribbean immigrant groups to Canada. There was a suggestion that the form the acute episode takes may differ, depending perhaps on the island of origin. Ethnicity and migration influence susceptibility and response to psychotic illness in a number of distinct and interacting ways depending both on the host country and the country of origin. Understanding the pathways can help to protect the health of immigrants.

  11. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael


    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  12. Regulation of natural health products in Canada. (United States)

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam


    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early.

  14. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.


    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology.

  15. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.


    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  16. Aging amongst immigrants in Canada: population drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durst, Douglas


    Full Text Available EnglishIn Canada, two interesting demographic trends have been underway: an agingpopulation and a growth based upon immigration. These patterns combine toform a new group that seems to have evaded notice. According to the 2001Census of Canada, immigrants are older than the national average and almost31% of the immigrants from Europe are over 65 years of age. Of the total seniorpopulation, 28.4% are immigrants with 5% of Asian descent. Overall, 7.2% ofthe senior's population is a visible minority. These patterns have implicationsfor policy development and service delivery. As immigrants age in Canada, theywill have very different expectations for services than non-immigrants andimmigrants who aged in their home country. This paper offers recommendationsfor policy planners and service providers in health and social welfare services.FrenchAu Canada, deux tendances démographiques intéressantes se développent : unepopulation vieillissante et une croissance due à l’immigration. Ces tendances secombinent et forment un nouveau groupe qui a passé inaperçu jusqu’à présent.Selon le Recensement du Canada de 2001, les immigrants sont plus âgés que lamoyenne nationale et presque 31% des immigrants en provenance d’Europe onplus de 65 ans. Parmi la totalité de la population des personnes âgées, 28.4%sont des immigrants et 5% sont en provenance d’Asie. 7.2% de la population despersonnes âgées appartiennent à une minorité visible. Ces tendances ont desimplications au niveau du développement de polices et des prestations deservices. Au fur et à mesure que les immigrants vieillissent, leurs attentes auniveau des services seront très différentes de celles des non-immigrants et desimmigrants qui ont vieilli dans leur pays d’origine. Cet article propose desrecommandations pour les responsables et les prestataires de services dans lesdomaines de la santé et du bien-être social.

  17. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.


    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  18. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.


    The crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, ideally Na2ZnTiNb2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 (H2O)4, a lamprophyllite-group mineral of the seidozerite supergroup from the type locality, Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia have been revised. The crystal structure was refined with a new origin in space group C⎯1, a = 10.769(2), b = 14.276(3), c = 12.101(2) Å, α = 105.45(3), β = 95.17(3), γ = 90.04(3)°, V = 1785.3(3.2) Å3, R1 = 9.23%. The electron-microprobe analysis gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking along c* and HRTEM images show an intergrowth of crystalline zvyaginite with two distinct phases, both of which are partially amorphous. The crystal structure of zvyaginite is an array of TS (Titanium Silicate) blocks connected via hydrogen bonds between H2O groups. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H = heteropolyhedral, O = octahedral) parallel to (001). In the O sheet, the [6]MO(1,4,5) sites are occupied mainly by Ti, Zn and Na and the [6]MO(2,3) sites are occupied by Na at less than 50%. In the H sheet, the [6]MH(1,2) sites are occupied mainly by Nb and the [8]AP(1) and [8]AP(2) sites are occupied mainly by Na and ��. The MH and AP polyhedra and Si2O7 groups constitute the H sheet. The ideal structural formula is Na��Nb2NaZn��Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Zvyaginite is a Zn-bearing and Na-poor analogue of epistolite, ideally (Na��)Nb2Na3Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Epistolite and zvyaginite are related by the following substitution in the O sheet of the TS-block: (Na+2)epi ↔ Zn2+ zvy + ��zvy. The doubling of the t1 and t2 translations of zvyaginite relative to those of epistolite is due to the order of Zn and Na along a (t1) and b (t2) in the O sheet of zvyaginite.

  19. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  20. The Disturbed Legislation of Same-sex Marriage in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.

  1. Social policy and practice in Canada: a history

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finkel, Alvin


    ... : ---- . Canada- Social policy. . Public welfare- Canada- History. . Welfare state- Canada- History. I. Title. HV.F  .' C-- Cover and text design by Sa...

  2. Boiling point: government neglect, corporate abuse, and Canada's water crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barlow, Maude


    "In Boiling Point, bestselling author and activist Maude Barlow lays bare the issues facing Canada's water reserves, including long-outdated water laws, unmapped and unprotected groundwater reserves...

  3. Epidemiology of Hypertension in Canada: An Update. (United States)

    Padwal, Raj S; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Campbell, Norm R C


    High blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. The objective of this analysis was to perform a detailed update of the epidemiology of hypertension in Canada. Five population-based data sources were analyzed. We used the Canadian Health Measures Survey to determine the latest directly measured prevalence, awareness, and control estimates (2012-2013); the National Population Health Survey, and Canadian Community Health Survey to assess crude and age-standardized self-reported prevalence (1994-2013); the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System to assess administrative data-ascertained prevalence and mortality trends (1998-2010); and Intercontinental Medical Statistics Health data to examine antihypertensive drug-prescribing trends and costs (2007-2014). In 2012-2013, the prevalence of hypertension (defined as drug treatment for high BP or BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) in Canadian adults was 22.6%, and the proportion of disease controlled was 68.1%. In Canadians with diabetes, the prevalence (defined as drug treatment or BP ≥ 130/80 mm Hg) was 67.1%, and 60.1% of cases were controlled. Self-reported hypertension prevalence has increased by approximately 2-fold over nearly 2 decades. Age-standardized mortality rates are falling in hypertensive Canadians (from 9.4 to 7.9 deaths per 1000 individuals), but to a lesser extent than in nonhypertensive individuals. Total antihypertensive drug prescription volume has increased steadily since 2007 amid falling drug costs. Hypertension prevalence in Canada continues to rise. Increased use of antihypertensive drugs and improvements in control are apparent. Coordinated efforts to further improve the treatment and control of hypertension in Canada are needed. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay


    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  5. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies


    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Petrographic and geochemical characterization and isotope analysis of U-PB (SHRIMP) in tuffaceous siltstone, Salitre formation, Sao Francisco supergroup, BA, Brazil; Caracterizacao petrografica, geoquimica e analises isotopicas U-PB (SRIMP) em siltito tufaceo, formacao Salitre Supergrupo Sao Francisco, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Sherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The Salitre Formation consists of neoproterozoic carbonate sequence overlying the Sao Francisco Craton (SFC) in Bahia. Data on the origin of such training are scarce, mainly due to their nature, essentially carbonate. In this study, from the petrographic characterization and geochemical thin levels of terrigenous, it was identified the contribution of volcanic material. Isotopic analysis of U-Pb, SHRIMP, indicate the existence of young grain, aged 669 ± 14 Ma (Cryogenian) - probable volcanism associated with the building of neoproterozoic mobile belts surrounding the SFC - and inherited zircons with the main population in the Paleoproterozoic and corresponding to the source area of the crystalline basement. Detrital zircons with ages between Statherian and Tonian have also been reported and have the source area the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaco Supergroup. (author)

  7. Structure and occurrences of ≪ green rust ≫ related new minerals of the ≪ fougérite ≫ group, trébeurdenite and mössbauerite, belonging to the ≪ hydrotalcite ≫ supergroup; how Mössbauer spectroscopy helps XRD. (United States)

    Génin, J.-M. R.; Christy, A.; Kuzmann, E.; Mills, S.; Ruby, C.


    Mössbauer spectroscopy yields decisive information for interpreting x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns in the case of `green rusts" with intercalated CO anions, i.e. the chemical analogs of the three minerals that constitute within the ≪ hydrotalcite ≫ supergroup comprising 44 minerals the " fougèrite" group where the structure stays globally unchanged. The only difference comes from the deprotonation of OH- ions at the apices of the octahedrons occupied by the Fe cations so that Fe I I ions become Fe I I I . Low angle x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation displays the presence of many polytypes which reflects the stacking of brucite like layers and anion interlayers so that a 2D long range order of anions stays unchanged from fougèrite to mössbauerite.

  8. The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada


    Kevin Milligan


    The drop in income poverty among the elderly in Canada over the last generation has been well-documented. In this paper, I extend the calculation of head-count measures of poverty to all currently available microdata, spanning the years 1973 to 2003. I then generate consumption poverty measures spanning 1969 to 2004 and compare to the income poverty results. For both income and consumption, I implement a relative poverty measure that uses the wellbeing of working age families as a benchmark f...

  9. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  10. NAFTA and gasoline: Canada, U. S. , Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The North American Free Trade Agreement has become a hotly debated topic all over the world, but especially in the countries involved: Mexico, United States, and Canada. Comments made by high ranking officials imply there are differences to reconcile before the agreement is passed. Toward seeing these countries in trio, this issue compares gasoline markets and some energy perspectives. The purpose of this article is to contribute to understanding of the three countries through their petroleum industry structure. Gasoline consumption and retail delivery infrastructure are compared and contrasted to illustrate the differences among the NAFTA countries.

  11. Canada Aids Chinese Women~! s Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "THE Canada-China Women in Development Project is like a seed which, after being nurtured by women’s federations across China, has grown, fruited and expanded." Diane Tyler, co-manager of the CCWID Project, which was established in 1990 and is slated to be completed this late year, described the project to our staff reporter at the end of March. Tyler comes from the Association of Canadian Community Colleges; she had just finished her work on the project and was leaving for her home country. In 1994, at the CCWID Project’s

  12. Black gold rush in Canada[Tar sand oil]; Svart gullrush i Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Ina


    In Alberta, Canada, oil companies are competing for licences to extract oil from the tar sand deposits. The occurrences cover an area equal to Belgium, and the total of recoverable oil is estimated to around 1700 million barrels. Descriptions of the recovery process and the competing companies are given.

  13. Some Numbers behind Canada's Decision to Adopt an Orphan Drug Policy: US Orphan Drug Approvals in Canada, 1997-2012. (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Krahn, Timothy Mark


    We examined whether access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada has changed between 1997 (when Canada chose not to adopt an orphan drug policy) and 2012 (when Canada reversed its policy decision). Specifically, we looked at two dimensions of access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada: (1) regulatory access; and (2) temporal access. Whereas only 63% of US-approved orphan drugs were granted regulatory approval in 1997, we found that regulatory access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada increased to 74% between 1997 and 2012. However, temporal access to orphan drugs is slower in Canada: in a head-on comparison of 40 matched drugs, only two were submitted and four were approved first in Canada; moreover, the mean review time in Canada (423 days) was longer than that in the US (mean = 341 days), a statistically significant difference (t[39] = 2.04, p = 0.048). These results raise questions about what motivated Canada's apparent shift in orphan drug policy.

  14. The osteoporosis care gap in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of a fragility fracture is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, and should be an indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and therapy. However, the extent to which patients who fracture are assessed and treated for osteoporosis is not clear. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify the practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in adults over the age of 40 who experience a fragility fracture in Canada. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (1966 to January 2, 2003 and CINAHL (1982 to February 1, 2003 databases. Results There is evidence of a care gap between the occurrence of a fragility fracture and the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Canada. The proportion of individuals with a fragility fracture who received an osteoporosis diagnostic test or physician diagnosis ranged from 1.7% to 50%. Therapies such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin were being prescribed to 5.2% to 37.5% of patients. Calcium and vitamin D supplement intake was variable, and ranged between 2.8% to 61.6% of patients. Conclusion Many Canadians who experience fragility fracture are not receiving osteoporosis management for the prevention of future fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simeon


    Full Text Available This article analyses the capacity of Canadian federalism to articulate andaccommodate the dual and regionalist character defining Canada througha range of arguments and opinions both for and against that have been generatedboth within the Canadian Federation and abroad. From the standpointof the Quebec sovereignists, federalism is highly restrictive of the Quebecnation’s freedom to express itself, by itself, within the Canadian contextas well as within international ambits; for Quebec nationalists, the termQuebec “nation” implies—indeed, requires—a “Quebec state”. But, fromthe standpoint of the Quebec federalists (a good number of whom understandQuebec as a sociological and political nation, the future of Quebeclies with its membership of the Canadian Federation, however much this hasto recognise Quebec as a “differential society” within Canada, and howevermuch it has to ensure that Quebec will develop and promote its interests asa nation. For yet others, the decentralist character of Canadian federalism,and the extensive provisions for asymmetry built into the system, mean that Quebec is already perhaps the most powerful sub-national government inthe world, such that it already has the powers necessary to fulfil its nationaldestiny, within the federation. Opinion outside Quebec ranges from thosewho accept this view, and embrace asymmetry, to those who argue that Quebecis simply one of ten existing provinces, each of which is distinct, andwhich should all be treated as equals in accordance with the constitutionaland political framework.

  16. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany


    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (, and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  17. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education. (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  18. Epidemiology of the Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rate of Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics determines the cure rate of treatment regimens containing such antibiotics. AIMS: To review the literature to determine the rates of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Canada, and whether these rates vary in different regions of Canada.

  19. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  20. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2. (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  1. The DELF in Canada: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents (United States)

    Vandergrift, Larry


    The "Diplôme d'études de langue française" (DELF) has recently gained attention in Canada for its potential as a national French second language (FSL) proficiency test. This article explores the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents in various school jurisdictions across Canada on a range of issues related to the DELF test and…

  2. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  3. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  4. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada (United States)


    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Air Canada, together with its regional airline subsidiary, Air Canada Jazz, provides scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 150 destinations,vacation packages to over 90 destinations, as well as maintenance, ground handling and train ing services to other airlines.

  6. Concepts About Canada: ACEI's Vancouver Experience in 1984. (United States)

    Preston, Richard A.; Salinger, Marion


    Suggests that the Association for Childhood Education International Study Conference will provide American teachers with ideas for promoting global understanding through an awareness of differences between the United States and Canada. Some of these differences include regionalism in Canada, constitutional variation, and multiculturalism. (BJD)

  7. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4. (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  8. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison


    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  9. Improving Canada's Marine Navigation System through e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Breton


    The conclusion proposed is that on-going work with key partners and stakeholders can be used as the primary mechanism to identify e-Navigation related innovation and needs, and to prioritize next steps. Moving forward in Canada, implementation of new e-navigation services will continue to be stakeholder driven, and used to drive improvements to Canada's marine navigation system.

  10. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Gastric Involvement Diagnosed by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Samet


    Full Text Available Chronkhite-Canada is a rare nonfamilial polyposis syndrome that usually presents as chronic malabsorption in adults. We present a case of a-73-year old woman with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and malnutrition. On CT imaging she was found to have massive gastric polyps, which on biopsy was most consistent with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

  11. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada (United States)

    Voyageur, Cora J.


    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  12. Chinese capitalist migration to Canada: a sociological interpretation and its effect on Canada. (United States)

    Wong, L L


    "This article examines Chinese capitalist migration from Hong Kong and Taiwan to Canada which took place under the auspices of the Canadian Business Immigration Program. It begins by setting the context of this migration of Chinese capitalists and their capital through a description of the Program and applying sociological theory to explain the process. More specifically, structural models of migration, world systems, political economy and transnationalism are applied which provide an insight and explanation for this migration. Then the role of the state is examined in relation to mediation and social reproduction. The article ends with a trend analysis of this Chinese capitalist migration and its effect on class, cultural transformation, and race and ethnic relations in Canada." excerpt

  13. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)


    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  14. Hydrail : a parade Canada can lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S. [Mooresville-South Iredell Economic Development Corp., NC (United States). Hydrogen Economy Advancement Team


    This paper suggested that Canada can play a leading role in the development of hydrogen railways. Canadian scientists were among the first to test and develop the world's first hydrogen locomotive, and Canadian rail firms are now in a position to play a prominent role in the passenger hydrogen rail equipment market. A hydrogen railway will be built as part of Vancouver's 2010 winter olympics infrastructure. The Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society is planning to use hydrogen to power vintage inter-urban trolley cars connecting Surrey communities. A Canadian manufactured hybrid locomotive will be modified to create the world's first hydrogen rail switch engine. It was concluded that hydrogen's storage capacity makes it an enabling technology for other other renewable energy technologies. Future hydrogen storage technologies will probably be hybridized with fuel cells in highly efficient applications. 1 ref.

  15. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch


    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  16. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W


    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  17. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)


    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  18. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada. (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff


    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012 (United States)

    Higley, Debra


    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  20. Transforming the market : recent developments with Canada Green Building Council and LEED{sup R} Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A. [Canada Green Building Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Green buildings use design and construction practices that reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and their occupants. This paper discusses the aims of the Green Building Council and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the current contexts in which both organizations operate in the Canadian construction industry. Some of the reasons to use green building practices were discussed, including moral obligations, compliance and the opportunity for increased revenue and profits. LEED informs purchasing decisions, and its certification process signals environmental credentials about the public sector to voters, linking well to policy instruments. A list of projects and accredited buildings was provided, as well as a forecast for future projects and market shares. A comprehensive list of adaptations to Canadian building codes, standards and regulations was provided, with reference to site selection, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality. Some of the challenges facing both organizations include the existence of other rating systems already extant in Canada, partnership with federal government, the size of non-residential buildings in Canada, and residential market challenges. Case studies of projects in Canada and internationally were provided, with an overview of construction techniques and sustainable development programs. tabs., figs.

  1. Pain medicine--a new credential in Canada. (United States)

    Morley-Forster, Patricia; Karpinski, Jolanta


    In 2010, Pain Medicine was formally recognized as a subspecialty in Canada by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, a national organization with oversight of the medical education of specialists in Canada. The first trainees began their training at the Western University, London, Canada in July, 2014. This article traces the process of Pain Medicine's development as a discipline in Canada and outlines its multiple entry routes, 2-year curriculum, and assessment procedures. The application for specialty status was initiated in 2007 with the understanding that while Anesthesiology would be the parent specialty, the curriculum would train clinicians in a multidisciplinary setting. To receive recognition as a Royal College subspecialty, Pain Medicine had to successfully pass through three phases, each stage requiring formal approval by the Committee on Specialties. The multiple entry routes to this 2-year subspecialty program are described in this article as are the objectives of training, the curriculum, assessment of competency and the practice-eligibility route to certification. The process of accreditation of new training programs across Canada is also discussed. The new Pain Medicine training program in Canada will train experts in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of the spectrum of acute pain, cancer pain and non-cancer pain problems. These physicians will become leaders in education, research, advocacy and administration of this emerging field. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomic, S.


    One of the most controversial sections of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) pertains to the energy sector. Opponents to the FTA say it will lead to a massive sellout of Canada's national resources and is a threat to national security. Allies say the FTA will improve Canadian access to U.S. markets; enhance investor confidence in Canada; improve economies of scale; and lead to increased revenue and capital spending. These issues were addressed at the January meeting of the Canadian chapter of International Association of Energy Economists (IAEE). Canada and the U.S. are partners, exchanging goods and services each year worth roughly $140 billion. Energy trade amounts to about $10 billion a year with Canada exporting mainly oil, gas and natural gas liquids, and coal. Both Canada and the U.S. have recognized they have a common interest in ensuring access to each other's market and enhancing their mutual security of supply. Under the FTA, both countries would refrain from new quantitative restrictions on energy exports, taxes, and minimum price requirements subject to limited exceptions. Canadian government is not obliged to deliver any particular quantity but only to refrain from imposing restrictions that would reduce exports below the proportion of Canadian supply which U.S. buyers had purchased during the previous 36 months. The U.S. will also eliminate the restriction on enrichment of Canadian uranium and will allow exports of Alaskan oil to Canada. This article discusses specific elements involving uranium, electrical power, oil and natural gas. The Canada-US Free Trade Agreement, signed by Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan on Jan. 2, 1988 has become the focus of vigorous debate not only regarding the rules which will cover trade between the two countries, but also regarding different visions of Canada's future.

  3. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada. (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H


    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  4. Canada's carbon capture and storage initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Alexandra; Mitrovic, Milenka; Grant, Andrea


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical technology for Canada to make meaningful emissions reductions in the fossil fuels sector. Canada is a global leader in CCS, and both federal and provincial governments are taking action to advance the deployment of this technology, including allocating over CAD 3.5 billion in public funding to CCS. These investments support several interdependent initiatives focusing on addressing the challenges facing CCS, supporting innovation, accelerating deployment, and facilitating information sharing. Canada is also committed to working internationally to ensure that our efforts at home contribute to the overall global advancement of CCS.

  5. Averting Canada's water Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrilli, J. F.


    Water conservation policies in Canada are examined in expectation of an imminent water crisis in the world, a crisis resulting from scarcity and aggravated by deteriorating quality. Despite Canada's seemingly abundant water resources, recent events, particularly in Ontario, give reason to be concerned that the province that spawned the common sense revolution is quite capable of sparking a national water crisis all by itself. Significant drop in water levels in the Great Lakes, the Walkerton debacle of E. coli contamination of the water supply which resulted in at least seven deaths and over 1000 serious illnesses, the massive housing development proposal that threatens the area known as the Oak Ridges Moraine, a source of groundwater that supplies much of southern Ontario, and the government's action (later reversed) to issue a licence to an Ontario company to withdraw 600 million litres of water annually from Lake Superior for export to Asia, are some of the examples cited as indicators of the fragile state of water supply and the many threats posed to both water quantity and quality. Having examined some of the dangers facing our water supply, the author provides some suggestions of how to resolve first, the issue of overlapping jurisdictions and the tangled constitutional framework for managing the nation's water resources and second, some steps that should be taken to stop mega-diversions and mega-consumptive use, and to make certain that even the most modest project in this area proceeds only after the fullest environmental and public scrutiny. Provincial laws must also link land use changes and development to protection of provincial waters, proactively encourage water conservation, repair past mistakes by requiring the restoration and enhancement of the water regime where it has been damaged by human activity, establish a water superfund to pay for effective water conservation planning, and recognize the public's right to a significant

  6. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada. Fruits and vegetables grown in Canada and offered for entry into the United...

  8. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  9. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)


    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning. (author)

  10. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  11. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J


    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  12. Canada-BC data warehouse: information architecture strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This document provides the final needs assessment and results analysis components of the Canada/BC Data Warehouse - Phase 2 Business Requirements Project along with the recommended options and deployment strategy...

  13. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala


    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  14. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  15. Canada goose transplant program progress report - May 1964 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Following is a report of progress on the Canada goose transplant program involving certain Federal and State refuges in the Mississippi Flyway in 1963-64.

  16. Canada Goose Production Workshop draft proceedings : May 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary and review of the Canada Goose Production Workshop held in Jamestown, North Dakota on May 4th, 5th, and 6th, 1971. This workshop provided sessions about...

  17. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada. (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J


    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  18. 78 FR 38546 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Information The subject of this AD is addressed in Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) AD No. CF-2009-07, dated March 6, 2009. You may view the TCCA AD at by searching for...

  19. [Analysis of Canada goose banding at Fish Springs NWR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing an analysis of the Canada goose banding data from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Banding data is analyzed for the following...

  20. Annual carbon balance of Canada's forests during 1895–1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Wenjun; Liu, Jane; Cihlar, Josef; Gray, Stephen


    This paper reports annual carbon (C) balance of Canada's forests during 1895–1996 estimated using the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem C‐budget model (InTEC) [ Chen et al. this issue]. During 1895...

  1. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  2. Market operations and liquidity provision at the Bank of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzman, Mark de


    ... of Canada's financial system. To achieve its monetary policy and financial stability objectives, the Bank has established a clear framework to guide its financial market operations, support the provision of routine liquidity...

  3. Second Language Education in Canada: Innovation, Research, and Policies. (United States)

    Stern, H. H. (David)


    This paper gives an overview of language teaching in Canada today and describes some general trends in language pedagogy. Current issues in the field are highlighted. Included is a two-page comment by Birgit Harley. (MT)

  4. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 16 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  5. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 18 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  6. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada. (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others


    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  7. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus


    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  8. Access to internet in rural and remote Canada. (United States)

    Currie, Leanne M; Ronquillo, Charlene; Dick, Tania


    Canada is the second largest landmass country in the world, but has one of the lowest population densities. As of 2011, approximately 19% of the Canadian population lives in rural, or remote communities. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in rural and urban access to the Internet and device use in Canada, and to explore differences in access to broadband between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada. In general rural-dwellers had lower levels of Internet access and despite efforts to increase access to high speed Internet, Aboriginal communities in some regions have limited access. Future research should explore computer and health literacy in the context of rural and remote communities in Canada.

  9. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  10. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  11. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada]. (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P


    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  12. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  13. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....



    Glenn Jenkins; GRAHAM GLENDAY


    While employment policy in Canada has on specific occasions undertaken varied tasks, three principal objectives have consistently been part of the Canadian Government’s policy over the past three decades. First, there has been a commitment to maintaining a low rate of unemployment. Second, there has been a desire to attain a high degree of interpersonal income equity. Third, the preservation of the historical pattern of population across regions within Canada has been an implicit or explicit ...

  15. CANADA: designing nucleic acid sequences for nanobiotechnology applications. (United States)

    Feldkamp, Udo


    The design of nucleic acid sequences for a highly specific and efficient hybridization is a crucial step in DNA computing and DNA-based nanotechnology applications. The CANADA package contains software tools for designing DNA sequences that meet these and other requirements, as well as for analyzing and handling sequences. CANADA is freely available, including a detailed manual and example input files, at

  16. Measuring opportunities to expand ambulatory surgery in Canada. (United States)

    Maloney, S; Helyar, C


    Enhancement of comparative ambulatory care information reporting systems will expand the ability of health care managers to assess accurately the opportunities and relative benefits and costs of substituting ambulatory care for traditional inpatient services without jeopardizing the five basic principles of Canada's health care system: universality, accessibility, portability, comprehensiveness, and public administration. In the long run, this will improve Canada's ability to provide high-quality and cost-effective health care within the constrained resources now available.

  17. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Assessing evidence, arguments, and inequality in Bedford v. Canada


    Waltman, Max


    Until recently, Canada criminalized anyone who lived "wholly or in part on the avails of prostitution of another person,” and anyone who kept, controlled, or knowingly permitted a “bawdy-house” for prostitution. The Supreme Court of Canada found that these laws prevented brothel management, escort agencies, bodyguards, or drivers from enhancing the safety and well-being of prostituted persons in indoor locations. This article assesses the evidence relied on by courts to strike down the laws, ...

  19. The Estimation of Food Demand Elasticities in Canada


    Pomboza, Ruth; Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi


    Changing consumer and market demands is an important driver behind the challenges and opportunities that are facing the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada and that will influence the sector's profitability and competitiveness in the future. It is therefore important to understand developments in the consumer demand for agriculture and agri-food products. The report provides updated demand elasticities for fourteen food groups in Canada. The estimates are useful for conducting analysis...

  20. The Framework for US-Canada Defense and Security Cooperation (United States)


    scores of departments and agencies. Bringing to mind President George H. Bush’s “thousand points of light”, Allan Gotlieb (1991, p. 191), former...US and Canada have established nothing that far reaching (McDougall 2006, p. 190). Allan Gottlieb (2003, p. 20-21) writes that throughout the post...inspections at the point of entry ( POE ) and their mission includes detaining people who may pose a threat 45 to Canada, removing people who are inadmissible

  1. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……

  2. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.

  3. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada


    Katherine Boothe


    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  4. PASC ⅩⅩⅦ held in Vancouver Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The 27th Pacific Area Standards Congress (PSAC ⅩⅩⅦ) was held in Vancouver Canada on May 24-27. It was hosted by SCC (Standards Council of Canada). About 70 delegates from 20 countries attended the meeting and representatives of the international standards organizations like ISO, IEC and ITU were invited. Chinese delegation led by is Mr. Shi Baoquan from the Standardization Administration of China attended the meeting.

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  6. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada. (United States)

    Penfold, P S


    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  7. Upper Paleozoic evaporites of southeastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howie, R.D.


    Atlantic Canada's evaporites were deposited on folded and faulted Lower Paleozoic rocks in a series of basins during two extended intervals of the Late Paleozoic. Minor salt deposits containing glauberite accumulated locally and are preserved as part of continental sequences in Horton Group rocks. The overlying Windsor Group contains thick deposits of salt. Temporary tectonic stability, abnormally high temperatures, a nearly land-locked marine setting and semiarid conditions resulted in the rhythmic deposition of Windsor Group evaporites over a wide area. These evaporites, preserved as outliers in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and in a northeast-trending basin beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are erosional remnants of a much larger evaporite basin. The salt occurs as bedded deposits or within flow structures that vary in thickness from a few centimetres to over 4,573 m in structurally thickened sections. The variation in local thickness of these rocks is a function of both environment of deposition and tectonism. In some areas the salt is pure enough to be mined and, locally, contains significant amounts of potash. Some of these mines have the potential for development of underground storage sites for hydrocarbons and industrial waste. 261 refs., 94 figs.

  8. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada. (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C


    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  9. Two centuries of demographic change in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Edmonston


    Full Text Available One key aspect of the demographic transition—the shift from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility is a major change in the population’s age distribution from a pyramid-shaped young age structure to a pillar-shaped old age structure. This paper discusses two demographic processes affected by changes in age structure. First, there are effects on vital rates, with important differences in the observed crude rates and the implied intrinsic vital rates. Second, changes in age structure influence population momentum. More recently, demographers have noted that older age distributions associated with fertility levels below replacement have negative population momentum. Although the demographic transition has been well-described for many countries, demographers have seldom analyzed intrinsic vital rates and population momentum over time, which are dynamic processes affected by changes in the population age structure and which, in turn, influence future changes in population growth and size. This paper uses new data and methods to analyze intrinsic vital rates and population momentum across two centuries of demographic change in Canada

  10. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization. (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P


    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  11. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada. (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger


    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected.

  12. The beginnings of mineral processing research in Canada (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This article presented the historical aspects regarding Canadian research in mineral processing and ore refining. It highlighted the career of Eugene Haanel, the first director of Canada's Department of Mines. The events that led to the creation of the Canadian Bureau of Mines and the Energy Branch at the turn of the 1900s were described along with the creation of the first assay office to deal with the large amounts of gold produced in British Columbia and the Yukon. In order to encourage the exploitation of Canada's iron ore deposits and the abundant electrical energy from Niagara Falls, Haanel organized a mission to Europe to study steel production using electric furnaces. He sought ways to secure a supply of the reducing agent and the fuel that metallurgical processes required in great quantities. Noting that Canada was spending millions to import coal and coke, he promoted the exploitation of the large deposits of peat in Ontario and Quebec. He also drew attention to the need to stop using wood as a fuel to conserve the forests. In 1905, the Mining Section was commissioned to evaluate nonferrous metal deposits in Canada, including lead-zinc, cobalt, asbestos, mica, graphite and raw materials for cement manufacture. Serious hydrometallurgical research in Canada began in 1921 at the Ministry of Mines, followed by pyrometallurgical research in 1922. The radioactivity division was created in 1948. The article also described the reorganization of extractive metallurgical research in Canada. 9 figs.

  13. Abstracts of the TICCIH Canada conference on industrial strength : conserving Canada's industrial heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conservation and rehabilitation of Canada's industrial sites represents some of the most innovative examples of heritage site development. This conference provided a forum for various stakeholder, conservation specialists, and community planners to discuss issues and strategies for preserving Canada's industrial heritage. Challenges related to preserving industrial heritage as historic sites and museums were discussed. Methods of strengthening community identity and engagement with industrial heritage preservation were also presented. The future of an industrial heritage network was considered. The conference was divided into the following 7 sessions: (1) new site development, brownfield to heritage sites, (2) inventories, evaluation and awareness, (3) industrial heritage of Hamilton, (4) conservation, adaptive reuse and economic viability, a case study of the Toronto distillery project, (5) industrial landscapes, (6) preserving the intangibles, and (7) industrial heritage museums, issues in conservation, interpretation, and sustainability. The conference featured 19 papers, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013


    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  15. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen


    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  16. Multicultural Policies and Interethnic Relations: Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand


    Full Text Available The Canadian policy of multiculturalism recognised the positive and permanent influence of immigration on Canadian society and accepted “nation”-formation based on a model of cultural pluralism. Thus it assumed a radical “modification” of Canadian cultural definitions, instead of a formal adoption of certain “major” national cultural traditions. Canadian society, at the same time, experienced a growing divergence between the official policy of inclusion, and the increasing social exclusion of new immigrants – primarily “visible” minority groups – from economic spheres and from public life in general. In fact, the existing deep tensions in the society between two value systems – on the one hand, the reality of wide-spread racism, and on the other hand, the commitment to an ideology of liberal democracy, as well as poor results in integration policies, as indicated by marked unemployment, low incomes and poverty, especially in immigrant communities – have led to more and more frequent references to a prevailing “democratic racism” in Canada. With regard to the mentioned context, this paper first of all aims to indicate certain specificities in the development of ethnic relations and of multicultural policy, which are engrained and at the same time limited by their particular historical origin. Next, the paper intends to say something about the power of influence of the government’s multicultural policy, and the role of political correctness, as a concrete form of social action, in interethnic relations and in the opinions of the majority society in regard to ethnic minorities, and especially in regard to “visible” groups.

  17. U-Pb ages in zircon of the Grao Mogol diamond-bearing conglomerate (Espinhaco supergroup): implications for the diamond origin in the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais; Idades U-Pb em zircao do conglomerado diamantifero de Grao Mogol (supergrupo Espinhaco): implicacoes para a origem dos diamantes da Serra do Espinhaco em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Silva, Marcio Celio Rodrigues da [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Prof. Manoel Teixeira da Costa; Babinski, Marly [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Scholz, Rixcardo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia


    The Espinhaco Range in the Grao Mogol region, center-north of Minas Gerais state, is composed by fine grained quartzites with large cross stratifications (Resplandescente Formation), which are covered with erosional unconformity by monomictic conglomerates, and medium to coarse grained quartzites (Grao Mogol Formation), both units belonging to the Espinhaco Supergroup, of Proterozoic age. At the locality known as 'Pedra Rica' (signify Rich Rock, an old diamond digging), rocks of these formations were sampled and separated detrital zircons to acquire U-Pb by Laser Ablation Inductively LA-ICPMS) ages. The analyzed grains are rounded to slightly rounded and show oscillatory zoning. The obtained results indicate a maximum depositional age of 1,595{+-}20 Ma for the Resplandescente Formation, and 1,052{+-}50 Ma for the Grao Mogol Formation. The comparison between the obtained data and the available ages for the Diamantina region and proximities, in the same diamond province, indicates a strong evidence for the existence of at least two primary mineralizing events in the basin, in the age range of 1.35 to 1.05 Ga. (author)

  18. Energy and the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, E.A.


    The Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement has raised concerns in both countries with respect to its provisions that may affect security of energy supplies, market access, and energy policy. This document summarizes what the Agreement actually says with regard to energy questions, and reviews Canadian and US energy policies in the postwar period. Three distinct stages of North American energy policy are identified, according to the oil price situation in each stage. From this review, a number of observations are made on the effects of various energy-related policies, and it is noted that past policies of trade restrictions, price controls, and discriminatory treatment of foreign supplies have proven to be wasteful. On the other hand, this is not taken to mean that Canada and the USA should not give up the ability to conduct independent, constructive energy policies, and the exact provisions of the Agreement's energy chapter are examined with that point in mind. The benefits of the Agreement for Canada are outlined, notably in the uranium, oil/gas, and electricity sectors. It is concluded that the Agreement does not reduce Canada's energy supply security, and that it should enhance the energy security of both Canada and the USA. 11 refs.

  19. USA-Canada free trade agreement and energy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogushi, Nobuyuki


    The USA and Canada occupying approx. 70 and 20%, respectively, of the export/import amount of the opponent country, the free trade agreement is regarded as a matter of course, also judging from the geographical condition between both countries. Energywise to analyze the influence of that agreement, if concluded, as for oil, Canada is exporting 30% of produced oil to the USA, which will not be influential in the short term. However in the long term, it will be problematic as the oil reserve is being exhausted in Canada. As for natural gas, Canadian supply of natural gas to the USA being in excess at present, the agreement, if concluded, would be influential on the present disturbance to be solved. Canada exports 9% of produced electric power to the USA, where there domestically exist pros and cons of the liberalization of power importation. By the agreement if concluded, the USA will be assured of the stable supply of uranium and exempt from the required uranium manufacture. But the conclusion of agreement, depending upon the political situation in Canada, is not easily predictable. 8 tables.

  20. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O


    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  1. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada. (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N


    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market.

  2. Fuel quality in Canada : impact on tailpipe emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, J.; Doukas, A.


    This study identified fuel characteristics that must be changed in order to reduce tailpipe emissions in Canada. Higher detergency levels will reduce deposits within engines and improve fuel efficiency while reducing tailpipe emissions. Canada's voluntary national standard for cetane additions in diesel are lower than recommended standards in all other studied jurisdictions. Canada is lagging behind best practices used in other jurisdictions. The study showed that tailpipe emissions can be significantly reduced by enforcing sulphur emission levels to less than 10 ppm, and that improving the lubricity of Canadian diesel will improve the environmental performance of diesel vehicles in Canada. It was concluded that while many jurisdictions do not have standards related to detergent additions, various studies have demonstrated that tailpipe emissions are significantly reduced when fuels have higher levels of detergency. The benefits of proposed fuel quality changes in Australia were discussed in order to estimate the potential net environmental and cost benefits of implementing the standards in Canada. 11 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. The Emergence of Flood Insurance in Canada: Navigating Institutional Uncertainty. (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jason


    Flood insurance has remained unavailable in Canada based on an assessment that it lacks economic viability. In response to Canada's costliest flood event to date in 2013, the Canadian insurance industry has started to develop a framework to expand existing property insurance to cover flood damage. Research on flood insurance has overlooked why and how insurance systems transition to expand insurance coverage without evidence of economic viability. This article will address this gap through a case study on the emergence of flood insurance in Canada, and the approach to its expansion. Between 2013 and 2016, insurance industry officials representing over 60% of premiums collected in Canada were interviewed. These interviews revealed that flood insurance is being expanded in response to institutional pressure, specifically external stakeholder expectations that the insurance industry will adopt a stronger role in managing flood risk through coverage of flood damage. Further evidence of this finding is explored by assessing the emergence of a unique flood insurance model that involves a risk-adjusted and optional product along with an expansion of government policy supporting flood risk mitigation. This approach attempts to balance industry concerns about economic viability with institutional pressure to reduce flood risk through insurance. This analysis builds on existing research by providing the first scholarly analysis of flood insurance in Canada, important "empirical" teeth to existing conceptual analysis on the availability of flood insurance, and the influence of institutional factors on risk analysis within the insurance sector.

  4. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada. (United States)

    Duffy, Olivia Anne


    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry's role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering.

  5. Hot air : meeting Canada's climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; Jaccard, M.; Rivers, N.


    As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs.

  6. Energy [R]Evolution: Opportunities for Decarbonizing Canada (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.


    The future of conventional energy in Canada is uncertain. World oil prices have suffered steep declines recently and there are no strong arguments for recovery in the foreseeable future. The country is now engaged in serious debates and discussions over the value of GHG emissions, pipelines, oil and gas operations, and renewable energy. Oilsands deposits in northern Alberta require long-term investment and decades of consistent sales to repay those investments. The election of more progressive governments in Alberta and Canada may provide the national and global credibility and opportunity to address the environmental problems caused by Oilsands and other fossil fuel developments. The discussion will focus on the possible ways forward for Canada to diversify the regional and national economy with renewable energy networks, thereby meeting our Paris GHG emission reduction commitments. The end goal of this work is to see the Canadian economy decarbonized within two decades.

  7. A discourse on dental hygiene education in Canada. (United States)

    Kanji, Z; Sunell, S; Boschma, G; Imai, P; Craig, B J


    Over the past decade, the discourse on dental hygiene education has gained momentum in Canada. This review provides insights into the evolution of dental hygiene education in Canada, briefly exploring the history and professional influences for diploma and baccalaureate education within the profession. The profession in Canada has yet to implement a national standardized entry-to-practice educational model, but the recent development of national educational competencies may prove to be a promising beginning. The review also discusses efforts to advance dental hygiene education in recent years, while exploring the political and professional pressures and challenges that remain. Further discourse on education and outcomes-related research can be effective in positively influencing governmental, professional and public opinions of higher entry-level education for dental hygiene which may ultimately result in regulatory change and improved client outcomes.

  8. Endoscopy in Canada: Proceedings of the National Roundtable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Switzer


    Full Text Available This 2014 roundtable discussion, hosted by the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, brought together general surgeons and gastroenterologists with expertise in endoscopy from across Canada to discuss the state of endoscopy in Canada. The focus of the roundtable was the evaluation of the competence of general surgeons at endoscopy, reviewing quality assurance parameters for high-quality endoscopy, measuring and assessing surgical resident preparedness for endoscopy practice, evaluating credentialing programs for the endosuite and predicting the future of endoscopic services in Canada. The roundtable noted several important observations. There exist inadequacies in both resident training and the assessment of competency in endoscopy. From these observations, several collaborative recommendations were then stated. These included the need for a formal and standardized system of both accreditation and training endoscopists.

  9. Canada's Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting System: A Failing Grade. (United States)

    Rawson, Nigel S B


    An article in the National Post on suicidal effects associated with varenicline (Champix) highlights deficiencies in the Canadian spontaneous reporting system (SRS) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The issues of under-reporting, poor quality information, duplication of reports and lack of a population denominator of drug use are discussed. Canada's SRS is deficient. There are immediate and medium-term actions that could be instituted that would improve pharmacovigilance in Canada. However, education about appropriate prescribing, the recognition of ADRs, and the duty to report them is a key long-term strategy to improving the pharmacovigilance system and should be included at every opportunity in the training of healthcare professionals so that life-long habits are developed. In addition to changes at Health Canada, greater emphasis needs to be placed on training in therapeutics, understanding drug safety, and the responsibility of healthcare providers in reporting risks in the curricula of medical and nursing schools.

  10. Environmental public health tracking/surveillance in Canada: a commentary. (United States)

    Abelsohn, Alan; Frank, John; Eyles, John


    Although public debate in Canada about climate change and air pollution is louder than ever, the state of the environment remains a relatively neglected determinant of health, and environmental public health infrastructure and programs are poorly developed. Health Canada has only recently begun to develop a national environmental public health tracking or surveillance system. The authors review progress on environmental public health tracking in other jurisdictions and suggest a strategic approach to the development of a coherent national system of sensitive, targeted surveillance indicators for environmental health by addressing the following questions: Which environmental hazards and exposures, and which health effects along the continuum from "release" to "health effect," should be tracked? Which indicators are scientifically robust and practical for tracking environmental health problems in Canada? Copyright © 2009 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Collaborative mental health in rural and isolated Canada: stakeholder feedback. (United States)

    Ryan-Nicholls, Kimberley D; Haggarty, John M


    This article presents research findings from the Rural and Isolated Working Group, one of six groups established by the Canadian Collaborative Mental Health Initiative (CCMHI). Funded through Health Canada's Primary Health Care Transition Fund, the goal of the CCMHI is to improve the mental health and well-being of Canadians by increasing collaboration among primary health care and mental health care providers, consumers, families, and caregivers. Qualitative data obtained from mental health care providers and consumers across all regions of Canada are presented in this article. Policy and regulation problems, barriers to mental health care access, service providers' perspectives of the challenges to consumer involvement, and solutions for addressing these issues are discussed. The article concludes by identifying how this research has informed and influenced initial steps toward mental health promotion and treatment of mental illness in rural and isolated Canada.

  12. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  13. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada. (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita


    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  14. Placebo Trends across the Border: US versus Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory S Harris

    Full Text Available Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos.To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies.Whereas our data show overall concordance across the border-from definitions to ethical limitations and therapeutic potential-differences between American- and Canadian-based placebo practices merit acknowledgement. For example, compared to 45%-80% among US-based respondents, only 23±7% of Canada-based respondents reported using placebos in clinical practice. However, 79±7% of Canada-respondents-a figure comparable to US data-professed to prescribing at least one form of treatment without proven or expected efficacy. Placebo interventions including unwarranted vitamins and herbal supplements (impure placebos as well as sugar pills and saline injections (pure placebos appear more common in Canada, where more doctors described placebos as "placebos" (rather than "medications" and used them as a "diagnostic" tool (rather than a means of placating patient demands for treatment.Cross-border variation in the use of clinical placebos appears minor despite substantial differences in health care delivery system, malpractice climate, and placebo-related policy. The prevalence of impure placebos in both Canadian and US clinics raises ethical and practical questions currently unaddressed by policy and warranting investigation.

  15. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011


    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe


    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  16. Reformulating Lead-Based Paint as a Problem in Canada (United States)

    Perron, Amélie


    Leaded gasoline was officially removed from the Canadian market in December 1990. The removal of a major lead source and the subsequent decline in children's blood lead levels marked an important transition point and sparked the emergence of new discourse on lead in Canada. Today, childhood lead poisoning is viewed as a problem of the past or a problem of the United States. Sparse Canadian surveillance data supported this view. Moreover, tensions among federal agencies evolved into a power struggle, with Health Canada ultimately becoming the dominant authority, thereby relegating important research initiatives to obscurity and also shaping a vastly weaker regulatory response to lead than occurred in the United States. PMID:21836119

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  18. Transfusion and Risk of Infection in Canada: Update 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In Canada and other countries, many steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection through the transfusion of blood or blood products (1. However, the infection risk can never be zero because these are biological products that are taken from living donors who are never 'germ free' (2. This is in contrast to drugs that can be manufactured de novo under sterile conditions in a laboratory. The present note provides an update on transfusion infection risks in Canada. It replaces the 2004 note (3 and may be helpful to practitioners in discussions with patients and parents toward obtaining informed consent before blood or blood product administration.

  19. Development of EIA Issues in Canada and Practices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. Robert C. Lao


    @@ 1 Introduction The requirement for conducting environmental impact assessment (EIA) for all economic and construction development projects and activities in Canada is based on the law. The federal government of Canada, and all provincial and territorial governments have developed relevant processes and procedures to meet this legal obligation. As early as in 1973, the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) was established, and in 1984 the Guidelines Order issued was by the federal cabinet which clarified roles and responsibilities of various parties and stakeholders for participating and/or implementing EARP.

  20. Resource allocation for health care in Canada: philosophy, ethics, and law (United States)

    Joshi, Vihar; Mukhedkar, Dinkar; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Lambert Torres, Germano


    This paper presents some legal aspects of " rationing model'' for health care in Canada context. More questions are raised than answered. In appendix statistical tables are provided for health care costs in Canada. 1.

  1. Canada - Mexico Agricultural Economies and Trade Under Closer North American Relations


    Mitura, Verna; Alhassan, Iddi; Romero, Fernando


    Continued expansion of economic and security relations between Canada, United States, and Mexico are expected in the years to come. The United States is by far the largest export market for both Canada and Mexico with each nation exporting over 80% of their products to this large economy. However, trade between Canada and Mexico has also grown significantly since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) a decade ago. The two-way trade between Canada and Mexico has...

  2. An Overview of Career and Employment Counseling Services in Canada. (United States)

    Conger, Stu; And Others


    Provides the results of a survey of career and employment counseling in Canada. Offers information on counseling offered by educational institutions, social agencies, and employment centers. Focuses on nine issues: leadership, career counseling's isolation, professionalism, restructuring of services, counseling evaluation, equity, counseling…

  3. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons (United States)

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa


    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations in evapotranspiration over Canada's landmass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang


    Full Text Available A 30 yr (1979–2008 dataset of actual evapotranspiration (ET at 1 km resolution was generated over Canada's landmass by integrating remote sensing land surface data and gridded climate data using the EALCO model run at 30 min time step. This long-term high resolution dataset was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variations in ET across Canada. The results show that annual ET varied from 600 mm yr−1 over several regions in the south to less than 100 mm yr−1 in the northern arctic. Nationally, ET in summer (i.e., June to August comprised 65% of the annual total amount. ET in the cold season remained mostly below 10 mm month−1 over the country. Negative monthly ET was obtained over the arctic region in winter, indicating EALCO simulated a larger amount of condensation than ET. Overall, the mean ET over the entire Canadian landmass for the 30 yr was 239 mm yr−1, or 44% of its corresponding precipitation. Comparisons of available ET studies in Canada revealed large uncertainties in ET estimates associated with using different approaches. The scarcity of ET measurements for the diverse ecosystems in Canada remains a significant challenge for reducing the uncertainties; this gap needs to be addressed in future studies to improve capabilities in climate/weather modelling and water resource management.

  5. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles


    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  6. Battered Women, Their Siblings and Batterers in Canada. (United States)

    Edinboro, Lawrie M.

    The violence women experience in battering is both physical and psychological. A study in 1980 found that 1 in 10 women was hit, kicked, beaten, punched and terrorized by her husband or partner in Canada. Children living in battered homes may suffer a higher risk of direct physical or sexual abuse and many are neglected. Some progress has been…

  7. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada. (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael


    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  8. Teacher Supply and Demand: Issues in Northern Canada (United States)

    Kitchenham, Andrew; Chasteauneuf, Colin


    This two-year study (2007-2009), which examined teacher supply and demand issues in northern Canada--Fort Nelson School District (BC), the Fort Vermilion School Division (AB), the Yukon Department of Education (YK), and the Yellowknife School District (NWT)--comprised three research objectives: (a) to ascertain in which subject areas acute and…

  9. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism (United States)

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick


    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA


    Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.

  11. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John


    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project ( Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  12. Portrayal of Canada in the Dutch print media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.


    This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question

  13. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun


    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  14. "The Freedom to Choose": Neoliberalism, Feminism, and Childcare in Canada (United States)

    McKenna, Emma


    In the second-wave women's movement in Canada (1965-1985), the rhetoric of ''freedom'' and ''choice'' occupied a prominent position in public discourses. Waged as rallying points to resist entrenched forms of gender inequality in all areas of social, economic, and political culture, this language asserted a desire for an alternative social order…

  15. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Gee


    leaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than among persons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of the individualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups in Canada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on the topic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.

  16. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada. (United States)



  17. Oh Canada! Too many children in poverty for too long. (United States)

    Rothman, Laurel


    Despite continued economic growth, Canada's record on child poverty is worse than it was in 1989, when the House of Commons unanimously resolved to end child poverty by the year 2000. Most recent data indicate that nearly 1.2 million children - almost one of every six children - live in low-income households. Campaign 2000 contends that poverty and income inequality are major barriers to the healthy development of children, the cohesion of our communities and, ultimately, to the social and economic well-being of Canada. Canada needs to adopt a poverty-reduction strategy that responds to the UNICEF challenge to establish credible targets and timetables to bring the child poverty rate well below 10%, as other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations have done. Campaign 2000 calls on the federal government to develop a cross-Canada poverty-reduction strategy in conjunction with the provinces, territories and First Nations, and in consultation with low-income people. This strategy needs to include good jobs at living wages that ensure that full-time work is a pathway out of poverty; an effective child benefit of $5,100 that is indexed; a system of affordable, universally accessible early learning and child care services available to all families irrespective of employment status; an affordable housing program that creates more affordable housing and helps to sustain existing stock; and affordable and accessible postsecondary education and training programs that prepare youth and adults for employment leading to economic independence.

  18. Achieving Equity through Innovation: A Canada-U.S. Dialogue (United States)

    Levin, Ben


    Canadians often assume that what is said about education south of the U.S. border applies north of it as well. However Canada's international rankings are consistently higher than those of the U.S., primarily because of different social conditions (less inequality, less child poverty, etc.) and different educational policies (more equitable…

  19. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  20. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada. (United States)

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…

  1. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Saperson, Karen


    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  2. Coal in Canada : production staying strong in the west

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotnikov, D.


    Most coal operations in Canada are in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, with some ongoing coal production in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. This article discussed the factors that influence the growth distribution of coal. While metallurgical coal produced in British Columbia is primarily exported, Canada's thermal coal production is largely consumed internally, nearly exclusively for power generation purposes. Thermal coal in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Alberta has increased steadily. Although Ontario is a big coal consumer, it has seen a reduced consumption in recent years due to a higher output from its nuclear fleet. Coal is evaluated by a set of properties, including its thermal content and the nature of impurities in the coal such as ash, moisture and sulphur. Quality and heating value are important because each power plant is designed for certain coal characteristics. Most of Canada's thermal coal production is directed to mine-mouth operations, notably power plants that were built in the immediate vicinity of a mine in order to keep transportation costs as low as possible. The single largest driver for the revival of seaborne thermal and metallurgical coal markets is the pronounced growth in China and the associated demand for raw materials to fuel the growth. This article listed the major coal producers in Canada along with their production capacity. 3 figs.

  3. Service Delivery Reviews in Canada and the U.K.


    World Bank


    This brief describes in detail Canada's policy on alternative service delivery and service delivery reviews in the UK, such as the prior options reviews, better quality services and best value reviews, market testing, and fundamental expenditure reviews. Links are provided to relevant documents and case studies.

  4. Careers Canada, Volume 9: Careers in the Hospitality Industry. (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, designed for prospective job seekers, describes occupational opportunities within the food service, food preparation and hotel/motel industries in Canada. The preparatory training and job descriptions of cooks, chefs, tourist guides, waiters, hotel and restaurant managers, bartenders and front desk clerks are highlighted.…

  5. Canada and Mexico: the comparative and joint politics of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, E.J.; Costain, W.D.; Hampson, F.; McKinsey, L.


    Topics covered at the symposium include: the national energy policies; political constraints on national policies; the production of electricity, potential for international cooperation; oil, gas, and synthetic fuels, development and exchange; academic views of North America; the future of energy for Canada and Mexico. (GHT)

  6. Drama and Theatre Education in Canada: A Snapshot (United States)

    Carter, Mindy R.


    This "Note from the Field" provides an overview of what is happening in Kindergarten to University drama and theatre education across Canada. In addition to this snapshot I offer some considerations for extending this discipline and its potential impact on curriculum, policy and practice.

  7. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring" (United States)

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.


    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  8. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab


    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  9. Overview of Four Prescription Monitoring/Review Programs in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Furlan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs.

  10. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  11. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie


    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  12. Entrepreneurship Education and Training in Canada: A Critical Assessment. (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.


    Describes providers of entrepreneurship education in Canada: universities, small business centers, banks, nongovernmental organizations, and federal and provincial governments. Presents a conceptual model for entrepreneurship education and training that identifies traits and skills of entrepreneurs, addresses whether these are predictable, and…

  13. Offering sanctuary to failed refugee claimants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Marshall


    Full Text Available Despite the anti-refugee sentiment demonstrated by Canada’s recent legislative changes and the government’s hardening attitude towards those in sanctuary, the spirit of resistance and community engagement is alive and well in Canada.

  14. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun


    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  15. Going Wi-Fi in Canada: municipal and community initiatives


    Powell, Alison; Shade, Leslie Regan


    Urban community Wi-Fi in Canada is at a nascent stage; active non-profit groups through dedicated volunteers, support the development or deployment of Wi-Fi services in community spaces throughout their regions. This article discusses recent initiatives.

  16. Situating Nunavut Education with Indigenous Education in Canada (United States)

    McGregor, Heather Elizabeth


    Recognizing that educational change in Nunavut has not been extensively documented, this article provides an entry point for considering how Nunavut can be better understood and situated with scholarship on Indigenous education in Canada. Comparing the history of education in Nunavut with key turning points in First Nations education, the article…

  17. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada. (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others


    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  18. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda


    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  19. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada. (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J


    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  20. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons (United States)

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa


    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  1. Probing the Future of Mandatory Retirement in Canada (United States)

    Ibbott, Peter; Kerr, Don; Beaujot, Roderic


    The future of mandatory retirement is at least partly driven by changing demographics. In Canada, these demographics include slowing population growth, rapid aging, declining rates of labour force participation, and slowing labour force growth. After reviewing the demographic trends and considering alternate scenarios in labour force…

  2. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy. (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  3. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.


    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  4. Battered Women, Their Siblings and Batterers in Canada. (United States)

    Edinboro, Lawrie M.

    The violence women experience in battering is both physical and psychological. A study in 1980 found that 1 in 10 women was hit, kicked, beaten, punched and terrorized by her husband or partner in Canada. Children living in battered homes may suffer a higher risk of direct physical or sexual abuse and many are neglected. Some progress has been…

  5. Portrayal of Canada in the Dutch print media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.


    This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question

  6. Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir


    This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

  7. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones. (United States)

    Diamond, Lawrence


    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Dionne


    Full Text Available This article studies the historical representation of the two main national communities in Canada; that is, the English-Canadian and the French-Canadian.Throughout the history of the English Canadian community, one cansee an ambitious national project. The national construction of Canada suggests the existence of a neutral model of government but, when looking at this carefully, it is possible to see something quite different. English-speaking historians from Canada have normally introduced the concept of a unitary federalism as the most perfect form of the Canadian integration project. This integrating federalism, that does not lead to emancipation, stems from thecentralist views of John Macdonald, one of the fathers of Canadian federalism. This approach has been kept for over 140 years of common history and, to this date, continues to be one of the main obstacles for minority nations within Canada. To strengthen their thesis, the authors base their work on an extensive analysis exploring the three big strategies used by the central government to assert its authority on the member States of the Canadian Federation in the long term: using the judicial power, centralizing powers andglobalization. The strategies used have varied depending on the economic scenario, political leaders and the political power relations regarding the links between the Federation and the provinces.

  9. Catalyst or Caterpillar? On the State of History in Canada. (United States)

    Osborne, Ken


    Asserts that the two problems with history teaching in Canada are the failure of historians to engage with the schools and the inability of many history teachers to feel at home in their subject. Reviews five crises in the teaching of history over the last 100 years. (CMK)

  10. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie


    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  11. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John


    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project ( Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  12. Steroid responsive mononeuritis multiplex in the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YL Lo


    Full Text Available The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism.

  13. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada. (United States)

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  14. Organized stroke rehabilitation in Canada: redefining our objectives. (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew; Foley, Norine; Pereira, Shelialah; Salter, Katherine; Teasell, Robert


    Evidence suggests that patients who receive care in organized stroke units experience better outcomes compared to patients who receive care in general rehabilitation units. As such, the Canadian Stroke Strategy has consistently included provision of "organized" stroke rehabilitation in their best practice recommendations for stroke care. However, recent research in Ontario suggests that development of organized stroke rehabilitation units has not led to the better patient outcomes that had been expected. In this article, we review the evidence in favour of organized stroke rehabilitation units, assess the state of organized rehabilitation in Canada (as exemplified by care in Ontario), and discuss potential solutions for better application of best evidence and guideline recommendations for organized stroke care in Canada. The most up-to-date evidence in Canada suggests that best practice recommendations around organized stroke care are currently not adhered to well. However, further exploration suggests that some of the recommendations themselves may not be attainable as currently defined. It appears that organized stroke care is not available to many Canadians, and better application of recommendations is necessary. Still, re-evaluation of current recommendations may also be necessary to ensure that they fit with the reality of providing care in Canada.

  15. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie


    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  16. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible? (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda


    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  17. An Evaluation of Environmental Sustainability Reporting in Canada


    Ellis, Erin


    This study describes and evaluates the environmental sustainability reporting practices of the federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada. Public reporting on progress towards environmental sustainability enhances government accountability, provides accessible, authoritative, and scientific information to stakeholders, and is an important part of the larger environmental sustainability planning systems of governments. Background information on environmental sustainability repor...

  18. Parental Cognitive Impairment and Child Maltreatment in Canada (United States)

    McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…

  19. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska (United States)

    Craig R. Ely; John M. Pearce; Roger W. Ruess


    Lesser Canada Geese (Brania canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in...

  20. 78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2009-32, dated July 24, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada, to correct an unsafe condition for the specified Bell model ] helicopters. TCCA... operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement with Canada, TCCA has notified us of...

  1. 19 CFR 123.26 - Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... or Mexico. 123.26 Section 123.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.26 Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico....

  2. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers...

  3. 77 FR 23238 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup Energy Canada ULC (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup Energy Canada ULC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to.... EA-326 authorizing CECU to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  4. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (TCPM) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada..., which authorized TCPM to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power...

  5. 78 FR 42512 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada (United States)


    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  6. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... were the orders to be revoked. See Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and...

  7. Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bishop


    Full Text Available Although mortality of birds from collisions with vehicles is estimated to be in the millions in the USA, Europe, and the UK, to date, no estimates exist for Canada. To address this, we calculated an estimate of annual avian mortality attributed to vehicular collisions during the breeding and fledging season, in Canadian ecozones, by applying North American literature values for avian mortality to Canadian road networks. Because owls are particularly susceptible to collisions with vehicles, we also estimated the number of roadkilled Barn owls (Tyto alba in its last remaining range within Canada. (This species is on the IUCN red list and is also listed federally as threatened; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2010, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2012. Through seven Canadian studies in existence, 80 species and 2,834 specimens have been found dead on roads representing species from 14 orders of birds. On Canadian 1 and 2-lane paved roads outside of major urban centers, the unadjusted number of bird mortalities/yr during an estimated 4-mo (122-d breeding and fledging season for most birds in Canada was 4,650,137 on roads traversing through deciduous, coniferous, cropland, wetlands and nonagricultural landscapes with less than 10% treed area. On average, this represents 1,167 birds killed/100 km in Canada. Adjusted for scavenging, this estimate was 13,810,906 (3,462 dead birds/100 km. For barn owls, the unadjusted number of birds killed annually on 4-lane roads during the breeding and fledging season, within the species geographic range in southern British Columbia, was estimated as 244 owls and, when adjusted for scavenging and observer bias (3.6 factor, the total was 851 owls.

  8. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley


    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  9. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada: National survey. (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith R; Hayden, Althea S; Jones, Heidi E; White, Katharine O'Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V


    To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Canada. A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ(2) and t tests. A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  10. Injuries related to off-road vehicles in Canada. (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; McAteer, Heather; Brown, Steve; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven; Hing, Marisela Mainegra


    Off-road vehicles (ORVs; this includes snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles or ATVs and dirt bikes) were once used primarily for work and travel. Such use remains common in Canada, although their recreational use has also gained popularity in recent years. An epidemiological injury profile of ORV users is important for better understanding injuries and their risk factors to help inform injury prevention initiatives. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) partnered with the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to analyze the epidemiology of ORV-related injuries. The primary aim was to assess crashes and injuries in Canada, including the extent of alcohol involvement. Secondly, the burden of injury among children and teen ORV drivers in Canada, as well as passengers, was investigated. Descriptive and inferential epidemiological statistics were generated using the following data sources: first, TIRF's National Fatality Database, which is a comprehensive, pan-Canadian, set of core data on all fatal motor vehicle crashes; second, TIRF's Serious Injury Database, which contains information on persons seriously injured in crashes; and, third, PHAC's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a surveillance system currently operating in the emergency departments of some pediatric and general hospitals across Canada. Exposure data have been used in the analyzes where available. Between 1990 and 2010, fatality rates increased among ATV and dirt bike operators. The fatality rate among snowmobilers declined during this period. Of particular concern, among fatally injured female ATV users, children aged 0-15 years comprised the highest proportion of any age group at 33.8%. Regarding alcohol use, among fatally injured snowmobile and ATV/dirt bike operators tested for alcohol, 66% and 55% tested positive, respectively. Alcohol involvement in adult ORV crashes remains an important factor. In light of the growing popularity of ORVs, prevention and

  11. Bilinguisme et traduction au Canada. Role sociolinguistique du traducteur. (Bilingualism and Translation in Canada. The Sociolinguistic Role of the Translator). (United States)

    Juhel, Denis

    This study concerns the problems posed by modes of interlinguistic communication, translation, and individual bilingualism, on which depend the quality of relationships between two ethnic communities belonging to a single political entity. It also addresses a frequent question about the need for translation in a bilingual country like Canada. The…

  12. Les droits linguistiques et scolaires au Quebec et au Canada (Linguistic and Educational Rights in Quebec and Canada). (United States)

    Tetley, William

    A review of the language laws and conventions in Canada and the province of Quebec focuses on: Canadian constitutional law concerning education and language, including the 1867 constitution, the 1960 declaration of linguistic rights, and a 1969 law on official languages; the language of government and instruction in Manitoba; language usage in the…

  13. Wrench faulting in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Jackson, H. R.; Shimeld, J.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Chian, D.; Li, Q.; Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.


    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geologic data from within the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This fabric is defined by a diverse set of observations, including (1) a magnetic lineament extending from offshore Prince Patrick Island to the bend in the Canada Basin Gravity Low that separates higher magnetic amplitudes to the northwest from a region of more subdued anomalies to the southeast; (2) the orientation of the 600-km long Northwind Escarpment along the edge of the Canada Basin; (3) a large, linear, positive magnetic anomaly that parallels Northwind Escarpment; (4) negative flower structures along the base of the Northwind Escarpment identified in seismic reflection profiles; (5) the edges of a linear, 150-km-long by 20-km-wide by 2000-m deep, basin in the Chukchi Plateau; (6) the sub-parallel ridges of Sever Spur along the Canadian margin north of Prince Patrick Island; (7) an oblong gravity low interpreted to indicate thick sediments beneath an inferred rift basin at 78oN in ~3600 m water depth; (8) the offshore extensions of the Canning sinistral and Richardson dextral fault zones; (9) the offshore extension of the D3 magnetic terrain of Saltus et al. (2011); and (10) the association of dredged rocks of the Chukchi Borderland with the Pearya terrane ~2000 km northeast of its present location (Brumley et al., 2015). Ongoing deformation of the Beaufort margin by impingement of the Brooks Range tectonic front is recorded by modern seismicity along the Canning and Richardson fault zones, which imply that deformation is accommodated by slip along the northeast-trending fabric. Together, these features are interpreted to indicate long-lived northeast-southwest oriented tectonic fabric in the development of the Canada Basin from initial rifting to modern deformation of the Beaufort margin

  14. Internationally educated nurses in Canada: predictors of workforce integration. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Primeau, Marie-Douce; Kilpatrick, Kelley; St-Pierre, Isabelle


    Global trends in migration accompanied with recent changes to the immigrant selection process may have influenced the demographic and human capital characteristics of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in Canada and in turn the assistance required to facilitate their workforce integration. This study aimed to describe the demographic and human capital profile of IENs in Canada, to explore recent changes to the profile, and to identify predictors of IENs' workforce integration. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational survey design was used. Eligible IENs were immigrants, registered and employed as regulated nurses in Canada. Data were collected in 2014 via online and paper questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the data by year of immigration. Logistic regression modeling was employed to identify predictors of IENs' workforce integration measured as passing the licensure exam to acquire professional recertification and securing employment. The sample consisted of 2280 IENs, representative of all Canadian provincial jurisdictions. Since changes to the immigrant selection process in 2002, the IEN population in Canada has become more racially diverse with greater numbers emigrating from developing countries. Recent arrivals (after 2002) had high levels of human capital (knowledge, professional experience, language proficiency). Some, but not all, benefited from the formal and informal assistance available to facilitate their workforce integration. Professional experience and help studying significantly predicted if IENs passed the licensure exam on their first attempt. Bridging program participation and assistance from social networks in Canada were significant predictors if IENs had difficulty securing employment. Nurses will continue to migrate from a wide variety of countries throughout the world that have dissimilar nursing education and health systems. Thus, IENs are not a homogenous group, and a "one size fits all" model may not be

  15. Prepuce health and childhood circumcision: Choices in Canada (United States)

    Abara, Emmanuel O.


    Introduction: Worldwide, almost 100% of boys are born with penises with a “hood” called prepuce or foreskin. In the course of the boy’s life, the prepuce can be circumcised, can become affected by diseased (e.g., phimosis), or a can become infected and hurt the neonate (and his sexual partner) in adulthood. The objectives of this report are to: 1) review the state, function, fate, and care of the prepuce in childhood, with focus on the neonate, in Canada; 2) understand the current practice of childhood male circumcision in terms of age, indications, performers, techniques, outcomes, and education; and 3) consider ways to sustain a good healthcare professional-parental dialogue for safe practices that are accessible, acceptable, and culturally sensitive in the care of the prepuce. Methods: A literature review was carried out in the English language through the major databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection, LILAC, WHO/UNAIDS, Clinical Trials (, Google Scholar, and grey literature. Search words included: prepuce, diseases of prepuce, prepuce in the neonate, prepuce in the neonate in Canada, male circumcision, childhood male circumcision, neonatal circumcision, neonatal circumcision in Canada, complications of neonatal circumcision in Canada, and circumcision adverse events. Results: From 1970–1999, three of 10 Canadian newborn males were circumcised for religious, cultural, and medical reasons. The rest of the neonates, if alive, are living with their prepuce; <4% expected to require treatment for afflictions of the prepuce at some point. There are several providers of circumcision with different levels of training and competencies and using a diversity of devices and techniques. Neonatal and childhood circumcision in Canada is carried out to fulfill parental wishes, as well as for medical, religious, and cultural reasons. Appropriate informed consent and education regarding

  16. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada. (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon


    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  17. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K


    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta


    Full Text Available The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation and a number of bilateral (preferential trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement. In this case, we have analysed Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA negotiated by the European Union and Canada. For both sides of Atlantic, the CETA is supposed to bring the solution for today's issues concerning the important trading aspects and, also, to facilitate the EU-Canada bilateral trade by creating competition.

  19. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)


    As Canada plans to build more nuclear reactors to increase energy production, the benefits and hazards of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. This book provided a discerning opposition to the supportive position taken by government and industry regarding the management of high-level nuclear fuel waste and the nuclear generation of electricity. The contributors explored key issues associated with nuclear energy development, such as safety, risk assessment, site selection and the public consultation process in Canada and its failure to address ethical and social issues. The technical challenges of nuclear waste management were reviewed along with the nature and means of developing social and ethical frameworks within which to assess technical options, consultative practices and decision-making processes. Strategies for thinking of the long term were also discussed. refs.

  20. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009. (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M


    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  1. Bone fluoride concentrations in beluga whales from Canada. (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Qualls, C W; De Guise, S; Whaley, M W; Martineau, D


    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary have been reported to have dental and bone abnormalities. To determine whether these lesions could be caused by high exposure to fluorides, we measured bone fluoride levels in eight beluga whales stranded on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada), and in nine beluga whales killed by Inuit hunters in the Hudson Bay (North Western Territories, Canada). In both groups, fluoride concentrations were higher than those found in terrestrial mammals intoxicated by fluorides. Unexpectedly, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in beluga whales from the Hudson Bay (mean +/- SD: 10.365 +/- 1.098 ppm) than in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary (4.539 +/- 875 ppm) and was positively correlated with age in the latter population. Differences in diet might explain the differences in fluoride concentrations found between these two populations.

  2. Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Canadian Fund for International Understanding Through Culture (Can4Culture), was held in Beijing June 25-26. Ms. Lin Yi, Secretary General of the CPAFFC, Dr. Nelly Ng, Chair of Can4Culture, Mr. Mark McDowell, Counselor of the Canadian Embassy in China, Mr. John McAvity, Executive Director of the Canadian Museums Association, among the 100 attendees, who included representatives from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, China Soong Ching Ling Foundation, China National Academy of Painting, China National Center for the Performing Arts, the Canadian Museums Association, Canada Science and Technology Museum, as well as from other museums, universities and cultural organizations of both countries.

  3. The right to a healthy environment: A prescription for Canada. (United States)

    Boyd, David R


    This invited commentary summarizes the need for stronger Canadian environmental laws and policies. The environmental burden of disease in Canada is substantial. In part this is due to environmental laws and policies that are significantly weaker and less effective than corresponding rules in other wealthy industrialized nations. One promising approach is recognition of the right to live in a healthy environment. In particular, constitutional recognition of this right in 100 nations has led to stronger environmental laws, better enforcement of those laws, enhanced public participation in environmental decision-making, and superior environmental outcomes (e.g., faster progress in reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions). In light of Canada's weak environmental record, this potentially transformative approach is particularly promising.

  4. Employment equity in Canada and South Africa: a comparative review


    Jain, Harish; Horwitz, Frank M.; Wilkin, Christa L.


    The South African Government has sought to redress the historical legacy of workplace discrimination by introducing the Employment Equity Act (1998), which was largely modeled on the Canadian Employment Equity Act. Although there is very little comparative information between South Africa and Canada, we fill this gap by reviewing the literature in both countries, highlighting common features of the legislation, discussing the effectiveness of legislation in both countries as well as the progr...

  5. The Employment-Impact of Automation in Canada



    Standard neoclassical models of labour demand predict that automation does not produce long-term increases in unemployment. Supporting evidence in Canada between 1970 and 2008 is explained by the reallocation of labour from industries with high levels of automation such as Manufacturing to industries with low levels of automation such as Retail and Wholesale Trade, and Business Services. Recent evidence indicates however that on-going technological advances are now driving labour automation i...

  6. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Favaro

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4% improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA, which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place.

  7. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith R.; Hayden, Althea S.; Jones, Heidi E.; White, Katharine O’Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V.


    Abstract Objective To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Design Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ2 and t tests. Results A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. Conclusion In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed. PMID:28192275

  8. Argentina-Canada from 1870: Explaining the dynamics of divergence


    González, Germán; Viego, Valentina


    Argentina and Canada started their industrialization processes while exporting natural resources and importing capital goods. These two nations were sparsely populated but received significant inflows of European immigrants since the second half of the nineteenth century. Until the start of World War II, both economies experienced similar per-capita GDPs. However, the gap between both per-capita GDPs began to grow, widening throughout the century. We carry out an empirical study of the deep d...

  9. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.


    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  10. If the U.S. had Canada's stumpage system (United States)

    Henry Spelter


    North American log markets function on different principles -- a profit allowance for the wood processor plays a role in timber pricing in Canada, while in the United States, it is a byproduct of the give and take of arm’s-length market negotiations. The former is characterized by high elasticities of price transmission and, at times of market weakness, by low...

  11. Current Trends in Graduate Education in Astronomy in Canada (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Douglas, K. A.


    We begin by describing the infrastructure for graduate education and research in astronomy in Canada. We then describe recent and current trends and issues, including facilities, funding, curriculum, and job prospects. This information has been collected through two channels: through graduate coordinators in astronomy departments and groups in Canadian universities, and through the Graduate Student Committee of the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS). We emphasize the benefits of having a graduate student chapter in societies such as the CAS and the AAS.

  12. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.


    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  13. Warm water geothermal and cold energy in western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada's low carbon futures study was discussed along with a study in which scenarios were developed for three resources, notably bitumen in carbonate reservoirs; conventional heavy oil; and warm water geothermal energy from operating oil wells. The presentation provided an overview of geothermal systems including hot dry rock; dry steam resources; hot water resources; warm water resources; and low temperature systems. A warm water geothermal study for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was also presented. Although high quality geothermal energy sources are rare in Canada, there are large warm water geothermal reservoirs, ranging in temperature from 50 to 180 degrees C in the WCSB. This presentation focused on the potential for recovery of the warm water geothermal energy already being brought to surface from the WCSB's oil wells. Several energy approaches were also presented, such as warm geothermal or produced water being used for heating an oil reservoir; using produced mechanical energy for field pumping; and producing renewable electricity from binary plants with propane. Illustrations were also provided for the organic Rankine cycle; low pump geothermal power; and no pump geothermal system. Combined geothermal and oil production were also discussed. Other topics that were presented included industrial cooling; municipal cooling; mined oilsands barriers and tailings; containment of in-situ oilsands; and rural freeze desalination. The report concluded with discussions of the Canadian minerals industry; cold Arctic construction; and ice roads in the North. It was concluded that there is potential for warm water geothermal in existing oilfield operations in Canada. tabs., figs.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical management of tuberculosis in children in Canada


    Shaun K Morris; Demers, Anne-Marie; Lam, Ray; Pell, Lisa G; Giroux, Ryan JP; Kitai, Ian


    Although often regarded as a foreign disease, latent tuberculosis or tuberculosis disease will be encountered in many clinical situations by the Canadian child health practitioner. There are key differences between tuberculosis in children and adults. In the present article, the changing epidemiology of tuberculosis in children in Canada and around the world, the pathogenesis of infection, diagnostic tests, and clinical management of childhood latent tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease are ...

  15. China-Canada Project Teaches Wuyi Women Tailoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    HOT as it was, He Suhua was exceptionally happy at the opening ceremony of the Seventh Dress-making Training Class in Wuyi County, as part of the China Canada Women in Development Project. He, a head of women at Huaifu Village, dressed in clothes made by a woman who had studied in the third dress-making training class, led 11 new trainees to the county seat

  16. A checklist of the 67 mosquito species of Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Giordano, Bryan V; Gasparotto, Alessio; Hunter, Fiona F


    We provide an updated checklist of 67 endemic mosquito species known from Ontario, Canada. Nine endemic species are added to the checklist found in Darsie and Ward (2005) : Aedes cantator, Ae. churchillensis, Ae. nigripes, Ae. pullatus, Anopheles perplexens, An. crucians, An. smaragdinus, Culex erraticus, and Cx. salinarius. Only 4 specimens of Ae. albopictus have been recorded in Ontario since 2001 despite concerted efforts to find this species; therefore, it is considered an "accidental" species and is excluded from the checklist.

  17. Distribution of crustal types in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Chian, D.; Jackson, H. R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Shimeld, J. W.; Oakey, G. N.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N.; Li, Q.; Saltus, R. W.; Mosher, D. C.


    Seismic velocities determined from 70 sonobuoys widely distributed in Canada Basin were used to discriminate crustal types. Velocities of oceanic layer 3 (6.7-7.1 km/s), transitional (7.2-7.6 km/s) and continental crust (5.5-6.6 km/s) were used to distinguish crustal types. Potential field data supports the distribution of oceanic crust as a polygon with maximum dimensions of 340 km (east-west) by 590 km (north-south) and identification of the ocean-continent boundary (OCB). Paired magnetic anomalies are associated only with crust that has oceanic velocities. Furthermore, the interpreted top of oceanic crust on seismic reflection profiles is more irregular and sometimes shallower than adjacent transitional crust. The northern segment of the narrow Canada Basin Gravity Low (CBGL), often interpreted as a spreading center, bisects this zone of oceanic crust and coincides with the location of a prominent valley in seismic reflection profiles. Data coverage near the southern segment of CBGL is sparse. Velocities typical of transitional crust are determined east of it. Extension in this region, close to the inferred pole of rotation, may have been amagmatic. Offshore Alaska is a wide zone of thinned continental crust up to 300 km across. Published longer offset refraction experiments in the Basin confirm the depth to Moho and the lack of oceanic layer 3 velocities. Further north, toward Alpha Ridge and along Northwind Ridge, transitional crust is interpreted to be underplated or intruded by magmatism related to the emplacement of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). Although a rotational plate tectonic model is consistent with the extent of the conjugate magnetic anomalies that occupy only a portion of Canada Basin, it does not explain the asymmetrical configuration of the oceanic crust in the deep water portion of Canada Basin, and the unequal distribution of transitional and continental crust around the basin.

  18. Friendship Spanning Two Centuries Between China and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Zhang


    <正>Xinchang,in Dayi County of Chengdu,Sichuan Province,is a beautiful town with quaint residential houses,winding corridors,verdant trees,stone bridges and rippling streams.In June,it greeted a26-member delegation of descendants of Canadian friends on a"home coming"visit,the fifth of its kind.The Chinese and Canadian Governments designated 2013 as the China-Canada Year of Culture to deepen

  19. Using microsimulation to reassess aging trends in Canada. (United States)

    Légaré, Jacques; Décarie, Yann; Bélanger, Alain


    Population aging is the population issue of the XXI century and many indices are used to measure its level and pace. In Science (2010), Sanderson and Scherbov suggested improvements to the measure of elderly dependency ratio. They identified several limitations to the use of chronological age as the main variable and proposed a new index, the Adult Disability Dependency Ratio, defined as the number of adults at least 20 years old with disabilities divided by the number of similarly aged adults without disabilities. They used the Sullivan prevalence-based method by multiplying derived disability rates to macro population projections. They showed results for several ECE and OECD countries; results for Canada (see online annex, available at were derived using coefficients of Italy. However, disability is a complex multidimensional process (see Carrière, Keefe, Légaré, Lin, & Rowe, 2007; Légaré and Décarie, 2011), and microsimulation can take into account its implied complexity. Our results for Canada, presented here, exceed those in Science to show how more-sophisticated projections of disabled older adults can improve the analysis. We used LifePaths, a Statistics Canada's microsimulation model, to provide a perspective of the phenomena unobtainable with prevalence-based methods.

  20. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)


    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  1. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba


    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  2. Update: outbreaks of cyclosporiasis -- United States and Canada, 1997. (United States)


    Since April 1997, CDC has received reports of outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the United States and Canada (1,2). As of June 11, there have been 21 clusters of cases of cyclosporiasis reported from eight states (California, Florida, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Rhode Island, and Texas) and one province in Canada (Ontario). These clusters were associated with events (e.g., receptions, banquets, or time-place-related exposures [meals in the same restaurant on the same day]) that occurred during March 19-May 25 and comprise approximately 140 laboratory-confirmed and 370 clinically defined cases of cyclosporiasis. In addition, four laboratory-confirmed and approximately 220 clinically defined cases have been reported among persons who, during March 29-April 5, were on a cruise ship that departed from Florida. Approximately 70 laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases (i.e., cases not associated with events, the cruise, or recent overseas travel) have been reported in the United States and Canada. The most recent laboratory-confirmed sporadic case occurred in a person who had onset of symptoms on June 3.

  3. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  4. Stroke rehabilitation in Canada: a work in progress. (United States)

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Willems, Deb


    Stroke rehabilitation in Canada continues to function under models and practices that have changed little in the last four decades and struggles to implement new evidence-based or best practices. Ontario, Canada's largest province, has had a coordinated stroke strategy since 2000. The Ontario Stroke System has developed an extensive infrastructure of research syntheses, consensus panel recommendations, practice guidelines, standards of care, and centralized data collection across the continuum of stroke care. This has produced a solid foundation upon which an evidence-based stroke rehabilitation system can be developed. However, failure to invest in stroke rehabilitation or provide incentives to implement change has resulted in the stroke rehabilitation system and critical outcomes remaining largely unchanged. Improvements in time to admission have been countered by rising admission FIM scores such that severe stroke patients often cannot access the stroke rehabilitation system. Many stroke patients are still rehabilitated on general rehabilitation units, therapy intensities remain unacceptably low, and many outpatient programs are being reduced or even closed. Although there are pockets of innovation, the stroke rehabilitation system continues to function more according to traditional ways of practicing. The hope is that with appropriate investments and incentives, Canadians and Ontarians can build upon the existing infrastructure to ensure stroke patients receive optimal rehabilitative care based on best evidence. In the meantime, stroke rehabilitation in Canada remains a work in progress.

  5. Comparative Intergovernmental Politics: CETA Negotiations between Canada and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. D'Erman


    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA between Canada and the European Union (EU required long-term negotiations between two major polities of the industrialized world. During the negotiations, Canada acquiesced to the EU’s demand that Canadian provinces participate directly in discussions, setting an important precedent in the dynamics of Canadian external trade. This paper examines the dynamics of intergovernmentalism in the policy area of external trade within the settings of the Canadian provinces and the EU member states, and uses the findings to suggest that in this realm the EU is a stronger example of federal synthesis of decision-making than is Canada. This is significant because it contradicts many established theories of federalism within political science, and implies that the EU could become a strong source of normative example for federal-style polities in the globalized world. As well, the strength of the EU’s single market lends credence to the institutions embedded within the supranational polity, and gives the EU significant normative power as a prototype for other experiments in regional integration.

  6. Canada, Empire and Indigenous People in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gordon


    Full Text Available This article argues that Canada is an imperial power in the global order, and that more traditional notions of Canada as a rich dependency or arguments that call for a project to defend Canadian sovereignty fail to properly account for this. Central to the Canadian state project, both in its historical and contemporary manifestations, is an agenda of accumulation by dispossession, in which Indigenous nations are a central target. In the period of neoliberalism, Canadian capital, facilitated by the state, is searching out new spaces of accumulation in Canada and abroad, particularly in Latin America, and Indigenous land and labour are crucial to its success. Instead of defending Canadian sovereignty, the Left must respond by developing a sharp anti-imperialist analysis of Canada’s role in the global economy. This article will draw on the policies and strategies of Canada’s mining industry, which is a powerful actor at home and abroad, as one important example of the imperialist dynamics it is tracing.

  7. Regulation of animal experimentation: Canada's program of voluntary control. (United States)

    Rowsell, H C


    The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), is an autonomous advisory and supervisory body responsible for surveillance of experimental animal care and use in Canada's universities, government laboratories and pharmaceutical houses. Its 20-organization membership includes representatives of government, industry, academia and the humane movement. CCAC's voluntary peer review program depends heavily on institutional animal care committees who evaluate the ethical aspects of animal study protocols, and provide day-to-day surveillance of animal care. Its scientific teams, each of which also includes an appointee of the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS), conduct assessments based on CCAC's "Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals" (Volume 1, 1980; Volume 2, 1984). Canada's two major funding agencies, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), have recently stated that, in the event of an institution's continued non-compliance with CCAC requirements, sanctions may include the "freezing or withdrawal of any or all research programs funded by either or both Research Councils in an institution". This presentation describes the CCAC program of voluntary peer review and examines historic aspects of animal issues in Canada, from that country's early reliance on the fur trade, to today's almost defunct harp seal fishery, from Banting and Best's discovery of insulin, to development of the pacemaker.

  8. Introduction history and population genetics of the invasive grass Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) in Canada. (United States)

    Valliant, Morgan T; Mack, Richard N; Novak, Stephen J


    The invasive annual Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is distributed in Canada primarily south of 52° N latitude in two diffuse ranges separated by the extensive coniferous forest in western Ontario. The grass was likely introduced independently to eastern and western Canada post-1880. We detected regional variation in the grass's genetic diversity using starch gel electrophoresis to analyze genetic diversity at 25 allozyme loci in 60 populations collected across Canada. The Pgm-1a & Pgm-2a multilocus genotype, which occurs in the grass's native range in Eastern Europe, is prevalent in eastern Canada but occurs at low frequency in western Canada. In contrast, the Got-4c multilocus genotype, found in the native range in Central Europe, is widespread in populations from western Canada. Overall genetic diversity of B. tectorum is much higher in eastern Canada than in the eastern U.S., while the genetic diversity in populations in western North America is similar between Canada and the U.S. The distribution of genetic diversity across Canada strongly suggests multiple introduction events. Heterozygous individuals, which are exceedingly rare in B. tectorum, were detected in three Canadian populations. Formation of novel genotypes through occasional outcrossing events could spark adaptive evolution and further range expansion across Canada of this exceedingly damaging grass.

  9. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first. (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel


    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  10. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu


    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  11. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Archambault

    Full Text Available Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea, and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to

  12. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert


    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  13. Atlantic Canada's gas industry overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, G. [Emera Energy Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)


    Emera Energy is a vertically integrated energy company with 4 billion dollars in assets, and one billion dollars in revenue. The ownership structure of Emera Energy was reviewed. The major issues facing Emera Energy all imply a balancing act, between end users and producers, government and industry, infrastructure owners and customers, and Canada versus exports. A brief overview of the regulatory environment in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia was presented. Some of the other issues addressed in this presentation were: project Think, Maritime fragmentation and parochialism, federal/provincial equalization payments, fishing/petroleum industry clash, sovereign risk higher than need be, immature energy industry in Atlantic Canada, and offshore exploration and production industry different than that of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). National Energy Board (NEB) gas export hearing into the appropriateness of the market oriented export liberalization rules implemented in 1987 for exports of Atlantic Canada gas production is being challenged by the government of New Brunswick. Figures depicting the Canadian gas resource and Nova Scotia offshore gas development were presented, followed by a table providing East Coast offshore costs. The Sable Offshore Energy Project was described, as well as the Deep Panuke gas field. An update on offshore exploration was provided, including comments on onshore activity concerning coal bed methane. A status report of the natural gas supply contracts was discussed. Conventional gas was the next topic discussed, beginning with an overview of onshore activity. The midstream sector was reviewed, with a brief discussion about the existing pipeline system. The mainline expansion plans were reviewed. Some of the gas transmission issues facing the industry in Atlantic Canada are high transport rates, postage stamp toll that is anti-Canadian, gate keeper role for producers, and onerous rules and poor customer service. The Cartier pipeline

  14. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): An analysis of spatial and temporal hydrological trends and patterns in western Canada (United States)

    Bawden, A. J.; Burn, D. H.; Prowse, T. D.


    Climate variability and change can have profound impacts on the hydrologic regime of a watershed. These effects are likely to be especially severe in regions particularly sensitive to changes in climate, such as the Canadian north, or when there are other stresses on the hydrologic regime, such as may occur when there are large withdrawals from, or land-use changes within, a watershed. A recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stressed that future climate is likely to accelerate the hydrologic cycle and hence may affect water security in certain locations. For some regions, this will mean enhanced access to water resources, but because the effects will not be spatially uniform, other regions will experience reduced access. Understanding these patterns is critical for water managers and government agencies in western Canada - an area of highly contrasting hydroclimatic regimes and overlapping water-use and jurisdictional borders - as adapting to climate change may require reconsideration of inter-regional transfers and revised allocation of water resources to competing industrial sectors, including agriculture, hydroelectric production, and oil and gas. This research involves the detection and examination of spatial and temporal streamflow trends in western Canadian rivers as a response to changing climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and the synoptic patterns controlling these drivers. The study area, known as the CROCWR region, extends from the Pacific coast of British Columbia as far east as the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border and from the Canada-United States international border through a large portion of the Northwest Territories. This analysis examines hydrologic trends in monthly and annual streamflow for a collection of 34 hydrometric gauging stations believed to adequately represent the overall effects of climate variability and change on flows in western Canada by means of the Mann-Kendall non

  15. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada. (United States)

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G


    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada.... Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT)

  16. Evidence-informed health policy making in Canada: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A


    Evidence-informed health policy making (EIHP) is becoming a necessary means to achieving health system reform. Although Canada has a rich and well documented history in the field of evidence-based medicine, a concerted effort to capture Canada's efforts to support EIHP in particular has yet to be realized. This paper reports on the development of EIHP in Canada, including promising approaches being used to support the use of evidence in policy making about complex health systems issues. In light of Canada's contributions, this paper suggests that scholars in Canada will continue engaging in the field of EIHP through further study of interventions underway, as well as by sharing knowledge within and beyond Canada's borders about approaches that support EIHP.

  17. Alberta, Western Canada and the FTA/NAFTA: 1988-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, S.S.; Chambers, E.J.


    The sharp improvement in the export performance of Western Canada in recent years was discussed. In 1995, British Columbia ranked first among western provinces in the value of exports, and Alberta ranked second. Shipments from Alberta increased 15.4 per cent in value over 1994. The two provinces account for approximately 80 per cent of Western Canada`s total. A summary was provided of the increased value of exports for certain categories (meat, vegetables, energy, plastics, wood, electrical machinery, furniture, precision instruments); all of these meet the criteria defined for `sustained growth` and `export foothold`. Western Canada`s trade with Mexico was also discussed. All exports from Western Canada were itemized,along with export and U.S. market shares data from 1988 to 1995. 11 tabs.

  18. Neurological Diseases, Disorders and Injuries in Canada: Highlights of a National Study. (United States)

    Bray, Garth M; Huggett, Deanna L


    The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions, a partnership between Neurological Health Charities Canada and the Government of Canada, was the largest study of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries ever conducted in Canada. Undertaken between 2009 and 2013, the expansive program of research addressed the epidemiology, impacts, health services, and risk factors of 18 neurological conditions and estimated the health outcomes and costs of these conditions in Canada through 2031. This review summarizes highlights from the component projects of the study as presented in the synthesis report, Mapping Connections: An Understanding of Neurological Conditions in Canada. The key findings included new prevalence and incidence estimates, documentation of the diverse and often debilitating effects of neurological conditions, and identification of the utilization, economic costs, and current limitations of related health services. The study findings will support health charities, governments, and other stakeholders to reduce the impact of neurological conditions in Canada.

  19. Implications and reflections on the 2010 Supreme Court ruling on Canada's AHR Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R


    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Tarun RahmanInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In December, 2010, Canada's 6 year old Assisted Human Reproduction Act was successfully challenged in the Supreme Court of Canada. There may be important implications for public health and the evolution of reproductive technologies in this country.Keywords: public health, reproductive medicine, IVF, ART, in vitro fertilization (IVF

  20. Varsity Sports in Canada from the student-athlete's point of view


    Preibischová, Monika


    Title: Varsity sport in Canada in the perspective of foreign and domestic student- athletes Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to analyze the system of varsity sport in Canada, to identify its problematic areas from the perspective of student-athletes and to make suggestions for its improvements. Methods: In this thesis the method of descriptive analysis was used. The information on varsity sport in Canada was mainly collected by exploring the documents of the governing body for varsity sp...

  1. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.


    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  2. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada. (United States)

    Wilding, Ethan T


    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  3. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Garner

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities.To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada.Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32. Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights.The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae (score=77. When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile.This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  4. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada. (United States)

    Garner, Michael J; Carson, Carolee; Lingohr, Erika J; Fazil, Aamir; Edge, Victoria L; Trumble Waddell, Jan


    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities. To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada. Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32). Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights. The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae (score=77). When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile. This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  5. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes


    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  6. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell


    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  7. The nature and scope of gambling in Canada. (United States)

    Smith, Garry


    This paper provides a historical review of gambling in Canada and examines the benefits and shortcomings of present-day Canadian gambling policies and practices. This includes a discussion of provincial and federal government roles in gambling regulation and an overview of problem gambling prevention and treatment initiatives. The gambling studies literature was probed for pertinent information on factors such as historical development, legislative changes, economic conditions and cultural influences that have affected gambling participation and social responsibility strategies in Canada. Two major Criminal Code of Canada amendments (in 1969 and 1985) were pivotal in Canadian gambling expansion. The first decriminalized lotteries and casinos, while the second allowed electronic gambling devices and authorized provinces to operate and regulate gambling. These changes resulted in a radical gambling expansion which, in addition to raising provincial revenues, created public policy concerns. Varying provincial government interpretations of the ambiguous Criminal Code gambling statutes led to a lack of uniformity in how provinces regulate and operate gambling; when gambling expanded, there were no legislative safeguards in place to deal with the personal and societal effects of problem gambling. Subsequent programs designed to prevent and treat problem gambling have not been overly effective. Canadian provinces have a monopoly on gambling within their borders and treat the activity as a profit-driven business enterprise. Problems associated with widespread gambling such as addiction, increased crime, bankruptcy and suicide are seen as minor concerns and not addressed in an aggressive fashion. Given the Canadian federal government's detachment from gambling policy and Canadian provinces' heavy reliance on gambling revenues, little change in the Canadian gambling landscape is anticipated in the near future. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Replacing coal power in Canada with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, C.; Kansal, V.; Kegel, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    At present, coal represents 19 per cent of Canada's energy production and is responsible for 80 per cent of the energy industry's greenhouse gases (GHG). It has been estimated that GHG emission levels can be reduced by 14 per cent if coal power is replaced with a cleaner energy source. This paper suggested that, due to dwindling natural gas reserves, renewable energy sources should be considered as an economically viable substitute for coal. A breakdown of energy production in Canada in 2002 was presented, along with details of Canadian emissions. The total capacity and annual generation of emissions from coal were presented, as well as additional sources of pollution, such as transboundary pollution. Various government incentives for renewable energy source development were discussed. Wind energy costs were examined along with geothermal energy, tidal energy, biomass energy, and solar energy. Rebate programs were reviewed. The gradual elimination of coal as an energy source was examined by region. Details of alternative energy methods were presented, along with their associated costs. Costs were compared to coal production and did not include any government subsidies. It was concluded that the majority of renewable resources in Canada are competitive with coal prices and in some cases cheaper. However, the resources cannot meet the electricity demands of all regions. It was suggested that wind energy is often an excellent alternative to meeting demand, but that wind power is the only natural resource that actually costs more than coal. An incentive program similar to that of Denmark was proposed, whereby the subsidy decreases every 2 years to keep in line with projected technological improvements and rising energy rates. 37 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina


    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  10. Shale gas development in Canada : the regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, Y.; Serry, J.K. [Blake, Cassels and Graydon, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Engineering advances in Canada are making unconventional gas plays more attractive, and provincial governments are looking to tap the economic benefits. Regulators are adjusting existing oil and gas regulations or drafting completely new legislation. This paper presented an overview of the rules for shale gas development in provinces with shale gas development potential, with particular reference to the following 4 regions: (1) British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan where natural gas development is a relatively well-established and significant part of the local economy, (2) Nova Scotia and New Brunswick where shale gas stands to significantly change the regulatory environment, (3) Quebec where local opposition to shale gas development is challenging for a provincial government that has relatively little experience in the area of oil and gas regulation, and (4) Ontario, where development potential seems to be limited. The paper identified 3 areas that often receive the most attention from regulators, notably tenure and development approval, with a focus on lands where gas rights are owned by the provincial crown; royalties, including any shale-specific incentive programs; and environmental regulation, with a focus on sourcing and use of water, management of produced and recovered waste water, and rules regarding frac fluid. The paper provided a big picture of Canada's legal system and then discussed the provincial situations. The future of shale policy and the American experience concluded the report. It was concluded that it is unlikely that the federal government of Canada will play a lead role in regulating shale development in this country. refs., figs.

  11. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children's Rights in Canada. (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison


    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa's "power cube" that describes different facets of power - including spaces, levels, and forms - is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society.

  12. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada. (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F


    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  13. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada. (United States)

    Rao, K V


    "This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  14. Constructing medical social authority on dress in Victorian Canada. (United States)

    O'Connor, Eileen


    During the late-Victorian period, campaigns to "reform" middle-class women's dress were grounded in discourses on health, eugenics, declining birth rates, comfort, and aesthetics. In Britain, the United States and Germany, organized "dress reform" movements emerged in the latter half of the 19th century, while in Canada the campaign was led primarily by physicians through public health education. This article explores the discussion on women's dress in public health literature in Canadian circulation between 1860-1900 and interprets findings within a feminist poststructuralist framework that posits the understanding of women's bodies and gender regulation to be central to knowledge construction on women's dress.

  15. Nongastrointestinal helminths in marten (Martes americana) from Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Seville, R S; Addison, E M


    Six species of nongastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from 405 marten, (Martes americana), examined from six areas in Ontario, Canada in 1992 to 1993. Three species (Crenosoma petrowi, Eucoleus aerophilus, Filaroides martis) were found in the respiratory tract, one in the urinary bladder (Pearsonema plica), one in the kidney (Dioctophyme renale), and one in the musculature (Trichinella sp. larvae). This is the first report of F. martis and P. plica from this host. In addition a specimen of Dracunculus insignis collected from a marten pelt was received. Based on our results, martens are primary definitive hosts for few nongastrointestinal nematodes. Animals in more southern areas had greater species richness than those from higher latitudes.

  16. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks. (United States)

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A


    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  17. Canada in Afghanistan: 2001-2010. A Military Chronology (United States)


    authoritative source on these events is U.S. Government The 9/11 Commission Report (New York: W.W. Norton, 2004). 2 Schmemann, Serge , “Hijacked Jets...0,9171,1001390-1,00.html on 3 February 2010. 37 Pigott, Canada in Afghanistan, p. 65. 38 Stein, Janice Gross, and Eugene Lang , The Unexpected on 27 January 2010. 45 Stein and Lang , The Unexpected War, p. 11. 46 CBC, “JTF2,” 2005. 47 CTV, “Canadian Commandos in

  18. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Lycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Webster


    Full Text Available Eight species of Lycidae are newly recorded from New Brunswick, Canada, bringing the total number of species known from the province to 16. The first documented records from New Brunswick are provided for Greenarius thoracicus (Randall Erotides scuptilis (Say, and Calopteron terminale (Say reported by Majka et al. (2011. Eropterus arculus Green, Lopheros crenatus (Germar, and Calochromus perfacetus (Say are reported for the first time in the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species.

  19. Older people in Canada: their victimization and fear of crime. (United States)

    Hayman, Stephanie


    Older people are more affected by fear of crime and the possibility of victimization, despite their being at lower risk of harm, than any other population group in Canada. Crime, victimization, and fear are not experienced uniformly among older Canadian citizens and residents, partly because older people do not form a homogeneous group. Being part of an ethnic, religious, or sexual minority, or being mentally frail, can have an impact on an individual's perceptions and experience of risk. This analysis explores older people's victimization and fear of crime, while it highlights the lack of consistency in the available data.

  20. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property. (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor


    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  1. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh? (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D


    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Electrical conductivity in the precambrian lithosphere of western canada (United States)

    Boerner; Kurtz; Craven; Ross; Jones; Davis


    The subcrustal lithosphere underlying the southern Archean Churchill Province (ACP) in western Canada is at least one order of magnitude more electrically conductive than the lithosphere beneath adjacent Paleoproterozoic crust. The measured electrical properties of the lithosphere underlying most of the Paleoproterozoic crust can be explained by the conductivity of olivine. Mantle xenolith and geological mapping evidence indicate that the lithosphere beneath the southern ACP was substantially modified as a result of being trapped between two nearly synchronous Paleoproterozoic subduction zones. Tectonically induced metasomatism thus may have enhanced the subcrustal lithosphere conductivity of the southern ACP.

  3. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada


    Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P. M.


    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OT...

  4. Canada-United States air quality agreement : progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This biennial progress report highlighted actions undertaken by Canada and the United States in the last 2 years to address transboundary air pollution within the context of the Air Quality Agreement regarding acid rain and ground-level ozone. The report was divided into 3 sections. The first section provided information concerning commitments to emission reductions in acid rain and ozone annexes. Section 2 provided details of related air quality efforts. Section 3 presented information on scientific and technical cooperation and research, which included details of health effects and acid deposition effects, recovery efforts and critical loads and exceedances. The progress report also included the third 5-year comprehensive review of the Air Quality Agreement, which was organized in a question and answer format to address requirements in the agreement and public comments on the 2004 progress report. In October 2006, Canada's federal government tabled the Clean Air Act as a new legislation that would expand the government's authorities to take action to reduce air emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. The Notice of Intent to develop and implement regulations and other measures to reduce air emissions was also revealed. The regulations would address anthropogenic sources of air pollution, including fossil-fuel electricity production, petroleum industry, smelters, forest products, chemicals production and transportation. The report showed that over the last 2 years, both countries have reduced their emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and have made progress in meeting the requirements of the Ozone Annex to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Actions have focused on reducing emissions from major sources such as electric generating units, industrial sources, and on-road and nonroad transportation. It was concluded that to date, the agreement has provided opportunities for

  5. Recent Developments for Satellite-Based Fire Monitoring in Canada (United States)

    Abuelgasim, A.; Fraser, R.


    Wildfires in Canadian forests are a major source of natural disturbance. These fires have a tremendous impact on the local environment, humans and wildlife, ecosystem function, weather, and climate. Approximately 9000 fires burn 3 million hectares per year in Canada (based on a 10-year average). While only 2 to 3 percent of these wildfires grow larger than 200 hectares in size, they account for almost 97 percent of the annual area burned. This provides an excellent opportunity to monitor active fires using a combination of low and high resolution sensors for the purpose of determining fire location and burned areas. Given the size of Canada, the use of remote sensing data is a cost-effective way to achieve a synoptic overview of large forest fire activity in near-real time. In 1998 the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) developed a system for Fire Monitoring, Mapping and Modelling (Fire M3; Fire M3 automatically identifies, monitors, and maps large forest fires on a daily basis using NOAA AVHRR data. These data are processed daily using the GEOCOMP-N satellite image processing system. This presentation will describe recent developments to Fire M3, included the addition of a set of algorithms tailored for NOAA-16 (N-16) data. The two fire detection algorithms are developed for N-16 day and night-time daily data collection. The algorithms exploit both the multi-spectral and thermal information from the AVHRR daily images. The set of N-16 day and night algorithms was used to generate daily active fire maps across North America for the 2001 fire season. Such a combined approach for fire detection leads to an improved detection rate, although day-time detection based on the new 1.6 um channel was much less effective (note - given the low detection rate with day time imagery, I don't think we can make the statement about capturing the diurnal cycle). Selected validation sites in western

  6. US-Canada Relations: Bridging the Common Border (United States)


    Arthur H. "Canadian Security in a Broadened Context." Canadian Defence Quarterly 26.2 (Winter 1996): 13-14+. Whitaker , Reg. "Keeping Up with the...Changes after September 11th in a Canadian Sample." Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 33.2 (2004): 68-78. Davis, Jerome D. "North American Oil and...Ek, Carl . Canada--U.S. Relations. New York: Novinka, 2003. (E 183.8 .C2 E44 2003) English, John, and Norman Hillmer, eds. Making a Difference

  7. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada


    Michael CS Kingsley


    A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119) in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 b...

  8. A Brief Review of Bovine Coccidiosis in Western Canada (United States)

    Radostits, O. M.; Stockdale, P. H. G.


    Coccidiosis of beef cattle, in both its enteric and nervous forms, seen in feedlots in Western Canada is discussed. Cases of coccidiosis accompanied by nervous signs, occasionally up to 30% of those affected enterically, are most common during the coldest winter months. The pathogenesis of the nervous form of the disease is unknown. Clinical management of disease outbreaks using various chemotherapeutics is described. The importance of using anticoccidial drugs before the onset of clinical signs in cattle in contact with sick animals is discussed. PMID:7000331

  9. The Development and Role of the Court Administrator in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ryder-Lahey


    Full Text Available By the turn of the millennium most courts in Canada had court administrators managing their operations and their staff. As a rule, the court administrators worked in a partnership with the chairmen of their courts, who typically delegated some of their official responsibilities. But the mere presence of court administrators, not to speak of their broad range of functions, was still relatively new. Only in the 1970s did most courts acquire administrators, and it took at least another decade before they were fully accepted by judges and entered into a position of equality with some, if not many, chairs of courts.

  10. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada


    Thomas, D C; S.J. Barry; G. Alaie


    We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus). Species of lichens attained peak biomass at diffe...

  11. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories. (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A


    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  12. Renewing the Study of Public Sector Unions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camfield


    Full Text Available A renewal of the study of public sector unionism in Canada is long overdue. This article explains why public sector unions deserve more attention from researchers than they have received of late and proposes that studies of public sector unions would benefit from adopting a new theoretical framework that conceptualizes contemporary unions as not only labour relations institutions but also as particular kinds of working-class movement organizations within a historically-specific class formation. It also identifies two obstacles to the production of accounts of contemporary public sector unions from this perspective.

  13. Photonics education and training in Ontario, Canada: an integrated plan (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Beda, Johann


    Canada has established itself as a leader in photonics. Ontario in particular - home of giants such as JDS Uniphase, Nortel Networks, GSI Lumonics and an increasing number of successful start-up companies - has seen the demand for highly-qualified personnel in photonics grow exponentially in the past few years. The scarcity of these photonics experts has become - recent market woes not withstanding - the single most important impediment to the further growth of photonics companies. Nonetheless, it is mostly at the graduate school level that lasers and photonics are introduced to students, with only very few thus being trained in the field. Photonics Research Ontario has put together an aggressive plan to change this situation and present Optics, Lasers and Photonics at all levels in the education system, from grade school to graduate school. This paper will present this Photonics Education and Training plan, as well as other efforts being undertaken across Canada to address this crucial issue. The paper will focus especially on the training of Photonics Technicians and Technologists in Ontario's Community Colleges. The new curriculum designed for these programs will be presented, and the importance of industry support will be emphasized.

  14. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yusa


    Full Text Available Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases. A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  15. Review of five successful microbial geochemical surface surveys in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munnecke, D.M. [Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., San Carlos, CA (United States)


    The development of a new surface geochemical survey technology to detect hydrocarbon microseeps was discussed. Microbial Exploration Technology (MET) was developed by Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., of San Carlos, California. It is used to determine the near surface soil`s metabolic activity towards metabolism of gaseous hydrocarbons. After several years of testing, the technology was commercialized in Canada in 1996. Since then, more than 3 million acres of land in Canada have been surveyed using MET. Surveys are conducted by collecting soil samples in a quarter by quarter mile grid pattern. The samples are then sent to California for analysis. One of the unique characteristics of MET is that it provides a contour map indicating the percent probability of drilling success. This paper presented the following five MET surveys as examples of what types of results can be obtained from the surveys: (1) Flinton Survey (T11 R6 W2), (2) Elcott Survey (T1-2 R1-3 W2), (3) Silverton Survey (T3 R32 W1), (4) Swift Current Block (T13-15 R10-R13 W3), and (5) Border Block (T1-2 R12-14 W3). Each example demonstrates that MET can be very supportive for oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities. It was suggested that running MET surveys before seismic surveys helps in determining where seismic surveys should be conducted to reduce overall exploration costs by 30 to 60 per cent, while improving drilling success. 6 figs.

  16. Drought causes reduced growth of trembling aspen in western Canada. (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Alam, Syed Ashraful; Zhai, Lihong; Dawson, Andria; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G


    Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada, in an attempt to clarify the impacts of drought on aspen growth by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Results indicated that prolonged and large-scale droughts had a strong negative impact on trembling aspen growth. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variability of drought indices is useful for explaining the spatial heterogeneity in the radial growth of trembling aspen. Due to ongoing global warming and rising temperatures, it is likely that severer droughts with a higher frequency will occur in western Canada. As trembling aspen is sensitive to drought, we suggest that drought indices could be applied to monitor the potential effects of increased drought stress on aspen trees growth, achieve classification of eco-regions and develop effective mitigation strategies to maintain western Canadian boreal forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Economic Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hilsden


    Full Text Available Longobardi and colleagues examined the effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on employment, using data from 10,891 respondents aged 20 to 64 years from the 1998 cycle of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS (1. This sample included 187 (1.7% subjects who self-reported IBD or a similar bowel disorder. A significantly greater proportion of IBD than non-IBD respondents reported that they were not in the labour force (28.9% versus 18.5%. Even after adjusting for other factors (age group, level of pain, etc, subjects with IBD had a 2.9% higher nonparticipation rate (21.4%. For example, among people not hospitalized within the past year and with no limitation of activities due to pain, IBD subjects were 1.2 times more likely to be unemployed than those without IBD. Subjects who reported high levels of pain had a very high probability of being out of the labour force. Based on Canadian annual compensation data for all employed persons in Canada, and age- and sex-specific prevalence, and incidence rates for IBD, the authors estimated that there are 119,980 IBD patients between the ages of 20 and 64 years in Canada and that this group includes 3479 people who are not in the labour force. This translates into lost wages of $104.2 million, or $868 per IBD patient

  18. Green building challenge 2002 in Canada : an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Green Building Challenge (GBC) in Canada was launched to help the building community meet environmental challenges and improve the environmental performance of buildings. Tools have been made available to the building industry to make informed environmental choices during the conception design stage of a project. The tools help architects, researchers and policy analysts in choosing material mixes and other design options that will minimize a building's potential life cycle environmental impacts and promote sustainable development. Green buildings involve the complete structure and envelope, including cladding, insulation, gypsum wall board, roofing and windows. The type of building and its location is also considered. Long term sustainability also considers energy use and emissions related to a building's energy system. This presentation described the following 3 projects which were selected for assessment in the GBC-2002: (1) the Mayo School in Mayo, Yukon Territory, (2) the Jackson-Triggs Winery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, and (3) the Red River College in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The GBC-2002 Canadian Team nominated them as the best buildings being designed in Canada.10 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Shrive


    Full Text Available Canada is a young country with respect to its built heritage. The need to conserve examples of its structures as a record of the history of settlement and growth has been recognized for some time by the somewhat small conservation community. The heritage conservation sector is growing compared to new construction. Unfortunately, there is a distinct lack of professional expertise (architects and engineers familiar with the older traditional construction materials and methods, leading to some recommendations with respect to heritage structures being inconsistent with conservation principles. There is even less knowledge with respect to understanding how modern interventions will affect the construction supposedly being conserved. There is therefore a need for education in conservation principles and methodology. Two new programs are described, one at the undergraduate level at Carleton University, and the other at the graduate level at the University of Calgary. Both of these programs are being developed with advice from the Heritage Conservation Directorate of Public Works and Government Services Canada. The potentially negative consequences of the current lack of expertise for heritage structures are compounded by the current system for deciding whether or not a structure has heritage value. The system is inconsistent across the country, depending on how the guidelines interpreted and enforced. The federal and provincial and some municipal governments have collaborated in establishing guidelines for their areas of responsibility, but there is no overarching regulation for the protection of heritage across the country.

  20. Lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer management in Canada. (United States)

    Maroun, Jean; Ng, Edward; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Petit, Christel; Dahrouge, Simone; Flanagan, William M; Walker, Hugh; Evans, William K


    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among Canadians. We derived the direct health care costs associated with the lifetime management of an estimated 16,856 patients with a diagnosis of colon and rectal cancer in Canada in 2000. Information on diagnostic approaches, treatment algorithms, follow-up and care at disease progression was obtained from various databases and was integrated into Statistics Canada's Population Health Model (POHEM) to estimate lifetime costs. The average lifetime cost (in Canadian dollars) of managing patients with colorectal cancer ranged from $20,319 per case for TNM stage I colon cancer to $39,182 per case for stage III rectal cancer. The total lifetime treatment cost for the cohort of patients in 2000 was estimated to be over $333 million for colon and $187 million for rectal cancer. Hospitalization represented 65% and 61% of the lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer respectively. Disease costing models can be important policy- relevant tools to assist in resource allocation. Our results highlight the importance of performing preoperative tests and staging in an ambulatory care setting, where possible, to achieve optimal cost efficiencies. Similarly, terminal care might be delivered more efficiently in the home environment or in palliative care units.

  1. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese (United States)

    Austin, J.E.


    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  2. Advancing Primary Care Use of Electronic Medical Records in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zelmer


    Full Text Available In 2010, the federal government's Economic Action Plan funded Canada Health Infoway to co-invest with provinces, territories, and health care providers in electronic medical records (EMRs in primary care. The goal is to help improve access to care, quality of health services, and productivity of the health system, as well as to deliver economic benefits. The decision to fund EMRs was consistent with a long-term framework for digital health established in consultation with stakeholders across the country, spurred by analysis demonstrating the economic impact of such investments and data on Canada's low rate of EMR use in primary care compared with other countries. The decision reflected widespread public and stakeholder consensus regarding the importance of such investments. EMR adoption has more than doubled since 2006, with evaluations identifying efficiency and patient care benefits (e.g., reduced time managing laboratory test results and fewer adverse drug events in community-based practices. These benefits are expected to rise further as EMR adoption continues to grow and practices gain more experience with their use.

  3. Fisheries and Oceans Canada climate change risk assessment initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpe, R. [Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This paper provided an overview of an initiative undertaken by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) Canada to assess the risks associated with climate change on Canada's waterways and aquatic resources over the next 10 to 20 years. It discussed the risk associated with changes in water temperature and level in increasing the vulnerability of fish stocks and ecosystems. A decrease in water levels is also an issue as it will render current infrastructure ineffective. Storm surges can also have an impact on coastal community infrastructure. The purpose of the assessment was to provide DFO management with a structured understanding of the major climate change factors that pose risks to DFO's operations and to establish priorities in identifying appropriate risk mitigation responses. The presentation discussed the different stages of the initiative (planning, identification and evaluation of risk, validation, and reporting), its' challenges and benefits, as well as lessons learned from this exercises. Lessons learned from the project are as follows: get senior level buy-in from the outset; engage the right people; make it easy for others to be engaged; validate results and risk management response; be ready for surprises; and build in some flexibility to the process. figs.

  4. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)


    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  5. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth


    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  6. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice. (United States)

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny


    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)


    As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. Canada is intent on building more reactors to increase energy production without destroying the planet, but it and other nuclear energy-producing countries face not only technical problems but also social and ethical issues. This book provides a critical antidote to the favourable position of government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring key issues and developments. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that our frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds nuclear energy. It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in public policy or environmental studies who want to think critically and more broadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.

  8. Severe maternal morbidity in Canada, 1991–2001 (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Huang, Ling; Liston, Robert; Heaman, Maureen; Baskett, Tom; Rusen, I.D.; Joseph, K.S.; for, Michael S. Kramer


    Background Although death rates are often used to monitor the quality of health care, in industrialized countries maternal deaths have become rare. Severe maternal morbidity has therefore been proposed as a supplementary indicator for surveillance of the quality of maternity care. Our purpose in this study was to describe severe maternal morbidity in Canada over a 10-year period, among women with or without major pre-existing conditions. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study of severe maternal morbidity involving 2 548 824 women who gave birth in Canadian hospitals between 1991 and 2000. Thirteen conditions that may threaten the life of the mother (e.g., eclampsia) and 11 major pre-existing chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes) that could be identified from diagnostic codes were noted. Results The overall rate of severe maternal morbidity was 4.38 per 1000 deliveries. The fatality rate among these women was 158 times that of the entire sample. Rates of venous thromboembolism, uterine rupture, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction, severe postpartum hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy, and assisted ventilation increased substantially from 1991 to 2000. The presence of major pre-existing conditions increased the risk of severe maternal morbidity to 6-fold. Interpretation Severe maternal morbidity occurs in about 1 of 250 deliveries in Canada, with marked recent increases in certain morbid conditions such as pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction, hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy, and the use of assisted ventilation. PMID:16186582

  9. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada. (United States)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N


    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  10. Canada's Composite Learning Index: A path towards learning communities (United States)

    Cappon, Paul; Laughlin, Jarrett


    In the development of learning cities/communities, benchmarking progress is a key element. Not only does it permit cities/communities to assess their current strengths and weaknesses, it also engenders a dialogue within and between cities/communities on the means of enhancing learning conditions. Benchmarking thereby is a potentially motivational tool, energising further progress. In Canada, the Canadian Council on Learning created the world's first Composite Learning Index (CLI), the purpose of which is to measure the conditions of learning nationally, regionally and locally. Cities/communities in Canada have utilised the CLI Simulator, an online tool provided by the Canadian Council on Learning, to gauge the change in overall learning conditions which may be expected depending on which particular indicator is emphasised. In this way, the CLI has proved to be both a dynamic and a locally relevant tool for improvement, moreover a strong motivational factor in the development of learning cities/communities. After presenting the main features of the CLI, the authors of this paper sum up the lessons learned during its first 5 years (2006-2010) of existence, also with a view to its transferability to other regions. Indeed, the CLI model was already adopted in Europe by the German Bertelsmann foundation in 2010 and has the potential to be useful in many other countries as well.

  11. Time dependent seismicity along the western coast of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos V. Christou


    Full Text Available Decelerating generation of intermediate magnitude earthquakes (preshocks in a narrow region (seismogenic region and accelerating generation of relatively larger such earthquakes in a broader region (critical region has been proposed as an appropriate model for intermediate-term earthquake prediction. We examined the seismic activity which preceded the Mw=7.7 (October 28, 2012 thrust event that occurred off the west coast of Haida Gwaii, Canada (formerly the Queen Charlotte islands, by applying the decelerating-accelerating seismic strain model. We found that this mainshock was preceded by a pronounced accelerating seismic sequence with the time to the mainshock, as well as by an equally easily identifiable decelerating seismic sequence. Both precursory seismic sequences occurred in different space, time and magnitude windows. The behavior of previous mainshocks that occurred close to the 2012 earthquake was also examined by the time and magnitude predictable regional model. An attempt was also made to identify such seismic strain patterns, which may also be related to the generation of strong mainshocks along the western coast of Canada.

  12. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for a Site in Eastern Canada (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vikram; Arcos, Maria E. M.; Alcinov, Trajce; Lavine, Alexis; Youngs, Robert; Roussel, Patrick; Mullin, Derek


    Unlike probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), there is not a well-established methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). The PTHA methodology presented is similar to the widely used PSHA methodology for ground motion, and incorporates both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in calculating the probability of exceeding runup and drawdown values produced by tsunamigenic sources. Evaluating tsunami hazard is more difficult in locations such as the eastern coastline of Canada because of low tsunami recurrence rates and few historical examples. In this study, we evaluated the hazard from local and far-field earthquake and landslide tsunamigenic sources at a site on the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, Canada. These sources included local faults, the Puerto Rico subduction zone, fault sources in the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary region, and landslides on the Canadian continental slope and in the Canary Islands. Using a new PTHA methodology that is closely linked to well-established PSHA methodology combined with tide stage probability, we calculated that the return period for a wave runup exceeding the tidal range of +4 m level above mean sea level (highest astronomical tide) is approximately 14,500 years.

  13. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008. (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R


    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  14. Climatic and Environmental Changes Affecting Communities in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liette Vasseur


    Full Text Available Small rural coastal communities located in Atlantic Canada are vulnerable to the effects of climate and environmental changes. Major storms have impounded the coastline, causing much physical damage and affecting the socioeconomics of these communities that are composed of an aging population. The current study relays findings based on interviews completed in 2011–2012, following the 2010 winter storms in Atlantic Canada. It portrays the physical and social–ecological impacts affecting 10 coastal communities located in the provinces of Québec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Semi-structured interviews held in these provinces are the basis for the contributions of this research. The findings reveal physical changes related to coastal erosion from high-wave impacts and storm surge causing flooding of the coastal zone. Also considered are strategies preferred and actually implemented by residents, such as building of protection walls, although undesirable. Due to funding constraints, however, many of these large-scale flood protection projects are not possible without governmental support. Instead, it is suggested that development be controlled and some respondents in this study upheld that relocation be used to alleviate the situation. Finally, more work is required to improve emergency planning. Better concerted short- and long-term responses need to be coordinated by local authorities and higher up in the government in order to ensure the sustainability of these coastal communities.

  15. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.


    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  16. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall R Reeves


    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  17. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis in Canada: likely imported strains. (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Law, Dennis K S; Deng, Saul; Hoang, Linda


    The prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis in Canada was studied by testing 346 isolates received at the National Microbiology Laboratory during the calendar years 2013 to 2015. Of the 277 individual invasive and 69 noninvasive isolates tested, only 2 serogroup C (MenC) isolates were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. Both MenC were typed as sequence type (ST)-4821, a unique clone found mainly in China, thus suggesting both isolates might be from travel-related or imported cases. This prompted us to also examine 6 serogroup A (MenA) isolates in our collection, since MenA is not currently endemic in Canada. Three MenA from 2006 were resistant to ciprofloxacin and they were typed as ST-4789. A ciprofloxacin-resistant MenA strain of ST-4789 was responsible for a meningococcal disease outbreak in Delhi, India, in 2005 to 2006. The 2 MenC and 3 MenA ciprofloxacin-resistant N. meningitidis were from patients residing in British Columbia.

  18. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt


    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  19. Multicultural Media in a Post-Multicultural Canada? Rethinking Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augie Fleras


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the post-multicultural challenges that confront the integrative logic of Canada’s multicultural media. Multicultural (or ethnic media once complemented the integrative agenda of Canada’s official multiculturalism, but the drift toward a post-multicultural Canada points to the possibility of a post-multicultural media that capitalizes on the positive aspects of multicultural media. The argument is predicated on the following assumption: an evolving context that no longer is multicultural but increasingly transnational, multiversal, and post-ethnic exposes the shortcomings of a multicultural media when applied to the lived-realities of those who resent being boxed into ethnic silos that gloss over multiple connections and multidimensional crossings. According to this line of argument, both diversity governance and ethnic media must reinvent themselves along more post-multicultural lines to better engage the transnational challenges and multiversal demands of a post-multicultural turn. Time will tell if a post-multicultural media can incorporate the strengths of a multicultural media, yet move positively forward in capturing the nuances of complex diversities and diverse complexities. Evidence would suggest “yes”, and that a post-multicultural media may well represent an ideal that reflects and reinforces the new integrative realities of a post-ethnic Canada.

  20. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov


    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.