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Sample records for hupo distinguished achievement

  1. Translational proteomics in neurodegenerative diseases--16th HUPO BPP workshop September 5, 2011 Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Böckmann, Miriam; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Grinberg, Lea T; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok

    2012-02-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 16th workshop in Geneva, Switzerland, on September 5, 2011 during the 10th HUPO World Congress. The focus was on launching the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects in clinical neuroproteomics. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Progresses in neuroproteomics of neurodegenerative diseases--18th HUPO BPP workshop: September 12, 2012, Boston, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; May, Caroline; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 18(th) workshop in Boston, USA, September 12(th) 2012 during the HUPO 11th Annual Word Congress. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Distinguishing the desire to learn from the desire to perform: The social value of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.

  4. The HUPO Brain Proteome project wish list--summary of the 9(th) HUPO BPP Workshop 9-10 January 2008, Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Tribl, Florian; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Hardt, Tanja; Wiltfang, Jens; Martens, Lennart; Desiderio, Dominic; Gutstein, Howard; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-06-01

    The Human Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) aims at advancing knowledge and the understanding of neurodiseases and aging with the purpose of identifying prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as to push new diagnostic approaches and medications. The participating groups meet in semi-annual workshops to discuss the progress, as well as the needs, within the field of proteomics. The 9(th) HUPO BPP workshop took place in Barbados from 9-10 January, 2008. Discussing the future HUPO BPP Roadmap, the attendees drafted the so called HUPO BPP wish list containing timelines, suggestions and missions. This wish list will be updated regularly and will serve as a guideline for the next phase.

  5. Human Brain Proteome Project - 12th HUPO BPP Workshop. 26 September 2009, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Lee, Bonghee; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok

    2010-06-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 12th workshop in Toronto on 26 September 2009 prior to the HUPO VIII World Congress. The principal aim of this project is to obtain a better understanding of neurodiseases and ageing, with the ultimate objective of discovering prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, in addition to the development of novel diagnostic techniques and new medications. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the human clinical neuroproteomics and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomic approaches.

  6. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 31: PORTRAIT OF THE KHARKIV PHYSICIST ALEXANDER ILYICH AKHIEZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description is in the short form of the basic distinguished scientific achievements, features of personality and way of life of the known Kharkov physicist-theorist A.I. Akhiezer. Methodology. Existent scientific approaches for treatment and systematization of physical knowledges. Methods of historical method at research of development in human society of basic sections of theoretical physics. Results. Short information is resulted about the basic creative and vital stages, and also fundamental scientific achievements of the indicated prominent physicist of the XX century. Some personal qualities of this Kharkov physicist-theorist, becoming a founder known in the world of physical school are described. Originality. First the Kharkov scientist-electro-physicist for the wide circle of readers imagined a short scientifically-historical essay the known physicist of contemporaneity, being based on his scientific labours and published materials about him. Practical value. Scientific popularization of creative activity of the known Kharkov physicist and his achievements in area of theoretical physics. Next reminder a wide reader on the example of creative life in science and got prominent scientific results of labour of one human personality known in the scientific world about incessant in modern society connection of times and generations.

  7. Challenges in modern biomarker discovery--17th HUPO BPP workshop: May 24-25, 2012, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Esselmann, Hermann; May, Caroline; Schrötter, Andreas; Woitalla, Dirk; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 17(th) workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on May 24 and 25, 2012. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects in clinical neuroproteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Frontiers in neurodegeneration--new insights and prospects--20th HUPO BPP Workshop: 15 September 2013, Yokohama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Gröttrup, Bernd; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok; Grinberg, Lea T

    2014-06-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 20th workshop in Yokohama, Japan, September 15, 2013. The focus of the autumn workshop was on new insights and prospects of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. 5th HUPO BPP Bioinformatics Meeting at the European Bioinformatics Institute in Hinxton, UK--Setting the analysis frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Christian; Hamacher, Michael; Blüggel, Martin; Körting, Gerhard; Chamrad, Daniel; Scheer, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Reidegeld, Kai A; Lohaus, Christiane; Schäfer, Heike; Martens, Lennart; Jones, Philip; Müller, Michael; Auyeung, Kevin; Taylor, Chris; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Thiele, Herbert; Parkinson, David; Meyer, Helmut E; Apweiler, Rolf

    2005-09-01

    The Bioinformatics Committee of the HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) meets regularly to execute the post-lab analyses of the data produced in the HUPO BPP pilot studies. On July 7, 2005 the members came together for the 5th time at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) in Hinxton, UK, hosted by Rolf Apweiler. As a main result, the parameter set of the semi-automated data re-analysis of MS/MS spectra has been elaborated and the subsequent work steps have been defined.

  10. Creating a human brain proteome atlas--13th HUPO BPP Workshop March 30-31, 2010, Ochang, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Grinberg, Lea T; Wiltfang, Jens; Lee, Sang K; Kim, Young H; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young M

    2011-07-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 13th workshop in Ochang from March 30th to 31st, 2010 prior to the Korean HUPO 10th Annual International Proteomics Conference. The principal aim of this project is to obtain a better understanding of neurodiseases and aging with the ultimate objective of discovering prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, in addition to the development of novel diagnostic techniques and new medications. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the clinical neuroproteomics of human and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomics approaches. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Creating a human brain proteome atlas--14th HUPO BPP workshop September 20-21, 2010, Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Marcus, Katrin; Grinberg, Lea T; Lee, Sang K; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young M

    2011-08-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 14th workshop during the HUPO 9th Annual World Congress in Sydney, Australia. The principal aim of this project is to discover prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers associated with neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, with the ultimate objective of obtaining a better understanding of these conditions and creating roads for the development of novel diagnostic techniques and effective treatments. The attendees came together to discuss progress in the human clinical neuroproteomics and to define the needs and guidelines required for more advanced proteomics approaches. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. HUPO BPP Workshop on Mouse Models for Neurodegeneration--Choosing the right models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Stephan, Christian; van Hall, Andre; Meyer, Helmut E

    2005-09-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project met during the 4th Dutch Endo-Neuro-Psycho Meeting in Doorwerth, The Netherlands, on June 1, 2005, in order to discuss appropriate (mouse) models for neurodegenerative diseases as well as to conceptualise sophisticated proteomics analyses strategies. Here, the topics of the meeting are summarised.

  13. Clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases - 15th HUPO BPP Workshop April 8-9, 2011, Bochum, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Böckmann, Miriam; Marcus, Katrin; Wiltfang, Jens; Grinberg, Lea T; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young M

    2011-11-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 15th workshop in Bochum, Germany, from April 8th to 9th, 2011 directly after the Proteomic Forum 2011 in Berlin. Like on every spring workshop, the focus was more on clinical aspects, so that especially clinicians participated in this workshop. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Progress on the HUPO Draft Human Proteome: 2017 Metrics of the Human Proteome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenn, Gilbert S; Lane, Lydie; Lundberg, Emma K; Overall, Christopher M; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-12-01

    The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Human Proteome Project (HPP) continues to make progress on its two overall goals: (1) completing the protein parts list, with an annual update of the HUPO draft human proteome, and (2) making proteomics an integrated complement to genomics and transcriptomics throughout biomedical and life sciences research. neXtProt version 2017-01-23 has 17 008 confident protein identifications (Protein Existence [PE] level 1) that are compliant with the HPP Guidelines v2.1 ( https://hupo.org/Guidelines ), up from 13 664 in 2012-12 and 16 518 in 2016-04. Remaining to be found by mass spectrometry and other methods are 2579 "missing proteins" (PE2+3+4), down from 2949 in 2016. PeptideAtlas 2017-01 has 15 173 canonical proteins, accounting for nearly all of the 15 290 PE1 proteins based on MS data. These resources have extensive data on PTMs, single amino acid variants, and splice isoforms. The Human Protein Atlas v16 has 10 492 highly curated protein entries with tissue and subcellular spatial localization of proteins and transcript expression. Organ-specific popular protein lists have been generated for broad use in quantitative targeted proteomics using SRM-MS or DIA-SWATH-MS studies of biology and disease.

  15. A Long Journey from Childhood to Senility: The 23rd HUPO BPP Workshop: 16-17 April 2015, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magraoui, Fouzi El; Schrötter, Andreas; Heinsen, Helmut; Leite, Renata; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T

    2015-09-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 23rd workshop in São Paulo, Brazil, April 16-17, 2015. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and predictive therapies concerning neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of modern brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-10-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 38: NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN PHYSICS FOR 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists, awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for period 2005-2010 yy. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information of world level in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics. Results. The brief analytical review of the scientific openings and distinguished achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of modern physical and technical problems which were marked by the Nobel Prizes in physics for the period 2005-2010. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form of the known scientific and technical materials, devoted creation of quantum theory of optical coherentness by scientists-physicists, development of laser exact spectroscopy, opening form of spectrum for a black body and anisotropy of space microwave base-line radiation, opening of effect of giant magnetoresistance, opening of mechanism of spontaneous violation of symmetry in subatomic physics, development of new technology of transmission of light in optical fibres, invention of a semiconductor circuit for registration of images and results of innovative experiments on research of 2D material of graphen. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of scientific and technical knowledges for students, engineers and technical specialists and research workers in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics, extending their scientific range of interests and collaboration in further development of scientific and technical progress in human society.

  18. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 37: NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN PHYSICS FOR 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists, awarded the Nobel bonus on physics for period 2000-2004. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information of world level in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics. Results. The brief analytical review of the scientific openings and distinguished achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of modern physical and technical problems which were marked the Nobel Prizes on physics for period 2000-2004. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form of the known scientific and technical materials, devoted creation of semiconductor geterostructures scientists-physicists, integral microcircuit, to the receipt of condensation of Boze-Einstein in rarefied gases of alkaline metals, finding out a space neutrino, opening of space sources of X-rays, development of theory of superconductors and superfluid liquids and opening of asymptotic freedom in the theory of strong interactions of elementary particles. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of scientific and technical knowledges for students, engineers and technical specialists and research workers in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics, extending their scientific range of interests and cooperant of further development of scientific and technical progress in human society.

  19. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 36: NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN PHYSICS FOR 1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists, awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for period 1995-1999. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information of world level in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics. Results. The brief analytical review of the scientific openings and distinguished achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of modern physical and technical problems which were marked the Nobel bonuses on physics for period 1995-1999. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form of the known scientific and technical materials, devoted opening of tau-lepton, experimental discovery of electronic neutrino, opening of superfluidity of liquid helium-3, creation of methods of cooling and «capture» of atoms by a laser ray, opening of new form of quantum liquid with excitations of fractional electric charge and clearing up of quantum structure of electroweak interactions of elementary particles scientists-physicists. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of scientific and technical knowledges for students, engineer and technical specialists and research workers in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics, extending their scientific range of interests and further development of scientific and technical progress in human society.

  20. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 39: NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN PHYSICS FOR 2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists, awarded the Nobel Prize on physics for the period 2011-2015. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information of world level in area of astrophysics, physics of elementary particles, physics of high energies, of modern theoretical and experimental physics. Results. The brief analytical review of the scientific openings and distinguished achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of modern physical and technical problems which were marked the Nobel Prizes on physics for the period 2011-2015. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form of the known scientific and technical materials, devoted opening of acceleration of expansion of Universe, creation of breach technologies of manipulation the quantum systems, theoretical discovery of mechanism of origin of mass of under-atomic particles, invention of effective power sources of light − blue light-emitting diodes and opening of neutrino oscillations. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of scientific and technical knowledges for students, engineers and technical specialists and research workers in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics, extending their scientific range of interests and cooperation in further development of scientific and technical progress in human society.

  1. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 35: NOBEL PRIZE LAUREATES IN PHYSICS FOR 1990-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists, awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for period 1990-1994. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information of world level in area physics of elementary particles, physics of high energies, of astrophysics, of modern theoretical and experimental physics. Results. The brief analytical review of the scientific openings and distinguished achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of modern physical and technical problems which were marked the Nobel Prize in physics for period 1990-1994. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form of the known scientific and technical materials, devoted pioneer researches results on dispersion of relativism electrons on protons (neutrons, to opening of likenesses of physics of hard matter and physics of the condensed state of matter, creation of revolutionary detector of elementary particles, to opening of new pulsars and new possibilities in the study of gravitation, to creation of neutron spectroscopy and method of neutron diffraction. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of scientific and technical knowledges for students, engineer and technical specialists and research workers in area of modern theoretical and experimental physics, extending their scientific range of interests and cooperant further development of scientific and technical progress in human society.

  2. HUPO BPP pilot study: a proteomics analysis of the mouse brain of different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Yong; Wang, Lihong; Hang, Xingyi; Gao, Yan; Wang, Hangyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2007-11-01

    This study is a part of the HUPO Brain Proteome Project (BPP) pilot study, which aims at obtaining a reliable database of mouse brain proteome, at the comparison of techniques, laboratories, and approaches as well as at preparing subsequent proteome studies of neurologic diseases. The C57/Bl6 mouse brains of three developmental stages at embryonic day 16 (E16), postnatal day 7 (P7), and 8 wk (P56) (n = 5 in each group) were provided by the HUPO BPP executive committee. The whole brain proteins of each animal were individually prepared using 2-DE coupled with PDQuest software analysis. The protein spots representing developmentally related or stably expressed proteins were then prepared with in-gel digestion followed with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and analyzed using the MASCOT search engines to search the Swiss-Prot or NCBInr database. The 2-DE gel maps of the mouse brains of all of the developmental stages were obtained and submitted to the Data Collection Centre (DCC). The proteins alpha-enolase, stathmin, actin, C14orf166 homolog, 28,000 kDa heat- and acid-stable phosphoprotein, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and 40 S ribosomal protein S3a were successfully identified. A further Western blotting analysis demonstrated that enolase is a protein up-regulated in the mouse brain from embryonic stage to adult stage. These data are helpful for understanding the proteome changes in the development of the mouse brain.

  3. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 30: PORTRAIT OF THE KHARKOV MATHEMATICIAN, MECHANICAL ENGINEER AND CYBERNETICIST VLADIMIR LOGVINOVICH RVACHEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description of basic scientific achievements, features of personality and way of life of the known Kharkov mathematician, mechanical engineer and cyberneticist, academician of NAS of Ukraine Rvachev V.L .in the short form is presented. Methodology. Existent scientific approaches for treatment and systematization of mathematical knowledges, modern achievements in area of methods of direct solution of linear (nonlinear boundary problems of mechanics and mathematical physics with the scope terms of different types for the physical bodies of difficult geometrical form. Methods of historical method at research of development in society of analytical geometry, applied mathematics, classical mechanics and mathematical physics. Results. Short information is resulted about the basic creative and vital stages, and also fundamental scientific achievements of the indicated scientist-mathematician the scientific legacy of which entered in the treasure-house of world mathematical science. Are some personal qualities of this prominent soviet Ukrainian mathematician of the 20-th century, forming scientific school on the mathematical method of R−functions and leaving about itself kind memory for thankful students and descendants. Originality. First taught in 1970-th at the known mathematician of contemporaneity of Rvachev V.L. to bases of the applied mathematics and theory of R−functions by a scientist-electrophysicist from the Kharkov polytechnic institute presented for the wide circle of readers a short scientifically-historical essay about this large scientist-teacher, being based on his scientific labours, published biobibliographic materials and flashbacks of his devoted students-followers about him. Practical value. Scientific popularization of the special physical and mathematical knowledges and distinguished scientific achievements of the known Kharkov scientist-mathematician Rvachev V.L. in area of the applied mathematics, classical

  4. Video Release: 47th Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden Jr. Speech at HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has released a video of the keynote speech given by the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R. Biden Jr. at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala. Under the gala theme “International Cooperation in the Fight Against Cancer,” Biden recognized cancer as a collection of related diseases, the importance of data sharing and harmonization, and the need for collaboration across scientific disciplines as inflection points in cancer research.

  5. Key players in neurodegenerative disorders in focus-New insights into the proteomic profile of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, ALS, and multiple sclerosis-24th HUPO BPP Workshop: September 29, 2015, Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Park, Young Mok; Marcus, Katrin; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Nilsson, Peter; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T

    2016-04-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 24th workshop in Vancouver, Canada, September 29, 2015. The focus of the autumn workshop was on new insights into the proteomic profile of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, ALS and multiple sclerosis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The HUPO proteomics standards initiative--overcoming the fragmentation of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermjakob, Henning

    2006-09-01

    Proteomics is a key field of modern biomolecular research, with many small and large scale efforts producing a wealth of proteomics data. However, the vast majority of this data is never exploited to its full potential. Even in publicly funded projects, often the raw data generated in a specific context is analysed, conclusions are drawn and published, but little attention is paid to systematic documentation, archiving, and public access to the data supporting the scientific results. It is often difficult to validate the results stated in a particular publication, and even simple global questions like "In which cellular contexts has my protein of interest been observed?" can currently not be answered with realistic effort, due to a lack of standardised reporting and collection of proteomics data. The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), a work group of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), defines community standards for data representation in proteomics to facilitate systematic data capture, comparison, exchange and verification. In this article we provide an overview of PSI organisational structure, activities, and current results, as well as ways to get involved in the broad-based, open PSI process.

  7. "Does understanding the brain need proteomics and does understanding proteomics need brains?"--Second HUPO HBPP Workshop hosted in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Michael; Klose, Joachim; Rossier, Jean; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E

    2004-07-01

    The second Human Brain Proteome Project (HBPP) Workshop of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) took place at the Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI) from April 23-24, 2004. During two days, more than 70 attendees from Europe, Asia and the US came together to decide basic strategic approaches, standards and the beginning of a pilot phase prior to further studies of the human brain proteome. The international consortium presented the technological and scientific portfolio and scheduled the time table for the next year.

  8. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 26: THREE PORTRAITS OF WORLDWIDE KNOWN MATHEMATICIANS OF KHARKOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Short description basic confessedly in the world of scientific achievements and vital fascinations of three prominent mathematicians of modern Kharkov region − Academicians of Pogorelov A.V., Marchenko V.A. and Sadovnichiy V.A. Methodology. Scientific methods of receipt, treatment and systematization of mathematical knowledges. Methods of historical investigations of development in human society of different sections of modern mathematics. Results. Short information is resulted about basic fundamental scientific achievements in the period of 20-21 centuries of the mentioned worldwide known domestic scientists-mathematicians in area of geometry, mathematical physics, theory of partial differential equations, operators, numerical mathematics, mathematical building of complicated processes and mathematical methods of treatment of information. These achievements are considered as a background of past and modern development of mathematical science state in Kharkov. Originality. For the first time in the form of a short scientifically-historical essay by a scientist-electrophysicist using accessible for the wide circle of readers language is present important for a world association scientific achievements in the complicated area of row of modern sections of mathematics, being in basis of practically all of the sciences known us. Practical value. Scientific popularization of modern topical knowledges of humanity in the area of special sections of mathematics, opening of role of personality in development of mathematical science and expansion for the large number of people of the scientific mathematical range of interests.

  9. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 42: ELECTRONICS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, SUCCESSES AND PROSPECTS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT

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    M.I. Baranov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about sources, retrospective view, basic stages, achievements, problems, trends and prospects of development of world electronics for period of 20th-21st centuries. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of a vacuum electronics, semiconductor electronics, vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about the primary and present states, achievements, trends and prospects of development of electronics in the developed countries of the world. From positions of approach of the systems advantages and lacks of semiconductor microelectronics are described as compared to a vacuum electronics. Considerable progress is marked in development of semiconductor element base (microtransistors, microprocessors, microcontrollers and other for creation of different electronic devices and computing engineering. Information, touching the determining deposit of electronic companies of the «Silicon Valley» in the USA in providing of technological breach in area of modern microelectronics, production of computers and their microprocessors, software and creation of devices of mobile communication development, is resulted. The basic problems of space microelectronics are affected. The possible ways of further development are indicated in the world of electronics, including vacuum microelectronics and nanoelectronics, and also optical electronics. The special attention is turned for urgent development of high-efficiency protective facilities specialists against cyber attacks hackers on the computer systems. In a review an accent is done on the sharp necessity of acceptance the proper services of drastic measures for a fight with cyber terrorism. Originality. Systematization of the

  10. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 44: TRADITIONAL POWER ENGINEERING. NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS: RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, STATE AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Preparation of brief scientific and technical review about a retrospective view, modern state, achievements, problems, tendencies and prospects of development of world nuclear energy. Methodology. Known scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information, present in scientific monographs, journals and internet-reports, world level in area of nuclear energy. Results. A brief analytical scientific and technical review is resulted about a retrospective view, modern state, basic achievements, existent problems, tendencies and prospects of development of nuclear energy in the industrially developed countries of the world. Considerable progress is marked in development and creation of technical base of modern nuclear energy, including the nuclear power stations (NPP such their basic devices as nuclear reactors, steam generators, steam turbines and turbogenerators. The basic charts of construction of NPP producing in the world now about 11 % are described annual production electric power. It is indicated that in Ukraine a production of electricity volume at NPP makes more than 50 %, and in France − more than 70 % in annual power balance of country. Nuclear-physical bases of work of nuclear reactor are resulted on thermal-neutron, widely in-use at NPP. The design of most safe water-waters of nuclear power-reactor of type of WWER-1000 is described by thermal power 1000 MW, applied presently at NPP of Ukraine. Basic classification of nuclear reactors is presented. Technical information is resulted about largest NPP of the world. Master data are indicated about a nuclear fuel and radio-active offcuts of nuclear reactors of NPP. Basic measures and facilities are described for the increase of safety of nuclear reactors and NPP. Advantages and lacks of NPP are marked by comparison to the thermal power plants. Nuclear energy of Ukraine is considered and basic technical descriptions

  11. Broadening the horizon – level 2.5 of the HUPO-PSI format for molecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusick Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular interaction Information is a key resource in modern biomedical research. Publicly available data have previously been provided in a broad array of diverse formats, making access to this very difficult. The publication and wide implementation of the Human Proteome Organisation Proteomics Standards Initiative Molecular Interactions (HUPO PSI-MI format in 2004 was a major step towards the establishment of a single, unified format by which molecular interactions should be presented, but focused purely on protein-protein interactions. Results The HUPO-PSI has further developed the PSI-MI XML schema to enable the description of interactions between a wider range of molecular types, for example nucleic acids, chemical entities, and molecular complexes. Extensive details about each supported molecular interaction can now be captured, including the biological role of each molecule within that interaction, detailed description of interacting domains, and the kinetic parameters of the interaction. The format is supported by data management and analysis tools and has been adopted by major interaction data providers. Additionally, a simpler, tab-delimited format MITAB2.5 has been developed for the benefit of users who require only minimal information in an easy to access configuration. Conclusion The PSI-MI XML2.5 and MITAB2.5 formats have been jointly developed by interaction data producers and providers from both the academic and commercial sector, and are already widely implemented and well supported by an active development community. PSI-MI XML2.5 enables the description of highly detailed molecular interaction data and facilitates data exchange between databases and users without loss of information. MITAB2.5 is a simpler format appropriate for fast Perl parsing or loading into Microsoft Excel.

  12. ALARA/ALARP distinguished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the term ALARA, ''as low as reasonably achievable'' and the term ALARP ''as low as reasonably practicable'' are used in regulations, in conditions in licenses, in assessment principles and in guidance notes used in the nuclear industry. In fact the ALARA principle is a cornerstone on which much of radiation protection regulation is based. The words ''reasonably practicable'' in ALARP have an established meaning in UK law and are used extensively in statutes and regulations, in particular The Health and Safety Act 1974. The Select Committee of the House of Lords on the European Communities in 1986 concluded that public opinion will play a much larger part in deciding the future of nuclear power than is usual with questions of science and technology. Under the circumstances it is important to industry and the general public for the terms used in legislation to be clear and unambiguous. This paper by distinguishing the terms ALARA/ALARP, sets the scene for a more disciplined use of the terms. (author)

  13. Gaining knowledge from previously unexplained spectra-application of the PTM-Explorer software to detect PTM in HUPO BPP MS/MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamrad, Daniel C; Körting, Gerhard; Schäfer, Heike; Stephan, Christian; Thiele, Herbert; Apweiler, Rolf; Meyer, Helmut E; Marcus, Katrin; Blüggel, Martin

    2006-09-01

    A novel software tool named PTM-Explorer has been applied to LC-MS/MS datasets acquired within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Brain Proteome Project (BPP). PTM-Explorer enables automatic identification of peptide MS/MS spectra that were not explained in typical sequence database searches. The main focus was detection of PTMs, but PTM-Explorer detects also unspecific peptide cleavage, mass measurement errors, experimental modifications, amino acid substitutions, transpeptidation products and unknown mass shifts. To avoid a combinatorial problem the search is restricted to a set of selected protein sequences, which stem from previous protein identifications using a common sequence database search. Prior to application to the HUPO BPP data, PTM-Explorer was evaluated on excellently manually characterized and evaluated LC-MS/MS data sets from Alpha-A-Crystallin gel spots obtained from mouse eye lens. Besides various PTMs including phosphorylation, a wealth of experimental modifications and unspecific cleavage products were successfully detected, completing the primary structure information of the measured proteins. Our results indicate that a large amount of MS/MS spectra that currently remain unidentified in standard database searches contain valuable information that can only be elucidated using suitable software tools.

  14. Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...

  15. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 33: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND PROTECTION FROM ACTION OF POWERFUL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE OF RADIOELECTRONIC, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of basic scientific and technical achievements in area of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and protection from destabilizing and striking action of powerful electromagnetic interference (PEMI of natural and artificial origin of radioelectronic, electrical engineering and electric power equipment. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in a sphere EMC and such areas of knowledge’s as radioelectronics, electrical engineering and electric power engineering. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted modern positions problems EMC and protection of equipment from action on them PEMI. It is shown that PEMI can result in failures in-process and death of examined equipment. Annual harm in the industrially developed countries of the world from the striking affecting of PEMI modern equipment with integral microcircuits and semiconductor devices can make ten of milliards of USD. The basic methods of protection of equipment are resulted from PEMI and protective devices (PD, intended for the increase of effectiveness of modern equipment to the action of external PEMI. Principles of work of the resulted PD and their basic technical descriptions are described. Originality. On the basis of materials of scientific monographs, journal publications, normative documents and internet-reports systematization of basic PD, in-use presently in an area EMC and protection of different equipment from the hazard agency of external PEMI is executed. Practical value. Popularization of scientific and technical knowledge’s in an area EMC and protection of modern equipment from a dangerous action on them PEMI. Formulation of important for society scientific and technical problems and tasks, arising up in an area EMC and providing of the reliable functioning of modern equipment in power electromagnetic interference.

  16. Method for distinguishing fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, Masaharu; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish correctly and efficiently the kind of fuel substance enclosed in a cladding tube. Method: Elements such as manganess 55, copper 65, vanadium 51, zinc 64, scandium 45 and the like, each having a large neutron absorption cross section and discharging gamma rays of inherent bright line spectra are applied to or mixed in fuel pellets of different kinds in uranium enrichment degree, plutonium concentration, burnable poison concentration or the like. These fuel rods are irradiated with neutron beams, and energy spectra of gamma rays discharged upon this occasion are observed to carry out distinguishing of fuel pellets. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  18. EuPA achieves visibility - an activity report on the first three years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, M J; Gil, C; Kleinhammer, C

    2008-01-01

    to biological and industrial researchers, the general public and science policy makers in Europe. In addition, the EuPA set out to promote scientific exchange for all applications and technology development related to Proteomics, and coordinate joint activities of national Proteomics societies at the European...... the national Proteomics organizations in their efforts; ii) to co-ordinate and provide educational programs, and iii) to advance the networking of scientists through meetings, workshops and student exchange. Linked to the mission were objectives to emphasise the benefits and contributions of Proteomics...... level. To achieve these tasks an organisational structure was conceived whereby four Activity Committees (Conferences/Communications, Education, EuPA-HUPO-Interactions and Funding) were implemented and a General Council consisting of all member countries. The remarkable rise and progress the EuPA has...

  19. Distinguishing Isolated Photons from Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Marco; Branson, James G

    2006-01-01

    We have developed isolation and shower-shape variables that are optimized for reducing the jet background for a high transverse-energy photon signal. To help understand the relative importance of each variable, we have computed the background rejection power as a function of signal efficiency for these variables as well as for some simple combinations of variables. We find that a combination of tracker plus ECAL information can give very significant background rejection power. By adding information from the HCAL, the rejection power can be improved. In addition we find that a very significant reduction in background can be achieved by adding photon shower shape information from the ECAL to the Neural Net inputs. About 1 in 200 jets contains a high E_T electromagnetic shower that is reconstructed by the CMS software and is therefore a potential background for photon detection. An additional jet rejection factor of 100 with 80% photon efficiency (or 400 with 50% efficiency) can be achieved by using the isolatio...

  20. Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, J. A. Jimenez; Mancho, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalizes the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consists of determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of high...

  1. Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes

  2. A Distinguish Attack on COSvd Cipher

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Orumiehchi ha; R. Mirghadri

    2007-01-01

    The COSvd Ciphers has been proposed by Filiol and others (2004). It is a strengthened version of COS stream cipher family denoted COSvd that has been adopted for at least one commercial standard. We propose a distinguish attack on this version, and prove that, it is distinguishable from a random stream. In the COSvd Cipher used one S-Box (10×8) on the final part of cipher. We focus on S-Box and use weakness this S-Box for distinguish attack. In addition, found a leak on HNLL that the sub s-bo...

  3. Lifetime achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is accepting nominations for the 1996 Philip Hauge Abelson Prize. The prize is awarded annually to either a public servant who has made sustained contributions to the advancement of science or to scientists who have distinguished themselves for both the quality of their work and their leadership in the scientific community.

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach...

  5. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  6. Distinguishing computable mixtures of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Ignacio H. López; Senno, Gabriel; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Larotonda, Miguel A.; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago; Acín, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    In this article we extend results from our previous work [Bendersky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 230402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.230402] by providing a protocol to distinguish in finite time and with arbitrarily high success probability any algorithmic mixture of pure states from the maximally mixed state. Moreover, we include an experimental realization, using a modified quantum key distribution setup, where two different random sequences of pure states are prepared; these sequences are indistinguishable according to quantum mechanics, but they become distinguishable when randomness is replaced with pseudorandomness within the experimental preparation process.

  7. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Improving the distinguishable cluster results: spin-component scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The spin-component scaling is employed in the energy evaluation to improve the distinguishable cluster approach. SCS-DCSD reaction energies reproduce reference values with a root-mean-squared deviation well below 1 kcal/mol, the interaction energies are three to five times more accurate than DCSD, and molecular systems with a large amount of static electron correlation are still described reasonably well. SCS-DCSD represents a pragmatic approach to achieve chemical accuracy with a simple method without triples, which can also be applied to multi-configurational molecular systems.

  9. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  10. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  11. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  12. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  13. Distinguishing the communicative functions of gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function....... The results of the experiments show that the granularity of the attributes used seems appropriate for the task of distinguishing the desired communicative functions. This is a promising result in view of a future automation of the annotation task....

  14. Characterizing locally distinguishable orthogonal product states

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuan; Shi, Yaoyun

    2007-01-01

    Bennett et al. \\cite{BDF+99} identified a set of orthogonal {\\em product} states in the $3\\otimes 3$ Hilbert space such that reliably distinguishing those states requires non-local quantum operations. While more examples have been found for this counter-intuitive ``nonlocality without entanglement'' phenomenon, a complete and computationally verifiable characterization for all such sets of states remains unknown. In this Letter, we give such a characterization for the $3\\otimes 3$ space.

  15. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  16. Distinguishing Entailment and Presupposition Under Negation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatri Asti Putri Indarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing entailment from presupposition is quite difficult because their semantic relation seems to be similar. Both entailment and presupposition have an automatic relationship based on the context. However, those semantic relations can still be differentiated by using negation test to show whether a pair is entailment or presupposition. This research focuses on sentences and utterances. Thus, this research aims to analyze and test pairs of entailment and pairs of presupposition by using negation in utterances. The data were twelve comic strips from the Internet and they were analysed by using a negation test. The analysis shows that negation test is useful to test entailment and presupposition in the comic strips. It can be concluded that the difficulty of distinguishing pair of entailment and presupposition in the comic strip using negation test has been successfully solved. In this case, negation test is suitable to test entailment and presupposition. This research can be developed further by other researchers to distinguish entailment and presupposition by using another test if the negation test cannot be used to any further extent.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180104

  17. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  18. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-06-18

    simulation experiment to distinguish the slow, intermediate and fast regimes, which is the main point of our paper. In order to achieve this goal, we systematically studied the essential dynamics of gene expression system when the switching rates are in different regimes. Our theoretical understanding provides new insights on the gene expression experiments.

  19. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  20. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  1. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature

  2. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  3. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  5. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  6. Distinguishing Asthma Phenotypes Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca; Rattray, Magnus; Prosperi, Mattia; Custovic, Adnan

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is not a single disease, but an umbrella term for a number of distinct diseases, each of which are caused by a distinct underlying pathophysiological mechanism. These discrete disease entities are often labelled as 'asthma endotypes'. The discovery of different asthma subtypes has moved from subjective approaches in which putative phenotypes are assigned by experts to data-driven ones which incorporate machine learning. This review focuses on the methodological developments of one such machine learning technique-latent class analysis-and how it has contributed to distinguishing asthma and wheezing subtypes in childhood. It also gives a clinical perspective, presenting the findings of studies from the past 5 years that used this approach. The identification of true asthma endotypes may be a crucial step towards understanding their distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, which could ultimately lead to more precise prevention strategies, identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of effective personalized therapies.

  7. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  8. Integral and Multidimensional Linear Distinguishers with Correlation Zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Leander, Gregor; Nyberg, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero-correlation li...... weak key assumptions. © International Association for Cryptologic Research 2012....

  9. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  12. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter γ. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  13. A Model to Partly but Reliably Distinguish DDOS Flood Traffic from Aggregated One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

  14. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  15. Triangle Computer Science Distinguished Lecture Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    scientific inquiry - the cell, the brain, the market - as well as in the models developed by scientists over the centuries for studying them. Human...the great objects of scientific inquiry - the cell, the brain, the market - as well as in the models developed by scientists over the centuries for...in principle , secure system operation can be achieved. Massive-Scale Streaming Analytics David Bader, Georgia Institute of Technology (telecast from

  16. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  17. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  18. Distinguishing attack on five-round Feistel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Raddum, H

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown (by J. Patarin) how to distinguish a general five-round Feistel network from a random permutation using O(2/sup 3n/2/) chosen plaintexts or O(2/sup 7n/4/) known plaintexts. The present authors report improvement of these results and a distinguisher is presented which uses ro...

  19. 5 CFR 838.612 - Distinguishing between annuities and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distinguishing between annuities and... Orders Affecting Employee Annuities or Refunds of Employee Contributions Identification of Benefits § 838.612 Distinguishing between annuities and contributions. (a) A court order using “annuities,” “pensions...

  20. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed. (paper)

  1. Scoring system to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated acute appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, J. J.; van Rossem, C. C.; Leeuwenburgh, M. M.; Stoker, J.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-operative management may be an alternative for uncomplicated appendicitis, but preoperative distinction between uncomplicated and complicated disease is challenging. This study aimed to develop a scoring system based on clinical and imaging features to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated

  2. Could We Distinguish Child Users from Adults Using Keystroke Dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Yasin; Bicakci, Kemal; Uzunay, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Significant portion of contemporary computer users are children, who are vulnerable to threats coming from the Internet. To protect children from such threats, in this study, we investigate how successfully typing data can be used to distinguish children from adults. For this purpose, we collect a dataset comprising keystroke data of 100 users and show that distinguishing child Internet users from adults is possible using Keystroke Dynamics with equal error rates less than 10 percent. However...

  3. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  4. Distinguishing Computer-Generated Graphics from Natural Images Based on Sensor Pattern Noise and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer-generated graphics (CGs are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1 the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2 the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75.

  5. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  6. 29 CFR 794.107 - “Establishment” distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the definition of “enterprise” in section 3(r), as set forth in § 794.106, that the activities of the... § 794.107 “Establishment” distinguished. The “enterprise” referred to in the section 7(b)(3) exemption... “an entire business or enterprise” which may include several separate places of business. (See...

  7. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  8. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  10. Distinguishing between Exogenous and Endogenous Intent-to-Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Karoly, Paul; Martin, Jessica L.; Benshoff, Annja

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we distinguish between 2 types of students who intend to transfer and graduate from another institution. During the fall of 2006, 507 first-semester students attending a state university completed a survey. Seventy-six percent of the students indicated that they planned on graduating from the University (intent-to-persist), 16%…

  11. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  13. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  14. The Hues of English. NCTE Distinguished Lectures 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    The third volume in the NCTE Distinguished Lectures Series, this collection of papers includes (1) William Stafford on poetry and the language of everyday life, (2) Fred Stocking linking Shakespeare to his time and all time by analysing "temperance" in Sonnet 18, (3) Alan Downer discussing the nature of comedy in drama and the universal…

  15. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  16. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  17. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    particles, it requires more care to identify a gas of identical distinguishable particles ... properties (such as mass, charge, shape, and spin). Adopt an operational ... [6] which might appear to be a physical realization of the proto- typical system of ...

  18. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  19. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  20. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants... purpose is acquisition, then the grants officer shall judge that a procurement contract is the appropriate... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22...

  1. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  2. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  3. Distinguishing advective and powered motion in self-propelled colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Young-Moo; Lammert, Paul E.; Hong, Yiying; Sen, Ayusman; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2017-11-01

    Self-powered motion in catalytic colloidal particles provides a compelling example of active matter, i.e. systems that engage in single-particle and collective behavior far from equilibrium. The long-time, long-distance behavior of such systems is of particular interest, since it connects their individual micro-scale behavior to macro-scale phenomena. In such analyses, it is important to distinguish motion due to subtle advective effects—which also has long time scales and length scales—from long-timescale phenomena that derive from intrinsically powered motion. Here, we develop a methodology to analyze the statistical properties of the translational and rotational motions of powered colloids to distinguish, for example, active chemotaxis from passive advection by bulk flow.

  4. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavenda, Miroslav; Celechovska, Lucie; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim; Soubusta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the distinguishability of a 'noise' particle degrades interference of the 'signal' particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on a beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the signal photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between the signal and noise photons. When the photons are completely distinguishable in principle but technically indistinguishable, the visibility drops to the value 1/√(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable, the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using a setup with a fiber-optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  5. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  6. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Background Stochastic genetic switching driven by intrinsic noise is an important process in gene expression. When the rates of gene activation/inactivation are relatively slow, fast, or medium compared with the synthesis/degradation rates of mRNAs and proteins, the variability of protein and mRNA levels may exhibit very different dynamical patterns. It is desirable to provide a systematic approach to identify their key dynamical features in different regimes, aiming at distinguishing which r...

  7. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua D. Campbell; Christina Yau; Reanne Bowlby; Yuexin Liu; Kevin Brennan; Huihui Fan; Alison M. Taylor; Chen Wang; Vonn Walter; Rehan Akbani; Lauren Averett Byers; Chad J. Creighton; Cristian Coarfa; Juliann Shih; Andrew D. Cherniack

    2018-01-01

    Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV). SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs), DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mes...

  8. General Vertex-Distinguishing Total Coloring of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum integer k, for which the vertices and edges of G are colored using k colors such that any two vertices have distinct sets of colors of them and their incident edges. In this paper, we figure out the exact value of this chromatic number of some special graphs and propose a conjecture on the upper bound of this chromatic number.

  9. Diagnostic value of chemical shift artifact in distinguishing benign lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshchian, Nazanin, E-mail: farshchian.n@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tamari, Saghar; Farshchian, Negin [Department of Radiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madani, Hamid [Department of Pathology, Imam-Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, Mansour [Department of Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza, E-mail: mohammadimotlagh@gmail.com [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Today, distinguishing metastatic lymph nodes from secondary benign inflammatory ones via using non-invasive methods is increasingly favorable. In this study, the diagnostic value of chemical shift artifact (CSA) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to distinguish benign lymphadenopathy. Subjects and methods: A prospective intraindividual internal review board-approved study was carried out on 15 men and 15 women having lymphadenopathic lesions in different locations of the body who underwent contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging at 1.5 T. Then, the imaging findings were compared with pathology reports, using the statistics analyses. Results: Due to the findings of the CSA existence in MRI, a total of 56.7% of the studied lesions (17 of 30) were identified as benign lesions and the rest were malignant, whereas the pathology reports distinguished twelve malignant and eighteen benign cases. Furthermore, the CSA findings comparing the pathology reports indicated that CSA, with confidence of 79.5%, has a significant diagnostic value to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that CSA in MR imaging has a suitable diagnostic potential nearing readiness for clinical trials. Furthermore, CSA seems to be a feasible tool to differentiate benign lymph nodes from malignant ones; however, further studies including larger numbers of patients are required to confirm our results.

  10. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (≥6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ≥ 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (≥2 mm) − 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as −2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is

  11. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 32: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the state and prospect of development in the modern world of alternative energy, including wind energy, sun energy, geothermal energy, biogas energy, flood-tide water energy, hydrogen energy and small water energy. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of the present state of world energy and ways of its further development. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted about the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy. It is shown that, in spite of comparatively small stake (to 10 % of this untraditional energy in general world balance of making of electric power, world association taking into account the necessary changing in the nearest 50 years of present oil-gas «foundation» of energy on other with large raw material, potential and ecological possibilities are forced to invest large financial means in development of the indicated directions of alternative energy. Originality. First on the basis of materials of separate magazine publications, scientific monographs and internet-reports on power problem the brief analytical review of the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy is executed. Practical value. Deepening and spread of the scientific and technical learnings in area of functioning and ways of development of modern energy. Scientific popularization of arising up before society claimed tasks from global and important for all of humanity of power problem.

  12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 40 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1952 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND SOCIAL-CLASS BACKGROUND. A RELATED REPORT IS ED…

  13. Cytomorphologic features distinguishing Bethesda category IV thyroid lesions from parathyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid follicular cells share similar cytomorphological features with parathyroid. Without a clinical suspicion, the distinction between a thyroid neoplasm and an intrathyroidal parathyroid can be challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the distinguishing cytomorphological features of parathyroid (including intrathyroidal and Bethesda category IV (Beth-IV thyroid follicular lesions, which carry a 15%–30% risk of malignancy and are often followed up with surgical resection. Methods: A search was performed to identify “parathyroid” diagnoses in parathyroid/thyroid-designated fine-needle aspirations (FNAs and Beth-IV thyroid FNAs (follicular and Hurthle cell, all with diagnostic confirmation through surgical pathology, immunocytochemical stains, Afirma® analysis, and/or clinical correlation. Unique cytomorphologic features were scored (0-3 or noted as present versus absent. Statistical analysis was performed using R 3.3.1 software. Results: We identified five FNA cases with clinical suspicion of parathyroid neoplasm, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid lesion that had an eventual final diagnosis of the parathyroid lesion (all female; age 20–69 years and 12 Beth-IV diagnoses (11 female, 1 male; age 13–64 years. The following cytomorphologic features are useful distinguishing features (P value: overall pattern (0.001, single cells (0.001, cell size compared to red blood cell (0.01, nuclear irregularity (0.001, presence of nucleoli (0.001, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (0.007, and nuclear chromatin quality (0.028. Conclusions: There are cytomorphologic features that distinguish Beth-IV thyroid lesions and (intrathyroidal parathyroid. These features can aid in rendering correct diagnoses and appropriate management.

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation distinguishes Alzheimer disease from frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, Alberto; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cosseddu, Maura; Alberici, Antonella; Caratozzolo, Salvatore; Cotelli, Maria Sofia; Micheli, Anna; Rozzini, Luca; Depari, Alessandro; Flammini, Alessandra; Ponzo, Viviana; Martorana, Alessandro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Borroni, Barbara

    2017-08-15

    To determine whether a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) multiparadigm approach can be used to distinguish Alzheimer disease (AD) from frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Paired-pulse TMS was used to investigate short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), long-interval intracortical inhibition, and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to measure the activity of different intracortical circuits in patients with AD, patients with FTD, and healthy controls (HC). The primary outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of TMS measures, derived from receiver operating curve analysis. A total of 175 participants met the inclusion criteria. We diagnosed 79 patients with AD, 64 patients with FTD, and 32 HC. We found that while patients with AD are characterized by a specific impairment of SAI, FTD shows a remarkable dysfunction of SICI-ICF intracortical circuits. With the use of the best indexes, TMS differentiated FTD from AD with a sensitivity of 91.8% and specificity of 88.6%, AD from HC with a sensitivity of 84.8% and specificity of 90.6%, and FTD from HC with a sensitivity of 90.2% and specificity of 78.1%. These results were confirmed in patients with mild disease. TMS is a noninvasive procedure that reliably distinguishes AD from FTD and HC and, if these findings are replicated in larger studies, could represent a useful additional diagnostic tool for clinical practice. This study provides Class III evidence that TMS measures can distinguish patients with AD from those with FTD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Distinguishing between SU(5) and flipped SU(5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsner, Ilja [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)]. E-mail: fileviez@higgs.fis.puc.cl

    2005-01-13

    We study in detail the d=6 operators for proton decay in the two possible matter unification scenarios based on SU(5) gauge symmetry. We investigate the way to distinguish between these two scenarios. The dependence of the branching ratios for the two body decays on the fermion mixing is presented in both cases. We point out the possibility to make a clear test of flipped SU(5) through the decay channel p->{pi}{sup +}{nu}-bar , and the ratio {tau}(p->K{sup 0}e{sub {alpha}}{sup +})/{tau}(p->{pi}{sup 0}e{sub {alpha}}{sup +})

  16. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  17. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers ...... on the Internet.To reach the decliners, retailers could focus on the possibilities of the Internet, but to stop the trend of escalating numbers of decliners, retailers will have to address the perceived inconvenience and uselessness of sales flyers....

  18. How to distinguish dark energy and modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Zhang Shuangnan

    2008-01-01

    The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy) or a modification of general relativity (modified gravity). In the literature it has been proposed that combining the probes of the cosmic expansion history and growth history can distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity. In this work, without invoking nontrivial dark energy clustering, we show that the possible interaction between dark energy and dark matter could make the interacting dark model and the modified gravity model indistinguishable. An explicit example is also given. Therefore, it is required to seek some complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  19. Can We Distinguish between Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and neuropathic pain were once considered to be distinct entities. However, research over the past decade or so has brought to light many shared mechanisms, and the distinction between the two is no longer clear. Consideration of mechanisms, symptoms and the effects of analgesic drugs does not reveal any definitive or universally applicable differentiating factors. Given the present level of understanding, it may not be possible to distinguish between inflammatory and neuropathic pain in a large number of patients, and a satisfying definition of neuropathic pain may not be possible.

  20. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  1. Smarandachely Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge Chromatic Number of Cm∨Kn

    OpenAIRE

    Shunqin Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number. And we focus on the smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic...

  2. Distinguishing deterministic and noise components in ELM time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Kuzovkov, V.N

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the main problems in the preliminary data analysis is distinguishing the deterministic and noise components in the experimental signals. For example, in plasma physics the question arises analyzing edge localized modes (ELMs): is observed ELM behavior governed by a complicate deterministic chaos or just by random processes. We have developed methodology based on financial engineering principles, which allows us to distinguish deterministic and noise components. We extended the linear auto regression method (AR) by including the non-linearity (NAR method). As a starting point we have chosen the nonlinearity in the polynomial form, however, the NAR method can be extended to any other type of non-linear functions. The best polynomial model describing the experimental ELM time series was selected using Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). With this method we have analyzed type I ELM behavior in a subset of ASDEX Upgrade shots. Obtained results indicate that a linear AR model can describe the ELM behavior. In turn, it means that type I ELM behavior is of a relaxation or random type

  3. Distinguishing Intensity Levels of Grassland Fertilization Using Vegetation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L. Hollberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the reaction of grassland canopies on fertilizer application is of major importance to enable a well-adjusted management supporting a sustainable production of the grass crop. Up to date, grassland managers estimate the nutrient status and growth dynamics of grasslands by costly and time-consuming field surveys, which only provide low temporal and spatial data density. Grassland mapping using remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs has the potential to contribute to solving these problems. In this study, we explored the potential of VIs for distinguishing five differently-fertilized grassland communities. Therefore, we collected spectral signatures of these communities in a long-term fertilization experiment (since 1941 in Germany throughout the growing seasons 2012–2014. Fifteen VIs were calculated and their seasonal developments investigated. Welch tests revealed that the accuracy of VIs for distinguishing these grassland communities varies throughout the growing season. Thus, the selection of the most promising single VI for grassland mapping was dependent on the date of the spectra acquisition. A random forests classification using all calculated VIs reduced variations in classification accuracy within the growing season and provided a higher overall precision of classification. Thus, we recommend a careful selection of VIs for grassland mapping or the utilization of temporally-stable methods, i.e., including a set of VIs in the random forests algorithm.

  4. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Bluemke, David A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Frassica, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often performed for further evaluation. For the detailed assessment of a fracture site, CT offers a high-resolution view of the bone cortex and periosteum which aids the diagnosis of a pathologic fracture. The character of underlying bone marrow patterns of destruction can also be ascertained along with evidence of a soft tissue mass. MRI, however, is a more sensitive technique for the detection of underlying bone marrow lesions at a fracture site. In addition, the surrounding soft tissues, including possible involvement of adjacent muscle, can be well evaluated with MRI. While bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET are not specific, they offer a whole-body screen for metastases in the case of a suspected malignant pathologic fracture. In this review, we present select examples of fractures that underscore imaging features that help distinguish stress fractures from pathologic fractures, since accurate differentiation of these entities is paramount. (orig.)

  5. Achieving Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  6. On the possibilities of distinguishing Dirac from Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zralek, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem if existing neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles is considered in a very pedagogical way. After a few historical remarks we recall the theoretical description of neutral spin 1/2 particles, emphasizing the difference between chirality and helicity which is important in our discussion. Next we describe the properties of neutrinos in the cases when their interactions are given by the standard model and by its extensions (massive neutrinos, right-handed currents, electromagnetic neutrino interaction, interaction with scalar particles). Various processes where the different nature of neutrinos could in principle be visible are reviewed. We clear up misunderstandings which have appeared in last suggestions how to distinguish both types of neutrinos. (author)

  7. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  8. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  9. Distinguishing standard model extensions using monotop chirality at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Flórez, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia); Gao, Yu [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kamon, Teruki [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kolev, Nikolay [Department of Physics, University of Regina,SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Mueller, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Segura, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia)

    2016-12-13

    We present two minimal extensions of the standard model, each giving rise to baryogenesis. They include heavy color-triplet scalars interacting with a light Majorana fermion that can be the dark matter (DM) candidate. The electroweak charges of the new scalars govern their couplings to quarks of different chirality, which leads to different collider signals. These models predict monotop events at the LHC and the energy spectrum of decay products of highly polarized top quarks can be used to establish the chiral nature of the interactions involving the heavy scalars and the DM. Detailed simulation of signal and standard model background events is performed, showing that top quark chirality can be distinguished in hadronic and leptonic decays of the top quarks.

  10. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitambar, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems (QCIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT), University of Technology Sydney - UTS, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  11. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suneil A; Swift, Charles R; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2017-01-01

    Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient's right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient's symptoms. Intrigued by our patient's case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  12. Distinguishing potential sources of genotoxic exposure via HPRT mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molholt, B.; Finette, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    T-cell HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) mutations were used to monitor to environmental mutagens in children who have developed cancer at a persistently high rate in Toms River, New Jersey, USA. A preliminary epidemiological study has found a statistically-significant association between drinking public water (by pregnant mother or infant) and subsequent risk for childhood cancer. Three potential sources of mutagenic exposures in Toms River may have increased the rate of carcinogenic initiation significantly in children: 1. Benzidine-based, other azo-dye and anthraquinone dye wastes released by Ciba-Geigy enterprise; 2. Plastic wastes of Union Carbide enterprise; 3. Radium-224, present in unusually high concentrations in the Cohansey aquifer. Specific patterns of HPRT mutations are utilized to distinguish these various potential sources of carcinogenic exposures in the drinking water of families with childhood cancer and to differentiate chemically or radiologically induced cancers from those which occur spontaneously [ru

  13. Distinguishing zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebrebrhan, M.; Ibanescu, M.; Johnson, Steven G.; Soljacic, M.; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We examine differences between various zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals, including those that arise from Bragg diffraction, anticrossings, and band repulsion. Zero-group velocity occurs at points where the group velocity changes sign, and therefore is conceptually related to 'left-handed' media, in which the group velocity is opposite to the phase velocity. We consider this relationship more quantitatively in terms of the Fourier decomposition of the modes, by defining a measure of how much the ''average'' phase velocity is parallel to the group velocity--an anomalous region is one in which they are mostly antiparallel. We find that this quantity can be used to qualitatively distinguish different zero-group-velocity points. In one dimension, such anomalous regions are found never to occur. In higher dimensions, they are exhibited around certain zero-group-velocity points, and lead to unusual enhanced confinement behavior in microcavities

  14. Thomas Grisso: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2014 recipient is Thomas Grisso. Grisso "has made seminal contributions to the field of forensic psychology and psychiatry through his internationally renowned program of research, which has directly impacted juvenile justice reform worldwide." Grisso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2017 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  17. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d=2N+1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions.

  18. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Zhu Lijun; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z 2 ) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z 3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z 3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z 3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z 3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z 2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of M T2 -type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  19. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV. SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs, DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mesenchymal differentiation, growth, genomic integrity, oxidative damage, death, and inflammation. Low-CNA SCCs tended to be HPV(+ and display hypermethylation with repression of TET1 demethylase and FANCF, previously linked to predisposition to SCC, or harbor mutations affecting CASP8, RAS-MAPK pathways, chromatin modifiers, and immunoregulatory molecules. We uncovered hypomethylation of the alternative promoter that drives expression of the ΔNp63 oncogene and embedded miR944. Co-expression of immune checkpoint, T-regulatory, and Myeloid suppressor cells signatures may explain reduced efficacy of immune therapy. These findings support possibilities for molecular classification and therapeutic approaches. : Campbell et al. reveal that squamous cell cancers from different tissue sites may be distinguished from other cancers and subclassified molecularly by recurrent alterations in chromosomes, DNA methylation, messenger and microRNA expression, or by mutations. These affect squamous cell pathways and programs that provide candidates for therapy. Keywords: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma with squamous differentiation, human papillomavirus

  20. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orbital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR. This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  1. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  2. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Heat Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  3. Model distinguishability and inference robustness in mechanisms of cholera transmission and loss of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth C; Kelly, Michael R; Ochocki, Brad M; Akinwumi, Segun M; Hamre, Karen E S; Tien, Joseph H; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2017-05-07

    Mathematical models of cholera and waterborne disease vary widely in their structures, in terms of transmission pathways, loss of immunity, and a range of other features. These differences can affect model dynamics, with different models potentially yielding different predictions and parameter estimates from the same data. Given the increasing use of mathematical models to inform public health decision-making, it is important to assess model distinguishability (whether models can be distinguished based on fit to data) and inference robustness (whether inferences from the model are robust to realistic variations in model structure). In this paper, we examined the effects of uncertainty in model structure in the context of epidemic cholera, testing a range of models with differences in transmission and loss of immunity structure, based on known features of cholera epidemiology. We fit these models to simulated epidemic and long-term data, as well as data from the 2006 Angola epidemic. We evaluated model distinguishability based on fit to data, and whether the parameter values, model behavior, and forecasting ability can accurately be inferred from incidence data. In general, all models were able to successfully fit to all data sets, both real and simulated, regardless of whether the model generating the simulated data matched the fitted model. However, in the long-term data, the best model fits were achieved when the loss of immunity structures matched those of the model that simulated the data. Two parameters, one representing person-to-person transmission and the other representing the reporting rate, were accurately estimated across all models, while the remaining parameters showed broad variation across the different models and data sets. The basic reproduction number (R 0 ) was often poorly estimated even using the correct model, due to practical unidentifiability issues in the waterborne transmission pathway which were consistent across all models. Forecasting

  4. Achieving excellence in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.; Solymossy, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Operating a nuclear power plant is a uniquely challenging activity, requiring a high degree of competence from all who are involved. Achieving and maintaining this competence requires excellence in training. But what does excellence mean, and how do we achieve it. Based on the experience gained by INPO in plant training evaluations and accreditation activities, this paper describes some of the actions that can be taken to achieve the quality appropriate for nuclear power plant training. These actions are discussed in relation to the four phases of a performance-based training system: (1) needs analysis, (2) program design and development, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation and improvement

  5. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Abzari; Mohammadreza Dalvi

    2009-01-01

    AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according...

  6. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... medical devices to take timely action to correct violative devices or remove them from the marketplace...] Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft Guidance for... draft guidance entitled ``Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting...

  7. Distinguishing Failure to Cure From Complication After Penile Prosthesis Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L

    2017-05-01

    A successful penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) surgery can be defined by outcomes beyond the absence of complications. To introduce the concept of failure to cure (FTC) in the context of PPI to more accurately gauge postoperative outcomes after PPI. Consecutive patients from our sexual function registry who underwent PPI from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed. Demographics, previous treatment of erectile dysfunction, comorbidities, social history, postoperative problems (POPs), and surgical outcomes were tabulated. Patients completed the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaires. We defined a complication, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, as any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not constitute an FTC. FTC was defined as a POP that was not a complication. The χ 2 tests, t-tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used. Patient-reported and objective outcomes after PPI. Our enrollment consisted of 185 patients, and we contacted 124 (67%). Of these, 16 (12.9%) had a POP requiring reoperation. Eight patients developed surgical complications (three infections, four erosions, and one chronic pain). Eight patients had FTC (four malpositions and four malfunctions). Factors that correlated with POPs were previous PPI, body mass index higher than 30 kg/m 2 , and previous treatment with intracorporal injections (P .05 for all comparisons). POPs after PPI surgery can be more accurately categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications to more clearly distinguish surgical complications from FTC. Limitations of our study include its retrospective approach. Our series included a large proportion of patients treated for prostate cancer, which limits the generalizability of our findings. We also had a relatively short median follow-up time of 27 months. Patient-reported outcome

  8. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  9. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneil A Raju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient’s right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient’s symptoms. Intrigued by our patient’s case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  10. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Salvagno

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  11. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Lenny; Albarella, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  12. Distinguishing quantum from classical oscillations in a driven phase qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, S N; Omelyanchouk, A N; Zagoskin, A M; Savel'ev, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Rabi oscillations are coherent transitions in a quantum two-level system under the influence of a resonant drive, with a much lower frequency dependent on the perturbation amplitude. These serve as one of the signatures of quantum coherent evolution in mesoscopic systems. It was shown recently (Groenbech-Jensen N and Cirillo M 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 067001) that in phase qubits (current-biased Josephson junctions) this effect can be mimicked by classical oscillations arising due to the anharmonicity of the effective potential. Nevertheless, we find qualitative differences between the classical and quantum effects. Firstly, while the quantum Rabi oscillations can be produced by the subharmonics of the resonant frequency ω 10 (multiphoton processes), the classical effect also exists when the system is excited at the overtones, nω 10 . Secondly, the shape of the resonance is, in the classical case, characteristically asymmetric, whereas quantum resonances are described by symmetric Lorentzians. Thirdly, the anharmonicity of the potential results in the negative shift of the resonant frequency in the classical case, in contrast to the positive Bloch-Siegert shift in the quantum case. We show that in the relevant range of parameters these features allow us to distinguish confidently the bona fide Rabi oscillations from their classical Doppelgaenger

  13. Psychogenic Tremor: A Video Guide to Its Distinguishing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jankovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic tremor is the most common psychogenic movement disorder. It has characteristic clinical features that can help distinguish it from other tremor disorders. There is no diagnostic gold standard and the diagnosis is based primarily on clinical history and examination. Despite proposed diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor can be challenging. While there are numerous studies evaluating psychogenic tremor in the literature, there are no publications that provide a video/visual guide that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of psychogenic tremor. Educating clinicians about psychogenic tremor will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We selected videos from the database at the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine that illustrate classic findings supporting the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor.Results: We include 10 clinical vignettes with accompanying videos that highlight characteristic clinical signs of psychogenic tremor including distractibility, variability, entrainability, suggestibility, and coherence.Discussion: Psychogenic tremor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tremor, particularly if it is of abrupt onset, intermittent, variable and not congruous with organic tremor. The diagnosis of psychogenic tremor, however, should not be simply based on exclusion of organic tremor, such as essential, parkinsonian, or cerebellar tremor, but on positive criteria demonstrating characteristic features. Early recognition and management are critical for good long-term outcome.

  14. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  15. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2018-03-01

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  16. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  17. [Problem and assignment for distinguishing the Usher syndrome type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Hidekane; Takeichi, Norito; Satou, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Kotaro; Kaga, Kimitaka; Kumakawa, Kozou; Nagai, Kyoko; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Naitou, Yasu; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Tono, Tetsuya; Kimitsuki, Takashi; Nishio, Shinya; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shinichi

    2012-10-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder that causes bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome types 1, 2, and 3 can be distinguished by differences in audiovestibular features. The objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate 26 patients with Usher syndrome clinically. The 26 patients (male: 12 cases, female: 14 cases) with Usher syndrome, with a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and RP, had been registered from 13 hospitals as a multicenter study. We assessed the clinical history and performed audiovestibular and ophthalmologic examinations, and genetic testing. Eleven of the patients were classified as having Usher type 1 (38.5%), 6 with Usher type 2 (23.1%), and 9 with Usher type 3 (38.5%). However, many patients with atypical Usher type 1 (70%) and type 2 (83.3%) were found compared with Usher type 3 (10%). The conductive rate of vestibular examinations including the caloric test (50%) was low. There were many variations in the clinical symptoms in Usher syndrome patients, therefore the classification of Usher types 1, 2, and 3 has been complicated. We have proposed a flowchart for the diagnosis of Usher types 1, 2, and 3.

  18. Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.

  19. Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Research leadership: should clinical directors be distinguished researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen; Goodall, Amanda H; Bastiampillai, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Clinical directors established research-led healthcare by combining research, teaching and clinical excellence within the teaching hospitals. This research culture created high clinical standards, which benefited patients, the workforce and healthcare organisations. The current paper explores this research leadership role for clinical directors. It reviews studies arising from the theory of expert leadership, which focuses on the relationship between a leader's core knowledge and organisational performance. More specifically, we examine the expert leader's research track record, the associations with their organisation's performance, and the influence of research activity on clinical excellence. Distinguished researchers still lead the most prestigious teaching hospitals and the most trusted departments of psychiatry in the United States where the clinical directorate structure originated. It is also known that good scholars can improve research output when appointed to leadership positions. This suggests that the clinical director's research track record should be a consideration at a time when research is being embedded in Australia's local health networks. A clinical director's leadership may influence the research performance of their department and contribute to the quality of mental healthcare. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gainsbury, Sally M; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., "gambling-like game") may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities.

  5. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-08-21

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. © 2014 ARVO.

  6. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS DISTINGUISHER FOR AGARWOOD QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Trisandi Pasaribu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu (Agarwood is described as a fragrant-smelling wood that is usually derived from the trunk of the genus Aquilaria and Gyrinops (both of the family Thymelaeaceae, which have been infected by a particular disease. Based on Indonesian National Standard, agarwood can be classified into various grades, i.e. gubal gaharu, kemedangan and serbuk gaharu. The grading system is based on the color, weight and odor. It seems that such a grading is too subjective for agarwood classification. Therefore, to minimize the subjectivity, more objective agarwood grading is required, which incorporates its chemical composition and resin content. This research was conducted focusing on the analysis of the particular grade of agarwood originating from West Sumatra. The different types of agarwood qualities are: kemedangan C, teri C, kacangan C and super AB. Initially, the obtained agarwood samples were grounded to powder, extracted on a Soxhlet extractor using various organic solvents (i.e. n-hexane, acetone, and methanol. The agarwood-acetone extracts were analyzed using GC-MS to determine its chemical composition. The results showed a positive, linier relationship in which the resin yield increased with the increase in agarwood quality grades. GC-MS analysis revealed that several sesquiterpene groups can be found in kemedangan C, teri C, kacangan C and super AB qualities. It is interesting that aromadendrene could be identified or found in all agarwood quality grades. Therefore, it is presumed that the aromadendrene compounds can act as an effective chemical distinguisher for agarwood, whereby the greater the aromadendrene content, the better is the agarwood grade.

  7. Distinguishing the Clinical Nurse Specialist From Other Graduate Nursing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Coke, Lola A

    Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction. The purpose of this article was to define the role, educational preparation, role differences, and practice competencies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner, clinical nurse leader, and nurse educator/staff development educator roles. A second purpose was to provide role clarity and demonstrate the unique value the CNS brings to the healthcare environment. Using evidence and reviewing role competencies established by varying organizations, each role is presented with similarities and differences among the roles discussed. In addition, collaboration among the identified roles was reviewed, and recommendations were provided for the new and practicing CNSs. Although there are some similarities among the graduate nursing roles such as in educational, licensing, and certification requirements, each role must be understood to gain the full role scope and benefit and glean the anticipated outcomes. Healthcare providers must be aware of the differences in graduate nursing roles, especially in comparing the CNS with other roles to avoid confusion that may lead to roles being underused with a limited job scope. The CNS provides a unique set of services at all system outcome levels and is an essential part of the healthcare team especially in the acute care setting.

  8. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  9. Distinguishing prognostic and predictive biomarkers: An information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechidis, Konstantinos; Papangelou, Konstantinos; Metcalfe, Paul D; Svensson, David; Weatherall, James; Brown, Gavin

    2018-05-02

    The identification of biomarkers to support decision-making is central to personalised medicine, in both clinical and research scenarios. The challenge can be seen in two halves: identifying predictive markers, which guide the development/use of tailored therapies; and identifying prognostic markers, which guide other aspects of care and clinical trial planning, i.e. prognostic markers can be considered as covariates for stratification. Mistakenly assuming a biomarker to be predictive, when it is in fact largely prognostic (and vice-versa) is highly undesirable, and can result in financial, ethical and personal consequences. We present a framework for data-driven ranking of biomarkers on their prognostic/predictive strength, using a novel information theoretic method. This approach provides a natural algebra to discuss and quantify the individual predictive and prognostic strength, in a self-consistent mathematical framework. Our contribution is a novel procedure, INFO+, which naturally distinguishes the prognostic vs predictive role of each biomarker and handles higher order interactions. In a comprehensive empirical evaluation INFO+ outperforms more complex methods, most notably when noise factors dominate, and biomarkers are likely to be falsely identified as predictive, when in fact they are just strongly prognostic. Furthermore, we show that our methods can be 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than competitors, making it useful for biomarker discovery in 'big data' scenarios. Finally, we apply our methods to identify predictive biomarkers on two real clinical trials, and introduce a new graphical representation that provides greater insight into the prognostic and predictive strength of each biomarker. R implementations of the suggested methods are available at https://github.com/sechidis. konstantinos.sechidis@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Distinguish Dynamic Basic Blocks by Structural Statistical Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Matthieu; Gotlieb, Arnaud

    Statistical testing aims at generating random test data that respect selected probabilistic properties. A distribution probability is associated with the program input space in order to achieve statistical test purpose: to test the most frequent usage of software or to maximize the probability of...... control flow path) during the test data selection. We implemented this algorithm in a statistical test data generator for Java programs. A first experimental validation is presented...

  11. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  12. Reducing the Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Barbara L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," which addresses educational underrepresentation of high-achieving minority students, examining how social sciences, psychology, and education research contribute to an understanding of the feasibility of the report's recommendations and noting implications of these recommendations…

  13. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  14. Schooling and Social Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byong-sung; And Others

    Until the 1960s schooling in Korea was looked upon quite favorably as a means of achieving equal social and economic opportunities. In the 1970s, however, many began to raise the question of whether the expansion of educational opportunities really did reduce social inequalities. This report discusses research that analyzes available evidence…

  15. Correlates of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates given a self-concept scale, a sentence completion exercise, and story cues related to academic achievement generally expressed positive attitudes toward success; but students of both sexes with high self-esteem tended to associate success with a male, and those with lower self-esteem attributed success to a female. (Author)

  16. Achieving Quality Integrated Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Rosenholtz, Susan J.

    While desegregation is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for ensuring either equity or quality education for minorities, the evidence is convincing that it is "educationally more difficult" to improve student achievement in segregated schools. Desegregation offers the opportunity to enhance the quality of education, particularly when…

  17. Distinguishing the albedo of exoplanets from stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, L. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Demangeon, O.; Sousa, S. G.; Lendl, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Light curves show the flux variation from the target star and its orbiting planets as a function of time. In addition to the transit features created by the planets, the flux also includes the reflected light component of each planet, which depends on the planetary albedo. This signal is typically referred to as phase curve and could be easily identified if there were no additional noise. As well as instrumental noise, stellar activity, such as spots, can create a modulation in the data, which may be very difficult to distinguish from the planetary signal. Aims: We analyze the limitations imposed by the stellar activity on the detection of the planetary albedo, considering the limitations imposed by the predicted level of instrumental noise and the short duration of the obervations planned in the context of the CHEOPS mission. Methods: As initial condition, we have assumed that each star is characterized by just one orbiting planet. We built mock light curves that included a realistic stellar activity pattern, the reflected light component of the planet and an instrumental noise level, which we have chosen to be at the same level as predicted for CHEOPS. We then fit these light curves to try to recover the reflected light component, assuming the activity patterns can be modeled with a Gaussian process. Results: We estimate that at least one full stellar rotation is necessary to obtain a reliable detection of the planetary albedo. This result is independent of the level of noise, but it depends on the limitation of the Gaussian process to describe the stellar activity when the light curve time-span is shorter than the stellar rotation. As an additional result, we found that with a 6.5 magnitude star and the noise level of CHEOPS, it is possible to detect the planetary albedo up to a lower limit of Rp = 0.03 R*. Finally, in presence of typical CHEOPS gaps in the simulations, we confirm that it is still possible to obtain a reliable albedo.

  18. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M. Beth; Chen, Jim Y.; Coleman, Jamie L.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Neel, Mike D.; Gold, Robert E.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. RESULTS On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. CONCLUSION Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic

  20. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  1. Learning Motivation and Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽野

    2016-01-01

    It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.

  2. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  3. Novel Polymorphic Multilocus Microsatellite Markers to Distinguish Candida tropicalis Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fan

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404, six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26 were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing. Two known microsatellite loci CT14 and URA3 were also studied. The 6-locus scheme was then tested against a set of 82 different isolates from 32 patients. Microsatellite genotypes of isolates from the same patient (two to five isolates per patient were identical. The six loci produced eight to 17 allele types and identified 11 to 24 genotypes amongst 32 patients' isolates, achieving a discriminatory power (DP of 0.76 to 0.97 (versus 0.78 for both CT14 and URA3 loci, respectively. Testing of a combination of only three loci, ctm1, ctm3 and ctm24, also achieved maximum typing efficiency (DP = 0.99, 29 genotypes. The microsatellite typing scheme had good correlation compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although was slightly less discriminatory. The new six-locus microsatellite typing scheme is a potentially valuable tool for genotyping and investigating microevolution of C. tropicalis.

  4. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs.

  5. Distinguishing Between Supra-Arcade Downflows and Plasmoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and downflowing loops (SADLs), observed as sunward-traveling voids and thin flux tubes in the current sheet region above developing flare arcades, are considered indicators of magnetic reconnection fueling long­-duration solar eruptions. These flows are located in regions of very low signal-­to-noise in the corona where high cadence magnetic field measurements are not yet achievable, making observations difficult to fully interpret with respect to reconnection. Several models have been developed to explain their characteristics and behaviors, but most do not successfully recreate the observations. We will present a variety of downflow observations and provide comparisons to a number of the more prominent models.

  6. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Current Reality and Barriers: Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. Conclusions and Policy Implications: There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs. PMID:26665120

  7. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  8. Outstanding engineering achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The annual award of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers for 'The Most Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement of 1982' was made to Escom for the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station. In the site selection a compromise had to be made between an area remote from habitation, and an area relatively close to the need for power, sources of construction materials, transportation, operational staff and large quantities of cooling water. In the construction of Koeberg the safety of the workers and the public was regarded with the utmost concern

  9. Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Naomi Moran, a student at the Arnewood School, New Milton, Hampshire was the first recipient of the `Achievement in Physics' prize awarded by the South Central Branch of The Institute of Physics. Naomi received an award certificate and cheque for £100 from Dr Ruth Fenn, Chairman of the Branch, at the annual Christmas lecture held at the University of Surrey in December. She is pictured with Dr Fenn and Steve Beith, physics teacher at the Arnewood School.  Photo Figure 1. Naomi Moran receiving her award (photograph courtesy of Peter Milford). The award is intended to celebrate personal achievement in physics at any level at age 16-17 and is not restricted to those who gain the highest academic results. Schools across the county were invited to nominate suitable candidates; Naomi's nomination by the school's deputy head of science impressed the judges because of her ability to grasp the most difficult parts of the subject quickly, in addition to the fact that she took her AS-level science in year 11 when she was only 16. She is currently studying A-level physics, chemistry and mathematics and hopes to continue her studies at university later this year.

  10. Distinguishing the elements of a full product basis set needs only projective measurements and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Nonlocality without entanglement is an interesting field. A manifestation of quantum nonlocality without entanglement is the possible local indistinguishability of orthogonal product states. In this paper we analyze the character of operators to distinguish the elements of a full product basis set in a multipartite system, and show that distinguishing perfectly these product bases needs only local projective measurements and classical communication, and these measurements cannot damage each product basis. Employing these conclusions one can discuss local distinguishability of the elements of any full product basis set easily. Finally we discuss the generalization of these results to the locally distinguishability of the elements of incomplete product basis set

  11. Distinguishing low frequency oscillations within the 1/f spectral behaviour of electromagnetic brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanuele, Charmaine; James, Christopher J; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund Js

    2007-12-10

    It has been acknowledged that the frequency spectrum of measured electromagnetic (EM) brain signals shows a decrease in power with increasing frequency. This spectral behaviour may lead to difficulty in distinguishing event-related peaks from ongoing brain activity in the electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG and MEG) signal spectra. This can become an issue especially in the analysis of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) - below 0.5 Hz - which are currently being observed in signal recordings linked with specific pathologies such as epileptic seizures or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in sleep studies, etc. In this work we propose a simple method that can be used to compensate for this 1/f trend hence achieving spectral normalisation. This method involves filtering the raw measured EM signal through a differentiator prior to further data analysis. Applying the proposed method to various exemplary datasets including very low frequency EEG recordings, epileptic seizure recordings, MEG data and Evoked Response data showed that this compensating procedure provides a flat spectral base onto which event related peaks can be clearly observed. Findings suggest that the proposed filter is a useful tool for the analysis of physiological data especially in revealing very low frequency peaks which may otherwise be obscured by the 1/f spectral activity inherent in EEG/MEG recordings.

  12. Distinguishing low frequency oscillations within the 1/f spectral behaviour of electromagnetic brain signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonuga-Barke Edmund JS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been acknowledged that the frequency spectrum of measured electromagnetic (EM brain signals shows a decrease in power with increasing frequency. This spectral behaviour may lead to difficulty in distinguishing event-related peaks from ongoing brain activity in the electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG and MEG signal spectra. This can become an issue especially in the analysis of low frequency oscillations (LFOs – below 0.5 Hz – which are currently being observed in signal recordings linked with specific pathologies such as epileptic seizures or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in sleep studies, etc. Methods In this work we propose a simple method that can be used to compensate for this 1/f trend hence achieving spectral normalisation. This method involves filtering the raw measured EM signal through a differentiator prior to further data analysis. Results Applying the proposed method to various exemplary datasets including very low frequency EEG recordings, epileptic seizure recordings, MEG data and Evoked Response data showed that this compensating procedure provides a flat spectral base onto which event related peaks can be clearly observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that the proposed filter is a useful tool for the analysis of physiological data especially in revealing very low frequency peaks which may otherwise be obscured by the 1/f spectral activity inherent in EEG/MEG recordings.

  13. Distinguishing mixed quantum states: Minimum-error discrimination versus optimum unambiguous discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Ulrike; Bergou, Janos A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider two different optimized measurement strategies for the discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states. The first is ambiguous discrimination with a minimum probability of inferring an erroneous result, and the second is unambiguous, i.e., error-free, discrimination with a minimum probability of getting an inconclusive outcome, where the measurement fails to give a definite answer. For distinguishing between two mixed quantum states, we investigate the relation between the minimum-error probability achievable in ambiguous discrimination, and the minimum failure probability that can be reached in unambiguous discrimination of the same two states. The latter turns out to be at least twice as large as the former for any two given states. As an example, we treat the case where the state of the quantum system is known to be, with arbitrary prior probability, either a given pure state, or a uniform statistical mixture of any number of mutually orthogonal states. For this case we derive an analytical result for the minimum probability of error and perform a quantitative comparison with the minimum failure probability

  14. Homage to Endel Lippmaa, distinguished scientist and politician

    CERN Multimedia

    Beatrice Bressan and Virginia Greco

    2010-01-01

    Recently, during the last TOTEM collaboration meeting, one of its most eminent members, Professor Endel Lippmaa, celebrated his 80th birthday. TOTEM was proud to pay homage to his impressive list of achievements.   Endel Lippmaa (to the left) enojoys his 80th birthday with  colleagues from the TOTEM collaboration. After obtaining a PhD from the Tallinn Technical University in 1956 and a DSc from the Institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow in 1969, he was appointed Doctor honoris causa at the University of Jyväskylä (1975), the Tallinn Technical University (1991) and the University of Tartu (1999). Professor Lippmaa has held a number of positions at the Estonian Academy of Sciences since becoming a member in 1972. He is currently a member of several Academies of Sciences. After being a leading force in the Baltic independence drive during the "Singing Revolution" against Soviet occupation in 1987, he served as a minister in three Estonian gover...

  15. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Zhang, Jue

    2016-06-01

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W ± → e ± e ± μ -+ ν and μ ± μ ± e -+ ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m N below M W in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 , for two benchmark scenarios m N =20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 <0.7 vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 or vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 <0.7 vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 , provided that vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 , vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 are both above ∝2 x 10 -6 .

  16. NATIC achievement report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements of the MAnufacturing Technology supported by advanced and integrated Information system through international Cooperation (MATIC) ended in March 1999. The MATIC project is intended to develop international information systems to support manufacturing process from design to production through an international network in order to upgrade the manufacturing and supporting industries in Asian countries. The project has been completed by support provided by a large number of Japanese corporations and research institutes, and the counterparts in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The developed prototype systems cover the three areas of automobile, electronics, textile and apparel industries. Demonstration tests have verified the functions thereof. In the automobile industry field, development was made on a system to link Japanese research and development corporations with Indonesian parts making corporations, and a system to exchange technological data between Indonesia and Thailand. In the electronics industry field, development was performed on an electronic catalog system to link Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  17. Achieving Kaiser Permanente quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Matthew D; Aiken, Linda H; Eckenhoff, Myra E; Burns, Lawton R

    2016-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente model of integrated health delivery is highly regarded for high-quality and efficient health care. Efforts to reproduce Kaiser's success have mostly failed. One factor that has received little attention and that could explain Kaiser's advantage is its commitment to and investment in nursing as a key component of organizational culture and patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Kaiser's nursing organization in promoting quality of care. This was a cross-sectional analysis of linked secondary data from multiple sources, including a detailed survey of nurses, for 564 adult, general acute care hospitals from California, Florida, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey in 2006-2007. We used logistic regression models to examine whether patient (mortality and failure-to-rescue) and nurse (burnout, job satisfaction, and intent-to-leave) outcomes in Kaiser hospitals were better than in non-Kaiser hospitals. We then assessed whether differences in nursing explained outcomes differences between Kaiser and other hospitals. Finally, we examined whether Kaiser hospitals compared favorably with hospitals known for having excellent nurse work environments-Magnet hospitals. Patient and nurse outcomes in Kaiser hospitals were significantly better compared with non-Magnet hospitals. Kaiser hospitals had significantly better nurse work environments, staffing levels, and more nurses with bachelor's degrees. Differences in nursing explained a significant proportion of the Kaiser outcomes advantage. Kaiser hospital outcomes were comparable with Magnet hospitals, where better outcomes have been largely explained by differences in nursing. An important element in Kaiser's success is its investment in professional nursing, which may not be evident to systems seeking to achieve Kaiser's advantage. Our results suggest that a possible strategy for achieving outcomes like Kaiser may be for hospitals to consider Magnet designation, a proven and

  18. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  19. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Claudio O. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). CCTVal y Dept. of Physics; Kim, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Wang, Kechen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhang, Jue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    2016-06-15

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν and μ{sup ±}μ{sup ±}e{sup -+}ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m{sub N} below M{sub W} in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}, for two benchmark scenarios m{sub N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} or vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, provided that vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} are both above ∝2 x 10{sup -6}.

  20. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-01-01

    elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish

  1. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  2. Recent achievements of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Sánchez, L.

    2008-05-01

    SIRGAS is the geocentric reference system for the Americas. Its definition corresponds to the IERS International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and it is realized by a regional densification of the IERS International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The SIRGAS activities are coordinated by three working groups: SIRGAS-WGI (Reference System) is committed to establish and maintain a continental-wide geocentric reference frame within the ITRF. This objective was initially accomplished through two continental GPS campaigns in 1995 and 2000, including 58 and 184 stations, respectively. Today, it is realized by around 130 continuously operating GNSS sites, which are processed weekly by the IGS Regional Network Associate Analysis Centre for SIRGAS (IGS- RNAAC-SIR). SIRGAS-WGII (Geocentric Datum) is primarily in charged of defining the SIRGAS geodetic datum in the individual countries, which is given by the origin, orientation and scale of the SIRGAS system, and the parameters of the GRS80 ellipsoid. It is concentrating on promoting and supporting the adoption of SIRGAS in the Latin American and Caribbean countries through national densifications of the continental network. SIRGAS- WGIII (Vertical Datum) is dedicated to the definition and realization of a unified vertical reference system within a global frame. Its central purpose is to refer the geopotential numbers (or physical heights) in all countries to one and the same equipotential surface (W0), which must be globally defined. This includes also the transformation of the existing height datums into the new system. This study shows the SIRGAS achievements of the last two years.

  3. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  4. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  5. Phase-modified CTQW unable to distinguish strongly regular graphs efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasinghe, A; Wijerathna, J K; Izaac, J A; Wang, J B

    2015-01-01

    Various quantum walk-based algorithms have been developed, aiming to distinguish non-isomorphic graphs with polynomial scaling, within both the discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) and continuous-time quantum walk (CTQW) frameworks. Whilst both the single-particle DTQW and CTQW have failed to distinguish non-isomorphic strongly regular graph families (prompting the move to multi-particle graph isomorphism (GI) algorithms), the single-particle DTQW has been successfully modified by the introduction of a phase factor to distinguish a wide range of graphs in polynomial time. In this paper, we prove that an analogous phase modification to the single particle CTQW does not have the same distinguishing power as its discrete-time counterpart, in particular it cannot distinguish strongly regular graphs with the same family parameters with the same efficiency. (paper)

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 60 REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, UNDERACHIEVERS, PROBABILITY ESTIMATES, AND…

  7. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  8. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  9. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  10. Quantum-Secret-Sharing Scheme Based on Local Distinguishability of Orthogonal Seven-Qudit Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Si, Meng-Meng

    2018-02-01

    The concept of judgment space was proposed by Wang et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 022320, 2017), which was used to study some important properties of quantum entangled states based on local distinguishability. In this study, we construct 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states in the sense of permutation, calculate their judgment space and propose a distinguishability rule to make the judgment space more clearly. Based on this rule, we study the local distinguishability of the 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states and then propose a ( k, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme. Finally, we analyze the security of the scheme.

  11. Experimental investigation of distinguishable and non-distinguishable grayscales applicable in active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes for quality engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henglong; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2017-08-01

    The distinguishable and non-distinguishable 6-bit (64) grayscales of green and red organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were experimentally investigated by using high-sensitive photometric instrument. The feasibility of combining external detection system for quality engineering to compensate the grayscale loss based on preset grayscale tables was also investigated by SPICE simulation. The degradation loss of OLED deeply affects image quality as grayscales become inaccurate. The distinguishable grayscales are indicated as those brightness differences and corresponding current increments are differentiable by instrument. The grayscales of OLED in 8-bit (256) or higher may become nondistinguishable as current or voltage increments are in the same order of noise level in circuitry. The distinguishable grayscale tables for individual red, green, blue, and white colors can be experimentally established as preset reference for quality engineering (QE) in which the degradation loss is compensated by corresponding grayscale numbers shown in preset table. The degradation loss of each OLED colors is quantifiable by comparing voltage increments to those in preset grayscale table if precise voltage increments are detectable during operation. The QE of AMOLED can be accomplished by applying updated grayscale tables. Our preliminary simulation result revealed that it is feasible to quantify degradation loss in terms of grayscale numbers by using external detector circuitry.

  12. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  13. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.

  14. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K.; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K.

    2015-01-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from...

  15. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  16. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  17. Model distinguishability and inference robustness in mechanisms of cholera transmission and loss of immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Elizabeth C.; Kelly, Michael R.; Ochocki, Brad M.; Akinwumi, Segun M.; Hamre, Karen E. S.; Tien, Joseph H.; Eisenberg, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of cholera and waterborne disease vary widely in their structures, in terms of transmission pathways, loss of immunity, and other features. These differences may yield different predictions and parameter estimates from the same data. Given the increasing use of models to inform public health decision-making, it is important to assess distinguishability (whether models can be distinguished based on fit to data) and inference robustness (whether model inferences are robust t...

  18. Can one distinguish T-neutrinos from antineutrinos in neutral-current pion production processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Gajate, Eliecer; Nieves Pamplona, Juan Miguel; Valverde Hermosilla, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A potential way to distinguish tau-neutrinos from antineutrinos, below the tau-production threshold, but above the pion production one, is presented. It is based on the different behavior of the neutral-current pion production off the nucleon, depending on whether it is induced by neutrinos or antineutrinos. This procedure for distinguishing tau-neutrinos from antineutrinos neither relies on any nuclear model, nor it is affected by any nuclear effect (distortion of the outgoing nucleon waves,...

  19. A new method of distinguishing models of the high-Q2 events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; He, X.G.; McKellar, B.

    1997-07-01

    A new method is proposed to distinguish models for the high Q 2 e + p → e + X anomaly at HERA by looking at a new observable which is insensitive to parton distribution function (PDF), but sensitive to new physics. Three models have been considered: modification of PDF's, new physics due to s-channel production of new particle and new physics due to contact interactions. Using this new method it is possible to distinguish different models with increased luminosity

  20. Plasma complement biomarkers distinguish multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Svetlana; Luppe, Sebastian; Evans, David Rs; Harding, Katharine; Loveless, Samantha; Robertson, Neil P; Morgan, B Paul

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Although distinguished by clinicoradiological and demographic features, early manifestations can be similar complicating management. Antibodies against aquaporin-4 support the diagnosis of NMOSD but are negative in some patients. Therefore, there is unmet need for biomarkers that enable early diagnosis and disease-specific intervention. We investigated whether plasma complement proteins are altered in MS and NMOSD and provide biomarkers that distinguish these diseases. Plasma from 54 NMOSD, 40 MS and 69 control donors was tested in multiplex assays measuring complement activation products and proteins. Using logistic regression, we tested whether combinations of complement analytes distinguished NMOSD from controls and MS. All activation products were elevated in NMOSD compared to either control or MS. Four complement proteins (C1inh, C1s, C5 and FH) were higher in NMOSD compared to MS or controls. A model comprising C1inh and terminal complement complex (TCC) distinguished NMOSD from MS (area under the curve (AUC): 0.98), while C1inh and C5 distinguished NMOSD from controls (AUC: 0.94). NMOSD is distinguished from MS by plasma complement biomarkers. Selected complement analytes enable differential diagnosis. Findings support trials of anti-complement therapies in NMOSD.

  1. Achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    A historic decision was taken by the Preparatory Commission of the International Seabed Authority (PRE-PCOM) on 17 th August 1987 It was decided to allocate to India exclusive rights for the exploration of polymetallic nodules in an area of about...

  2. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  3. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  5. How to distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and water/volatile-dominated super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benneke, Björn; Seager, Sara, E-mail: bbenneke@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H{sub 2}-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, or N{sub 2}. Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out cloud-free H{sub 2}-dominated scenarios, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on wing steepness and relative depths of absorption features in moderate-resolution near-infrared transmission spectra (R ∼ 100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H{sub 2}O atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be reduced by a factor of ∼3 compared to the published Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 and Very Large Telescope transit observations by Berta et al. and Bean et al. We argue that the required precision for the distinction may be achievable with currently available instrumentation by stacking 10-15 repeated transit observations. We provide a scaling law that scales our quantitative results to other transiting super-Earths and Neptunes such as HD 97658b, 55 Cnc e, GJ 3470b and GJ 436b. The analysis in this work is performed using an improved version of our Bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework. The new framework not only constrains the gas composition and cloud/haze parameters, but also determines our confidence in having detected molecules and cloud/haze species through Bayesian model comparison. Using the Bayesian tool, we demonstrate quantitatively that the subtle transit depth variation in the Berta et al. data is

  6. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Bonnie R. Strickland. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Charles Silverstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  8. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Walter C. Borman

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  9. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  11. Poor Results for High Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  12. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  13. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  14. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  15. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  16. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Soil forensics: How far can soil clay analysis distinguish between soil vestiges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R S; Melo, V F; Abreu, G G F; Sousa, M H; Chaker, J A; Gomes, J A

    2018-03-01

    Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other. To test these hypotheses 16 Oxisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 1.000m, and 16 Inceptisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 300m from each other. Clay fractions were extracted from soil samples and analyzed for hyperspectral color reflectance (HSI), X-ray diffraction crystallographic (XRD), and for contents of iron oxides, kaolinite and gibbsite. The dataset was submitted to multivariate analysis and results were from 65% to 100% effective to distinguish between samples from the two soil types. Both soil types could be consistently distinguished for forensic purposes according to the distance that samples were collected from each other: 1000m for Oxisol and 10m for Inceptisol. Clay color and XRD analysis were the most effective techniques to distinguish clay samples, and Inceptisol samples were more easily distinguished than Oxisol samples. Soil forensics seems a promising field for soil scientists as soil clay can be useful as forensic evidence by using routine analytical techniques from soil science. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Viability in holder of irradiated cells: distinguish between repair and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    In experiments in which liquid holding recovery (LHR) was measured, the majority of cellular population is formed by non-viable cells and cell multiplication may be important for LHR expression. In order to distinguish between recuperation of viability (true LHR) and cell multiplication, it was necessary to employ improved plating techniques and a fluctuation test based on Poisson distribution. Our results are an indication that this fluctuation test, used together with the traditional method, is a good tool to distinguish repair from cell multiplication. (author)

  19. Distinguishing Buried Objects in Extremely Shallow Underground by Frequency Response Using Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma Abe,; Tsuneyoshi Sugimoto,

    2010-07-01

    A sound wave vibration using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer are used as a method of exploring and imaging an extremely shallow underground. Flat speakers are used as a vibration source. We propose a method of distinguishing a buried object using a response range of a frequencies corresponding to a vibration velocities. Buried objects (plastic containers, a hollow steel can, an unglazed pot, and a stone) are distinguished using a response range of frequencies. Standardization and brightness imaging are used as methods of discrimination. As a result, it was found that the buried objects show different response ranges of frequencies. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  20. The Achievement Ideology and Whiteness: "Achieving Whiteness" or "Achieving Middle Class?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    Over the past few decades, social reproduction theorists have criticized achievement ideology as a dominant and dominating myth that hides the true nature of class immobility. Social reproductionists' primary criticism of achievement ideology is that it blinds the working class, regardless of race or gender, to the possibilities of collective…

  1. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  2. [Theme: Achieving Quality Laboratory Projects.[.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The theme articles present strategies for achieving quality laboratory projects in vocational agriculture. They describe fundamentals of the construction of quality projects and stress the importance of quality instruction. (JOW)

  3. STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Jusuf ZEKIRI; Alexandru NEDELEA

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized in three parts. A brief overview of the importance of strategies within companies, as well as literature review is presented along with traditional approaches on strategies for achieving competitive advantage, and new approaches for gaining a competitive advantage. The main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible strategy formulation of companies in order to achieve a com...

  4. Distinguishing Lewd and Lascivious Acts from Related Crimes Against Minors’ Sexual Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragozina I. G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the criminal law norms related to the crime provided for by Article 135 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The authors estimate judicial practice and outline disputable issues of correlation of the given norms and offer the criteria to distinguish lewd and lascivious acts from related crimes

  5. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  6. Distinguishing Perceived Competence and Self-Efficacy: An Example from Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Wendy M.; Markland, David; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Murray, Terra C.; Wilson, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examined the conceptual and statistical distinction between perceived competence and self-efficacy. Although they are frequently used interchangeably, it is possible that distinguishing them might assist researchers in better understanding their roles in developing enduring adaptive behavior patterns. Perceived competence is conceived…

  7. Study on distinguishing of Chinese ancient porcelains by neutron activation and fuzzy cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang An

    1992-01-01

    By means of the method of neutron activation, the contents of trace elements in some samples of Chinese ancient porcelains from different places of production were determined. The data were analysed by fuzzy cluster analysis. On the basis of the above mentioned works, a method with regard to the distinguishing and determining of Chinese ancient porcelain was suggested

  8. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  9. Distinguishing Biologically Relevant Hexoses by Water Adduction to the Lithium-Cationized Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew T; Chen, Dazhe; Wallbillich, Nicholas J; Glish, Gary L

    2017-10-03

    A method to distinguish the four most common biologically relevant underivatized hexoses, d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and d-fructose, using only mass spectrometry with no prior separation/derivatization step has been developed. Electrospray of a solution containing hexose and a lithium salt generates [Hexose+Li] + . The lithium-cationized hexoses adduct water in a quadrupole ion trap. The rate of this water adduction reaction can be used to distinguish the four hexoses. Additionally, for each hexose, multiple lithiation sites are possible, allowing for multiple structures of [Hexose+Li] + . Electrospray produces at least one structure that reacts with water and at least one that does not. The ratio of unreactive lithium-cationized hexose to total lithium-cationized hexose is unique for the four hexoses studied, providing a second method for distinguishing the isomers. Use of the water adduction reaction rate or the unreactive ratio provides two separate methods for confidently (p ≤ 0.02) distinguishing the most common biologically relevant hexoses using only femtomoles of hexose. Additionally, binary mixtures of glucose and fructose were studied. A calibration curve was created by measuring the reaction rate of various samples with different ratios of fructose and glucose. The calibration curve was used to accurately measure the percentage of fructose in three samples of high fructose corn syrup (<4% error).

  10. Fanny M. Cheung: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…

  11. Attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in childhood: Distinguishing between targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorden, T.H.J. van; Haselager, G.J.T.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bukowski, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation researched the association between the attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in children by distinguishing between targets. Study 1 focused on the attribution of human characteristics by bullies, victims, bully/victims, and non-involved children toward

  12. Using Tractography to Distinguish SWEDD from Parkinson’s Disease Patients Based on Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansu Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is critical to distinguish between Parkinson’s disease (PD and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD, because the two groups are different and require different therapeutic approaches. Objective. The aim of this study was to distinguish SWEDD patients from PD patients using connectivity information derived from diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Methods. Diffusion magnetic resonance images of SWEDD (n=37 and PD (n=40 were obtained from a research database. Tractography, the process of obtaining neural fiber information, was performed using custom software. Group-wise differences between PD and SWEDD patients were quantified using the number of connected fibers between two regions, and correlation analyses were performed based on clinical scores. A support vector machine classifier (SVM was applied to distinguish PD and SWEDD based on group-wise differences. Results. Four connections showed significant group-wise differences and correlated with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society. The SVM classifier attained 77.92% accuracy in distinguishing between SWEDD and PD using these identified connections. Conclusions. The connections and regions identified represent candidates for future research investigations.

  13. Melissa L. Anderson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association/American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. The 2012 winner is Melissa L. Anderson for her ongoing commitment to understanding, treating, and preventing domestic violence in Deaf women…

  14. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed ...

  15. Wavelet coherence analysis: A new approach to distinguish organic and functional tremor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G; Van der Stouwe, A M M; Maurits, N M; Tijssen, M A J; Elting, J W J

    2018-01-01

    To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. In this pilot study, polymyography recordings were studied retrospectively of 26 Parkinsonian (PT), 26 functional (FT), 26 essential (ET), and 20 enhanced physiological (EPT) tremor patients. Per patient one segment of 20 s in duration, in which tremor was present continuously in the same posture, was selected. We studied several coherence and phase related parameters, and analysed all possible muscle combinations of the flexor and extensor muscles of the upper and fore arm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was applied to compare WCA and standard coherence analysis to distinguish tremor subtypes. The percentage of time with significant coherence (PTSC) and the number of periods without significant coherence (NOV) proved the most discriminative parameters. FT could be discriminated from organic (PT, ET, EPT) tremor by high NOV (31.88 vs 21.58, 23.12 and 10.20 respectively) with an AUC-ROC of 0.809, while standard coherence analysis resulted in an AUC-ROC of 0.552. EMG-EMG WCA analysis might provide additional variables to distinguish functional from organic tremor. WCA might prove to be of additional value to discriminate between tremor types. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  17. Leslie S. Greenberg: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. Leslie S. Greenberg is an exemplary scientist-practitioner whose pioneering work has significantly altered the landscape of the field of psychotherapy research and practice. His seminal…

  18. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  19. Linear Distinguishers in the Key-less Setting: Application to PRESENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The application of the concept of linear cryptanalysis to the domain of key-less primitives is largely an open problem. In this paper we, for the first time, propose a model in which its application is meaningful for distinguishing block ciphers. Combining our model with ideas from message...

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Ahmad R. Hariri

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ahmad R. Hariri, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for pioneering contributions to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms driving individual differences in complex behavior traits. Hariri has integrated molecular genetics, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, and psychology in…

  2. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  3. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... present ``Treatment of Cancer with Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr. Pastan is an NIH Distinguished Investigator and Chief, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute Center for Cancer Research. This annual series honors Dr. Philip S. Chen, Jr. for his almost 50...

  4. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  5. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  6. A novel histological technique for distinguishing between epithelial cells in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Claire E V; Jensen, Cynthia G; Vintiner, Susan K; Elliot, Douglas A; McGlashan, Susan R

    2008-06-10

    There are a number of forensic cases in which the identification of the epithelial cell type from which DNA originated would provide important probative evidence. This study aimed to develop a technique using histological staining of fixed cells to distinguish between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelium. First, 11 different stains were screened on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded cells from five women. Samples were analysed qualitatively by examining staining patterns (colour) and morphology (absence or presence of nuclei). Three of the staining methods--Dane's, Csaba's and Ayoub-Shklar--were successful in distinguishing skin epithelial cells from buccal and vaginal. Second, cells were smeared directly onto slides, fixed with one of five fixatives and stained with one of the three stains mentioned above. Methanol fixation, coupled with the Dane's staining method, specific to keratin, was the only technique that distinguished between all three cell types. Skin cells stained magenta, red and orange and lacked nuclei; buccal cells stained predominantly orange-pink with red nuclei; while vaginal cells stained bright orange with orange nuclei and a blue extracellular hue. This staining pattern in vaginal cells was consistent in samples collected from 50 women aged between 18 and 67. Identification of cell type from unlabelled micrographs by 10 trained observers showed a mean success rate of 95%. The results of this study demonstrate that histological staining may provide forensic scientists with a technique for distinguishing between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelial cells and thus would enable more conclusive analyses when investigating sexual assault cases.

  7. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  8. Disciplinary climate and student achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David

    Disciplinary climate has emerged as one of the single most important factors related to student achievement. Using data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia and Norway we find a significant and nontrivial association...... between the perceived disciplinary climate in the classroom and students’ mathematics performance in Canada, Denmark and Norway. Furthermore we exploit country specific class-size rules in order to single out a subsample with classroom-level data (PISA is sampled by age and not by classes) and find...... that the estimates based on school-level data might underestimate the relationship between disciplinary climate and student achievement. Finally we find evidence for gender differences in the association between disciplinary climate and student achievement that can partly be explained by gender-specific perceptions...

  9. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  10. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  13. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  14. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  15. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  16. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  17. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  18. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  19. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  20. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology: Nancy S. Elman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2017 recipient of this award is Nancy S. Elman, whose leadership roles have brought significant advancements for the education and training of psychologists. Her award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Can we distinguish an MSSM Higgs from a SM Higgs at a linear collider?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Heather E.

    2001-01-01

    We study the prospects for distinguishing the CP-even Higgs boson of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) from the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson by measuring its branching ratios at an e + e - linear collider. The regions of the M A -tan β plane in which an MSSM Higgs boson can be distinguished from the SM Higgs boson depend strongly upon the supersymmetric parameters that enter the radiative corrections to the Higgs mass matrix and the Higgs couplings to fermions. In some regions of parameter space it is possible to extract the supersymmetric correction to the relation between the b quark mass and its Yukawa coupling from Higgs branching ratio measurements

  2. Distinguishing between stochasticity and determinism: Examples from cell cycle duration variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl Mizrahi, Sivan; Sandler, Oded; Lande-Diner, Laura; Balaban, Nathalie Q; Simon, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    We describe a recent approach for distinguishing between stochastic and deterministic sources of variability, focusing on the mammalian cell cycle. Variability between cells is often attributed to stochastic noise, although it may be generated by deterministic components. Interestingly, lineage information can be used to distinguish between variability and determinism. Analysis of correlations within a lineage of the mammalian cell cycle duration revealed its deterministic nature. Here, we discuss the sources of such variability and the possibility that the underlying deterministic process is due to the circadian clock. Finally, we discuss the "kicked cell cycle" model and its implication on the study of the cell cycle in healthy and cancerous tissues. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Julio J. Ramirez: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2014 recipient of this award is Julio J. Ramirez, for "creating a national infrastructure to support education and training in behavioral neuroscience and biological psychology, for playing a seminal role in creating an undergraduate neuroscience education journal, and for creating a nationally recognized mentoring program for junior faculty in the neurosciences, particularly with underrepresented groups." Ramirez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson at muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Jai Kumar; Singh, Sardar; Nagawat, Ashok K.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tanβ and m A . We observe that at fixed CM energy, in the SM, the total cross-section increases with the increase in Higgs boson mass whereas this trend is reversed for the MSSM. The changes that occur for the MSSM in comparison to the SM predictions are quantified in terms of the relative percentage deviation in cross-section. The observed deviations in cross-section for different choices of Higgs boson masses suggest that the measurements of the cross-section could possibly distinguish the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson. (author)

  5. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-12-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  6. The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part II: Distinguishing Features and Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    of the road taken. By mapping the sequence of events that lead to the creation of the new court, the complexity that goes into large-scale judicial restructuring can begin to be fully appreciated. This is the second and concluding part of the article, covering the distinguishing features and establishment......-lasting effects on the judicial system of the state. The creation of a new court takes a considerable effort from a number of branches of the State, in formulating the correct path for its establishment to proceed. In this article, the history of a Court of Appeal is set out, before discussing the referendum...... to amend the Constitution to allow for it. This is followed by looking at some of the provisions of the Amendment Bill that was put before both the Oireachtas and the people, before looking at three distinguishing features of the Bill, and finally discussing its establishment in 2014, along with analysis...

  7. Belief in a Just What? Demystifying Just World Beliefs by Distinguishing Sources of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People’s Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  8. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost half a century. Landis has shaped the field of intercultural research through scholarship of the highest order, reflected in his publications on cross-cultural training and research, the measurement of equal opportunity climate, individual-differences research and methodology, evaluation of social programs, development of theory in social psychology, and cross-cultural aspects of human sexuality. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Intercultural Relations and has edited three editions of the Handbook of Intercultural Training (1983, 1996, 2004). Landis' Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. The accuracy of using the lytA-gene to distinguish Streptococcus pneumoniae from related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    with primers and probes. The remaining 11 S. pneumoniae strains could be placed in a different cluster, which also contained the five S. mitis and two S. pseudopneumoniae strains. All strains had no match with primers and probes. The S. pneumoniae strains in the second cluster were all characterised by being....... The real-time PCR targeting the lytA-gene thus constitutes a sensitive and specific assay that distinguishes S. pneumoniae from its close relatives in the Mitis group....

  10. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  11. Identification of bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Zhang, Qiangbo; Jin, Bin; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) can be helpful in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (malignant obstructive jaundice) from benign obstructive jaundice. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of bile survivin and CA199 in differentiating cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice. The area under the curve for survivin and CA199 in bile and serum were 0.780 (p jaundice.

  12. Distinguishing the great from the good: A study of the World’s leading golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Roger; Oliveira, Manuel Au-Yong

    1995-01-01

    In this study 75 professional golfers were interviewed to determine what distinguishes great from good golfers. Golfers were divided into 3 categories according to career success (wins in golf tournaments). The same interview script was used in all of the interviews. We conclude that Elite Category A golfers (major championship winners) believe that motivation is the main ingredient to their success and that they are born with the motivation to succeed (motivation thus seen as a natural talen...

  13. J. David Creswell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population

    OpenAIRE

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A.; Amen, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individua...

  15. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Livia T.C.; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  16. Distinguish of Famous Jun Porcelain in Ancient and Present Age by INAA and BP Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Liang Xianhua; Zhao Weijuan; Sun Hongwei; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Gao Zhengyao; Cui Pengfei; Yang Dawei; Li rongwu; Zhao Qingyun; Sun Xinmin; Zhao Wenjun; Feng Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Forty samples of Jun porcelain from an ancient Juntai kiln and 3 modern Jun kilns (Kongjia, Miaojia and Xinghang) were selected and analyzed for 25 elements by INAA.The data were trained and forecasted by BP neural network. The results indicate that the network can distinguish unknown body and glaze samples of the official Jun porcelain and the modern top-grade Jun porcelain after proper training. (authors)

  17. New class of two-loop neutrino mass models with distinguishable phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Shao-Long; Ma, Ernest; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    We discuss a new class of neutrino mass models generated in two loops, and explore specifically three new physics scenarios: (A) doubly charged scalar, (B) dark matter, and (C) leptoquark and diquark, which are verifiable at the 14 TeV LHC Run-II. We point out how the different Higgs insertions will distinguish our two-loop topology with others if the new particles in the loop are in the simplest representations of the SM gauge group.

  18. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Cameron J. Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2017 recipient is Cameron J. Camp, whose innovative programs have informed psychologists in working with dementia patients to improve their living skills and enhance their independence. Camp's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. How to distinguish perfect quasi-crystals from twins and other structures using diffraction experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny, J.

    1992-01-01

    Performing diffraction experiments for various lengths of coherent scattering and using the scaling of peak intensities on a number of atoms one can experimentally distinguish quasi-crystals from the other structures (e.g. twins or random). For perfect quasi-crystals peak intensities scale as N 2 , for other structures this scaling depends on concentration of atoms, behaving critical for Penrose concentration. 3 figs., 8 refs. (author)

  20. Theodore P. Beauchaine: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Theodore P. Beauchaine, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (psychopathology) "for core contributions in developmental psychopathology, especially related to the biological underpinnings of various mental disorders among children, sophisticated and elegant quantitative approaches to these issues, and exemplary work on the prevention of such conditions." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. I-DIRT, a general method for distinguishing between specific and nonspecific protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alan J; DeGrasse, Jeffrey A; Sekedat, Matthew D; Oeffinger, Marlene; Rout, Michael P; Chait, Brian T

    2005-01-01

    Isolation of protein complexes via affinity-tagged proteins provides a powerful tool for studying biological systems, but the technique is often compromised by co-enrichment of nonspecifically interacting proteins. We describe a new technique (I-DIRT) that distinguishes contaminants from bona fide interactors in immunopurifications, overcoming this most challenging problem in defining protein complexes. I-DIRT will be of broad value for studying protein complexes in biological systems that can be metabolically labeled.

  2. Characterization and uniqueness of distinguished self-adjoint extensions of dirac operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaus, M.; Wuest, R.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1979-01-01

    Distinguished self-adjoint extensions of Dirac operators are characterized by Nenciu and constructed by means of cut-off potentials by Wuest. In this paper it is shown that the existence and a more explicit characterization of Nenciu's self-adjoint extensions can be obtained as a consequence from results of the cut-off method, that these extensions are the same as the extensions constructed with cut-off potentials and that they are unique in some sense. (orig.) [de

  3. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. C. Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA. The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture.

  4. Alterations in taste distinguishing in patients irradiated for malignant tumours of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimo, J.; Parkanyiova, V.; Polcikova, E.

    1976-01-01

    In 20 patients treated with percutaneous gamma radiotherapy for carcinomas of the head or the neck, alterations were studied in taste following radiation doses of 1,000; 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 5,000; and 6,000 rads. It was found that with increasing radiation doses the patients lost the ability of distinguishing sweet, salty, sour and bitter qualities, in that order. (L.O.)

  5. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-07-01

    Distinguishing transcription regulatory patterns of different gene groups is a common problem in various bioinformatics studies. In this work we developed a methodology to deal with such a problem based on machine learning techniques. We applied our method to two biologically important problems related to detecting a difference in transcription regulation of: a/ protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human, as well as b/ a difference between primate-specific and non-primate-specific long non-coding RNAs. Our method is capable to classify RNAs using various regulatory features of genes that transcribe into these RNAs, such as nucleotide frequencies, transcription factor binding sites, de novo sequence motifs, CpG islands, repetitive elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish primate-specific from non-primate-specific promoters of lncRNAs with accuracy above 80%. Consequently, we can hypothesize that transcription of the groups of genes mentioned above are regulated by different mechanisms. Feature selection techniques allowed us to reduce the number of features significantly while keeping the accuracy around 80%. Consequently, we can conclude that selected features play significant role in transcription regulation of coding and non-coding genes, as well as primate-specific and non-primate-specific lncRNA genes.

  6. Rapid Methods to Distinguish Heterodera schachtii from Heterodera glycines Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop rapid methods for distinguishing between Heterodera schachtii and H. glycines detected from chinese cabbage fields of highland in Gangwon, Korea. To do this, we performed PCR-RFLP and PCR with the primers set developed in this study for GC147, GC408 and PM001 population, H. schachtii, and YS224, DA142 and BC115 population, H. glycines. Eight restriction enzymes generated RFLP profiles of mtDNA COI region for populations of H. schachtii and H. glycines, repectively. As a result, treatment of two restriction enzymes, RsaI and HinfI, were allowed to distinguish H. schachtii from H. glycines based on the differences of DNA band patterns. The primer set, #JBS1, #JBG1 and #JB3R, amplified specific fragments with 277 and 339 bp of H. schachtii, 339 bp of H. glycines, respectively, while it did not amplify fragments from three root-knot nematodes and two root-lesion nematodes. Thus, the primer set developed in this study could be a good method, which is used to distinguish between H. schachtii and H. glycines.

  7. Applying protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging to distinguish solitary brain metastases from glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hao; Zou, Tianyu; Wang, Xianlong; Du, Yongxing; Jiang, Chunxiu; Ma, Ling; Zhu, Jianbin; He, Wen; Rui, Qihong; Wen, Zhibo [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lou, Huiling [The First People' Hospital of Guangzhou, Department of Geriatrics, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Shanshan [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huang, Zhongqing [Shantou University Medical College, Department of Medical Image Center, Yuebei People' s Hospital, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Zhou, Jianyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the utility of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MR imaging in distinguishing solitary brain metastases (SBMs) from glioblastomas (GBMs). Forty-five patients with SBMs and 43 patients with GBMs underwent conventional and APT-weighted sequences before clinical intervention. The APTw parameters and relative APTw (rAPTw) parameters in the tumour core and the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) were obtained and compared between SBMs and GBMs. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the best parameter for distinguishing between the two groups. The APTw{sub max}, APTw{sub min}, APTw{sub mean}, rAPTw{sub max}, rAPTw{sub min} or rAPTw{sub mean} values in the tumour core were not significantly different between the SBM and GBM groups (P = 0.141, 0.361, 0.221, 0.305, 0.578 and 0.448, respectively). However, the APTw{sub max}, APTw{sub min}, APTw{sub mean}, rAPTw{sub max}, rAPTw{sub min} or rAPTw{sub mean} values in the PBZ were significantly lower in the SBM group than in the GBM group (P < 0.001). The APTw{sub min} values had the highest area under the ROC curve 0.905 and accuracy 85.2% in discriminating between the two neoplasms. As a noninvasive imaging method, APT-weighted MR imaging can be used to distinguish SBMs from GBMs. (orig.)

  8. Distinguishing benign from malignant gallbladder wall thickening using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Ai; Kawabe, Joji; Torii, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Because thickening of the gallbladder wall is observed not only in patients with gallbladder cancer but also in those with benign diseases such as chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder adenomyosis, it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by conventional techniques of diagnostic imaging such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and abdominal ultrasonography (US). In the present study, we attempted to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening by means of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron emission tomography (PET). FDG-PET was performed in 12 patients with gallbladder wall thickening detected by CT or US, to determine whether it was benign or malignant. Emission scans were taken, beginning 45 minutes after intravenous administration of FDG, and standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated as an indicator of glucose metabolism. Of the 12 patients, 4 showed positive uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Of these 4 patients, 3 had gallbladder cancer. The remaining one, who had chronic cholecystitis, had false-positive findings. The other 8 patients had negative uptake of FDG in the gallbladder wall. Two of these 8 underwent surgical resection, which yielded a diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis. The other 6 patients exhibited no sign of gallbladder malignancy and have been followed without active treatment. FDG-PET appears able to distinguish between benign and malignant gallbladder wall thickening. (author)

  9. Gene expression profiling distinguishes between spontaneous and radiation-induced rat mammary carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between spontaneous and radiation-induced cancers in humans is expected to improve the resolution of estimated risk from low dose radiation. Mammary carcinomas were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated (n=45) or acutely γ-irradiated (1 Gy; n=20) at seven weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of three spontaneous and four radiation-induced carcinomas, as well as those of normal mammary glands, were analyzed by microarrays. Differential expression of identified genes of interest was then verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cluster analysis of global gene expression suggested that spontaneous carcinomas were distinguished from a heterogeneous population of radiation-induced carcinomas, though most gene expressions were common. We identified 50 genes that had different expression levels between spontaneous and radiogenic carcinomas. We then selected 18 genes for confirmation of the microarray data by qPCR analysis and obtained the following results: high expression of Plg, Pgr and Wnt4 was characteristic to all spontaneous carcinomas; Tnfsf11, Fgf10, Agtr1a, S100A9 and Pou3f3 showed high expression in a subset of radiation-induced carcinomas; and increased Gp2, Areg and Igf2 expression, as well as decreased expression of Ca3 and noncoding RNA Mg1, were common to all carcinomas. Thus, gene expression analysis distinguished between spontaneous and radiogenic carcinomas, suggesting possible differences in their carcinogenic mechanism. (author)

  10. Confidence intervals for distinguishing ordinal and disordinal interactions in multiple regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunbok; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing between ordinal and disordinal interaction in multiple regression is useful in testing many interesting theoretical hypotheses. Because the distinction is made based on the location of a crossover point of 2 simple regression lines, confidence intervals of the crossover point can be used to distinguish ordinal and disordinal interactions. This study examined 2 factors that need to be considered in constructing confidence intervals of the crossover point: (a) the assumption about the sampling distribution of the crossover point, and (b) the possibility of abnormally wide confidence intervals for the crossover point. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare 6 different methods for constructing confidence intervals of the crossover point in terms of the coverage rate, the proportion of true values that fall to the left or right of the confidence intervals, and the average width of the confidence intervals. The methods include the reparameterization, delta, Fieller, basic bootstrap, percentile bootstrap, and bias-corrected accelerated bootstrap methods. The results of our Monte Carlo simulation study suggest that statistical inference using confidence intervals to distinguish ordinal and disordinal interaction requires sample sizes more than 500 to be able to provide sufficiently narrow confidence intervals to identify the location of the crossover point. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  12. Differences in atypical resting-state effective connectivity distinguish autism from schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mastrovito

    Full Text Available Autism and schizophrenia share overlapping genetic etiology, common changes in brain structure and common cognitive deficits. A number of studies using resting state fMRI have shown that machine learning algorithms can distinguish between healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with either autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. However, it has not yet been determined whether machine learning algorithms can be used to distinguish between the two disorders. Using a linear support vector machine, we identify features that are most diagnostic for each disorder and successfully use them to classify an independent cohort of subjects. We find both common and divergent connectivity differences largely in the default mode network as well as in salience, and motor networks. Using divergent connectivity differences, we are able to distinguish autistic subjects from those with schizophrenia. Understanding the common and divergent connectivity changes associated with these disorders may provide a framework for understanding their shared cognitive deficits. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Autism, Resting state, Classification, Connectivity, fMRI, Default mode network

  13. Laboratory test variables useful for distinguishing upper from lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2015-05-28

    To distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Patient records between April 2011 and March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively (3296 upper endoscopy, and 1520 colonoscopy). Seventy-six patients had upper GI bleeding (Upper group) and 65 had lower GI bleeding (Lower group). Variables were compared between the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Logistic regression was performed to identify variables significantly associated with the diagnosis of upper vs lower GI bleeding. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the threshold value that could distinguish upper from lower GI bleeding. Hemoglobin (P = 0.023), total protein (P = 0.0002), and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.009) were significantly lower in the Upper group than in the Lower group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher in the Upper group than in the Lower group (P = 0.0065). Logistic regression analysis revealed that BUN was most strongly associated with the diagnosis of upper vs lower GI bleeding. ROC analysis revealed a threshold BUN value of 21.0 mg/dL, with a specificity of 93.0%. The threshold BUN value for distinguishing upper from lower GI bleeding was 21.0 mg/dL.

  14. Lack of utility of measuring serum bilirubin concentration in distinguishing perforation status of pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, William; Bruno, Santina; Attaway, David; Dharmar, Logesh; Tam, Derek; Homel, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric appendicitis is a common, potentially serious condition. Determining perforation status is crucial to planning effective management. Determine the efficacy of serum total bilirubin concentration [STBC] in distinguishing perforation status in children with appendicitis. Retrospective review of 257 cases of appendicitis who received abdominal CT scan and measurement of STBC. There were 109 with perforation vs 148 without perforation. Although elevated STBC was significantly more common in those with [36%] vs without perforation [22%], the mean difference in elevated values between groups [0.1mg/dL] was clinically insignificant. Higher degrees of hyperbilirubinemia [>2mg/dL] were rarely encountered [5%]. Predictive values for elevated STBC in distinguishing perforation outcome were imprecise [sensitivity 38.5%, specificity 78.4%, PPV 56.8%, NPV 63.4%]. ROC curve analysis of multiple clinical and other laboratory factors for predicting perforation status was unenhanced by adding the STBC variable. Specific analysis of those with perforated appendicitis and percutaneously-drained intra-abdominal abscess which was culture-positive for Escherichia coli showed an identical rate of STBC elevation compared to all with perforation. The routine measurement of STBC does not accurately distinguish perforation status in children with appendicitis, nor discern infecting organism in those with perforation and intra-abdominal abscess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reviewed By Harold H.

    1999-11-01

    The Edward Mellen Press: Lewiston, NY, 1998. 114 pp + index. ISBN 0-7734-8284-9. $69.95. There may not be a surname better known to students of chemistry than Lewis, from the Lewis electron-dot diagrams and the Lewis theory of acids and bases. More advanced students may know of the groundbreaking textbook Thermodynamics, by Lewis and Randall. Yet few Americans know much about this remarkable U.S.-born scholar, whose contributions equal those of the greatest scientists. He is a chemist-educator of whom we should be as proud and as well informed as we are of Linus Pauling, who was part of the westward movement of science in this country that G. N. Lewis began, or of the recently deceased Glenn Seaborg, who was one of the many students of Lewis who achieved renown. Gilbert N. Lewis was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1875, but his family moved to near Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1884. He spent two years at the University of Nebraska, but then moved to Harvard when his father became an executive at Merchants Trust Company in Boston. Young Lewis (then only 17) was also said to have been disappointed with the quality of education in Nebraska, and this may have been part of the impetus for the family's move east. After earning his baccalaureate at Harvard, he taught for a year at Phillips Andover Academy before returning to Harvard to study for his doctorate, which he completed 100 years ago, in 1899, under T. W. Richards. Lewis's doctoral work was on the thermodynamics of zinc and cadmium amalgams. At that time, physical chemistry was only beginning to achieve recognition as a branch of science, and its boundaries were ill defined. Edward Lewis quotes his father as often saying, "Physical chemistry is anything interesting." Like many chemists of his time, Lewis went to Europe to complete his preparation for a career; he was in the laboratories of Ostwald in Leipzig and Nernst in Göttingen in 1900-1901. On his return to the United States, he was an instructor at Harvard

  16. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),

  17. Achieving excellence with limited resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, L.W.; Spinney, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of excellence in safety of nuclear power plant operation is dependent in part upon establishment of a performance-based training program. Developing such a program can be a laborious, time-consuming, and very expensive effort. Conducting job and task analyses, designing course outlines from learning objectives, developing training materials, evaluating program effectiveness and managing the training process and program through the out-years will exhaust any utility's training budget and staff. Because the achievement of excellence implies that training become in part performance-based, the question arises of how best to attain quality training yet still maintain a reasonable budget and staff workload. The answer lies not just in contracting the support necessary but making use of all available resources - training staff, contractor personnel in INPO

  18. Nuclear energy achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette

    1992-01-01

    Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication

  19. DNA barcodes and molecular diagnostics to distinguish an introduced and native Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) species in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.A. Davis; N.P. Havill; Z.N. Adelman; A. Caccone; L.T. Kok; S.M. Salom

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on DNA barcodes can be powerful identification tools in the absence of distinctive morphological characters for distinguishing between closely related species. A specific example is distinguishing the endemic species Laricobius rubidus from Laricobius nigrinus, a biological control agent of hemlock...

  20. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  1. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  2. Factors that distinguish aggression toward animals from other antisocial behaviors: Evidence from a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Parfitt, Charlotte

    2018-05-25

    Animal cruelty is a form of passive and active aggression that is largely undocumented and unreported. Given that animals are voiceless victims, we have to rely on witnesses and frontline staff (e.g., veterinarians) to report incidents of abuse, which suggests the number of convicted animal abusers is an under-representation of actual perpetrators. The primary aim of the current study was to identify the static and dynamic factors that distinguish animal abusers from non-abuse offenders (i.e., individuals who self-reported antisocial behavior, but not animal abuse), and non-offenders (i.e., individuals who have not engaged in any antisocial behavior) in a community sample. The secondary aim was to identify the potential pathways that distinguish animal abuse perpetration from other types of antisocial behavior. Three hundred and eighty-four participants took part in this retrospective, correlational study. We found that animal abusers share similar socio-demographic characteristics to other offenders but are distinct in their exposure to animal harm/killing during childhood. Low animal-oriented empathy and low self-esteem distinguished animal abusers from non-abuse offenders when controlling for confound variables and other psychological characteristics. We also found that low animal-oriented empathy mediated the relationship between childhood exposure to animal killing and animal abuse perpetration, and that this relationship was stronger among participants with anger regulation issues. This is the first study to examine similarities and differences between animal abusers, non-abuse offenders, and non-offenders on socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. The findings highlight potential treatment targets that are unique to animal abusers with implications for prevention and intervention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Critical appraisal of discriminant formulas for distinguishing thalassemia from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2017-08-28

    Many discriminant formulas have been reported for distinguishing thalassemia trait from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia. Independent verification of several discriminant formulas is deficient or even lacking. Therefore, we have retrospectively investigated discriminant formulas in a large, well-characterized patient population. The investigational population consisted of 2664 patients with microcytic anemia: 1259 had iron deficiency, 1196 'pure' thalassemia trait (877 β- and 319 α-thalassemia), 150 had thalassemia trait with concomitant iron deficiency or anemia of chronic disease, and 36 had other diseases. We investigated 25 discriminant formulas that only use hematologic parameters available on all analyzers; formulas with more advanced parameters were disregarded. The diagnostic performance was investigated using ROC analysis. The three best performing formulas were the Jayabose (RDW index), Janel (11T), and Green and King formulas. The differences between them were not statistically significant (p>0.333), but each of them had significantly higher area under the ROC curve than any other formula. The Jayabose and Green and King formulas had the highest sensitivities: 0.917 both. The highest specificity, 0.925, was found for the Janel formula, which is a composite score of 11 other formulas. All investigated formulas performed significantly better in distinguishing β- than α-thalassemia from iron deficiency. In our patient population, the Jayabose RDW index, the Green and King formula and the Janel 11T score are superior to all other formulas examined for distinguishing between thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia. We confirmed that all formulas perform much better in β- than in α-thalassemia carriers and also that they incorrectly classify approximately 30% of thalassemia carriers with concomitant other anemia as not having thalassemia. The diagnostic performance of even the best formulas is not high enough for making a final

  4. Identification of diagnostic peptide regions that distinguish Zika virus from related mosquito-borne Flaviviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Lee

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area. In order to identify Zika-specific peptide regions that could be used as serology reagents, we have applied comparative genomics and protein structure analyses to identify amino acid residues that distinguish each of 10 Flavivirus species and subtypes from each other by calculating the specificity, sensitivity, and surface exposure of each residue in relevant target proteins. For ZIKV we identified 104 and 116 15-mer peptides in the E glycoprotein and NS1 non-structural protein, respectively, that contain multiple diagnostic sites and are located in surface-exposed regions in the tertiary protein structure. These sensitive, specific, and surface-exposed peptide regions should serve as useful reagents for seroprevalence studies to better distinguish between prior infections with any of these mosquito-borne Flaviviruses. The development of better detection methods and diagnostic tools will enable clinicians and public health workers to more accurately estimate the true incidence rate of asymptomatic infections, neurological syndromes, and birth defects associated with ZIKV infection.

  5. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Darling-Hammond

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.

  6. A fast computing method to distinguish the hyperbolic trajectory of an non-autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meng; Fan, Yang-Yu; Tian, Wei-Jian

    2011-03-01

    Attempting to find a fast computing method to DHT (distinguished hyperbolic trajectory), this study first proves that the errors of the stable DHT can be ignored in normal direction when they are computed as the trajectories extend. This conclusion means that the stable flow with perturbation will approach to the real trajectory as it extends over time. Based on this theory and combined with the improved DHT computing method, this paper reports a new fast computing method to DHT, which magnifies the DHT computing speed without decreasing its accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60872159).

  7. A fast computing method to distinguish the hyperbolic trajectory of an non-autonomous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Meng; Fan Yang-Yu; Tian Wei-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Attempting to find a fast computing method to DHT (distinguished hyperbolic trajectory), this study first proves that the errors of the stable DHT can be ignored in normal direction when they are computed as the trajectories extend. This conclusion means that the stable flow with perturbation will approach to the real trajectory as it extends over time. Based on this theory and combined with the improved DHT computing method, this paper reports a new fast computing method to DHT, which magnifies the DHT computing speed without decreasing its accuracy. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. The importance of distinguishing illegality from guilt in trials for alleged medical malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Díaz Brousse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A proper analysis of the essential elements that comprise a criminal offense that falls under the purview of medical negligence is fundamental in order to rule, in justice, cases of alleged malpractice. It is necessary to properly distinguish between accusations of illegality and those of guilt. Open legal essays and precedents about such illicit acts provide judges with great latitude in determining when acts are consistent or not with standard care. This power mandates that judges should ground their convictions on objective infringements of the law rather than subjective criteria.

  9. Distinguishing Newly Born Strange Stars from Neutron Stars with g-Mode Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weijie; Wei Haiqing; Liu Yuxin

    2008-01-01

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors

  10. Distinguishing between hypochondriasis and somatization disorder: a review of the existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Russell; Stuart, Scott; Watson, David B; Langbehn, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    A valid classification is important for further understanding of the somatoform disorders. The main disorders in this grouping - somatization disorder and hypochondriasis - have lengthy historical traditions and are defined in a contrasting manner. Various authors point to distinguishing demographic and clinical features, but there have been few direct comparisons of patients with these disorders. A review of the literature indicates those domains where differences are most likely to be found. Research assessing these may serve to refine and validate these key somatoform categories and/or dimensions.

  11. Distinguishing humans from computers in the game of go: A complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquidé, C.; Georgeot, B.; Giraud, O.

    2017-08-01

    We compare complex networks built from the game of go and obtained from databases of human-played games with those obtained from computer-played games. Our investigations show that statistical features of the human-based networks and the computer-based networks differ, and that these differences can be statistically significant on a relatively small number of games using specific estimators. We show that the deterministic or stochastic nature of the computer algorithm playing the game can also be distinguished from these quantities. This can be seen as a tool to implement a Turing-like test for go simulators.

  12. In a distinguishing spacetime the horismos relation generates the causal relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    It is proved that in a distinguishing spacetime the horismos relation E + = J + /I + generates the causal relation J + . In other words two causally related events are joined by a chain of horismotically related events, or again, the causal relation is the smallest transitive relation containing the horismos relation. The result is sharp in the sense that the distinction cannot be weakened to future or past distinction. Finally, it is proved that a spacetime in which the horismos relation generates the causal relation is necessarily non-total imprisoning.

  13. A graphical technique for distinguishing plant material and soil from atmospheric deposition in biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores the limits to which a new graphical technique can distinguish the various hierarchical levels of sources of trace elements within biomonitors. When applied to data from Portuguese lichens, it appears to resolve four levels of sources, from plant material down to individual types of pollution. Careful factor analysis appears to offer very similar results, being weaker than the graphical method in some aspects and stronger in others. As a result, it now seems possible to determine sources for elements in lichens with better precision and confidence than was available previously. (author)

  14. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  15. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Luz Maria Garcini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2016 award winners is Luz Maria Garcini, whose commitment to the health and mental health of those recently immigrated has led to research and service that "have greatly benefited the lives of undocumented individuals in the border area of southern California." Garcini's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Octavio Andres Santos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded annually by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2017 award winner is Octavio Andres Santos, who has demonstrated through several initiatives "effective engagement with advocacy, professional organizations, and research in the area of health disparities and multicultural/multilingual assessment." Santos's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Ways of distinguishing epigenetic types of gray-colored rocks in sheet-infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, S.D.; Yashunskii, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    At an infiltration deposit of uranium in Upper-Cretaceous sandy-clay alluvial deposits (Central Kyzylkum), six stages of postsedimentation epigenetic transformations were distinguished. The genesis of altered rocks was determined mostly by mineralogical methods. A new methodological technique is suggested, which calls for analysis of the textural, structural, and mineral correspondence of ferruginous components of gray-colored and oxidized rocks in the region of their contact and makes it possible to typify epigenetic changes in conditions of repeated change in the direction of geochemical processes

  19. Academic Achievement among Recently Arrived Chinese Adolescent Migrants: The Role of Social Support, School Belonging, and Acculturative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ngai Kwan Nicole; Schweitzer, Robert D.; Khawaja, Nigar G.

    2017-01-01

    Factors contributing to academic achievement among recently arrived Chinese adolescents in Australia remain relatively underexplored. Previous studies focused on Asian migrants, including Chinese, but did not distinguish Chinese from other Asian migrants. The current study specifically looks at Chinese migrants who have recently arrived, as…

  20. Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Huestis, Marilyn A

    Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer's intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to distinguish their consumption. THJ-2201 was scheduled in the US, Japan, and Europe; however, FUBIMINA is easily available on the Internet. We previously investigated THJ-2201 metabolism in human hepatocytes, but human FUBIMINA metabolism is unknown. We aim to characterize FUBIMINA metabolism in human hepatocytes, recommend optimal metabolites to confirm its consumption, and propose strategies to distinguish between intakes of FUBIMINA and THJ-2201. FUBIMINA (10 μM) was incubated in human hepatocytes for 3 h, and metabolites were characterized with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). We identified 35 metabolites generated by oxidative defluorination, further carboxylation, hydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, glucuronidation, and their combinations. We recommend 5'-OH-BIM-018 (M34), BIM-018 pentanoic acid (M33), and BIM-018 pentanoic acid dihydrodiol (M7) as FUBIMINA specific metabolites. THJ-2201 produced specific metabolite markers 5'-OH-THJ-018 (F26), THJ-018 pentanoic acid (F25), and hydroxylated THJ-2201 (F13). Optimized chromatographic conditions to achieve different retention times and careful selection of specific product ion spectra enabled differentiation of isomeric metabolites, in this case FUBIMINA from THJ-2201. Our HR-MS approach should be applicable for differentiating future isomeric SCs, which is especially important when different isomers have different legal status.

  1. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  2. Superphenix: technical and scientific achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, Joel; Prele, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    In this book, the authors propose a synthesis of technical and scientific achievements related to the design, fabrication and eleven-year operation of Superphenix, the most powerful fast breeder reactor ever built and operated. They had the opportunity to use various and important archives maintained by the different involved institutions, actors and companies, such as the CEA with its MADONA database, AREVA and EDF. They address all the different fields: construction, chemistry, exploitation, handling, small and large components, materials, fuel manufacturing, environmental assessment, thermal hydraulics, the sodium-water reaction, sodium fires, the release of residual power, in-service inspection, and dismantling operations. Moreover, a chapter addresses design studies for Superphenix 2 and for the European Fast Reactor (EFR) which should be the successors of Superphenix

  3. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  4. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  5. WHEN CAN GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Mark; Fairhurst, Stephen; Brown, Duncan A.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harry, Ian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries have the potential to uncover the distribution of masses and spins of black holes and neutron stars in the universe. The binary components' physical parameters can be inferred from their effect on the phasing of the gravitational-wave signal, but a partial degeneracy between the components' mass ratio and their spins limits our ability to measure the individual component masses. At the typical signal amplitudes expected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (signal-to-noise ratios between 10 and 20), we show that it will in many cases be difficult to distinguish whether the components are neutron stars or black holes. We identify when the masses of the binary components could be unambiguously measured outside the range of current observations: a system with a chirp mass M ≤ 0.871 M ☉ would unambiguously contain the smallest-mass neutron star observed, and a system with M ≥ 2.786 M ☉ must contain a black hole. However, additional information would be needed to distinguish between a binary containing two 1.35 M ☉ neutron stars and an exotic neutron-star-black-hole binary. We also identify those configurations that could be unambiguously identified as black hole binaries, and show how the observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a neutron-star-black-hole binary could be used to constrain the black hole spin.

  6. Distinguishing diffuse alopecia areata (AA) from pattern hair loss (PHL) using CD3(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis

    2016-05-01

    Distinguishing between diffuse subacute alopecia areata (AA), in which the peribulbar infiltrate is absent, and pattern hair loss is challenging, particularly in cases that lack marked follicular miniaturization and a marked catagen/telogen shift. We sought to distinguish diffuse AA from pattern hair loss using CD3(+) T lymphocytes. A total of 28 cases of subacute AA and 31 cases of pattern hair loss were selected and a 4-mm punch biopsy was performed. All the specimens were processed using the "HoVert" (horizontal and vertical) technique. In all cases, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical stains for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 were performed. The presence of CD3(+) lymphocytes within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela), even without a concomitant peribulbar infiltrate, is a reliable histopathological clue in supporting a diagnosis of AA (sensitivity 0.964, specificity 1, P ≤ .001). Limited tissue for analysis remained in the clinical sample tissue blocks. The presence of CD3(+) T-cells within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela) supports a diagnosis of AA. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  8. Synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins and distinguish mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shunsuke; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nagaike, Takashi; Tomita, Kozo; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-07

    Synthetic biology has great potential for future therapeutic applications including autonomous cell programming through the detection of protein signals and the production of desired outputs. Synthetic RNA devices are promising for this purpose. However, the number of available devices is limited due to the difficulty in the detection of endogenous proteins within a cell. Here, we show a strategy to construct synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins in living cells, control translation and distinguish cell types. We engineered protein-binding aptamers that have increased stability in the secondary structures of their active conformation. The designed devices can efficiently respond to target proteins including human LIN28A and U1A proteins, while the original aptamers failed to do so. Moreover, mRNA delivery of an LIN28A-responsive device into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) revealed that we can distinguish living hiPSCs and differentiated cells by quantifying endogenous LIN28A protein expression level. Thus, our endogenous protein-driven RNA devices determine live-cell states and program mammalian cells based on intracellular protein information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. [Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Gonzalo; Davenport, María C; Del Valle, María de la P; Gallegos, Paulina; Kannemann, Ana L; Bokser, Vivian; Ferrero, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Despite most meningitis are not bacterial, antibiotics are usually administered on admission because bacterial meningitis is difficult to be rule-out. Distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis on admission could avoid inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization. We aimed to validate a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children, on arriving to the emergency room. This prospective study included patients aged or = 1000 cells/mm(3), CSF protein > or = 80 mg/dl, peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count > or = 10.000/mm(3), seizure = 1 point each. Sensitivity (S), specificity (E), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) of the BMS to predict bacterial meningitis were calculated. Seventy patients with meningitis were included (14 bacterial meningitis). When BMS was calculated, 25 patients showed a BMS= 0 points, 11 BMS= 1 point, and 34 BMS > or = 2 points. A BMS = 0 showed S: 100%, E: 44%, VPP: 31%, VPN: 100%, RVP: 1,81 RVN: 0. A BMS > or = 2 predicted bacterial meningitis with S: 100%, E: 64%, VPP: 41%, VPN: 100%, PLR: 2.8, NLR:0. Using BMS was simple, and allowed identifying children with very low risk of bacterial meningitis. It could be a useful tool to assist clinical decision making.

  10. Allozyme electrophoresis as a tool for distinguishing different zooxanthellae symbiotic with giant clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, B. K.; Monje, V.; Silvestre, V.; Sison, M.; Belda-Baillie, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The taxonomy of zooxanthellae in marine invertebrate symbioses is not well understood owing mainly to their lack of reliable morphological differences. Nevertheless, previous work using protein and DNA electrophoreses has set the stage for advancing our taxonomic understanding of cnidarian zooxanthellae. Here we present the use of allozymes as genetic markers for distinguishing algal isolates from tridacnid hosts. Zooxanthellae from seven Tridacna and Hippopus species were isolated and maintained in axenic clonal cultures over many generations. Of 16 enzyme systems, α- and β-esterase (EST), esterase-F (EST-F), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were found suitable polymorphic markers of genetic differences among clonal cultures. Of 39 clonal isolates, 97% were found to be genetically distinguishable. This high extent of genetic variation in zooxanthellae within and between clam species was unexpected, and is difficult to explain based solely on the general notion of asexual reproduction in symbiotic zooxanthellae. Our results are also consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction in clam zooxanthellae. The close genetic similarity of the symbionts of Tridacna gigas, the largest and fastest-growing clam species, and the difficulty of initiating their clonal cultures in the given nutrient medium, compared with the symbionts of other clam species, are further indicative of possibly distinct algal symbionts in T. gigas. These findings are discussed in light of current taxonomic understanding of these organisms.

  11. Is MRI a useful tool to distinguish between serous and mucinous borderline ovarian tumours?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, M.; Haouy, D.; Daraï, E.; Cortez, A.; Dechoux-Vodovar, S.; Thomassin-Naggara, I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) and to evaluate whether MRI can be used to distinguish serous from mucinous subtypes. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients who underwent BOT resection was undertaken. MRI images were reviewed blindly by two radiologists to assess MRI features: size, tumour type, grouped and irregular thickened septa, number of septa, loculi of different signal intensity, vegetations, solid portion, signal intensity of vegetations, normal ovarian parenchyma, and pelvic ascites. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictive value of the MRI findings for histological subtypes. Results: At histology, there were 33 serous BOT (SBOT) and 39 mucinous BOT (MBOT). Predictive MRI criteria for SBOT were bilaterality, predominantly solid tumour, and the presence of vegetations, especially exophytic or with a high T2 signal (p < 0.01), whereas predictive MRI criteria for MBOT were multilocularity, number of septa, loculi of different signal intensity, and grouped and irregular thickened septa (p < 0.01). Using multivariate analysis, vegetations were independently associated with SBOT [odds ratio (OR) = 29.5] and multilocularity with MBOT (OR = 3.9). Conclusion: Vegetations and multilocularity are two independent MRI features that can help to distinguish between SBOT and MBOT.

  12. Distinguishing ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi, a group of widespread symbiotic fungi with plant, obtain carbon source from trees and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake with their widespread hyphal network. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can be used as inoculants to improve the survival rates of plantation. Saprophytic fungi use the nutrition from the debris of plant or animals, and it is difficult to distinguish the saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal fungi by morphological and anatomic methods. In this research, the differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of these fungi were analyzed. The results showed that the abundances of 13C of were higher than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi and the abundances of 15N of saprophytic fungi were lower than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Such differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions between ectomycorrhizal fungi and saprophytic fungi can be ascribed to their different nutrition sources and ecological functions. These results collectively indicate that stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions are an effective proxy for distinguishing between ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  13. The discriminatory value of cardiorespiratory interactions in distinguishing awake from anaesthetised states: a randomised observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, D A; Bernjak, A; Draegni, T; Dzeroski, S; Entwistle, M; Horvat, M; Kvandal, P; Landsverk, S A; McClintock, P V E; Musizza, B; Petrovčič, J; Raeder, J; Sheppard, L W; Smith, A F; Stankovski, T; Stefanovska, A

    2015-12-01

    Depth of anaesthesia monitors usually analyse cerebral function with or without other physiological signals; non-invasive monitoring of the measured cardiorespiratory signals alone would offer a simple, practical alternative. We aimed to investigate whether such signals, analysed with novel, non-linear dynamic methods, would distinguish between the awake and anaesthetised states. We recorded ECG, respiration, skin temperature, pulse and skin conductivity before and during general anaesthesia in 27 subjects in good cardiovascular health, randomly allocated to receive propofol or sevoflurane. Mean values, variability and dynamic interactions were determined. Respiratory rate (p = 0.0002), skin conductivity (p = 0.03) and skin temperature (p = 0.00006) changed with sevoflurane, and skin temperature (p = 0.0005) with propofol. Pulse transit time increased by 17% with sevoflurane (p = 0.02) and 11% with propofol (p = 0.007). Sevoflurane reduced the wavelet energy of heart (p = 0.0004) and respiratory (p = 0.02) rate variability at all frequencies, whereas propofol decreased only the heart rate variability below 0.021 Hz (p cardiorespiratory synchronisation time was increased (p < 0.05). A classification analysis based on an optimal set of discriminatory parameters distinguished with 95% success between the awake and anaesthetised states. We suggest that these results can contribute to the design of new monitors of anaesthetic depth based on cardiovascular signals alone. © 2015 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging: a useful tool to distinguish between keratocystic odontogenic tumours and odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, F A; Probst, M; Pautke, Ch; Kaltsi, E; Otto, S; Schiel, S; Troeltzsch, M; Ehrenfeld, M; Cornelius, C P; Müller-Lisse, U G

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to odontogenic cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumours often recur and require more aggressive surgical treatment, so we tried to find features that distinguished between them on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Without knowing the diagnosis, two radiologists reviewed intensity (low, intermediate, or high) and homogeneity (homogeneous or heterogeneous) of signals in short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR), T1- and T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed, contrast-enhanced MRI in 20 consecutive patients with oval, radiolucent lesions of the mandible on panoramic radiography, and who were subsequently confirmed histopathologically to have either an odontogenic cyst or a keratocystic odontogenic tumour (n=10 in each group). Fisher's exact test was statistically significant at pkeratocystic odontogenic tumours (3/10, p=0.02, and 1/10, p=0.01, respectively). One radiologist found odontogenic cysts were more likely to be homogeneous on unenhanced T1-weighted images (odontogenic cysts 9/10, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 3/10, p=0.02) and one on contrast-enhanced MRI, when the cyst wall was enhanced (odontogenic cysts 7/9, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 0/3, p=0.01). There were no other significant distinguishing features on MRI. In conclusion, the signal intensity of the enhanced wall seems to be a feature on contrast-enhanced MRI that differentiates odontogenic cysts from keratocystic odontogenic tumours. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinguishing simulated from genuine dissociative identity disorder on the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Due to high elevations on validity and clinical scales on personality and forensic measures, it is challenging to determine if individuals presenting with symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) are genuine or not. Little research has focused on malingering DID, or on the broader issue of the profiles these patients obtain on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), despite increasing awareness of dissociation. This study sought to characterize the MMPI-2 profiles of DID patients and to determine the utility of the MMPI-2 in distinguishing DID patients from uncoached and coached DID simulators. The analyses revealed that Infrequency, Back Infrequency, and Infrequency-Psychopathology (Fp) distinguished simulators from genuine DID patients. Fp was best able to discriminate simulated DID. Utility statistics and classification functions are provided for classifying individual profiles as indicative of genuine or simulated DID. Despite exposure to information about DID, the simulators were not able to accurately feign DID, which is inconsistent with the iatrogenic/sociocultural model of DID. Given that dissociation was strongly associated with elevations in validity, as well as clinical scales, including Scale 8 (i.e., Schizophrenia), considerable caution should be used in interpreting validity scales as indicative of feigning, and Scale 8 as indicative of schizophrenia, among highly dissociative individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. The 2017 recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology was selected by the 2016 Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee. Members of the 2016 BPA were Antonette M. Zeiss, PhD (Chair); Linda A. Reddy, PhD; Lois O. Condie, PhD; Timothy A. Cavell, PhD; Robert T. Kinscherff, PhD, JD; Jared L. Skillings, PhD, ABPP; Cynthia A. Gómez, PhD; Lisa K. Kearney, PhD, ABPP; and Dinelia Rosa, PhD. Members of the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee were Jerrold Yeo, MA; Jacklynn Fitzgerald, MA; and Roseann Fish Getchell, MA, Med. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  18. Utility of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory to distinguish OCD and OCPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, David; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco; Cullen, Bernadette; Riddle, Mark; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses obsessional symptoms. The ability of the LOI to distinguish between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately addressed. Our purpose is to identify dimensions of obsessional symptoms from the LOI and determine how well they distinguish between OCD and OCPD. The LOI was completed by 488 participants diagnosed by trained clinicians. Factor analysis was performed on responses to the interference items of the LOI. The relationship between the factors, OCD and OCPD was evaluated using logistic regression. Five factors underlying the LOI were identified: (I) obsessional ruminations and compulsions, (II) ordering and arranging, (III) organizing activities, (IV) contamination, and (V) parsimony. Factors I, III, and IV were strongly associated with OCD. Only Factor II was associated with OCPD. Factor IV was negatively associated with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. LOI factors are useful in discriminating between OCD and OCPD. Obsessional ruminations and compulsions, organizing activities, and contamination fears may indicate OCD, and ordering and arranging symptoms may indicate OCPD rather than OCD. Parsimony may indicate neither disorder, and contamination, the absence of OCPD traits compared with the other LOI factors. These findings may contribute to effective diagnosis and treatment by allowing the LOI to screen for OCD and OCPD in a population exhibiting obsessional symptoms and traits.

  19. Comparison between Decision Tree and Genetic Programming to distinguish healthy from stroke postural sway patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrega, Luiz H G; Silva, Simone M; Manffra, Elisangela F; Nievola, Julio C

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a motor task of crucial importance for humans to perform their daily activities safely and independently. Studies in the field of Artificial Intelligence have considered different classification methods in order to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain motor disorders based on their postural strategies during the balance control. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the performance between Decision Tree (DT) and Genetic Programming (GP) - both classification methods of easy interpretation by health professionals - to distinguish postural sway patterns produced by healthy and stroke individuals based on 16 widely used posturographic variables. For this purpose, we used a posturographic dataset of time-series of center-of-pressure displacements derived from 19 stroke patients and 19 healthy matched subjects in three quiet standing tasks of balance control. Then, DT and GP models were trained and tested under two different experiments where accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were adopted as performance metrics. The DT method has performed statistically significant (P < 0.05) better in both cases, showing for example an accuracy of 72.8% against 69.2% from GP in the second experiment of this paper.

  20. Finding an optimum immuno-histochemical feature set to distinguish benign phyllodes from fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Priti Prasanna; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Das, Raunak Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhalaxmi; Maity, Ashok; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Dhara, Santanu; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-05-01

    Benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma are two well-known breast tumors with remarkable diagnostic ambiguity. The present study is aimed at determining an optimum set of immuno-histochemical features to distinguish them by analyzing important observations on expressions of important genes in fibro-glandular tissue. Immuno-histochemically, the expressions of p63 and α-SMA in myoepithelial cells and collagen I, III and CD105 in stroma of tumors and their normal counterpart were studied. Semi-quantified features were analyzed primarily by ANOVA and ranked through F-scores for understanding relative importance of group of features in discriminating three classes followed by reduction in F-score arranged feature space dimension and application of inter-class Bhattacharyya distances to distinguish tumors with an optimum set of features. Among thirteen studied features except one all differed significantly in three study classes. F-Ranking of features revealed highest discriminative potential of collagen III (initial region). F-Score arranged feature space dimension and application of Bhattacharyya distance gave rise to a feature set of lower dimension which can discriminate benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma effectively. The work definitely separated normal breast, fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes, through an optimal set of immuno-histochemical features which are not only useful to address diagnostic ambiguity of the tumors but also to spell about malignant potentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Can one distinguish τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos in neutral-current pion production processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.

    2007-01-01

    A potential way to distinguish τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos, below the τ-production threshold, but above the pion production one, is presented. It is based on the different behavior of the neutral-current pion production off the nucleon, depending on whether it is induced by neutrinos or antineutrinos. This procedure for distinguishing τ-neutrinos from antineutrinos neither relies on any nuclear model, nor it is affected by any nuclear effect (distortion of the outgoing nucleon waves, etc.). We show that neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries occur both in the totally integrated cross sections and in the pion azimuthal differential distributions. To define the asymmetries for the latter distributions we just rely on Lorentz-invariance. All these asymmetries are independent of the lepton family and can be experimentally measured by using electron or muon neutrinos, due to the lepton family universality of the neutral-current neutrino interaction. Nevertheless and to estimate their size, we have also used the chiral model of [E. Hernandez, J. Nieves, M. Valverde, hep-ph/0701149] at intermediate energies. Results are really significant since the differences between neutrino and antineutrino induced reactions are always large in all physical channels

  2. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d ¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d ¯ , we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d ¯ , which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d ¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  3. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. The 2016 recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology was selected by the 2015 Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the 2015 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee. Members of the 2015 BPA were Patricia Arredondo, EdD; Helen L. Coons, PhD, ABPP; Vickie Mays, PhD, MSPH; Linda A. Reddy, PhD; Lois O. Condi, PhD; Antonette M. Zeiss, PhD; Timothy A. Cavell, PhD; Robert T. Kinscherff, PhD, JD; and Jared L. Skillings, PhD, ABPP. Members of the 2015 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee were Emily Voelkel, PhD; Blaire Schembari; and Yolanda Perkins-Volk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Transcriptional blood signatures distinguish pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, pneumonias and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Chloe I; Graham, Christine M; Berry, Matthew P R; Rozakeas, Fotini; Redford, Paul S; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Zhaohui; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Wilkinson, Robert J; Kendrick, Yvonne; Devouassoux, Gilles; Ferry, Tristan; Miyara, Makoto; Bouvry, Diane; Valeyre, Dominique; Dominique, Valeyre; Gorochov, Guy; Blankenship, Derek; Saadatian, Mitra; Vanhems, Phillip; Beynon, Huw; Vancheeswaran, Rama; Wickremasinghe, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia; Ho, Ling-Pei; Lipman, Marc; O'Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish diseases with similar clinical presentations. To determine the factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of the granulomatous diseases, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, by comparing the blood transcriptional responses in these and other pulmonary diseases. We compared whole blood genome-wide transcriptional profiles in pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, to community acquired pneumonia and primary lung cancer and healthy controls, before and after treatment, and in purified leucocyte populations. An Interferon-inducible neutrophil-driven blood transcriptional signature was present in both sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, with a higher abundance and expression in tuberculosis. Heterogeneity of the sarcoidosis signature correlated significantly with disease activity. Transcriptional profiles in pneumonia and lung cancer revealed an over-abundance of inflammatory transcripts. After successful treatment the transcriptional activity in tuberculosis and pneumonia patients was significantly reduced. However the glucocorticoid-responsive sarcoidosis patients showed a significant increase in transcriptional activity. 144-blood transcripts were able to distinguish tuberculosis from other lung diseases and controls. Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis revealed similar blood transcriptional profiles, dominated by interferon-inducible transcripts, while pneumonia and lung cancer showed distinct signatures, dominated by inflammatory genes. There were also significant differences between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis in the degree of their transcriptional activity, the heterogeneity of their profiles and their transcriptional response to treatment.

  5. Can We Distinguish Low-mass Black Holes in Neutron Star Binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; East, William E.; Lehner, Luis

    2018-04-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binary neutron stars (NS) represents another milestone in gravitational-wave astronomy. However, since LIGO is currently not as sensitive to the merger/ringdown part of the waveform, the possibility that such signals are produced by a black hole (BH)–NS binary can not be easily ruled out without appealing to assumptions about the underlying compact object populations. We review a few astrophysical channels that might produce BHs below 3 M ⊙ (roughly the upper bound on the maximum mass of an NS), as well as existing constraints for these channels. We show that, due to the uncertainty in the NS equation of state, it is difficult to distinguish GWs from a binary NS system from those of a BH–NS system with the same component masses, assuming Advanced LIGO sensitivity. This degeneracy can be broken by accumulating statistics from many events to better constrain the equation of state, or by third-generation detectors with higher sensitivity to the late-spiral to post-merger signal. We also discuss the possible differences in electromagnetic (EM) counterparts between binary NS and low-mass BH–NS mergers, arguing that it will be challenging to definitively distinguish the two without better understanding of the underlying astrophysical processes.

  6. How to Distinguish Patients with pSS among Individuals with Dryness without Invasive Diagnostic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of pSS, inflammatory cell infiltration consists mainly of lymphocytes infiltrating exocrine glands, which leads to their impaired function. The characteristic feature is generalized dryness. The aim of this study was to attempt to answer the question whether it is possible to distinguish between patients with pSS and individuals with dryness caused by other pathologies without applying invasive studies. The study included 68 patients with pSS and 43 healthy controls with dryness. FS ≥ 1 was observed in 90% of patients with pSS (with or without dryness, and only in 23% of the control group (only with xerostomia. In the pSS group, anaemia (p=0.0085, lymphocytopenia (p=0.0006, elevated ERS (p=0.001, higher RF titer, and ANA antibodies were noted. Configuration of anti-SSA + SSB + Ro52 antibodies was characteristic for the pSS group. Considering the clinical symptoms, statistically significant differences were noted between pSS patients and the control group in frequency (p=0.02 and severity (p=0.042 of fatigue, lymphadenopathy, major salivary gland involvement, and photosensitivity to UV light. In conclusion, invasive methods are pivotal in pSS diagnosis in this salivary gland biopsy. Chronic fatigue syndrome is more common in pSS patients and can be subjective distinguishing factor in the group of people with dryness.

  7. Could schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder be distinguishable using cognitive profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lee, Chun-Yi; Lee, Yu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Huang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chen, Yi-Chih; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2018-05-24

    This study seeks to determine whether the cognition profiles of patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD), schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD) are distinguishable. A total of 227 participants, comprising 88 healthy control subjects, 50 patients with SAD, 48 patients with schizophrenia and 41 patients with BD, were recruited. The participants' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). A discriminant functions analysis (DFA) was conducted to determine whether using cognitive performance can be used to distinguish these participant groups. Relative to healthy control subjects, patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD exhibited significant deficits in all cognitive domains (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, executive function and a composite BACS score). Among the three patient groups, the schizophrenia group exhibited particularly impaired motor speed, and the BD group performed best in attention, processing speed, executive function and the composite BACS score. The classification accuracy rates of patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD in the DFA model were 38%, 47.9% and 46.3%, respectively. These findings suggest that the impairments of some cognitive domains were less severe in patients with BD than in patients with schizophrenia or SAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  9. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  10. How to Distinguish Normal from Disordered Children with Poor Language or Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray; Piek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims: We tested the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) hypothesis that so-called specific developmental disorders are marked by a pattern of specific discrepant achievement, and an alternative hypothesis that children with these disorders show a pattern of relatively pervasive low achievement. Methods…

  11. Distinguishing Adolescents With Conduct Disorder From Typically Developing Youngsters Based on Pattern Classification of Brain Structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conduct disorder (CD is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents antisocial behaviors, and is associated with structural alterations in brain. However, whether these structural alterations can distinguish CD from healthy controls (HCs remains unknown. Here, we quantified these structural differences and explored the classification ability of these quantitative features based on machine learning (ML.Materials and Methods: High-resolution 3D structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI was acquired from 60 CD subjects and 60 age-matched HCs. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess the regional gray matter (GM volume difference. The significantly different regional GM volumes were then extracted as features, and input into three ML classifiers: logistic regression, random forest and support vector machine (SVM. We trained and tested these ML models for classifying CD from HCs by using fivefold cross-validation (CV.Results: Eight brain regions with abnormal GM volumes were detected, which mainly distributed in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, anterior cingulate, cerebellum posterior lobe, lingual gyrus, and insula areas. We found that these ML models achieved comparable classification performance, with accuracy of 77.9 ∼ 80.4%, specificity of 73.3 ∼ 80.4%, sensitivity of 75.4 ∼ 87.5%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.76 ∼ 0.80.Conclusion: Based on sMRI and ML, the regional GM volumes may be used as potential imaging biomarkers for stable and accurate classification of CD.

  12. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  13. A Novel Earphone Type Sensor for Measuring Mealtime: Consideration of the Method to Distinguish between Running and Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Taniguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe a technique for estimating meal times using an earphone-type wearable sensor. A small optical sensor composed of a light-emitting diode and phototransistor is inserted into the ear hole of a user and estimates the meal times of the user from the time variations in the amount of light received. This is achieved by emitting light toward the inside of the ear canal and receiving light reflected back from the ear canal. This proposed technique allowed “meals” to be differentiated from having conversations, sneezing, walking, ascending and descending stairs, operating a computer, and using a smartphone. Conventional devices worn on the head of users and that measure food intake can vibrate during running as the body is jolted more violently than during walking; this can result in the misidentification of running as eating by these devices. To solve this problem, we used two of our sensors simultaneously: one in the left ear and one in the right ear. This was based on our finding that measurements from the left and right ear canals have a strong correlation during running but no correlation during eating. This allows running and eating to be distinguished based on correlation coefficients, which can reduce misidentification. Moreover, by using an optical sensor composed of a semiconductor, a small and lightweight device can be created. This measurement technique can also measure body motion associated with running, and the data obtained from the optical sensor inserted into the ear can be used to support a healthy lifestyle regarding both eating and exercise.

  14. A pilot study for distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma using second harmonic generation imaging and convolutional neural network analysis of collagen fibrillar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Nicolas; Smith, Jason; Jain, Manu; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Icaza, Michael; Gallagher, Ryan; Szeligowski, Richard; Wu, Binlin

    2018-02-01

    A clear distinction between oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) is critically important for clinical management of patients. But it may often be difficult to distinguish the two entities based on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained sections alone. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) signals which are very specific to collagen were used to image collagen fibril structure. We conduct a pilot study to develop a new diagnostic method based on the analysis of collagen associated with kidney tumors using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs comprise a type of machine learning process well-suited for drawing information out of images. This study examines a CNN model's ability to differentiate between oncocytoma (benign), and chRCC (malignant) kidney tumor images acquired with second harmonic generation (SHG), which is very specific for collagen matrix. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to distinguish the two entities based on their collagen structure. The model developed from this study demonstrated an overall classification accuracy of 68.7% with a specificity of 66.3% and sensitivity of 74.6%. While these results reflect an ability to classify the kidney tumors better than chance, further studies will be carried out to (a) better realize the tumor classification potential of this method with a larger sample size and (b) combining SHG with two-photon excited intrinsic fluorescence signal to achieve better classification.

  15. Achieving Nuclear Sustainability through Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, the IAEA Member States recognized that concerted and coordinated research and development is needed to drive innovation that ensures that nuclear energy can help meet energy needs sustainably in the 21st century. Following an IAEA General Conference resolution, an international 'think tank' and dialogue forum were established. The resulting organization, the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), helps nuclear technology holders and users coordinate the national and international studies, research and other activities needed to achieve innovations in nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. Currently, 38 countries plus the European Commission are participating in the project. This group includes both developing and developed economies that represent more than 75% of the world's population and 85% of its gross domestic product. INPRO undertakes collaborative projects among IAEA Member States, which analyse development scenarios and examine how nuclear energy can support the United Nations' goals for sustainable development in the 21st century. The results of these projects can be applied by IAEA Member States in their national nuclear energy strategies and can lead to international cooperation resulting in beneficial innovations in nuclear energy technology and its deployment. For example, INPRO studies the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, including recycling of spent fuel to increase resource use efficiency and to reduce the waste disposal burdens.

  16. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed l......, H. (1899). Préface. L' Enseignement Mathématique, 1(1), 1-5. Popkewitz, T. S. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the age of school reform: Science, education, and making society by making the child. New York: Routledge....... to the end of the 19th century. During the second half of the 19th century, mathematics teachers in different countries struggled to make mathematics part of the classic school curricula. During the second industrialization, the justification for the need for mathematics education was formulated in the first...... as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what...

  17. Achieving excellence through organizational values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C; Lazio, M M; Rayder, N

    1986-03-01

    By focusing on its mission values, a hospital can enhance the quality of patient care, improve staff morale, promote cost-effectiveness, and achieve a competitive advantage in the hospital marketplace. Since 1979 Saint Joseph Hospital, Kansas City, MO, has conducted a project to clarify and apply its values to the organization's overall direction and the everyday work setting. The project has proven that a concentration on mission values can benefit both the hospital's basic "spirit" and its bottom line. Twelve guiding principles are essential to creating a values-focused hospital: 1. Begin with a commitment. 2. Identify, involve, and educate "stakeholders". 3. Identify and use appropriate resources. 4. Assess organizational needs. 5. Identify the organization's values. 6. Translate mission values into everyday language. 7. Use an explicit, visible process built with a core set of process tools. 8. Document and showcase results. 9. Link the values work to the organization's overall direction and goals and to day-to-day management issues. 10. Think and act strategically. 11. Weave values focus into the fabric of the organization to ensure permanence and long-term success. 12. Model behavior on values.

  18. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  19. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science

  20. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, Beth A; Cutter, Gary R; Wojcieszyn, John W; Bellgrau, Donald; Gemmill, Robert M; Hunter, Lawrence E; Modiano, Jaime F; Phang, Tzu L; Fosmire, Susan P; Scott, Milcah C; Trapp, Susan C; Duckett, Megan M; Robinson, Sally R; Slansky, Jill E; Sharkey, Leslie C

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA). Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma). The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic plasticity creates this phenotype, although they suggest that cells

  1. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  2. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slansky Jill E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. Methods We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA. Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma. Conclusions The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic

  3. Self-adaptive method to distinguish inner and outer contours of industrial computed tomography image for rapid prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Liming; Ye Yong; Zhang Xia; Zuo Jian

    2013-01-01

    A self-adaptive identification method is proposed for realizing more accurate and efficient judgment about the inner and outer contours of industrial computed tomography (CT) slice images. The convexity-concavity of the single-pixel-wide closed contour is identified with angle method at first. Then, contours with concave vertices are distinguished to be inner or outer contours with ray method, and contours without concave vertices are distinguished with extreme coordinate value method. The method was chosen to automatically distinguish contours by means of identifying the convexity and concavity of the contours. Thus, the disadvantages of single distinguishing methods, such as ray method's time-consuming and extreme coordinate method's fallibility, can be avoided. The experiments prove the adaptability, efficiency, and accuracy of the self-adaptive method. (authors)

  4. Temporal acoustic measures distinguish primary progressive apraxia of speech from primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joseph R; Hanley, Holly; Utianski, Rene; Clark, Heather; Strand, Edythe; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress. Sensitivity and specificity indices for the PPAOS versus the other groups were highest for longer multisyllabic words and sentences. For the PPAOS group, correlations between acoustic measures and perceptual ratings of AOS were moderately high to high. Several temporal measures used in this study may aid differential diagnosis and help quantify features of PPAOS that are distinct from those associated with PPA in which AOS is not present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible experiments to distinguish between different methods of treating the Pauli principle in nuclear potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolle, D.; Assenbaum, H.J.; Funck, C.; Langanke, K.

    1987-01-01

    The finite Pauli repulsion model of Walliser and Nakaichi-Maeda and the orthogonality condition model are two microscopically motivated potential models for the description of nuclear collisions which, however, differ from each other in the way they incorporate antisymmetrization effects into the nucleus-nucleus interaction. We have used α+α scattering at low energies as a tool to distinguish between the two different treatments of the Pauli principle. Both models are consistent with the presently available on-shell (elastic) and off-shell (bremsstrahlung) data. We suggest further measurements of α+α bremsstrahlung including the coplanar laboratory differential cross section in Harvard geometry at α-particle angles of around 27 0 and the γ-decay width of the 4 + resonance at E/sub c.m./ = 11.4 MeV, because in both cases the two models make significantly different predictions

  6. The aesthetics of hazardous waste - Distinguishing visual impacts from publicly perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.

    1986-01-01

    The need to address the aesthetic impacts of hazardous waste projects on the environment and the public stems from two sources: government regulations which specifically require assessment of aesthetic effects; and rapidly increasing public concern for perceived impacts and risks of existing or proposed hazardous waste facilities. How aesthetic issues are handled on hazardous waste projects can potentially have significant implications on the fate of those projects. These implications range from delays in the permitting process to denial of sites or costly legal judgments in damage suits. This paper discusses strategies for evaluating the aesthetic/perceptual aspects of hazardous waste. In particular, it focuses upon ways to distinguish visual concerns from other influences on public perceptions such as perceived health and safety risks

  7. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum creatinine level: a supplemental index to distinguish Duchenne muscular dystrophy from Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Yuling; Sun, Yiming; Liang, Yingyin; Li, Yaqin; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Langhui; Wen, Xingxuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn) level reflects disease severity. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r = -0.793) and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r = -0.791; both P Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P < 0.0125). After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β = 7.140,  t = 6.277,  P < 0.01). Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  9. Distinguishing obsessive features and worries: the role of thought-action fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, M E; Mennin, D S; Heimberg, R G

    2001-08-01

    Obsessions are a key feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and chronic worry is the cardinal feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, these two cognitive processes are conceptually very similar, and there is a need to determine how they differ. Recent studies have attempted to identify cognitive processes that may be differentially related to obsessive features and worry. In the current study we proposed that (1) obsessive features and worry could be differentiated and that (2) a measure of the cognitive process thought-action fusion would distinguish between obsessive features and worry, being strongly related to obsessive features after controlling for the effects of worry. These hypotheses were supported in a sample of 173 undergraduate students. Thought-action fusion may be a valuable construct in differentiating between obsessive features and worry.

  10. How to distinguish between bleeding and coagulated extradural hematomas on the plain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, O.F.; Espersen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Four types of extradural hematoma could be separated at examination of the plain CT scan in 54 extradural hematomas. Two major groups appear: the still bleeding hematoma showing either generally low attenuation values of ''holes'', and a coagulated homogenous type with generally high attenuation values. The attenuation values of the bleeding-liquid part of hematoma - were correlated to hemoglobin concentration in blood, to which clots were not related. Seven extradural hematomas grew and coagulated on repeated preoperative CT scans. In two cases intravenous contrast was given to the bleeding type of hematoma, and the contrast media appeared in ''holes'', but not in areas of high attenuation value. It is easy to distinguish between the different types of hematoma on the plain CT scan, and the separation by eye between the still bleeding and the coagulated extradural hematoma seems reliable. (orig.)

  11. Automatic Content Creation for Games to Train Students Distinguishing Similar Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwong-Hung; Leung, Howard; Tang, Jeff K. T.

    In learning Chinese, many students often have the problem of mixing up similar characters. This can cause misunderstanding and miscommunication in daily life. It is thus important for students learning the Chinese language to be able to distinguish similar characters and understand their proper usage. In this paper, we propose a game style framework in which the game content in identifying similar Chinese characters in idioms and words is created automatically. Our prior work on analyzing students’ Chinese handwriting can be applied in the similarity measure of Chinese characters. We extend this work by adding the component of radical extraction to speed up the search process. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more accurate and faster in finding more similar Chinese characters compared with the baseline method without considering the radical information.

  12. [Distinguishing the voice of self from others: the self-monitoring hypothesis of auditory hallucination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-08-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH), a psychopathological phenomenon where a person hears non-existent voices, commonly occur in schizophrenia. Recent cognitive and neuroscience studies suggest that AH may be the misattribution of one's own inner speech. Self-monitoring through neural feedback mechanisms allows individuals to distinguish between their own and others' actions, including speech. AH maybe the results of an individual's inability to discriminate between their own speech and that of others. The present paper tries to integrate the three theories (behavioral, brain, and model approaches) proposed to explain the self-monitoring hypothesis of AH. In addition, we investigate the lateralization of self-other representation in the brain, as suggested by recent studies, and discuss future research directions.

  13. Ronald F. Levant: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Ronald F. Levant as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. "Ronald F. Levant is one of the world's leading authorities on the psychology of men and masculinity. Through his pioneering research, he helped define gender role strain theory, fostered a multicultural understanding of fathering and masculinity issues, and developed and evaluated the Male Role Norms Inventory and the Normative Male Alexithymia Scale. He also established the empirical foundation for the normative male alexithymia hypothesis, which proposes that male socialization inhibits emotional expression in males, and he developed alexithymia reduction treatment, which is designed to prepare men to engage more fully in psychotherapy and to experience greater benefit from it." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A Biology Laboratory Exercise Using Macromolecule Assays to Distinguish Four Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte W. Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawbacks of cookbook-style laboratory exercises for General Biology courses is that students are not challenged to develop skills in scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and designing and carrying out experiments. Several traditional laboratory curricula include exercises involving semi-quantitative colorimetric assays to detect proteins (biuret test, reducing sugars (Benedict’s test, starch (Lugol’s test, and lipids (Sudan red test in a variety of easily prepared solutions (glucose, albumin, glycine, etc. and familiar food items (lemon juice, cornstarch, egg white, etc.. An extension of this lab exercise was developed to allow students to use their knowledge of the macromolecule assays to design an experiment to distinguish four types of “milk”: whole milk, skim milk, cream, and soy milk (rice milk or almond milk could also be included.

  16. Expression of a family of noncoding mitochondrial RNAs distinguishes normal from cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, Verónica A; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Landerer, Eduardo; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L; Martínez, Ronny; Lopez, Constanza; Gaete, Fancy; Toro, Viviana; Rodriguez, Ximena; Burzio, Luis O

    2009-06-09

    We reported the presence in human cells of a noncoding mitochondrial RNA that contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 815 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5' end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). The transcript contains a stem-loop structure and is expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to this transcript, normal human proliferating cells in culture express 2 antisense mitochondrial transcripts. These transcripts also contain stem-loop structures but strikingly they are down-regulated in tumor cell lines and tumor cells present in 17 different tumor types. The differential expression of these transcripts distinguishes normal from tumor cells and might contribute a unique vision on cancer biology and diagnostics.

  17. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  18. Distinguishing of artificial irradiation by α dose: a method of discriminating imitations of ancient pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin; Leung, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    If a modern pottery is artificially irradiated by γ-rays of 60 Co source, the modern will become ancient when the pottery is dated by the thermoluminescence technique. For distinguishing artificial irradiation a study was made. Meanwhile the 'fine-grain' and 'pre-dose' techniques were used respectively for measurement of the paleodose in a fine-grain sample from the same pottery. If the paleodose measured by the fine-grain technique is greater than that by the pre-dose techniques, we can affirm that the difference between two paleodoses is due to α dose and this paleodose containing α component results from natural radiation, the pottery therefore is ancient. If two paleodoses are equal approximately, i.e. α dose is not included in the paleodose, the paleodose comes from artificial γ irradiation and the pottery is an imitation

  19. Gravity modes as a way to distinguish between hydrogen- and helium-burning red giant stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedding, Timothy R.; Mosser, Benoit; Huber, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Red giants are evolved stars that have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their cores and instead burn hydrogen in a surrounding shell. Once a red giant is sufficiently evolved, the helium in the core also undergoes fusion. Outstanding issues in our understanding of red giants include...... uncertainties in the amount of mass lost at the surface before helium ignition and the amount of internal mixing from rotation and other processes. Progress is hampered by our inability to distinguish between red giants burning helium in the core and those still only burning hydrogen in a shell....... Asteroseismology offers a way forward, being a powerful tool for probing the internal structures of stars using their natural oscillation frequencies. Here we report observations of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants that permit a distinction between evolutionary stages to be made. We use high...

  20. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  1. Distinguishing the Higgs Boson from the Dilaton at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Skiba, Witold; Grinstein, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    It is likely that the LHC will observe a color- and charge-neutral scalar whose decays are consistent with those of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson. The Higgs interpretation of such a discovery is not the only possibility. For example, electroweak symmetry breaking could be triggered by a spontaneously broken, nearly conformal sector. The spectrum of states at the electroweak scale would then contain a narrow scalar resonance, the pseudo-Goldstone boson of conformal symmetry breaking, with Higgs-boson-like properties. If the conformal sector is strongly coupled, this pseudodilaton may be the only new state accessible at high energy colliders. We discuss the prospects for distinguishing this mode from a minimal Higgs boson at the LHC and ILC. The main discriminants between the two scenarios are (i) cubic self-interactions and (ii) a potential enhancement of couplings to massless SM gauge bosons

  2. Alfred Owre: revisiting the thought of a distinguished, though controversial, early twentieth-century dental educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2013-08-01

    Many in dental education are unfamiliar with the professional life and thought of Dr. Alfred Owre, a distinguished though controversial dental educator in the early twentieth century. Owre served as dean of dentistry at both the University of Minnesota, 1905-27, and Columbia University, 1927-33. He was also a member of the Carnegie Foundation's commission that developed the report Dental Education in the United States and Canada, written by Dr. William J. Gies. Owre was a controversial leader due to his creative and original ideas that challenged dental education and the profession. His assessment and critique of the problems of dental education in his era can readily be applied to contemporary dental education and the profession, just as his vision for transformative change resonates with ideas that continue to be advocated by some individuals today. This article also documents his tumultuous relationship with Gies.

  3. Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Serita, Fumio; Takaya, Mitsutoshi

    2009-10-01

    As the production of engineered nanomaterials quantitatively expands, the chance that workers involved in the manufacturing process will be exposed to nanoparticles also increases. A risk management system is needed for workplaces in the nanomaterial industry based on the precautionary principle. One of the problems in the risk management system is difficulty of exposure assessment. In this article, examples of exposure assessment in nanomaterial industries are reviewed with a focus on distinguishing engineered nanomaterial particles from background nanoparticles in workplace atmosphere. An approach by JNIOSH (Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) to quantitatively measure exposure to carbonaceous nanomaterials is also introduced. In addition to real-time measurements and qualitative analysis by electron microscopy, quantitative chemical analysis is necessary for quantitatively assessing exposure to nanomaterials. Chemical analysis is suitable for quantitative exposure measurement especially at facilities with high levels of background NPs.

  4. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  5. Sensory Neuron Fates Are Distinguished by a Transcriptional Switch that Regulates Dendrite Branch Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cody J.; O’Brien, Timothy; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Spencer, W. Clay; Feingold-Link, Elana; Husson, Steven J.; Hori, Sayaka; Mitani, Shohei; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensory neurons adopt distinct morphologies and functional modalities to mediate responses to specific stimuli. Transcription factors and their downstream effectors orchestrate this outcome but are incompletely defined. Here, we show that different classes of mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans are distinguished by the combined action of the transcription factors MEC-3, AHR-1, and ZAG-1. Low levels of MEC-3 specify the elaborate branching pattern of PVD nociceptors, whereas high MEC-3 is correlated with the simple morphology of AVM and PVM touch neurons. AHR-1 specifies AVM touch neuron fate by elevating MEC-3 while simultaneously blocking expression of nociceptive genes such as the MEC-3 target, the claudin-like membrane protein HPO-30, that promotes the complex dendritic branching pattern of PVD. ZAG-1 exercises a parallel role to prevent PVM from adopting the PVD fate. The conserved dendritic branching function of the Drosophila AHR-1 homolog, Spineless, argues for similar pathways in mammals. PMID:23889932

  6. Great apes distinguish true from false beliefs in an interactive helping task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buttelmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of circumstances requires an understanding of their psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the great apes, understand many psychological states of others, for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so far there is little evidence that they possess the key marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal (implicit false-belief test which is passed by human 1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, bonobos (Pan paniscus, and orangutans (Pongo abelii, distinguish between true and false beliefs in their helping behavior. Great apes thus may possess at least some basic understanding that an agent's actions are based on her beliefs about reality. Hence, such understanding might not be the exclusive province of the human species.

  7. Leonard A. Jason: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2015 recipient is Leonard A. Jason. Jason "is among the most prolific community psychology researchers whose work has had measurable and significant real-world impact. His work is characterized by a continuing desire to apply knowledge to major social problems. His research is methodologically sound and creative, collaborative, and participatory, thereby increasing stakeholders' support for proposed changes." Jason's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Adam M. Grant: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Measuring competition in plant communities where it is difficult to distinguish individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for measuring plant-plant interactions in undisturbed semi-natural and natural plant communities where it is difficult to distinguish individual plants is discussed. It is assumed that the ecological success of the different plant species in the plant community may be adequately...... measured by plant cover and vertical density (a measure that is correlated to the 3-dimensional space occupancy and biomass). Both plant cover and vertical density are measured in a standard pin-point analysis in the beginning and at the end of the growing season. In the outlined competition model....... The method allows direct measurements of the competitive effects of neighbouringzplants on plant performance and the estimation of parameters that describe the ecological processes of plantplant interactions during the growing season as well as the process of survival and recruitment between growing seasons...

  13. Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Murugan, Ramar; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2010-09-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the highly traded raw drugs and also used as a stimulative food additive in Europe and USA. While, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recognizes T. terrestris as Goksura, Tribulus lanuginosus and T. subramanyamii are also traded by the same name raising issues of quality control. The nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence were used to develop species-specific DNA markers. The species-specific markers efficiently amplified 295bp for T. terrestris (TT1F and TT1R), 300bp for T. lanuginosus (TL1F and TL1R) and 214bp for T. subramanyamii (TS1F and TS1R). These DNA markers can be used to distinguish T. terrestris from its adulterants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing Supersymmetry From Universal Extra Dimensions or Little Higgs Models With Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; Zaharijas, Gabrijela; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    There are compelling reasons to think that new physics will appear at or below the TeV-scale. It is not known what form this new physics will take, however. Although The Large Hadron collider is very likely to discover new particles associated with the TeV-scale, it may be difficult for it to determine the nature of those particles, whether superpartners, Kaluza-Klein modes or other states. In this article, we consider how direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments may provide information complementary to hadron colliders, which can be used to discriminate between supersymmetry, models with universal extra dimensions, and Little Higgs theories. We find that, in many scenarios, dark matter experiments can be effectively used to distinguish between these possibilities.

  15. The ethics and practical importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2006-03-01

    Nurses globally are required and expected to report nursing errors. As is clearly demonstrated in the international literature, fulfilling this requirement is not, however, without risks. In this discussion paper, the notion of 'nursing error', the practical and moral importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors and how a distinct definition of 'nursing error' fits with the new 'system approach' to human-error management in health care are critiqued. Drawing on international literature and two key case exemplars from the USA and Australia, arguments are advanced to support the view that although it is 'right' for nurses to report nursing errors, it will be very difficult for them to do so unless a non-punitive approach to nursing-error management is adopted.

  16. Arthur C. Graesser: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Arthur C. Graesser as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. "As a multifaceted psychologist, cognitive engineer of useful education and training technologies, and mentor of new talent for the world of applied and translational cognitive science, Arthur C. Graesser is the perfect role model, showing how a strong scholar and intellect can shape both research and practice. His work is a mix of top-tier scholarship in psychology, education, intelligent systems, and computational linguistics. He combines cognitive science excellence with bold use of psychological knowledge and intelligent systems to design new generations of learning opportunities and to help lay the foundation for a translational science of learning." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  18. Comments on "Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology:" Evidence-based interventions for grandiose bragging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited interventions receive sensationalized positive endorsement for adoption in school psychology practice. In this paper, the implications of the Lilienfeld et al. work are discussed within the context of the scientist-practitioner gap, scientific thinking and evaluation of scientific thinking, and negative results research. The authors have advanced our thinking on evidence-based practices in school psychology and education. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin: a newly reported benign entity to be distinguished from chordoma. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirra, J.M.; Brien, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are reported of a newly described intraosseous entity of vertebral bodies deemed ''giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin''. This entity is commonly mistaken for chordoma and must be distinguished from it as the consequences of misinterpretation may be serious. The clinical, radiological and histologic criteria that can be used to distinguish these two entities are emphasized. Included is a proposed pathogenesis for this lesion, its probable notochordal origin, and a review of other probable cases. (orig.)

  20. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  1. Trefoil Factor 3 as a Novel Biomarker to Distinguish Between Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an

  2. Alpha-fetoprotein as a tool to distinguish amniotic fluid from urine, vaginal discharge, and semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amir; Tal, Reshef; Haberman, Shoshana; McCalla, Sandra; Irani, Mohamad; Perlman, Jaqueline; Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-02-01

    To estimate whether alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be used to distinguish amniotic fluid absorbed in sanitary pads from other similarly absorbed substances (semen, urine, and normal vaginal discharge). A prospective cohort study. Urine and amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 52 pregnant women admitted for labor. Semen specimens were collected from 17 men undergoing infertility evaluation. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were measured directly from urine, amniotic fluid, and semen and from pads instilled with samples from these specimens. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were also measured from pads absorbed with normal vaginal discharge collected from 27 pregnant women. Alpha-fetoprotein levels in amniotic fluid (245.38 ± 21.03 ng/mL, n = 52) were significantly higher than those measured in maternal urine (0.84 ± 0.17 ng/mL, n = 52, P < .001), or semen (1.52 ± 0.35 ng/mL, n = 17, P < .001). The same trend was seen when AFP was extracted from pads: amniotic fluid levels (19.44 ± 1.98 ng/mL, n=52) were significantly higher than those of urine (undetectable, n=52), semen (undetectable, n = 17), or normal vaginal discharge (0.53 ± 0.16 ng/mL, n = 27, P < .001). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated 96.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for distinguishing the presence of amniotic fluid from normal vaginal discharge on sanitary pads (cutoff 3.88 ng/mL, area under the curve 0.99). When the diagnosis of rupture of membranes is in doubt, AFP levels can assist in differentiating amniotic fluid from other bodily fluids. A method that utilizes sanitary pads and an assay for AFP quantification may be an accurate and convenient way to confirm the diagnosis of rupture of membranes.

  3. Distinguishing values from science in decision making: Setting harvest quotas for mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Cooley, Hilary; Gude, Justin A.; Kolbe, Jay; Nowak, J. Joshua; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Sells, Sarah N.; Thompson, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of science and human values can be difficult to distinguish when informal processes are used to make complex and contentious decisions in wildlife management. Structured Decision Making (SDM) offers a formal process for making such decisions, where scientific results and concepts can be disentangled from the values of differing stakeholders. We used SDM to formally integrate science and human values for a citizen working group of ungulate hunting advocates, lion hunting advocates, and outfitters convened to address the contentious allocation of harvest quotas for mountain lions (Puma concolor) in west‐central Montana, USA, during 2014. A science team consisting of mountain lion biologists and population ecologists convened to support the working group. The science team used integrated population models that incorporated 4 estimates of mountain lion density to estimate population trajectories for 5 alternative harvest quotas developed by the working group. Results of the modeling predicted that effects of each harvest quota were consistent across the 4 density estimates; harvest quotas affected predicted population trajectories for 5 years after implementation but differences were not strong. Based on these results, the focus of the working group changed to differences in values among stakeholders that were the true impediment to allocating harvest quotas. By distinguishing roles of science and human values in this process, the working group was able to collaboratively recommend a compromise solution. This solution differed little from the status quo that had been the focus of debate, but the SDM process produced understanding and buy‐in among stakeholders involved, reducing disagreements, misunderstanding, and unproductive arguments founded on informal application of scientific data and concepts. Whereas investments involved in conducting SDM may be unnecessary for many decisions in wildlife management, the investment may be beneficial for

  4. Distinguishing Nitro vs Nitrito Coordination in Cytochrome c' Using Vibrational Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Zach N; Mandella, Brian L; Sen, Kakali; Kekilli, Demet; Hough, Michael A; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Strange, Richard W; Andrew, Colin R

    2017-11-06

    Nitrite coordination to heme cofactors is a key step in the anaerobic production of the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). An ambidentate ligand, nitrite has the potential to coordinate via the N- (nitro) or O- (nitrito) atoms in a manner that can direct its reactivity. Distinguishing nitro vs nitrito coordination, along with the influence of the surrounding protein, is therefore of particular interest. In this study, we probed Fe(III) heme-nitrite coordination in Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP), an NO carrier that excludes anions in its native state but that readily binds nitrite (K d ∼ 0.5 mM) following a distal Leu16 → Gly mutation to remove distal steric constraints. Room-temperature resonance Raman spectra (407 nm excitation) identify ν(Fe-NO 2 ), δ(ONO), and ν s (NO 2 ) nitrite ligand vibrations in solution. Illumination with 351 nm UV light results in photoconversion to {FeNO} 6 and {FeNO} 7 states, enabling FTIR measurements to distinguish ν s (NO 2 ) and ν as (NO 2 ) vibrations from differential spectra. Density functional theory calculations highlight the connections between heme environment, nitrite coordination mode, and vibrational properties and confirm that nitrite binds to L16G AXCP exclusively through the N atom. Efforts to obtain the nitrite complex crystal structure were hampered by photochemistry in the X-ray beam. Although low dose crystal structures could be modeled with a mixed nitrite (nitro)/H 2 O distal population, their photosensitivity and partial occupancy underscores the value of the vibrational approach. Overall, this study sheds light on steric determinants of heme-nitrite binding and provides vibrational benchmarks for future studies of heme protein nitrite reactions.

  5. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Strategies for Distinguishing Abiotic Chemistry from Martian Biochemistry in Samples Returned from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Callahan, M. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Stern, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    A key goal in the search for evidence of extinct or extant life on Mars will be the identification of chemical biosignatures including complex organic molecules common to all life on Earth. These include amino acids, the monomer building blocks of proteins and enzymes, and nucleobases, which serve as the structural basis of information storage in DNA and RNA. However, many of these organic compounds can also be formed abiotically as demonstrated by their prevalence in carbonaceous meteorites [1]. Therefore, an important challenge in the search for evidence of life on Mars will be distinguishing between abiotic chemistry of either meteoritic or martian origin from any chemical biosignatures from an extinct or extant martian biota. Although current robotic missions to Mars, including the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the planned 2018 ExoMars rovers, will have the analytical capability needed to identify these key classes of organic molecules if present [2,3], return of a diverse suite of martian samples to Earth would allow for much more intensive laboratory studies using a broad array of extraction protocols and state-of-theart analytical techniques for bulk and spatially resolved characterization, molecular detection, and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions that may be required for unambiguous confirmation of martian life. Here we will describe current state-of-the-art laboratory analytical techniques that have been used to characterize the abundance and distribution of amino acids and nucleobases in meteorites, Apollo samples, and comet- exposed materials returned by the Stardust mission with an emphasis on their molecular characteristics that can be used to distinguish abiotic chemistry from biochemistry as we know it. The study of organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites is highly relevant to Mars sample return analysis, since exogenous organic matter should have accumulated in the martian regolith over the last several billion years and the

  7. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  8. Acceptance of the 2014 Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award by Carla Koretsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Carla

    2015-06-01

    I am deeply touched to have received the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. It was a great surprise when I received the notice that I had been chosen for the award. It has been a tremendous pleasure to work on behalf of student members of the Geochemical Society, Japanese Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemists to organize the student travel grants over the past few years. Certainly, this is not an effort that I undertook on my own. Many, many members of the GS, the JGS and the EAG generously donated their time and expertise to serve as reviewers for the many travel grant applicants we receive each year. Seth Davis, the GS Chief Operating Officer, spent countless hours helping to organize applications, the website, distribution of funds and many other aspects of the competition. Without Seth and the many expert reviewers, we could not run the travel grant program each year and provide this important financial support to allow more students to experience the Goldschmidt Conference. I also enjoyed my time as Geochemical News co-editor, and I should point out that GN during those years was ably co-edited by Johnson Haas. It has been a pleasure to see Elements take off, and GN evolve into a timely source of important announcements and information about cutting-edge science since I stepped down as co-editor. I feel very fortunate to work with so many outstanding colleagues in the global geochemical community, and I am a little embarrassed, and also very grateful, to have been selected for the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. Thank you!

  9. MVP immunohistochemistry is a useful adjunct in distinguishing leiomyosarcoma from leiomyoma and leiomyoma with bizarre nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintel, Nicholas J; Luebker, Stephen A; Lele, Subodh M; Koepsell, Scott A

    2018-03-01

    Morphologically, distinguishing between leiomyoma (LM) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is not always straightforward, especially with benign variants such as bizarre leiomyoma (BLM). To identify potential markers of malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors, proteomic studies were performed followed by assessment of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from tumors (n = 23) diagnosed as LM, BLM, and LMS (using published criteria) were selected for the study. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry was applied to pooled samples of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded LM and LMS tumor tissue to assay the relative protein quantities and look for expression patterns differentiating the 2 tumor types. A total of 592 proteins were quantified, and 10 proteins were differentially expressed between LM and LMS. Select proteins were chosen for evaluation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) based on antibody availability and biologic relevance in the literature. IHC was performed on a tissue microarray, and intensity was evaluated using imaging software. Major vault protein (MVP) and catechol O-methyltransferase had 3.05 and 13.94 times higher expression in LMS relative to LM by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry, respectively. By IHC, MVP (clone 1014; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX) was found to be 50% sensitive and 100% specific when comparing LMS to LM. Catechol O-methyltransferase (clone FL-271; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) had a sensitivity of 38% and a specificity of 88%. Six of 7 BLM had expression of MVP similar to LM. Immunohistochemical staining for MVP is a useful adjunct in distinguishing LMS from LM and BLM in difficult cases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Optical spectroscopy techniques can accurately distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couapel, Jean-Philippe; Senhadji, Lotfi; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verhoest, Grégory; Lavastre, Olivier; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Bensalah, Karim

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: There is little known about optical spectroscopy techniques ability to evaluate renal tumours. This study shows for the first time the ability of Raman and optical reflectance spectroscopy to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours in an ex vivo environment. We plan to develop this optical assistance in the operating room in the near future. To evaluate the ability of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours at surgery. Between March and October 2011, RS and ORS spectra were prospectively acquired on surgical renal specimens removed for suspicion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Optical measurements were done immediately after surgery. Optical signals were normalised to ensure comparison between spectra. Initial and final portions of each spectrum were removed to avoid artefacts. A support vector machine (SVM) was built and tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Classification scores, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated on the entire population and in patients with tumours of 700 optical spectra were obtained and submitted to SVM classification. The SVM could recognise benign and malignant renal tumours with an accuracy of 96% (RS) and 88% (ORS) in the whole population and with an accuracy of 93% (RS) and 95% (ORS) in the present subset of small renal tumours (Benign and malignant renal tumours can be accurately discriminated by a combination of RS and ORS. In vivo experiments are needed to further assess the value of optical spectroscopy techniques. © 2012 BJU International.

  11. Impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity distinguishes hypersensitive esophagus from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Marzio; de Bortoli, Nicola; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Furnari, Manuele; Martinucci, Irene; Tolone, Salvatore; Farioli, Andrea; Marchi, Santino; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2017-04-01

    Hypersensitive esophagus (HE) is defined by endoscopy-negative heartburn with a normal acid exposure time but positive symptom association probability (SAP) and/or symptom index (SI) on impedance-pH monitoring, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) responsiveness. Functional heartburn (FH) is distinguished by negative SAP/SI and PPI refractoriness. The clinical value of SAP and SI has been questioned. We aimed to investigate whether impairment of chemical clearance and of mucosal integrity, expressed by the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and the mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI), characterize HE independently of SAP and SI. Impedance-pH tracings from PPI-responsive endoscopy-negative patients, 125 with nonerosive reflux disease and 108 with HE, distinguished by an abnormal and a normal acid exposure time, and from 70 patients with FH were retrospectively selected and blindly reviewed. The mean PSPW index and MNBI were significantly lower in nonerosive reflux disease (30 %, 1378 Ω) than in HE (51 %; 2274 Ω) and in both of them as compared with FH (76 %; 3445 Ω) (P = 0.0001). Both the PSPW index (adjusted odds ratio 0.863, P = 0.001) and the MNBI (adjusted odds ratio 0.998, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of HE; with their combined assessment, the area under the curve on receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.957. SAP and/or SI was positive in 67 of the 108 HE patients (62 %), whereas the PSPW index and/or MNBI was abnormal in 99 of the 108 HE patients (92 %; P < 0.0001). HE is characterized by impairment of chemical clearance and mucosal integrity, which explains the increased reflux perception. When SAP and SI afford uncertain results, the PSPW index and MNBI should be analyzed.

  12. Distinguishing Antimicrobial Models with Different Resistance Mechanisms via Population Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling is increasingly used for antimicrobial drug development and optimization of dosage regimens, but systematic simulation-estimation studies to distinguish between competing PD models are lacking. This study compared the ability of static and dynamic in vitro infection models to distinguish between models with different resistance mechanisms and support accurate and precise parameter estimation. Monte Carlo simulations (MCS were performed for models with one susceptible bacterial population without (M1 or with a resting stage (M2, a one population model with adaptive resistance (M5, models with pre-existing susceptible and resistant populations without (M3 or with (M4 inter-conversion, and a model with two pre-existing populations with adaptive resistance (M6. For each model, 200 datasets of the total bacterial population were simulated over 24h using static antibiotic concentrations (256-fold concentration range or over 48h under dynamic conditions (dosing every 12h; elimination half-life: 1h. Twelve-hundred random datasets (each containing 20 curves for static or four curves for dynamic conditions were generated by bootstrapping. Each dataset was estimated by all six models via population PD modeling to compare bias and precision. For M1 and M3, most parameter estimates were unbiased (<10% and had good imprecision (<30%. However, parameters for adaptive resistance and inter-conversion for M2, M4, M5 and M6 had poor bias and large imprecision under static and dynamic conditions. For datasets that only contained viable counts of the total population, common statistical criteria and diagnostic plots did not support sound identification of the true resistance mechanism. Therefore, it seems advisable to quantify resistant bacteria and characterize their MICs and resistance mechanisms to support extended simulations and translate from in vitro experiments to animal infection models and

  13. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, André F; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects. We additionally investigated whether classification would be mood state independent by including depressed and remitted subjects alike. We applied Gaussian process classifiers to investigate the discriminatory power of structural MRI (gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas) and resting-state fMRI (resting-state networks implicated in mood disorders: default mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], and lateralized frontoparietal networks [FPNs]) in depressed (n=42) and remitted (n=49) medication-free subjects with MDD and BD. Depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be classified based on the gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas as well as DMN functional connectivity with 69.1% prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy using the FPNs and SN did not exceed chance level. It was not possible to discriminate between remitted subjects with MDD and BD. For the first time, we showed that medication-free subjects with MDD and BD can be differentiated based on structural MRI as well as resting-state functional connectivity. Importantly, the results indicated that research concerning diagnostic neuroimaging tools distinguishing between MDD and BD should consider mood state as only depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be correctly classified. Future studies, in larger samples are needed to investigate whether the results can be generalized to medication-naïve or first-episode subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  14. Academic Self-Concept, Achievement Goals, and Achievement: Is Their Relation the Same for Academic Achievers and Underachievers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students' cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample…

  15. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or spondyloarthritis (SpA, both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy donors (HD were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed.There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS, CD127 (IL-7 receptor α, CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS.Combined with the currently available

  16. Distinguishing ischaemic optic neuropathy from optic neuritis by ganglion cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich-Malona, Natalie; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Hedges, Thomas R; Patel, Nimesh; Monaco, Caitlin; Cole, Emily

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether a pattern of altitudinal ganglion cell loss, as detected and measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used to distinguish non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from optic neuritis (ON) during the acute phase, and whether the rate or severity of ganglion cell loss differs between the two diseases. We performed a retrospective, case-control study of 44 patients (50 eyes) with ON or NAION and 44 age-matched controls. Non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy and ON patients had OCT at presentation and four consecutive follow-up visits. Controls had OCT at one point in time. The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was evaluated in the macula, and the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) was evaluated in the peripapillary region. Ganglion cell complex thickness, RNFL thickness and GCC mean superior and inferior hemispheric difference were compared between NAION and ON patients at each time-point using unpaired t-tests and between disease and control subjects at first measurement using paired t-tests. Mean time from onset of symptoms to initial presentation was 10.7 ± 6.6 days in NAION and 11.7 ± 8.6 days in ON (p = 0.67). There was a significantly greater vertical hemispheric difference in GCC thickness in NAION patients than ON patients at all time-points (5.5-10.7 μm versus 3.1-3.6 μm, p = 0.01-0.049). Mean GCC thickness was significantly decreased at less than 2 weeks after onset in NAION compared to age-matched controls (72.1 μm versus 82.1 μm, p < 0.001), as well as in ON compared to age-matched controls (74.3 μm versus 84.5 μm, p < 0.001). Progression and severity of GCC and RNFL loss did not differ significantly between NAION and ON. A quantitative comparison of mean superior and inferior hemispheric GCC thickness with OCT may be used to distinguish NAION from ON. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases: a prognostic feature in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Binse, Ina; Koch, Andrea; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Dogan, Semih; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Biermann, Kim [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Confessional Hospital ' ' Barmherzige Brueder' ' , Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trier (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Distant metastasis has a negative impact on survival in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The timing of this manifestation, however, is of unknown prognostic relevance. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the potential significance of discriminating synchronous versus metachronous distant metastases (SDM vs. MDM) for the outcome of patients with DTC. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of n = 89 patients with distant metastases of DTC (43 with follicular, 46 with papillary DTC histology; mean age 52.6 ± 17.7 years) undergoing radioiodine treatment at our institution. All patients were treated with the same protocol consisting of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT, 3.7 GBq) and one post-ablation treatment after 3 months (3.7-11.1 GBq). Further cycles of RIT were administered for recurrent, progressive or newly developed metastatic disease. We distinguished 2 types of distant metastases according to the time of manifestation: SDM (within ≤12 months after DTC diagnosis) and MDM (occurring >12 months after diagnosis). Tumor-related survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Uni- and multivariate analyses including the Cox proportional hazards model were performed with a significance level of p < 0.05. The mean follow-up period was 13.8 ± 1.2 years. SDM were present in 49 (55.1 %), MDM in 40 (44.9 %) patients. MDM were associated with shorter tumor-related survival (p = 0.002). 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 68.5 % and 34.8 % for MDM, and 84.3 % and 66.9 % for SDM, respectively. Within both age subgroups of <45 and ≥45 years, SDM were also linked with longer survival. No effect on tumor-related survival was found for the co-variables sex, lymph node metastases and histologic type. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases may add an important prognostic feature to risk stratification in DTC, as proven metachronous appearance is associated with impaired survival. (orig.)

  18. CCR6(+) Th cell populations distinguish ACPA positive from ACPA negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Davelaar, Nadine; Vroman, Heleen; Hazes, Johanna M W; de Jong, Pascal H P; Lubberts, Erik

    2015-11-30

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be separated into two major subpopulations based on the absence or presence of serum anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). The more severe disease course in ACPA(+) RA and differences in treatment outcome between these subpopulations suggest that ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) RA are different disease subsets. The identification of T-helper (Th) cells specifically recognizing citrullinated peptides, combined with the strong association between HLA-DRB1 and ACPA positivity, point toward a pathogenic role of Th cells in ACPA(+) RA. In this context we recently identified a potential pathogenic role for CCR6(+) Th cells in RA. Therefore, we examined whether Th cell population distributions differ by ACPA status. We performed a nested matched case-control study including 27 ACPA(+) and 27 ACPA(-) treatment-naive early RA patients matched for disease activity score in 44 joints, presence of rheumatoid factor, sex, age, duration of complaints and presence of erosions. CD4(+)CD45RO(+) (memory) Th cell distribution profiles from these patients were generated based on differential chemokine receptor expression and related with disease duration. ACPA status was not related to differences in total CD4(+) T cell or memory Th cell proportions. However, ACPA(+) patients had significantly higher proportions of Th cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3. Similar proportions of CCR4(+) and CCR10(+) Th cells were found. Within the CCR6(+) cell population, four Th subpopulations were distinguished based on differential chemokine receptor expression: Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR10(-)), Th17.1 (CXCR3(+)), Th22 (CCR4(+)CCR10(+)) and CCR4/CXCR3 double-positive (DP) cells. In particular, higher proportions of Th22 (p = 0.02), Th17.1 (p = 0.03) and CCR4/CXCR3 DP (p = 0.01) cells were present in ACPA(+) patients. In contrast, ACPA status was not associated with differences in Th1 (CCR6(-)CXCR3(+); p = 0.90), Th2 (CCR6(-)CCR4(+); p = 0.27) and T

  19. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Konno, Takahiko; Wakao, Rika; Fujita, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS) or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA), both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy donors (HD) were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed. There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK) receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM) family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), CD127 (IL-7 receptor α), CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS. Combined with the currently available

  20. ethiopian students' achievement challenges in science education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Oli Negassa. Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia ... achievement in science education across selected preparatory schools of Ethiopia. The .... To what extent do students' achievements vary across grade levels, regions,.

  1. Self-Reported Measures Of Strength And Sport-Specific Skills Distinguish Ranking In An International Online Fitness Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-02-08

    To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.

  2. FFTF operations - 1980 - a year of achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Bliss, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 saw FFTF achieve initial criticality, proceed through an intense maintenance and system testing period, and achieve a remarkably successful two-day full power (400 MW) demonstration run. These achievements were preceded by two and one-half years of plant startup activity

  3. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background.…

  4. Distinguishing the Chinese materia medica Tiepishihu from similar Dendrobium species of the same genus using histological and microscopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Yan, Hua; Tai, Hai-Chuan; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Long; Guo, Zeng-Xi; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wei, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese Materia Medica, Tiepishihu, used as a tonic for over one thousand years, is a well-known precious medicine in China. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, its source is the species Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, which is distinguished from other species in Dendrobium genus. However, these species from the same genus are similar with Tiepishihu and caused confusion in the market. To find a quick and simple method to distinguish Tiepishihu from other similar species, histologic and microscopic methods were combined together to investigate the transverse section of stem of Tiepishihu and other similar species. Phloroglucinol test solution with hydrochloric acid was used to reveal the lignified tissue by staining the transverse section of Tiepishihu and similar species. Results revealed the unique identification characteristics to distinguish Tiepishihu from similar species, which were difficult to distinguish by other methods. The identification characteristics of Tiepishihu include the cells of vascular bundle sheath were stained red, parenchyma cells were not stained red. What's more, other species can be distinguished from each other with microscopic and histological characteristics. These characteristics proved stable and can be easily observed by normal light microscopic examination. This method is rapid, accurate, stable, and inexpensive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Number of patient-reported allergies helps distinguish epilepsy from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Larimer, Phillip; Bourgeois, James A; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are relatively common, accounting for 5-40% of visits to tertiary epilepsy centers. Inpatient video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis, but additional positive predictive tools are necessary given vEEG's relatively scarce availability. In this study, we investigated if the number of patient-reported allergies distinguishes between PNES and epilepsy. Excessive allergy-reporting, like PNES, may reflect somatization. Using electronic medical records, ICD-9 codes, and text-identification algorithms to search EEG reports, we identified 905 cases of confirmed PNES and 5187 controls with epilepsy but no PNES. Patients with PNES averaged more self-reported allergies than patients with epilepsy alone (1.93 vs. 1.00, pallergies, each additional allergy linearly increased the percentage of patients with PNES by 2.98% (R(2)=0.71) such that with ≥12 allergies, 12/28 patients (42.8%) had PNES compared to 349/3368 (11.6%) of the population with no allergies (odds ratio=6.49). This relationship remained unchanged with logistic regression analysis. We conclude that long allergy lists may help identify patients with PNES. We hypothesize that a tendency to inaccurately self-report allergies reflects a maladaptive externalization of psychologic distress and that a similar mechanism may be responsible for PNES in some patients with somatic symptom disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolite analysis distinguishes between mice with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and healthy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönig, Sarah; Recke, Andreas; Hirose, Misa; Ludwig, Ralf J; Seeger, Karsten

    2013-06-26

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare skin blistering disease with a prevalence of 0.2/ million people. EBA is characterized by autoantibodies against type VII collagen. Type VII collagen builds anchoring fibrils that are essential for the dermal-epidermal junction. The pathogenic relevance of antibodies against type VII collagen subdomains has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the multitude of clinical and immunological data, no information on metabolic changes exists. We used an animal model of EBA to obtain insights into metabolomic changes during EBA. Sera from mice with immunization-induced EBA and control mice were obtained and metabolites were isolated by filtration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and random forest. The metabolic pattern of immunized mice and control mice could be clearly distinguished with PCA and PLS-DA. Metabolites that contribute to the discrimination could be identified via random forest. The observed changes in the metabolic pattern of EBA sera, i.e. increased levels of amino acid, point toward an increased energy demand in EBA. Knowledge about metabolic changes due to EBA could help in future to assess the disease status during treatment. Confirming the metabolic changes in patients needs probably large cohorts.

  7. Serum Creatinine Level: A Supplemental Index to Distinguish Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To improve assessment of dystrophinopathy, the aim of this study was to identify whether serum creatinine (Crn level reflects disease severity. Methods. Biochemical, Vignos score, and genetic data were collected on 212 boys with dystrophinopathy. Results. Serum Crn level had a strong inverse correlation with Vignos score by simple correlation (r=-0.793 and partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age, height, and weight (r=-0.791; both P<0.01. Serum Crn level was significantly higher in patients with in-frame than out-of-frame mutations (Z=-4.716, P<0.01 and in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD patients than Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients at ages 4, 5, 7, and 9 yr (all P<0.0125. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, BMD patients still had a significantly higher serum Crn level than DMD patients (β=7.140, t=6.277, P<0.01. Conclusions. Serum Crn level reflected disease severity and may serve as a supplemental index to distinguish DMD from BMD in clinical practice.

  8. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  9. ψ-Epistemic Models are Exponentially Bad at Explaining the Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    The status of the quantum state is perhaps the most controversial issue in the foundations of quantum theory. Is it an epistemic state (state of knowledge) or an ontic state (state of reality)? In realist models of quantum theory, the epistemic view asserts that nonorthogonal quantum states correspond to overlapping probability measures over the true ontic states. This naturally accounts for a large number of otherwise puzzling quantum phenomena. For example, the indistinguishability of nonorthogonal states is explained by the fact that the ontic state sometimes lies in the overlap region, in which case there is nothing in reality that could distinguish the two states. For this to work, the amount of overlap of the probability measures should be comparable to the indistinguishability of the quantum states. In this Letter, I exhibit a family of states for which the ratio of these two quantities must be ≤2de-cd in Hilbert spaces of dimension d that are divisible by 4. This implies that, for large Hilbert space dimension, the epistemic explanation of indistinguishability becomes implausible at an exponential rate as the Hilbert space dimension increases.

  10. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in 60 Co, 152 Eu and 228 Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of IOTA Simple Ultrasound Rules to Distinguish Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sugandha; Kaur, Amarjit; Mohi, Jaswinder Kaur; Sibia, Preet Kanwal; Kaur, Navkiran

    2017-08-01

    IOTA stands for International Ovarian Tumour Analysis group. Ovarian cancer is one of the common cancers in women and is diagnosed at later stage in majority. The limiting factor for early diagnosis is lack of standardized terms and procedures in gynaecological sonography. Introduction of IOTA rules has provided some consistency in defining morphological features of ovarian masses through a standardized examination technique. To evaluate the efficacy of IOTA simple ultrasound rules in distinguishing benign and malignant ovarian tumours and establishing their use as a tool in early diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. A hospital based case control prospective study was conducted. Patients with suspected ovarian pathology were evaluated using IOTA ultrasound rules and designated as benign or malignant. Findings were correlated with histopathological findings. Collected data was statistically analysed using chi-square test and kappa statistical method. Out of initial 55 patients, 50 patients were included in the final analysis who underwent surgery. IOTA simple rules were applicable in 45 out of these 50 patients (90%). The sensitivity for the detection of malignancy in cases where IOTA simple rules were applicable was 91.66% and the specificity was 84.84%. Accuracy was 86.66%. Classifying inconclusive cases as malignant, the sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 80% respectively. High level of agreement was found between USG and histopathological diagnosis with Kappa value as 0.323. IOTA simple ultrasound rules were highly sensitive and specific in predicting ovarian malignancy preoperatively yet being reproducible, easy to train and use.

  12. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ('feelings'), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ('attribution', 'anthropomorphizing'), our ability to think and talk about emotion ('concepts of emotion', 'semantic knowledge of emotion') and the behaviors caused by an emotion ('expression of emotions', 'emotional reactions'). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of 'emotion'. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A

    2016-11-01

    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Distinguishing pathological from constitutional small for gestational age births in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Cande V; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2009-10-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) can occur following a pathological process or may represent constitutionally small fetuses. However, distinguishing these processes is often difficult, especially in large studies, where the term SGA is often used as a proxy for restricted fetal growth. Since biologic variation in fetal size is largely a third trimester phenomenon, we hypothesized that the definition of SGA at term may include a sizeable proportion of constitutionally small fetuses. In contrast, since biologic variation in fetal size is not fully expressed in (early) preterm gestations, it is plausible that SGA in early preterm gestations would comprise a large proportion of growth restricted fetuses. We compared mortality and morbidity rates between SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies. A population-based study of over 19million non-malformed, singleton births (1995-04) in the United States was performed. Gestational age (24-44weeks) was based on a clinical estimate. SGA and AGA were defined as sex-specific birthweight constitutionally small.

  15. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  16. Zebra finches can use positional and transitional cues to distinguish vocal element strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiani; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-08-01

    Learning sequences is of great importance to humans and non-human animals. Many motor and mental actions, such as singing in birds and speech processing in humans, rely on sequential learning. At least two mechanisms are considered to be involved in such learning. The chaining theory proposes that learning of sequences relies on memorizing the transitions between adjacent items, while the positional theory suggests that learners encode the items according to their ordinal position in the sequence. Positional learning is assumed to dominate sequential learning. However, human infants exposed to a string of speech sounds can learn transitional (chaining) cues. So far, it is not clear whether birds, an increasingly important model for examining vocal processing, can do this. In this study we use a Go-Nogo design to examine whether zebra finches can use transitional cues to distinguish artificially constructed strings of song elements. Zebra finches were trained with sequences differing in transitional and positional information and next tested with novel strings sharing positional and transitional similarities with the training strings. The results show that they can attend to both transitional and positional cues and that their sequential coding strategies can be biased toward transitional cues depending on the learning context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  18. Flexibility to contingency changes distinguishes habitual and goal-directed strategies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie J; Keramati, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Decision-making in the real world presents the challenge of requiring flexible yet prompt behavior, a balance that has been characterized in terms of a trade-off between a slower, prospective goal-directed model-based (MB) strategy and a fast, retrospective habitual model-free (MF) strategy. Theory predicts that flexibility to changes in both reward values and transition contingencies can determine the relative influence of the two systems in reinforcement learning, but few studies have manipulated the latter. Therefore, we developed a novel two-level contingency change task in which transition contingencies between states change every few trials; MB and MF control predict different responses following these contingency changes, allowing their relative influence to be inferred. Additionally, we manipulated the rate of contingency changes in order to determine whether contingency change volatility would play a role in shifting subjects between a MB and MF strategy. We found that human subjects employed a hybrid MB/MF strategy on the task, corroborating the parallel contribution of MB and MF systems in reinforcement learning. Further, subjects did not remain at one level of MB/MF behaviour but rather displayed a shift towards more MB behavior over the first two blocks that was not attributable to the rate of contingency changes but rather to the extent of training. We demonstrate that flexibility to contingency changes can distinguish MB and MF strategies, with human subjects utilizing a hybrid strategy that shifts towards more MB behavior over blocks, consequently corresponding to a higher payoff.

  19. Distinguishing between attention-deficit hyperactivity and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peadon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Peadon, Elizabeth J ElliottDiscipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetal alcohol exposure. The behavioral phenotype of children with FASD includes difficulties with executive function, memory, planning, processing speed, and attention. Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is diagnosed in up to 94% of individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, the exact relationship between FASD and ADHD is unclear. There is some evidence that ADHD in FASD may be a specific clinical subtype and thus may require a different treatment approach. Although traditional behavioral observation scales may not distinguish between the two groups, there is evidence that children with FASD have a different profile on the four-factor model of attention than children with ADHD who do not have FASD. There is a paucity of good scientific evidence on effective interventions for individuals with ADHD and FASD. There is weak evidence that children with FASD and ADHD may have a better response to dexamphetamine than methylphenidate. There is a strong need for larger, high quality studies to examine the relationship between ADHD and FASD and identify effective treatments because management of inattention and hyperactivity may improve learning and ameliorate the common secondary disabilities associated with FASD.Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  20. Can MRI distinguish between acute partial and complete anterior cruciate ligament tear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Minoru; Yamagishi, Tsuneo.

    1996-01-01

    A study to elucidate the title problem was done. Subjects were 8 patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear diagnosed by both MRI and arthroscopy within 6 weeks after trauma, 14 patients with complete ACL tear diagnosed similarly and 10 control patients with arthroscopically intact ACL. Proton density-and T2-weighted MRI imaging of the sagittal section of the knee was performed with 1.5 T magnets (Siemens Magnetom H15, Shimadzu SMT150GUX) by using a dedicated knee coil, with slice thickness of 4-5 mm and 14-16 cm field of view. The examination was done on the primary (discontinuity of low signal band, abnormal axis of the ligament and focal or diffuse increased signal intensity) and secondary (bone bruise, anterior translocation of the tibia and PCL curvature value) signs of ACL tear. In proton density-weighted sagittal images, it was found easy to distinguish acute partial ACL tear from normal ligament but not from complete ACL tear. In T2-weighted images, partial ACL tear was suggested to keep continuity of the ligament. (H.O.)

  1. Trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting by quantitative real-time PCR successfully distinguishes sibling human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard T; Su, Jing; Tao, Xin; Forman, Eric J; Hong, Kathleen H; Taylor, Deanne; Treff, Nathan R

    2014-11-01

    To validate a novel and more practical system for trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting which reliably distinguishes sibling embryos from each other. In this prospective and blinded study two-cell and 5-cell samples from commercially available sibling cell lines and excess DNA from trophectoderm biopsies of sibling human blastocysts were evaluated for accurate assignment of relationship using qPCR-based allelic discrimination from 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low allele frequency variation and high heterozygosity. Cell samples with self relationships averaged 95.1 ± 5.9 % similarity. Sibling relationships averaged 57.2 ± 5.9 % similarity for all 40 SNPs, and 40.8 ± 8.2 % similarity for the 25 informative SNPs. Assignment of relationships was accomplished with 100 % accuracy for cell lines and embryos. These data demonstrate the first trophectoderm qPCR-based DNA fingerprinting technology capable of unequivocal discrimination of sibling human embryos. This methodology will empower research and development of new markers of, and interventions that influence embryonic reproductive potential.

  2. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Mumps Hoshino and Torii vaccine strains were distinguished from circulating wild strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Aseptic meningitis and acute parotitis have been observed after mumps vaccination. Mumps outbreaks have been reported in Japan because of low vaccine coverage, and molecular differentiation is required to determine whether these cases are vaccine associated. RT-nested PCR was performed in the small hydrophobic gene region, and viruses were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 584 nucleotides were amplified. The PCR product of the Hoshino strain was cut into two fragments (313 and 271 nucleotides) by MfeI; that of the Torii strain was digested with EcoT22I, resulting in 332- and 252-nucleotide fragments. Both strains were genotype B and had an XbaI site, resulting in two fragments: 299 and 285 nucleotides. Current circulating wild types were cut only by XbaI or MfeI. However, the MfeI site of the wild types was different from that of the Hoshino strain, resulting in 451- and 133-nucleotide fragments. Using three restriction enzymes, two mumps vaccine strains were distinguished from wild types, and this separation was applied to the identification of vaccine-related adverse events.

  4. Indication to distinguish the burst region of coal gas from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-yuan Cheng; Hong-wei Tang; Lin Xu; Yan-fang Li [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-09-15

    The velocity of an over-burst coal seam is about 1/3 compared to a normal coal seam based on laboratory test results. This can be considered as a basis to confirm the area of coal and gas burst by seismic exploration technique. Similarly, the simulation result of the theoretical seismic model shows that there is obvious distinction between over-burst coal and normal coal based on the coal reflection's travel-time, energy and frequency. The results from the actual seismic data acquired in the coal and gas over-burst cases is consistent with that of the laboratory and seismic modeling; that is, in the coal and gas burst region, seismic reflection travel time is delayed, seismic amplitude is weakened and seismic frequency is reduced. Therefore, it can be concluded that seismic exploration technique is promising for use in distinguishing coal and gas over-burst regions based on the variation of seismic reflection travel time, amplitude and frequency. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  6. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, NG; Firsching, M; de Ruiter, N; Schleich, N; Butzer, J S; Cook, N J; Grasset, R; Campbell, M; Scott, N J A; Anderson, N G

    2010-01-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 A mu A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct f...

  7. Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Newman, Daniel A; Fraley, R Chris; Haltigan, John D; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the state of the art in distinguishing data generated by differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models. We discuss several limitations of existing practices for probing interaction effects and offer solutions that are designed to better differentiate differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models and quantify their corresponding implications. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of these methods by revisiting published evidence suggesting that temperamental difficulty serves as a marker of enhanced susceptibility to early maternal caregiving across a range of outcome domains in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We find that, with the exception of mother reports of psychopathology, there is consistent evidence in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development that the predictive significance of early sensitivity is moderated by difficult temperament over time. However, differential susceptibility effects emerged primarily for teacher reports of academic skills, social competence, and symptomatology. In contrast, effects more consistent with the diathesis-stress model were obtained for mother reports of social skills and objective tests of academic skills. We conclude by discussing the value of the application of this work to the next wave of Gene × Environment studies focused on early caregiving experiences.

  8. Application of positive mode atmospheric chemical ionisation to distinguish epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Chloe; Brettell, Rhea C; Bowen, Richard D; Gallagher, Richard T; Martin, William H C

    2015-01-01

    A new and more reliable method is reported for distinguishing the equatorial and axial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids and related triterpenoids based primarily on the relative abundance of the [M+H](+) and [M+-H(2)O](+) signals in their positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectra. The rate of elimination of water, which is the principal primary fragmentation of protonated oleanolic and ursolic acids, depends systematically on the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group in the 3 position. For the b-epimer, in which the 3-hydroxyl substituent is in an equatorial position,[M+-H(2)O](+) is the base peak. In contrast, for the α-epimer, where the 3-hydroxyl group is axial, [M + H](+) is the base peak. This trend, which is general for a range of derivatives of oleanolic and ursolic acids, including the corresponding methyl esters, allows epimeric triterpenoids in these series to be securely differentiated. Confirmatory information is available from the collision-induced dissociation of the [M+-H(2)O](+) primary fragment ions, which follow different pathways for the species derived from axial and equatorial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids. These two pieces of independent spectral information permit the stereochemistry of epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids (and selected derivatives) to be assigned with confidence without relying either on chromatographic retention times or referring to the spectra or other properties of authentic samples of these triterpenoids.

  9. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Jennifer J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N = 900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. MPAA ratings, however, did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable with 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable with 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children's exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies.

  10. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark–Gluon Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena, E-mail: magda@ipb.ac.rs

    2016-12-10

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark–Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  11. The research on distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions by diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bin; Peng Hongjuan; Cai Shifeng; Gao Peihong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions. Methods: ADC in 26 normal breasts, 24 malignant breast lesions, and 30 benign breast lesions confirmed by operation and pathology were calculated, respectively, and their differentiations in statistics were compared. The differentiations of different ADCs (b=1000-0, 500-0, 1000-500 s/mm 2 ) were also compared. EPI (TR 2900 ms, TE 84 ms, thickness 5 mm) was used in order to acquire the imaging. Results: There were significant differences among the ADC values of normal breast tissue, benign, and malignant lesions. The ADC of malignant lesions was lower than those of normal breast tissue and benign lesions, and the ADC of benign lesions was lower than that of normal breast tissue. There were significant differences among the ADC value of b=1000-0, 1000-500, and 500-0 s/mm 2 . The lower the b value, the higher the ADC. The sensitivity and specificity of ADC for the diagnosis of malignant lesion were 64% and 96.7% if the upper bound of 95% confidence interval was set as a differential level. Conclusion: The differentiation of benign from malignant breast lesions by ADC is applicable, although the sensitivity is low, the specificity is high. (authors)

  12. Differential activation of Fyn kinase distinguishes saturated and unsaturated fats in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabra, Elena; An Lee, Ting-Wen; Zammit, Victor A; Vatish, Manu; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Bastie, Claire C

    2017-10-17

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency ( fynKO ) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals. Palmitate activates Fyn and re-localizes Fyn into the nucleus of RAW264.7, J774 and wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similarly, Fyn activity is increased in cells of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction of high fat-fed control mice, with Fyn protein being located in the nucleus of these cells. We demonstrate that Fyn modulates palmitate-dependent oxidative stress in macrophages. Moreover, Fyn catalytic activity is necessary for its nuclear re-localization and downstream effects, as Fyn pharmacological inhibition abolishes palmitate-induced Fyn nuclear redistribution and palmitate-dependent increase of oxidative stress markers. Importantly, mono-or polyunsaturated FAs do not activate Fyn, and fail to re-localize Fyn to the nucleus. Together these data demonstrate that macrophages integrate nutritional FA signals via a differential activation of Fyn that distinguishes, at least partly, the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fats.

  13. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  14. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  15. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N G; Butler, A P; Scott, N J A; Cook, N J; Butzer, J S; Schleich, N; Firsching, M; Grasset, R; de Ruiter, N; Campbell, M; Butler, P H

    2010-09-01

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 microA). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications.

  16. Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Dalgleish, Len I; Jackson, Chris J

    2007-04-01

    According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BAS-reactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.

  17. Tissue tropisms in group A Streptococcus: what virulence factors distinguish pharyngitis from impetigo strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessen, Debra E

    2016-06-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) are a common cause of pharyngitis and impetigo, and distinct throat strains and skin strains have been long recognized. This review aims to describe recent advances in molecular differences between throat and skin strains, and the pathogenic mechanisms used by virulence factors that may distinguish between these two groups. Recent findings include a new typing scheme for GAS strains based on sequence clusters of genes encoding the entire surface-exposed portion of M protein; correlations between emm-based typing schemes, clinical disease and surface adhesins; covalent bond formation mediated by GAS pili and other adhesins in binding to host ligands; a key role for superantigens in oropharyngeal infection via binding major histocompatibility complex class II antigen; and migration of GAS-specific Th17 cells from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, which may be relevant to autoimmune sequelae. The gap between molecular markers of disease (correlation) and virulence mechanisms (causation) in the establishment of tissue tropisms for GAS infection currently remains wide, but the gap also continues to narrow. Whole genome sequencing combined with mutant construction and improvements in animal models for oropharyngeal infection by GAS may help pave the way for new discoveries.

  18. A small set of succinct signature patterns distinguishes Chinese and non-Chinese HIV-1 genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of HIV-1 in China has unique features that may have led to unique viral strains. We therefore tested the hypothesis that it is possible to find distinctive patterns in HIV-1 genomes sampled in China. Using a rule inference algorithm we could indeed extract from sequences of the third variable loop (V3 of HIV-1 gp120 a set of 14 signature patterns that with 89% accuracy distinguished Chinese from non-Chinese sequences. These patterns were found to be specific to HIV-1 subtype, i.e. sequences complying with pattern 1 were of subtype B, pattern 2 almost exclusively covered sequences of subtype 01_AE, etc. We then analyzed the first of these signature patterns in depth, namely that L and W at two V3 positions are specifically occurring in Chinese sequences of subtype B/B' (3% false positives. This pattern was found to be in agreement with the phylogeny of HIV-1 of subtype B inside and outside of China. We could neither reject nor convincingly confirm that the pattern is stabilized by immune escape. For further interpretation of the signature pattern we used the recently developed measure of Direct Information, and in this way discovered evidence for physical interactions between V2 and V3. We conclude by a discussion of limitations of signature patterns, and the applicability of the approach to other genomic regions and other countries.

  19. Carrier introduction to moire pattern for automatic fringe-order distinguishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Laermann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic procedure of pseudo-colour encoding of moire fringe orders. A carrier consisting of parallel fringes is introduced before the specimen deforms. The carrier pattern is captured by a camera and then stored in computer as a standard image. The space of the carrier fringes is distored by the strains on the specimen as it is loaded. On a certain condition, the orders of the frequency-modulated carrier still vary monotonically so that they can be easyly distinguished. Both the standard fringe-carrier and the frequency-modulated fringe pattern are transformed into two digital images, of which every fringe is encoded by one of the pseudo-colour codes corresponding to the monotonical fringe orders. At each pixel, the difference between the colour sequences of two images is calculated to obtain the fringe order of pure deformation. The moire pattern of the in-plane displacement is restored as a pseudo-colour image by whose colour-change the variation of the fringe orders is displayed. (orig.)

  20. Distinguished quantum states in a class of cosmological spacetimes and their Hadamard property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Ist. Nazionale di Alta Matematica, Unita locale di Trento (Italy); Ist. Nazionale di Fisica, Povo (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    In a recent paper, we proved that a large class of spacetimes, not necessarily homogeneous or isotropic and relevant at a cosmological level, possesses a preferred codimension one submanifold, i.e., the past cosmological horizon, on which it is possible to encode the information of a scalar field theory living in the bulk. Such bulk-to-boundary reconstruction procedure entails the identification of a preferred quasifree algebraic state for the bulk theory, enjoying remarkable properties concerning invariance under isometries (if any) of the bulk and energy positivity, and reducing to well-known vacua in standard situations. In this paper, specialising to open FRW models, we extend previously obtained results and we prove that the preferred state is of Hadamard form, hence the backreaction on the metric is finite and the state can be used as a starting point for renormalisation procedures. That state could play a distinguished role in the discussion of the evolution of scalar fluctuations of the metric, an analysis often performed in the development of any model describing the dynamic of an early Universe which undergoes an inflationary phase of rapid expansion in the past. (orig.)

  1. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion (‘feelings’), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals (‘attribution’, ‘anthropomorphizing’), our ability to think and talk about emotion (‘concepts of emotion’, ‘semantic knowledge of emotion’) and the behaviors caused by an emotion (‘expression of emotions’, ‘emotional reactions’). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of ‘emotion’. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. PMID:27798256

  2. Repetitive nerve stimulation as a diagnostic aid for distinguishing cervical spondylotic amyotrophy from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaojun; Jin, Xiang; Zhu, Yu; Lu, Feizhou; Jiang, Jianyuan; Xia, Xinlei

    2017-07-01

    To identify and compare the features of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) decrements in repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) in patients with cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) and in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cohort consisted of 43 CSA (distal-type to proximal-type ratio: 27-16) and 35 ALS patients. Five muscles, including abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), biceps brachii (BB), middle deltoid (Del), and upper trapezius (Trap), were tested by 3-Hz RNS. Decrements greater than cutoff values (APB > 5.8%; ADM > 4.8%; BB > 5.2%; Del > 6%; Trap > 5.1%) determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were defined as abnormal, and the conventional criterion (≥10%) was also considered. A significant CMAP decrement (>cutoff values) was recorded from at least one tested muscle in 91.4% of ALS patients, and was most common in the proximal muscle, a finding that differed significantly from CSA patients (32.6%, P  0.05). The application of RNS, especially in proximal muscles, may provide a simple accurate and noninvasive supplementary test for distinguishing CSA from ALS, even in the early stage of these diseases. A combination of RNS, needle EMG, clinical features and cervical magnetic resonance imaging may yield sufficient diagnostic information to differentiate CSA and ALS.

  3. Distinguishing Depressive Pseudodementia from Alzheimer Disease: A Comparative Study of Hippocampal Volumetry and Cognitive Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevki Sahin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a condition which may develop secondary to depression. The aim of this study was to contribute to the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer disease (AD and DPD by comparing the neurocognitive tests and hippocampal volume. Materials and Methods: Patients who met criteria of AD/DPD were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT, Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Hippocampal volume was measured by importing the coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to the Vitrea 2 workstation. Results: A significant difference was found between the AD and DPD groups on the WMS test, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Boston Naming Test, MMSE, GDS, and left hippocampal volume. A significant correlation between BFRT and bilateral hippocampal volumes was found in the AD group. No correlation was found among parameters in DPD patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that evaluation of facial recognition and left hippocampal volume may provide more reliable evidence for distinguishing DPD from AD. Further investigations combined with functional imaging techniques including more patients are needed.

  4. Distinguishing neuroblastoma invading the kidney from nephroblastoma: evaluation in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Zhongwei; Li Guoping; Mamier; Wang Kang'an; Lv Zhibao; Miao Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT findings in the differential diagnosis between neuroblastoma invading the kidney and nephroblastoma. Methods: CT morphologic details in 13 patients with neuroblastoma invading the kidney confirmed by surgical operation and pathology were studied, and CT findings in 15 patients with nephroblastoma confirmed by surgery and pathology were compared. Results: In 13 cases of neuroblastoma, CT showed irregular mass in 12 cases, tumor with poorly defined margins in 11 cases, tumorous calcifications in 10 cases, invasion of retroperitoneal vessels in 9 cases, and retroperitoneal and retrocrural lymph nodes invasion in 12 cases. In 15 cases of nephroblastoma, round mass was p resented in 12 cases, tumor with poorly defined margins in 2 cases, tumorous calcifications in 2 cases, involvement of retroperitoneal vessels in 2 cases, and invasion of retroperitoneal lymph nodes in 3 cases. None of the nephroblastoma invaded retrocrural lymph nodes. Irregular mass with calcifications, involvement of retroperitoneal vessels, retrocrural and retroperitoneal lymph nodes were more common in cases of neuroblastoma than in nephroblastoma. Moreover, involvement of retrocrural lymph nodes and encasement of retroperitoneal vessels had higher positive prediction value on neuroblastoma. Conclusion: Involvement of retrocrural lymph nodes and encasement of retroperitoneal vessels were the specific CT findings of neuroblastoma and the most valuable evidence in distinguishing neuroblastoma from nephroblastoma. (authors)

  5. PCR-RFLP method to distinguish Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella pallida and Frankliniella tenuicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylska Arnika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips from the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera, Thripidae are phytophagous on crops and wild plants. Some of them cause slight economic damage, however, others including F. occidentalis and F. intonsa are responsible for considerable losses in crop production. Moreover, they constitute a double threat for host plants by not only feeding on them but also vectoring viruses, some of which are on the quarantined list of the European Plant Protection Organization. The rapid detection and differentiation between more and less harmful Frankliniella species is, therefore, important in order to combat the pests at the time of their appearance. In this study, we have undertaken to develop a method of detecting F. occidentalis, F. intonsa, F. pallida, and F. tenuicornis. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of ITS1 rDNA fragments of these insects using universal primers pair giving products of slightly distinct length for studied insects. Restriction enzymes digestion which is easy to interpret, allows for visible differentiation of all these Frankliniella species. The method was shown to be species-specific and sensitive. Even single specimens in either the larvae or adult stage could be distinguished.

  6. Preliminary results of MR imaging of lymphoma: Distinguishing active tumor from benign residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.; Baker, L.L.; Chang, P.; Castellino, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Distinguishing tumor from benign posttreatment tissue based on both morphologic and tissue characteristics is critically important. Patients are studied before, during, and after treatment; at the time of recurrence; and on long-term follow-up. Multisection spin-echo sequences in orthogonal planes and a special single-section tissue characterization matrix of 16 different repetition time/echo time combinations are used. These basic images are used for cluster analysis (approximate fuzzy C means), T1-T2 synthetic images, linear combinations, and comparison with internal standards. Preliminary results in 35 patients imaged before treatment and 12 patients with follow-up examinations consistently show lymphoma masses to have complex architecture with high T2-weighted signal and moderate T1-weighted signal, distinct from posttreatment fibrosis. Uncommon components of active tumor with low T2-weighted signal appear distinct from fibrosis on T1-weighted images. Preliminary cluster analysis results show distinct clustering of active lymphoma versus fibrosis and biopsy-proved cystic degeneration

  7. Distinguishing new physics scenarios at a linear collider with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, A.A.; Tsytrinov, A.V.; Paver, N.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous nonstandard dynamics dominated by very high mass exchanges are described at current and future accelerator energies by appropriate contactlike effective interactions among the standard model particles. Correspondingly, they can manifest themselves only through deviations of the cross sections from the standard model predictions. If one such deviation were observed, it would be important to definitely identify, to a given confidence level, the actual source among the various possible nonstandard interactions that, in principle, can explain it. Here we estimate the identification reach on different new physics effective interactions, obtainable from angular distributions of lepton pair production processes at the planned electron-positron International Linear Collider with polarized beams. For each nonstandard model, such an identification reach defines the range in the relevant heavy mass scale parameter where it can be unambiguously distinguished from the other nonstandard models as the source of corrections to the standard model cross sections, in case these are observed. The effective interactions for which we estimate the expected identification reach are the interactions based on gravity in large extra dimensions, in TeV -1 extra dimensions and the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interactions. The availability of both beams polarized at the International Linear Collider turns out, in many cases, to dramatically enhance the identification sensitivity

  8. Genetic distance estimates and variable factors distinguishing between goat Kacang, Muara and Samosir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan; Saputra, H.; Mirwandhono, E.; Hasnudi; Sembiring, I.; Umar, S.; Ginting, N.; Alwiyah

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to look the genetic distance and factors distinguishing variable betwen types of goats in North Sumatera. This research have been conducted in PayaBakung, Hamparan Perak and Klambir Lima village, Deli Serdang district, Batu Binumbun, Aritonang, HutaGinjang village, Muarasubdistrict, North Tapanuli district and ParbabaDolok, Siopat Sosor, Sinabulan village, Ronggur Nihuta Pangururan village, Sitonggi-tonggi village in the subdistrict RonggurNihuta, Samosir district of the month of July 2016. The data was analyzed using descriptive, discriminants, canonical, Principal Component Analysis, Distance genetic and Tree Phylogenetic. The result showed that the nearest genetic distance goat found in Kacang and Samosir (1.973), and the farthest genetic distnace find in Samosir and Muara (8.671). The variables made it difference was goat race Base Rim Horn (0.856) and Long Horn (0.878). Genetic distance values most far between Muaragoat with Samosir goat was (8.671). The conclude that the crossing superior result, must be cross between two goat types with value genetics most distance. It will have a better chance heterosis in cross result.

  9. DISTINGUISHING A HYPOTHETICAL ABIOTIC PLANET–MOON SYSTEM FROM A SINGLE INHABITED PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH 4 atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O 2 -rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low–moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet–moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH 4 absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet–moon system from a inhabited single planet

  10. Sonographic features of thyroid nodules that may help distinguish clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from thyroid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fu-shun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ming; Liang, Jin-yu; Zheng, Yan-ling; Xie, Xiao-yan; Li, Xiao-xi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic features for distinguishing clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 165 hypoechoic thyroid nodules without calcification in 135 patients with histologic diagnosis were included in this study. These nodules were classified into 2 groups: a thyroiditis group (55 nodules in 36 patients) and a malignancy group (110 nodules in 99 patients). The sonographic features of the groups were retrospectively reviewed. No significant differences were detected for the variables of marked echogenicity, a taller-than-wide shape, and mixed vascularity. However, a poorly defined margin was detected more frequently in the thyroiditis group than the malignancy group (P thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity of 87.3% and 80.9%, respectively. Centripetal reduction echogenicity was observed exclusively in the thyroiditis group, with high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity (21.8%) for atypical subacute thyroiditis diagnosis. All of the thyroiditis nodules with a positive color signal showed noninternal vascularity (negative predictive value, 100%). There is a considerable overlap between the sonographic features of atypical subacute thyroiditis and thyroid malignancy. However, the margin, echogenicity, and vascularity type are helpful indicators for differential diagnosis of atypical subacute thyroiditis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Distinguished quantum states in a class of cosmological spacetimes and their Hadamard property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2008-12-01

    In a recent paper, we proved that a large class of spacetimes, not necessarily homogeneous or isotropic and relevant at a cosmological level, possesses a preferred codimension one submanifold, i.e., the past cosmological horizon, on which it is possible to encode the information of a scalar field theory living in the bulk. Such bulk-to-boundary reconstruction procedure entails the identification of a preferred quasifree algebraic state for the bulk theory, enjoying remarkable properties concerning invariance under isometries (if any) of the bulk and energy positivity, and reducing to well-known vacua in standard situations. In this paper, specialising to open FRW models, we extend previously obtained results and we prove that the preferred state is of Hadamard form, hence the backreaction on the metric is finite and the state can be used as a starting point for renormalisation procedures. That state could play a distinguished role in the discussion of the evolution of scalar fluctuations of the metric, an analysis often performed in the development of any model describing the dynamic of an early Universe which undergoes an inflationary phase of rapid expansion in the past. (orig.)

  12. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    KAUST Repository

    MacLean, Adam L.

    2015-02-17

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison.

  13. Transcript Profiling Distinguishes Complete Treatment Responders With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernandez-Retana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to the conventional treatment employed to treat LACC. Tumor biopsies were profiled with genome-wide high-density expression microarrays. Class prediction was performed in tumor tissues and the resultant gene signature was validated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. A 27-predictive gene profile was identified through its association with pathologic response. The 27-gene profile was validated in an independent set of patients and was able to distinguish between patients diagnosed as no response versus complete response. Gene expression analysis revealed two distinct groups of tumors diagnosed as LACC. Our findings could provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy-based treatment.

  14. An Observational Diagnostic for Distinguishing Between Clouds and Haze in Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Eliza; Bean, Jacob; Parmentier, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The nature of aerosols in hot exoplanet atmospheres is one of the primary vexing questions facing the exoplanet field. The complex chemistry, multiple formation pathways, and lack of easily identifiable spectral features associated with aerosols make it especially challenging to constrain their key properties. We present a transmission spectroscopy technique to identify the primary aerosol formation mechanism for the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters (HIHJs). The technique is based on the idea that the two key types of aerosols -- photochemically generated hazes and equilibrium condensate clouds -- are expected to form and persist in different regions of a highly irradiated planet's atmosphere. Haze can only be produced on the permanent daysides of tidally-locked hot Jupiters, and will be carried downwind by atmospheric dynamics to the evening terminator (seen as the trailing limb during transit). Clouds can only form in cooler regions on the night side and morning terminator of HIHJs (seen as the leading limb during transit). Because opposite limbs are expected to be impacted by different types of aerosols, ingress and egress spectra, which primarily probe opposing sides of the planet, will reveal the dominant aerosol formation mechanism. We show that the benchmark HIHJ, WASP-121b, has a transmission spectrum consistent with partial aerosol coverage and that ingress-egress spectroscopy would constrain the location and formation mechanism of those aerosols. In general, we find that observations with JWST and potentially with HST should be able to distinguish between clouds and haze for currently known HIHJs.

  15. Distinguishing f(R) theories from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongguang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Aix Marseille Universite et Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique (UMR 7332), Marseille (France); Wang, Xin; Li, Haida; Ma, Yongge [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    The post-Newtonian formulation of a general class of f(R) theories is set up in a third-order approximation. It turns out that the information of a specific form of f(R) gravity is encoded in the Yukawa potential, which is contained in the perturbative expansion of the metric components. Although the Yukawa potential is canceled in the second-order expression of the effective refraction index of light, detailed analysis shows that the difference of the lensing effect between the f(R) gravity and general relativity does appear at the third order when √(f''(0)/f{sup '}(0)) is larger than the distance d{sub 0} to the gravitational source. However, the difference between these two kinds of theories will disappear in the axially symmetric spacetime region. Therefore only in very rare case the f(R) theories are distinguishable from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect in a third-order post-Newtonian approximation. (orig.)

  16. Distinguishing Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension From Other Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension Using CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Lang, Irene M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern imaging findings that separate chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) from other causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH). A total of 143 patients with proven PH (group 1, pulmonary arterial hypertension; group 2, PH due to left heart disease; group 3, PH due to lung disease; group 4, CTEPH; and group 5, PH due to unclear or multifactorial mechanisms) underwent MDCT angiography. The CT images were assessed for the presence of chronic pulmonary embolism (PE), disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial dilatation, and collateral arteries. The frequencies of vascular signs of chronic PE, disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, bronchial collateral arteries, and bronchial dilatation were statistically significantly higher in patients with CTEPH than in patients with nonthromboembolic PH. Vascular signs of chronic PE, mosaic perfusion, parenchymal densities, and bronchial dilatation without bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with CTEPH than in patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 5. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of bronchial collateral arteries between patients with CTEPH and patients in groups 3 and 5. Most patients with CTEPH have direct vascular signs of chronic PE. Secondary signs include disparity in segmental vessel size, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal densities, collateral bronchial arteries, and bronchial dilatation, which help distinguish CTEPH from other causes of PH.

  17. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinguishing between depression and anxiety: a proposal for an extension of the tripartite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander-Gijsman, M E; de Beurs, E; van der Wee, N J A; van Rood, Y R; Zitman, F G

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop scales that assess symptoms of depression and anxiety and can adequately differentiate between depression and anxiety disorders, and also can distinguish within anxiety disorders. As point of departure, we used the tripartite model of Clark and Watson that discerns three dimensions: negative affect, positive affect and physiological hyperarousal. Analyses were performed on the data of 1449 patients, who completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). From this, 1434 patients were assessed with a standardized diagnostic interview. A model with five dimensions was found: depressed mood, lack of positive affect, somatic arousal, phobic fear and hostility. The scales appear capable to differentiate between patients with a mood and with an anxiety disorder. Within the anxiety disorders, somatic arousal was specific for patients with panic disorder. Phobic fear was associated with panic disorder, simple phobia and social anxiety disorder, but not with generalized anxiety disorder. We present a five-factor model as an extension of the tripartite model. Through the addition of phobic fear, anxiety is better represented than in the tripartite model. The new scales are capable to accurately differentiate between depression and anxiety disorders, as well as between several anxiety disorders. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Precise Radii of Giants Orbiting Giants to Distinguish Between Planet Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunblatt, Samuel; Huber, Daniel; Lopez, Eric; Gaidos, Eric; Livingston, John

    2017-10-01

    Despite more than twenty years since the initial discovery of highly irradiated gas giant planets, the mechanism for planet inflation remains unknown. However, proposed planet inflation mechanisms can now be separated into two general classes: those which allow for post-main sequence planet inflation by direct irradiation from the host star, and those which only allow for slowed cooling of the planet over its lifetime. The recent discovery of two inflated warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars with the NASA K2 Mission allows distinction between these two classes, but uncertainty in the planet radius blurs this distinction. Observing transits of these planets with the Spitzer Space Telescope would reduce stellar variability and thus planet radius uncertainties by approximately 50% relative to K2, allowing distinction between the two planet inflation model classes at a 3-sigma level. We propose to observe one transit of both known warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars, K2-97b and EPIC228754001.01, to distinguish between planet model inflation classes and measure the planetary heating efficiency to 3-sigma precision. These systems are benchmarks for the upcoming NASA TESS Mission, which is predicted to discover an order of magnitude more red giant planet systems after launching next year.

  20. Academic success and early career outcomes : Can honors alumni be distinguished from non-honors alumni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, A.; Mainhard, M. T.; Brekelmans, M.; van Beukelen, P.; Jaarsma, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study compared Dutch alumni who previously participated in an honors program (n=72) to non-honors alumni who entered university as high-achieving high school students (n=72) with regard to (1) final university grade point average (GPA) and (2) early career outcomes. Final grades were drawn from