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Sample records for hupa unifon alphabet

  1. Albert's Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ann R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how she introduced a lesson called Albert's Alphabet to her kindergarten students. This lesson introduces the design thinking process to kindergartners in a developmentally appropriate way. She began the lesson by reading Leslie Tyron's book "Albert's Alphabet," which tells the story of Albert Goose,…

  2. Iodination of the humic samples from HUPA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiller, P. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mercier-Bion, F.; Barre, N. [CEA/CNRS Universite d Evry Val-d Essonne, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gimenez, N. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[CEA/CNRS Universite d Evry Val-d Essonne, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR Laboratoire de Reactivite des Surfaces et Interfaces, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-04-01

    The interaction of iodine with natural organic matter in general and with humic substances (HS) in particular, has been the subject of numerous studies. It has come to a consensus that in soils as well as in aquatic systems, the speciation of iodine is closely related to the redox potential of the medium. In oxidizing media, as in sea water or upper horizons, the major part of iodine is found in iodate form IO{sub 3}{sup -}, whereas in reducing media, iodide I{sup -} is the major specie. Nevertheless, it has been shown that in some cases, organically bound iodine can dominate the speciation either as methyl iodide or bounded to humic substances. It is now also clear that this reactivity is closely related to the occurrence of molecular iodine I{sub 2}(aq) and its disproportionation to HIO and I{sup -}. The reaction scheme can be viewed as an electrophilic substitution of an hydrogen to an iodine atom on a phenolic ring. This scheme has been validated in the case of HS on different samples including HUPA, and the covalent character of this interaction has been shown using electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, in some of the latter studies, the characterization of the final reaction products did not satisfy the authors completely as total separation from I{sup -} could not be achieved. Thus, further studies were led using HUPA samples: natural humic and fulvic extract from Gorleben and synthetic samples obtained form FZ Rossendorf. Dialysis procedures were envisaged to improve the incomplete separation between the colloidal humic matter and the iodide ions either unreacted or produced by the reaction. (orig.)

  3. Alphabet everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    There is a world of letters just waiting to be discovered in the world around us -- if we know how to look for it. In this engaging and delightful book, photographer Elliott Kaufman reveals the "secret" life of the alphabet through his photographs, showing how letters can be found in things we encounter everyday. Each letter of the alphabet is represented by multiple images, each unintentionally created by the intersection of architectural details, shadows, light, or natural elements as caught by Kaufman's keen eye. Some are obvious, while others demand a little more imagination to recognize, inviting the readers to start their own game of hunting for letters! This fun approach also reinforces the notion that learning to see the familiar in new ways encourages visual literacy and creativity.

  4. The Urdu Alphabet,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-15

    CuItou, on aov.e ald. It n -.. ory , mid Id1.n.lly by block n’c b*r) THE ALPHABET STANDING ALIF a " ""THE ALPHABET AND IT’S SOUNDS * ~ ASSIMILATION OF...LETTERS I -C) VOWELS JZ A iC AT rC z - .. r o, &!1 Itd 1,1ntII~. by block nuxt-or) L.J THE MAIN OBJECTIVE IS TO INTRODUCE THE URDU SCRIPT..4 IT. CONTAINS... VOWELS S ARE GIVEN AND Z" VERY BRIEF CONVERSATIONS ARE ALSOPROVIDED. -- SECuI rtry CLAOSIFICA l2pt OF TS PA,: (Wh h.. eegtered) "" ", ," ",-v

  5. The expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-10-05

    All biological information, since the last common ancestor of all life on Earth, has been encoded by a genetic alphabet consisting of only four nucleotides that form two base pairs. Long-standing efforts to develop two synthetic nucleotides that form a third, unnatural base pair (UBP) have recently yielded three promising candidates, one based on alternative hydrogen bonding, and two based on hydrophobic and packing forces. All three of these UBPs are replicated and transcribed with remarkable efficiency and fidelity, and the latter two thus demonstrate that hydrogen bonding is not unique in its ability to underlie the storage and retrieval of genetic information. This Review highlights these recent developments as well as the applications enabled by the UBPs, including the expansion of the evolution process to include new functionality and the creation of semi-synthetic life that stores increased information.

  6. The Alphabet of the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    One of the most culturally inspiring – yet unexpected – venues where you can find an exhibition about CERN and particle physics these days is the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt. Discover The Alphabet of the Universe: from CERN to North Africa and the Middle East in the cradle of knowledge par excellence.   The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition in Alexandria. (Image credit: Bibliotheca Alexandrina) With its 400 square metres surface area, about 40 exhibits and more than 50 people involved, The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition was inaugurated on 19 January in the Planetarium Science Centre (PSC), one of the main attractions of the New Library of Alexandria. “The exhibition has been designed to cover four main themes related to particle physics and CERN: what we know; open issues; accelerators and detectors; computing and applications,” explains Barbara Gallavotti, curator of the exhibition. “The exhibits were designed b...

  7. Uniform Slavic Transliteration Alphabet (USTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekleva, Borut

    The Uniform Slavic Transliteration Alphabet (USTA) was designed primarily with the following objectives: to aid librarians (catalogers and bibliographers), information scientists, transliterators, and editors of bibliographic works of the many Slavic tongues; and to serve as original research for the further development of a machine-readable…

  8. Phonetic Alphabet for Speech Recognition of Czech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uhlir

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce and discuss an alphabet that has been proposed for phonemicly oriented automatic speech recognition. The alphabet, denoted as a PAC (Phonetic Alphabet for Czech consists of 48 basic symbols that allow for distinguishing all major events occurring in spoken Czech language. The symbols can be used both for phonetic transcription of Czech texts as well as for labeling recorded speech signals. From practical reasons, the alphabet occurs in two versions; one utilizes Czech native characters and the other employs symbols similar to those used for English in the DARPA and NIST alphabets.

  9. The Alphabet and the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, A.

    2011-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 17th century the letters of the Greek alphabet are used to identify the stars of constellation by order of magnitude. This was simply a practical means of astronomical classification. In several instances the Bible uses such metaphors as "The sky rolled up like a scroll". The idea of associating letters of different alphabets with stars, constellations and the sky in general can be found to day in the marginal subculture. The persistence of such an association of writing with astronomy or cosmology is at least of interest for cultural reasons, but the problem might be of good interest as well for the history of astronomy and cosmology. I present here two examples of this tradition in works of art. The first a painted representation of the Revelation of Saint John in the Orthodox church tradition, and the other in the construction of the late bronze age sacred well at Santa Cristina in Sardinia, Italy.

  10. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  11. An Alphabet for English-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, J. Conrad

    The current spelling of words in English is so lacking in consistency that the time is ripe for the adoption of an alphabet that embodies some semblance of phonetics. This paper proposes a new alphabet for English that uses the English (Roman) letters as elements so that current type and typewriters can still be used. Furthermore, allowance is…

  12. ALPHABETS OF THE MODERN SLAVIC LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE TABLES AND ACCOMPANYING EXPLANATIONS IN THIS OUTLINE ARE INTENDED FOR THE NON-SPECIALIST IN SLAVIC LANGUAGES WHO WISHES TO LEARN THE APPROXIMATE PRONUNCIATION AND TRANSLITERATION OF WORDS WRITTEN IN THE SLAVIC ALPHABET. EACH ALPHABET TREATED (CZECH, RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN, BIELORUSSIAN, BULGARIAN, SLOVENIAN, SERBO-CROATIAN, POLISH, CHURCH SLAVIC,…

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U ... English and other European languages and literatures, Chinese and other Asian languages and ... UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.

  14. A multifractal formalism for countable alphabet subshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB), CONICET-UNLP-CICPBA and Grupo de Aplicaciones Matematicas y Estadisticas de la Facultad de Ingenieria (GAMEFI) UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: vericat@gw-iflysib.iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB), CONICET-UNLP-CICPBA and Grupo de Aplicaciones Matematicas y Estadisticas de la Facultad de Ingenieria (GAMEFI) UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar

    2009-01-15

    We study here the multifractal spectrum of local entropies for subshifts with an infinite alphabet. The description of this spectrum is obtained from the Legendre transform of a free energy map and Gibbs states associated with adequate potentials. The lack of compactness in the symbolic space necessitates modifications to the description for the compact case, i.e. for finite alphabet. In particular, the class of potentials must be restricted to a narrower one than that considered for the compact case.

  15. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  16. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A Antenna... Changes in equipment 78.109 Conditions for license 78.27 Coordination, frequencies 78.36 Cross reference to other rules 78.3 D Definitions 78.5 E Eligibility for license 78.13 Emission designator...

  17. Learning to Use an Alphabetic Writing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Gaining facility with spelling is an important part of becoming a good writer. Here we review recent work on how children learn to spell in alphabetic writing systems. Statistical learning plays an important role in this process. Young children learn about some of the salient graphic characteristics of written texts and attempt to reproduce these…

  18. Alphabetic Phonics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Alphabetic Phonics" is an ungraded, multisensory curriculum distributed by School Specialty Intervention (formerly Educators Publishing Service) that teachers the structure of the English language and can be taught to individuals or small groups of elementary or secondary school students. This phonetic program teaches reading,…

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W ... treatment and disposal of sewage sludge; environmental pollution ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains ... Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about ...

  20. The Authorship Dilemma: Alphabetical or Contribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Scientific communities have adopted different conventions for ordering authors on publications. Are these choices inconsequential, or do they have significant influence on individual authors, the quality of the projects completed, and research communities at large? What are the trade-offs of using one convention over another? In order to investigate these questions, we formulate a basic two-player game theoretic model, which already illustrates interesting phenomena that can occur in more realistic settings. We find that alphabetical ordering can improve research quality, while contribution-based ordering leads to a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications. Contrary to the assumption that free riding is a weakness of the alphabetical ordering scheme, this phenomenon can occur under any contribution scheme, and the worst case occurs under contribution-based ordering. Finally, we show how authors working on multiple projects can cooperate to attain optimal research quality and eliminate...

  1. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  2. The Numerical Semigroup of Phrases' Lengths in a Simple Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano M. Robles-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  3. The numerical semigroup of phrases' lengths in a simple alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M; Rosales, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Let A be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases) over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  4. Alphabet Knowledge in Preschool: A Rasch Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Michelle; Horner, Sherri L.; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used Rasch model analyses to examine (1) the unidimensionality of the alphabet knowledge construct and (2) the relative difficulty of different alphabet knowledge tasks (uppercase letter recognition, names, and sounds, and lowercase letter names) within a sample of preschoolers (n=335). Rasch analysis showed that the four…

  5. Using Alphabet Books across Grade Levels: More than 26 Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Karen Sue; Bradley, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of alphabet books has spread into older grades, as they address a variety of themes and can be used across disciplines. Their complexity can stimulate thinking and offer a world of possibilities in the area of research. Students of all ages are motivated to create an alphabet book on a self-selected topic. The…

  6. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. From the Alphabet to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevisa La Rocca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of social and cultural construction of the concepts of time, space, and thought. This analysis is matched by a parallel between the physics and those of communication. To be used as a reference is the shift from the Newtonian conception of time and space to the one proposed by Einstein. In fact, the concepts of space and time outlined in Newtonian physics well befits to what is the cultural and experiential that outlines M. McLuhan in his description of the aural and visual culture—an examination that, starting from the introduction of the alphabet, takes us to Gutenberg and the electric media. The revolution introduced by Einstein seems similar to the one that goes to the concepts of time, space, and thought with the advent of the Net. This article includes a review of the literature on the subject, through the lesson of Meyrowitz, McLuhan, Innis, Castells, Appadurai, Manovich, Berners-Lee to get to Carr. Facing this path is referred to as the birth of the hypertext moment of transition from linear thinking to the reticular.

  8. Encoding of multi-alphabet sources by binary arithmetic coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Muling; Oka, Takahumi; Kato, Shigeo; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Naoto

    1998-12-01

    In case of encoding a multi-alphabet source, the multi- alphabet symbol sequence can be encoded directly by a multi- alphabet arithmetic encoder, or the sequence can be first converted into several binary sequences and then each binary sequence is encoded by binary arithmetic encoder, such as the L-R arithmetic coder. Arithmetic coding, however, requires arithmetic operations for each symbol and is computationally heavy. In this paper, a binary representation method using Huffman tree is introduced to reduce the number of arithmetic operations, and a new probability approximation for L-R arithmetic coding is further proposed to improve the coding efficiency when the probability of LPS (Least Probable Symbol) is near 0.5. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has high coding efficacy and can reduce the number of coding symbols.

  9. Number of restrictions required for periodic word in the finite alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrov, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the number of restricted finite words in the alphabet A={a,b} required to identify an infinite word with some period n in the set of all infinite words in this alphabet given up to a shift. Also reviewed the case of multiletter alphabet.

  10. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  11. The Coral Reef Alphabet Book for American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Larry G.

    This book, produced for the American Samoa Department of Education Marine Enhancement Program, presents underwater color photography of coral reef life in an alphabetical resource. The specimens are described in English, and some are translated into the Samoan language. A picture-matching learning exercise and a glossary of scientific and oceanic…

  12. ALPHABET "Ante Portas": How English Text Invades Japanese Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the prominence of written English on shop signs in Japan. Based on data from a larger empirical study into multilingual signs in Tokyo, the most common ways of using English and the roman alphabet on Japanese shops signs are identified. It is argued that the ambivalent nature of English loan words plays a key role in the ever…

  13. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Alphabetics: A History of Our Alphabet. A Source Guide for Self-Directed Units. Great Ideas Series. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Sally J.

    This teaching resource presents a historical perspective of the alphabet which encompasses a study of major contributions by: (1) "Prehistoric People"; (2) "The Sumerians"; (3) "The Egyptians"; (4) "The Chinese"; (5) "The Greeks"; and (6) "The Romans." Background information, vocabulary study, student activities, a letter history, and a…

  15. Handwritten Bangla Alphabet Recognition using an MLP Based Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Subhadip; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here involves the design of a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier for recognition of handwritten Bangla alphabet using a 76 element feature set Bangla is the second most popular script and language in the Indian subcontinent and the fifth most popular language in the world. The feature set developed for representing handwritten characters of Bangla alphabet includes 24 shadow features, 16 centroid features and 36 longest-run features. Recognition performances of the MLP designed to work with this feature set are experimentally observed as 86.46% and 75.05% on the samples of the training and the test sets respectively. The work has useful application in the development of a complete OCR system for handwritten Bangla text.

  16. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  17. Asymptotic fingerprinting capacity for non-binary alphabets

    CERN Document Server

    Boesten, Dion

    2011-01-01

    We compute the channel capacity of non-binary fingerprinting under the Marking Assumption, in the limit of large coalition size c. The solution for the binary case was found by Huang and Moulin. They showed that asymptotically, the capacity is $1/(c^2 2\\ln 2)$, the interleaving attack is optimal and the arcsine distribution is the optimal bias distribution. In this paper we prove that the asymptotic capacity for general alphabet size q is $(q-1)/(c^2 2\\ln q)$. Our proof technique does not reveal the optimal attack or bias distribution. The fact that the capacity is an increasing function of q shows that there is a real gain in going to non-binary alphabets.

  18. Optimal source codes for geometrically distributed integer alphabets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallager, R. G.; Van Voorhis, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is shown for using the Huffman algorithm indirectly to prove the optimality of a code for an infinite alphabet if an estimate concerning the nature of the code can be made. Attention is given to nonnegative integers with a geometric probability assignment. The particular distribution considered arises in run-length coding and in encoding protocol information in data networks. Questions of redundancy of the optimal code are also investigated.

  19. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on...

  20. Did Evolution Select a Nonrandom "Alphabet" of Amino Acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Gayle K.; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties - a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  1. Quantum Error-Correcting Codes over Mixed Alphabets

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H

    2012-01-01

    Errors are inevitable during all kinds quantum informational tasks and quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) are powerful tools to fight various quantum noises. For standard QECCs physical systems have the same number of energy levels. Here we shall propose QECCs over mixed alphabets, i.e., physical systems of different dimensions, and investigate their constructions as well as their quantum Singleton bound. We propose two kinds of constructions: a graphical construction based a graph-theoretical object composite coding clique and a projection-based construction. We illustrate our ideas using two alphabets by finding out some 1-error correcting or detecting codes over mixed alphabets, e.g., optimal $((6,8,3))_{4^52^1}$, $((6,4,3))_{4^42^2}$ and $((5,16,2))_{4^32^2}$ code and suboptimal $((5,9,2))_{3^42^1}$ code. Our methods also shed light to the constructions of standard QECCs, e.g., the construction of the optimal $((6,16,3))_4$ code as well as the optimal $((2n+3,p^{2n+1},2))_{p}$ codes with $p=4k$.

  2. Genesis, visual attributes and contemporary communication features of the alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering written information, as well as its superabundance, calls for rethinking of semiotic features of Latin letters as the basic units of written communication in the Western world, especially in terms of marketing communication and its effectiveness. The written expression is the major tool of branding and getting closer to target market segments. Social development influences the development of communication, which is visible through numerous brands and signs, i.e. symbols that make products and companies recognizable in the market. The distinct sign forms of the alphabet are used to suggest the story of a brand, product or service. A constituent element of its comprehension is conscious or unconscious knowledge drawn from different sources in the environment. The history of human literacy, the development of each particular letter, the communication rules of the contemporary marketplace, the impact of brands and information superabundance make up the basis for further research into communication features of the alphabet, semantics of written forms and their redefinition in the context of effective marketing communication.

  3. Alphabetic Phonics: An organization and expansion of orton-gillingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R

    1985-01-01

    Alphabetic Phonics is a sequential language curriculum designed to assure that all students can achieve literacy. This curriculum is a 1980's organization and extension of the Orton-Gillingham-Childs multisensory teaching of the structure of English. Alphabetic Phonics allows 95 percent of the auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners in a regular classroom to master written English. The curriculum includes modern behavioral, psychological, and educational theories and practice. Developed initially as remediation for dyslexics, Alphabetic Phonics is succeeding both with small groups of severely blocked dyslexics and as prevention in regular classrooms in the primary grades. Administrators, classroom teachers, clinicians, remedial, and resource room specialists, as well as speech and language therapists representing small and large schools (public and private; remedial and accelerated) have traveled to Texas from forty states and six foreign countries during the past ten years to earn graduate credit in one or more of the four month-long Introductory Courses held each year. Teachers report that cultural minority students and those learning English as a second language benefit especially from reading instruction which emphasizes the foundations of English and time-on-task activities to effect mastery. Outreach programs and multimedia tools are being developed and implemented to broaden the programs availability to groups with varied needs.

  4. Efficient motif finding algorithms for large-alphabet inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying motifs, recurring or conserved patterns, in the biological sequence data sets. To solve this task, we present a new deterministic algorithm for finding patterns that are embedded as exact or inexact instances in all or most of the input strings. Results The proposed algorithm (1 improves search efficiency compared to existing algorithms, and (2 scales well with the size of alphabet. On a synthetic planted DNA motif finding problem our algorithm is over 10× more efficient than MITRA, PMSPrune, and RISOTTO for long motifs. Improvements are orders of magnitude higher in the same setting with large alphabets. On benchmark TF-binding site problems (FNP, CRP, LexA we observed reduction in running time of over 12×, with high detection accuracy. The algorithm was also successful in rapidly identifying protein motifs in Lipocalin, Zinc metallopeptidase, and supersecondary structure motifs for Cadherin and Immunoglobin families. Conclusions Our algorithm reduces computational complexity of the current motif finding algorithms and demonstrate strong running time improvements over existing exact algorithms, especially in important and difficult cases of large-alphabet sequences.

  5. The Fragility of the Alphabetic Principle: Children's Knowledge of Letter Names Can Cause Them to Spell Syllabically Rather Than Alphabetically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman; Tincoff

    1997-03-01

    The present research was designed to investigate how children's early-acquired knowledge of letter names affects their spelling. Specifically, we asked whether kindergartners and first graders sometimes spell a sequence of phonemes such as /bi/ (the name of the letter b) or /zi/ (the name of the letter z) with the corresponding consonant letter rather than spelling the sequence alphabetically, with a consonant letter followed by a vowel letter. Children made a number of letter-name spelling errors, especially when the consonant and vowel formed a complete syllable. These results show that children's knowledge of letter names can cause them to deviate from the alphabetic principle-the principle that each phoneme should be represented with a single grapheme. The findings further suggest that syllables play a special role in early writing.

  6. ABC versus QWERTZ: interference from mismatching sequences of letters in the alphabet and on the keyboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Julia; Neumann, Roland; Kunde, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    Letters have a position in the alphabet and they have a position on standard personal computer keyboards. The present study explored the consequences of compatibility between spatial codes representing letter position in the alphabet and on the keyboard. In Experiment 1, participants responded faster to letter dyads in an alphabetic order judgment task, when the letters' alphabetical order matched their left to right order on the keyboard. In Experiment 2, compatible dyads were typed more quickly than incompatible dyads. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, letter dyads with compatible alphabetical and keyboard sequences of letters were more preferred than dyads with incompatible orders. Together, these results suggest that the perception of letters concurrently activates 2 representations of ordinal sequences. Compatibility between these representations enhances performance as well as affective evaluations. Limitations of this alphabet-keyboard compatibility effect as well as implications for the development of formal typing courses and computer keyboard design are discussed.

  7. Diagonal Based Feature Extraction for Handwritten Alphabets Recognition System using Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Pradeep, J; Himavathi, S; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3103

    2011-01-01

    An off-line handwritten alphabetical character recognition system using multilayer feed forward neural network is described in the paper. A new method, called, diagonal based feature extraction is introduced for extracting the features of the handwritten alphabets. Fifty data sets, each containing 26 alphabets written by various people, are used for training the neural network and 570 different handwritten alphabetical characters are used for testing. The proposed recognition system performs quite well yielding higher levels of recognition accuracy compared to the systems employing the conventional horizontal and vertical methods of feature extraction. This system will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.

  8. Bi-alphabetic pulse compression radar signal design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I A Pasha; P S Moharir; N Sudarshan Rao

    2000-10-01

    Ternary sequences have superior merit factors but they cannot be transmitted with existing technology. It is proposed that a ternary sequence be coded into a binary sequence for the purpose of transmission. On reception it can be processed as a binary sequence as received and also decoded into a ternary sequence. These two interpretations provide a coincidence detection scheme for efficient target detection provided that the corresponding signal design problem is solved. Such an algorithm is developed by taking the merit factor as desideratum and the Hamming scan as optimization technique. Merit factor values obtained in some cases are further improved by implementing a back-tracking algorithm for bi-alphabetic sequence.

  9. Isolated-Word Confusion Metrics and the PGPfone Alphabet

    CERN Document Server

    Juola, P

    1996-01-01

    Although the confusion of individual phonemes and features have been studied and analyzed since (Miller and Nicely, 1955), there has been little work done on extending this to a predictive theory of word-level confusions. The PGPfone alphabet is a good touchstone problem for developing such word-level confusion metrics. This paper presents some difficulties incurred, along with their proposed solutions, in the extension of phonetic confusion results to a theoretical whole-word phonetic distance metric. The proposed solutions have been used, in conjunction with a set of selection filters, in a genetic algorithm to automatically generate appropriate word lists for a radio alphabet. This work illustrates some principles and pitfalls that should be addressed in any numeric theory of isolated word perception. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Wed Oct 27 10:19 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id KAA09017 for ; Wed, 27 Oct 1999 10:19:14 +0...

  10. Ideograms Versus Alphabets: Effects of Script on Memory in "Biscriptual" Korean Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soja; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments examined the memory of Korean subjects for words written in the two writing systems used in Korea, one alphabetic, the other ideographic. The impetus for the investigation was the apparently different encoding properties of the two scripts, with alphabets seeming to encode sound and ideograms, meaning. (Editor)

  11. The Effects of Orthographic Depth on Learning to Read Alphabetic, Syllabic, and Logographic Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Natsume, Miwa; Stavropoulou, Katerina; Hoxhallari, Lorenc; Van Daal, Victor H.P.; Polyzoe, Nicoletta; Tsipa, Maria-Louisa; Petalas, Michalis

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on reading acquisition in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Children between 6 and 15 years old read aloud in transparent syllabic Japanese hiragana, alphabets of increasing orthographic depth (Albanian, Greek, English), and orthographically opaque Japanese kanji ideograms,…

  12. High-Speed Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Lett., 93:010503, Jul 2004. [14] Irfan Ali-Khan, Curtis J. Broadbent , and John C. Howell. Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Energy-Time...Rev. Lett., 92:167903, Apr 2004. [20] Irfan Ali-Khan, Curtis J. Broadbent , and John C. Howell. Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Energy

  13. Reflections of Debates Upon Alphabet (Letter to Journal of Sebilürreşad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Soğukömeroğulları

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Otoman State which had used Arabic alphabet until a certain period the issue of writing in Latin alphabet was gained currency thanks to the students who had been to Europe and the embassadors who had come from Europe in 18th and 19th centuries. After Tanzimat (reforms in 1839 amendment of letters had been given point first and then it was abondoned and alphabet replacement attempts began. In later periods serious arguments among the ones in favour and against the transition to Latin alphabet occured. One of the media organs in which these arguments had been appeared was Sebilürreşad. In all these articles acceptance of Latin alphabet was refused and instead the amendment of current letters was required. Some of the articles were taken from the journals of that time and according to the broadcasting policy of the journal occupied a certain place even a little. When the journal had leaned to nationalism and Turanism in its first periods afteryears a critisism began in a distinct manner. The articles related to Latin alphabet belonged to the first periods of the journal. It was seen that especially Turks who had been forced to accept Latin alphabet by Russia in Turkish world were taken place in newspaper columns and it was emphasized that this situation would interrupt the unity within Turkish world. Relections of civilization, printery, economy, colonialism and nationalism in terms of alphabet were also taken place in the journal

  14. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  15. Informational Way to Protein Alphabet: Entropic Classification of Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, A N; Popova, T

    2007-01-01

    What are proteins made from, as the working parts of the living cells protein machines? To answer this question, we need a technology to disassemble proteins onto elementary func-tional details and to prepare lumped description of such details. This lumped description might have a multiple material realization (in amino acids). Our hypothesis is that informational approach to this problem is possible. We propose a way of hierarchical classification that makes the primary structure of protein maximally non-random. The first steps of the suggested research program are realized: the method and the analysis of optimal informational protein binary alphabet. The general method is used to answer several specific questions, for example: (i) Is there a syntactic difference between Globular and Membrane proteins? (ii) Are proteins random sequences of amino acids (a long discussion)? For these questions, the answers are as follows: (i) There exists significant syntactic difference between Globular and Membrane proteins,...

  16. Software Junctus: Joining Sign Language and Alphabetical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Carla Beatris; Bisol, Cláudia A.; Dalla Santa, Cristiane

    The authors’ aim is to describe the workshops developed to test the use of an authorship program that allows the simultaneous use of sign language and alphabetical writing. The workshops were prepared and conducted by a Computer Science undergraduate, with the support of the Program of Students’ Integration and Mediation (Programa de Integração e Mediação do Acadêmico - PIMA) at the University of Caxias do Sul. Two sign language interpreters, two deaf students and one hearing student, who also teach at a special school for the deaf, participated in the workshops. The main characteristics of the software and the development of the workshops are presented with examples of educational projects created during their development. Possible improvements are also outlined.

  17. Measuring orthographic transparency and morphological-syllabic complexity in alphabetic orthographies: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borleffs, Elisabeth; Maassen, Bernardus; Lyytinen, Heikki; Zwarts, Frans

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia.

  18. Alphabetic letter identification: Effects of perceivability, similarity, and bias☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Weidemann, Christoph T.

    2012-01-01

    The legibility of the letters in the Latin alphabet has been measured numerous times since the beginning of experimental psychology. To identify the theoretical mechanisms attributed to letter identification, we report a comprehensive review of literature, spanning more than a century. This review revealed that identification accuracy has frequently been attributed to a subset of three common sources: perceivability, bias, and similarity. However, simultaneous estimates of these values have rarely (if ever) been performed. We present the results of two new experiments which allow for the simultaneous estimation of these factors, and examine how the shape of a visual mask impacts each of them, as inferred through a new statistical model. Results showed that the shape and identity of the mask impacted the inferred perceivability, bias, and similarity space of a letter set, but that there were aspects of similarity that were robust to the choice of mask. The results illustrate how the psychological concepts of perceivability, bias, and similarity can be estimated simultaneously, and how each make powerful contributions to visual letter identification. PMID:22036587

  19. Protein flexibility in the light of structural alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick eCraveur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein structures are valuable tools to understand protein function. Nonetheless, proteins are often considered as rigid macromolecules while their structures exhibit specific flexibility, which is essential to complete their functions. Analyses of protein structures and dynamics are often performed with a simplified three-state description, i.e. the classical secondary structures. . More precise and complete description of protein backbone conformation can be obtained using libraries of small protein fragments that are able to approximate every part of protein structures. These libraries, called structural alphabets (SAs, have been widely used in structure analysis field, from definition of ligand binding sites to superimposition of protein structures. SAs are also well suited to analyze the dynamics of protein structures.Here, we review innovative approaches that investigate protein flexibility based on SAs description. Coupled to various sources of experimental data (e.g. B-factor and computational methodology (e.g. Molecular Dynamic simulation, SAs turn out to be powerful tools to analyze protein dynamics, e.g. to examine allosteric mechanisms in large set of structures in complexes, to identify order/disorder transition. SAs were also shown to be quite efficient to predict protein flexibility from amino-acid sequence. Finally, in this review, we exemplify the interest of SAs for studying flexibility with different cases of proteins implicated in pathologies and diseases.

  20. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Rousan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  1. Mining protein loops using a structural alphabet and statistical exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein loops encompass 50% of protein residues in available three-dimensional structures. These regions are often involved in protein functions, e.g. binding site, catalytic pocket... However, the description of protein loops with conventional tools is an uneasy task. Regular secondary structures, helices and strands, have been widely studied whereas loops, because they are highly variable in terms of sequence and structure, are difficult to analyze. Due to data sparsity, long loops have rarely been systematically studied. Results We developed a simple and accurate method that allows the description and analysis of the structures of short and long loops using structural motifs without restriction on loop length. This method is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA. HMM-SA allows the simplification of a three-dimensional protein structure into a one-dimensional string of states, where each state is a four-residue prototype fragment, called structural letter. The difficult task of the structural grouping of huge data sets is thus easily accomplished by handling structural letter strings as in conventional protein sequence analysis. We systematically extracted all seven-residue fragments in a bank of 93000 protein loops and grouped them according to the structural-letter sequence, named structural word. This approach permits a systematic analysis of loops of all sizes since we consider the structural motifs of seven residues rather than complete loops. We focused the analysis on highly recurrent words of loops (observed more than 30 times. Our study reveals that 73% of loop-lengths are covered by only 3310 highly recurrent structural words out of 28274 observed words. These structural words have low structural variability (mean RMSd of 0.85 Å. As expected, half of these motifs display a flanking-region preference but interestingly, two thirds are shared by short (less than 12 residues and long loops. Moreover, half of

  2. Neuroscience applied to learning alphabetic principles: new proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Scliar-Cabral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p187   This study reviews recent data on functional illiteracy and advances on neuroscience about the reading process. alarming figures on functional illiteracy will be presented with examples of UK and brazil. Empirical evidences brought by neuroscience prove the neuropsychological basis constructs, namely invariance already claimed by modern linguistics. however, emphasis will be given to the psychological reality of letters’ feature invariance, demonstrated by various experiments which had been recently run by neuroscientists. two types of invariance are shown, the spatial and the font invariance, exemplified by a description of invariant features of the roman alphabet. We then cite the major difficulties faced at by beginning readers, namely, how to dismember the chain speech into words (separated in the written space by blanks and the syllable into its units, in order to link them to their correspondent graphemes (composed by one or more letters.  in addition, one of the major difficulties is how to teach neurons to dissymmetrize the letter features. neuroscience conclusions from experiments about the readingprocess demonstrate that neurons of the  occipito-temporalventral region of the left hemisphere must be recycled in orderto learn how to recognize the written word.  altogether withthe results obtained on a well succeeded experience run by theprogram Early intervention initiative (Eii and by an experimentrun in a Florianopolis school, in 2012, they give support to thestrategies to prevent functional illiteracy.

  3. NASA thesaurus alphabetical update: Subject terms for indexing scientific and technical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The NASA THESAURUS - ALPHABETICAL UPDATE is an alphabetical listing of all subject terms (postable and nonpostable) that are currently approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system. Contained in the listing are the subject terms that were listed in the Preliminary Edition of the NASA THESAURUS and the additional subject terms that were approved during the period January 1, 1967 June 30, 1971. Complete Thesaurus structuring, including scope notes, category assignments, and cross-references, is provided for each term as appropriate.

  4. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  5. The Universality of Symbolic Representation for Reading in Asian and Alphabetic Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of reading have identified unique patterns of activation for individuals reading in alphabetic and Asian languages, suggesting the involvement of different processes in each. The present study investigates the extent to which a cognitive prerequisite for reading, the understanding of the symbolic function of print, is common…

  6. Using the Initial Teaching Alphabet to Improve Articulation. Children's Workbook and Index for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ronald; And Others

    Designed to enable parents to help preschool, speech handicapped children enrolled in a program of speech correction by using materials based on the Initial Teaching Alphabet (ITA), these activities correlate with those used in therapy. A short period of time (15 to 20 minutes), a relaxed atmosphere, a regular schedule, and a quiet,…

  7. Examining Alphabet Writing Fluency in Kindergarten: Exploring the Issue of Time on Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Patchan, Melissa M.; Sears, Mary M.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) are necessary for educators to quickly assess student skill levels and monitor progress. This study examined the use of the alphabet writing fluency task, a CBM of writing, to assess handwriting fluency--that is, how well children access, retrieve, and write letter forms automatically. In the current study, the…

  8. Measuring orthographic transparency and morphological-syllabic complexity in alphabetic orthographies: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borleffs, Elisabeth; Maassen, Bernardus; Lyytinen, Heikki; Zwarts, Frans

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. Howev

  9. Multiple number and letter comparison: directionality and accessibility in numeric and alphabetic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2003-01-01

    In 3 experiments, subjects made comparativejudgments on a set of 2 numbers or letters, 3 numbers or letters, or 5 numbers or letters. Numeric and alphabetic serial order memories were contrasted. Three aspects of serial order memory processes were identified: computational complexity, directionality, and accessibility. Computational complexity is the number of algorithmic steps involved in identifying a target. Directional bias is measured as the speed differences in identifying serial targets of equal computational complexity in a stimulus array. Memory accessibility is measured as the numeric and alphabetic serial position effects. Subjects had a slight directional bias favoring backward ordering for single digits but no bias in 2-digit number ordering, in contrast to a strong forward directional advantage in letter ordering. The speed of number access was found to steadily and evenly decrease along the numeric scale, in contrast to a systematic pattern of variations in alphabet access along the alphabetic scale. Finally, the middle item effect (the middle item in a multi-item array is identified most slowly) found in Jou's (1997) multiple-letter comparison study was generalized to numbers.

  10. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  11. Hand Movements and Braille Reading Efficiency: Data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Wormsley, Diane P.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Using a subset of data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, researchers analyzed the patterns and characteristics of hand movements as predictors of reading performance. Statistically significant differences were found between one- and two-handed readers and between patterns of hand movements and reading rates. (Contains 6…

  12. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  13. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  14. Beyond the Alphabetic: Using William Blake's "The Tyger" as a Way to Teach Modal Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Scholars and teachers often focus only on alphabetic texts in the classroom (Palmeri; Alexander and Rhodes; Jewitt; Selfe; Shipka); however, we do our students a disservice if we do not prepare them to compose with and understand the rhetorical consequences of using a variety of modes. In this article, I argue that we need to teach our students to…

  15. D'Nealian and Zaner-Bloser Manuscript Alphabets and Initial Transition to Cursive Handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trap-Porter, Jennifer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A newly developed manuscript alphabet was compared with a traditional one to observe their effects on the teaching of cursive handwriting. Results showed no significant differences between the two types in teaching the production of cursive letters when presented to first graders. (Author/DF)

  16. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  17. Building the Alphabetic Principle in Young Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jessica Page; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Miller, Elizabeth Malone; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, a key concept of the alphabetic principle, was examined in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) using a semantic association strategy embedded in two interventions, the Children's Early Intervention and Foundations for Literacy. Single-subject design experiments using multiple…

  18. Educational Games for Early Childhood: Using Tabletop Surface Computers for Teaching the Arabic Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents initial evaluation regarding the use of simple educational games on tabletop surface computers to teach Kindergarten students in Qatar the Arabic alphabet. This effort is part of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a 3-year endeavor aimed to teach 5-year-olds Modern Standard...

  19. Measuring Orthographic Transparency and Morphological-Syllabic Complexity in Alphabetic Orthographies: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borleffs, Elisabeth; Maassen, Ben A. M.; Lyytinen, Heikki; Zwarts, Frans

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to…

  20. Suggestions on the Transcription of Sephardic Texts into the Roman Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, George K.

    Difficulties in transcription from the Hebrew to the Roman alphabet are discussed. The resolution of some of the problems in Judeo-Spanish texts using the "aljamiado" writing system are reviewed, including the use of some Hebrew consonants as vowels, representation of Judeo-Spanish sounds non-existent in Hebrew, and phonetic variations…

  1. Links between DRD4, Executive Attention, and Alphabetic Skills in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorders. In this study, we examined whether diminished anticipatory dopamine cell firing--typical of the long variant of the DRD4 allele--is related to emergent and advanced alphabetic skills, and whether executive…

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  3. Promoting Alphabet Knowledge Using Peer-Mediated Intervention: A Dynamic Duo for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.; Kinley, Hannah L.; Cook, Angela

    2017-01-01

    One of early childhood teachers' first questions of parents with regard to school readiness is whether the child knows the ABCs (Hyson & Tomlinson, 2014). Crucial pre-reading and writing skills, such as oral language, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet letter recognition, are important to children's cognitive development…

  4. Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: the case of Devanagari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Jyotsna; Gupta, Ashum

    2002-01-01

    Unlike other writing systems that are readily classifiable as alphabetic or syllabic in their structure, the Indic Devanagari script (of which Hindi is an example) has properties of both syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. Whereas Devanagari consonants are written in a linear left-to-right order, vowel signs are positioned nonlinearly above, below, or to either side of the consonants. This fact results in certain words in Hindi for which, in a given syllable, the vowel precedes the consonant in writing but follows it in speech. The current research exploited this property of the script to examine when the disparity between spatial and temporal sequencing would incur a processing cost and the implications of the findings from naming speed, accuracy, and writing order for the level at which words in Devanagari are segmented. The results support a partly phonemic and partly syllabic level of segmentation, consistent with the structural hybridity of the script. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Detection Performance of M-ary Relay Trees with Non-binary Message Alphabets

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Pezeshki, Ali; Moran, William; Howard, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    We study the detection performance of $M$-ary relay trees, where only the leaves of the tree represent sensors making measurements. The root of the tree represents the fusion center which makes an overall detection decision. Each of the other nodes is a relay node which aggregates $M$ messages sent by its child nodes into a new compressed message and sends the message to its parent node. Building on previous work on the detection performance of $M$-ary relay trees with binary messages, in this paper we study the case of non-binary relay message alphabets. We characterize the exponent of the error probability with respect to the message alphabet size $\\mathcal D$, showing how the detection performance increases with $\\mathcal D$. Our method involves reducing a tree with non-binary relay messages into an equivalent higher-degree tree with only binary messages.

  6. ALPHABET RECOGNITION OF AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION APPROACH USING SIFT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachamai. M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a sincere attempt to recognize english alphabets as part of hand gesture recognition, using the SIFT algorithm. The novelty of this approach is, it is a space, size, illumination and rotation invariant approach. The approach has evolved to work well with both the standard American Sign Language (ASL database and home-made database. The problem of alphabet recognition may seem to sound small but the intricacies involved in it cannot be solved using a single algorithm. Hand gesture recognition is a complicated task. A one stop solution is still not evolved for any recognition process. This paper has tried to approach this in a simple but efficient manner using the basic SIFT algorithm for recognition. The efficacy of the approach is proved well through the results obtained, invariably on both the datasets.

  7. Alphabet Recognition of American Sign Language : A Hand Gesture Recognition Approach Using Sift Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachamai. M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a sincere attempt to recognize english alphabets as part of hand gesture recognition, usingthe SIFT algorithm. The novelty of this approach is, it is a space, size, illumination and rotation invariantapproach. The approach has evolved to work well with both the standard American Sign Language (ASLdatabase and home-made database. The problem of alphabet recognition may seem to sound small but theintricacies involved in it cannot be solved using a single algorithm. Hand gesture recognition is acomplicated task. A one stop solution is still not evolved for any recognition process. This paper has triedto approach this in a simple but efficient manner using the basic SIFT algorithm for recognition. Theefficacy of the approach is proved well through the results obtained, invariably on both the datasets.

  8. Karuk Stories #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Three illustrated stories from the Karuk Indians of northwestern California are told in free English translation and in Karuk with literal English translation. English and Karuk Unifon alphabet charts are provided. Stories tell of seasonal migration of the mockingbird and the swamp robin, coyote's quest for the sun and how he determined the sun's…

  9. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    allowing secure communication in the presence of an eaves- dropper. It commonly relies on detecting single photons, but the secret-key generation rates...such large-alphabet schemes can encode more secure information per detected photon, boosting secure communication rates, and also provide increased...energy encoding is appeal- ing for its compatibility with existing telecommunications infrastructure — which lowers the barriers to widespread adoption

  10. The Ideological Aspects of Contemporary Cyrillic Alphabet Transliteration Practices in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustina Selvelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the new rules on the transliteration of the Cyrillic alphabet adopted in Bulgaria, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia over the last few years. It also considers the possible political and identity reasons underlying changes to such practices. To this aim, I contextualize the question within various ongoing debates in the respective countries, with reference to the ideologies that have emerged in the most recent post-socialist period.

  11. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for reduced amino acid alphabet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhinav Luthra; Anupam Nath Jha; G K Ananthasuresh; Saraswathi Vishveswara

    2007-08-01

    Inter-residue potentials are extensively used in the design and evaluation of protein structures. However, dealing with all (20×20) interactions becomes computationally difficult in extensive investigations. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the alphabet of 20 amino acids to a smaller number. Currently, several methods of reducing the residue types exist; however a critical assessment of these methods is not available. Towards this goal, here we review and evaluate different methods by comparing with the complete (20×20) matrix of Miyazawa-Jernigan potential, including a method of grouping adopted by us, based on multi dimensional scaling (MDS). The second goal of this paper is the computation of inter-residue interaction energies for the reduced amino acid alphabet, which has not been explicitly addressed in the literature until now. By using a least squares technique, we present a systematic method of obtaining the interaction energy values for any type of grouping scheme that reduces the amino acid alphabet. This can be valuable in designing the protein structures.

  12. Tailoring alphabetical metamaterials in optical frequency: plasmonic coupling, dispersion, and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Cuong; Xu, Xinlong; Liow, Chihao; Li, Shuzhou; Tan, Pingheng; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-04-22

    Tailoring optical properties of artificial metamaterials, whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional and naturally occurring materials, is of importance in fundamental research and has led to many important applications such as security imaging, invisible cloak, negative refraction, ultrasensitive sensing, and transformable and switchable optics. Herein, by precisely controlling the size, symmetry, and topology of alphabetical metamaterials with U, S, Y, H, U-bar, and V shapes, we have obtained highly tunable optical response covering visible-to-infrared (vis-NIR) optical frequency. In addition, we show a detailed study on the physical origin of resonance modes, plasmonic coupling, the dispersion of resonance modes, and the possibility of negative refraction. We have found that all the electronic and magnetic modes follow the dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons; thus, essentially they are electronic- and magnetic-surface-plasmon-polaritons-like (ESPP-like and MSPP-like) modes resulted from diffraction coupling between localized surface plasmon and freely propagating light. On the basis of the fill factor and formula of magnetism permeability, we predict that the alphabetical metamaterials should show the negative refraction capability in visible optical frequency. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the specific ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing of monolayer molecules and femtomolar food contaminants by tuning their resonance to match the laser wavelength, or by tuning the laser wavelength to match the plasmon resonance of metamaterials. Our tunable alphabetical metamaterials provide a generic platform to study the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials and explore the novel applications in optical frequency.

  13. Modeling Alphabet Skills as Instructive Feedback Within a Phonological Awareness Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Arnold; Soto, Xigrid; Goldstein, Howard

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables. Six children completed Experiment 1. A progressive time delay was added to instructive feedback to elicit a response from the 9 children in the second experiment. In the first experiment, 6 children demonstrated gains on phonological awareness but not alphabet knowledge. With the addition of progressive time delay in the second experiment, all 9 children demonstrated gains on letter name and sound identification as well as phonological awareness skills. Progressive time delay to prompt children's responses appears to bolster the effects of instructive feedback as an efficient strategy for modeling alphabet skills within a broader early literacy curriculum. Modeling alphabet skills did not detract from, and may have enhanced, phonological awareness instruction for preschoolers.

  14. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Numerically Optimized Uniformly Most Powerful Alphabets for Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hekrdla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of the parametric performance of the Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward (HDF strategy in a wireless 2-way relay channel. Promising HDF, representing the concept of wireless network coding, performs well with a pre-coding strategy that requires Channel State Information (CSI on the transceiver side. Assuming a practical case when CSI is available only on the receiver side and the channel conditions do not allow adaptive strategies, the parametrization causes significant HDF performance degradation for some modulation alphabets. Alphabets that are robust to the parametrization (denoted Uniformly Most Powerful (UMP have already been proposed restricting on the class of non-linear multi-dimensional frequency modulations. In this work, we focus on the general design of unrestricted UMP alphabets. We formulate an optimization problem which is solved by standard non-linear convex constrained optimization algorithms, particularly by Nelder-Mead global optimization search, which is further refined by the local interior-pointsmethod.

  16. Detecting protein candidate fragments using a structural alphabet profile comparison approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Shen

    Full Text Available Predicting accurate fragments from sequence has recently become a critical step for protein structure modeling, as protein fragment assembly techniques are presently among the most efficient approaches for de novo prediction. A key step in these approaches is, given the sequence of a protein to model, the identification of relevant fragments - candidate fragments - from a collection of the available 3D structures. These fragments can then be assembled to produce a model of the complete structure of the protein of interest. The search for candidate fragments is classically achieved by considering local sequence similarity using profile comparison, or threading approaches. In the present study, we introduce a new profile comparison approach that, instead of using amino acid profiles, is based on the use of predicted structural alphabet profiles, where structural alphabet profiles contain information related to the 3D local shapes associated with the sequences. We show that structural alphabet profile-profile comparison can be used efficiently to retrieve accurate structural fragments, and we introduce a fully new protocol for the detection of candidate fragments. It identifies fragments specific of each position of the sequence and of size varying between 6 and 27 amino-acids. We find it outperforms present state of the art approaches in terms (i of the accuracy of the fragments identified, (ii the rate of true positives identified, while having a high coverage score. We illustrate the relevance of the approach on complete target sets of the two previous Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP rounds 9 and 10. A web server for the approach is freely available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/SAFrag.

  17. Performance Analysis of Adaptive Volterra Filters in the Finite-Alphabet Input Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaïdane Mériem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of adaptive Volterra filters, driven by the LMS algorithm, in the finite-alphabet inputs case. A tailored approach for the input context is presented and used to analyze the behavior of this nonlinear adaptive filter. Complete and rigorous mean square analysis is provided without any constraining independence assumption. Exact transient and steady-state performances expressed in terms of critical step size, rate of transient decrease, optimal step size, excess mean square error in stationary mode, and tracking nonstationarities are deduced.

  18. Succinct Dynamic Cardinal Trees with Constant Time Operations for Small Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    ) bits and performs the following operations in O(1) time: parent, child(i), label-child(alpha), degree, subtree-size, preorder, is-ancestor(x), insert-leaf (alpha), delete-leaf(alpha). The update times are amortized. The space is close to the information theoretic lower bound. The operations...... are performed in the course of traversing the tree. This improves the succinct dynamic $k$-ary cardinal trees representation of Arroyuelo [1] for small alphabet, by speeding up both the query time of O(loglog n), and the update time of O((log log n)^2/logloglog n) to O(1), solving an open problem in [1...

  19. Amino acid alphabet size in protein evolution experiments: better to search a small library thoroughly or a large library sparsely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Enrique; Deem, Michael W

    2008-05-01

    We compare the results obtained from searching a smaller library thoroughly versus searching a more diverse, larger library sparsely. We study protein evolution with reduced amino acid alphabets, by simulating directed evolution experiments at three different alphabet sizes: 20, 5 and 2. We employ a physical model for evolution, the generalized NK model, that has proved successful in modeling protein evolution, antibody evolution and T-cell selection. We find that antibodies with higher affinity are found by searching a library with a larger alphabet sparsely than by searching a smaller library thoroughly, even with well-designed reduced libraries. We also find ranked amino acid usage frequencies in agreement with observations of the CDR-H3 variable region of human antibodies.

  20. DNA Aptamer Generation by Genetic Alphabet Expansion SELEX (ExSELEX) Using an Unnatural Base Pair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Michiko; Matsunaga, Ken-ichiro; Hirao, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Genetic alphabet expansion of DNA using unnatural base pair systems is expected to provide a wide variety of novel tools and methods. Recent rapid progress in this area has enabled the creation of several types of unnatural base pairs that function as a third base pair in polymerase reactions. Presently, a major topic is whether the genetic alphabet expansion system actually increases nucleic acid functionalities. We recently applied our unnatural base pair system to in vitro selection (SELEX), using a DNA library containing four natural bases and an unnatural base, and succeeded in the generation of high-affinity DNA aptamers that specifically bind to target proteins. Only a few hydrophobic unnatural bases greatly augmented the affinity of the aptamers. Here, we describe a new approach (genetic alphabet Expansion SELEX, ExSELEX), using our hydrophobic unnatural base pair system for high affinity DNA aptamer generation.

  1. Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, Joachim A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphing functions is an important topic in algebra and precalculus high school courses. The functions that are usually discussed include polynomials, rational, exponential, and trigonometric functions along with their inverses. These functions can be used to teach different aspects of function theory: domain, range, monotonicity, inverse…

  2. Modes of Alphabet Letter Production during Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Interrelationships with Each Other and Other Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstad, Zachary; Sanders, Elizabeth; Abbott, Robert D.; Barnett, Anna L.; Henderson, Sheila E.; Connelly, Vincent; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2014-01-01

    Although handwriting is typically taught during early childhood and keyboarding may not be taught explicitly, both may be relevant to writing development in the later grades. Thus, Study 1 investigated automatic production of the ordered alphabet from memory for manuscript (unjoined), cursive (joined), and keyboard letter modes (alphabet 15 sec) and their relationships with each other and spelling and composing in typically developing writers in grades 4 to 7 (N = 113). Study 2 compared students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=27), dyslexia (impaired word spelling, n=40), or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing, n=11) or controls without specific writing disabilities (n=10) in grades 4 to 9 (N=88) on the same alphabet 15 modes, manner of copying (best or fast), spelling, and sentence composing. In Study 1, sequential multilevel model regressions of predictor alphabet 15 letter production/selection modes on spelling and composition outcomes, measured annually from grade 4 to grade 7 (ages 9 to 13 years), showed that only the cursive mode uniquely, positively, and consistently predicted both spelling and composing in each grade. For composing, in grade 4 manuscript mode was positively predictive and in grades 5-7 keyboard selection was. In Study 2 all letter production modes correlated with each other and one's best and fast sentence copying, spelling, and timed sentence composing. The groups with specific writing disabilities differed from control group on alphabet 15 manuscript mode, copy fast, and timed sentence composing. The dysgraphia and dyslexia groups differed on copying sentences in one's best handwriting, with the dysgraphia group scoring lower. The educational and theoretical significance of the findings are discussed for multiple modes and manners of letter production/selection of the alphabet that support spelling and composing beyond the early grades in students with and without specific writing

  3. Lymphomatoid papulosis - making sense of the alphabet soup: a proposal to simplify terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, lymphomatoid papulosis (LYP) is characterized by recurrent papulonodular lesions. Unlike this stereotypical clinical presentation, the histological spectrum of LYP is very wide, comprising distinct growth patterns, variably sized neoplastic cells, and different immunophenotypes. The revised 2016 WHO classification includes the histological LYP types A to E as well as another type characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration. In addition, new LYP types are going to be proposed, based not only on histological but also on clinical and genetic features. The ensuing expansion of the alphabetical list of histological types will add to the complexity of the terminology of LYP, thereby potentially increasing the risk of complicating rather than facilitating the diagnostic approach to the disease. Moreover, there may be overlap between individual disease types. This development raises the question as to how to simplify the terminology of LYP while still respecting its histological complexity. Herein, we advocate a practical approach to the terminology of LYP based on descriptive terms rather than the designation of LYP types by alphabetical characters. Our proposal aims to contribute to a pragmatic and user-friendly approach, thus not only facilitating the diagnostic process but also the communication between clinicians and pathologists.

  4. Book Review of "Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy: Latino Migrants Crossing the Linguistic Border," by Tomas Mario Kalmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mario

    2003-01-01

    This book chronicles how a group of migrant workers in Cobden, Illinois, developed their own hybrid writing system that used the Spanish alphabet to capture English speech sounds. The event illustrates Freirean ideas about literacy and power and offers lessons for improving English instruction. (TD)

  5. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions. However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned se- quences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitu- tion matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features, residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered. Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  6. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions.However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned sequences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitution matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features,residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered.Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9.

  7. Associations among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Baroody, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Associations among children's writing and alphabetic skills were examined in a sample of 502 prekindergarten children who were at risk of academic failure because they came from poor families, spoke a language other than English at home, or had an identified disability. In this sample of children at risk of school failure, 16% had an identified…

  8. Adaptive block-wise alphabet reduction scheme for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Atef; Zouari, Sonia; Ghribi, Abdelaziz

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new adaptive block-wise lossless image compression algorithm, which is based on the so-called alphabet reduction scheme combined with an adaptive arithmetic coding (AC). This new encoding algorithm is particularly efficient for lossless compression of images with sparse and locally sparse histograms. AC is a very efficient technique for lossless data compression and produces a rate that is close to the entropy; however, a compression performance loss occurs when encoding images or blocks with a limited number of active symbols by comparison with the number of symbols in the nominal alphabet, which consists in the amplification of the zero frequency problem. Generally, most methods add one to the frequency count of each symbol from the nominal alphabet, which leads to a statistical model distortion, and therefore reduces the efficiency of the AC. The aim of this work is to overcome this drawback by assigning to each image block the smallest possible set including all the existing symbols called active symbols. This is an alternative of using the nominal alphabet when applying the conventional arithmetic encoders. We show experimentally that the proposed method outperforms several lossless image compression encoders and standards including the conventional arithmetic encoders, JPEG2000, and JPEG-LS.

  9. Enhancing the Error Correction of Finite Alphabet Iterative Decoders via Adaptive Decimation

    CERN Document Server

    Planjery, Shiva Kumar; Declercq, David

    2012-01-01

    Finite alphabet iterative decoders (FAIDs) for LDPC codes were recently shown to be capable of surpassing the Belief Propagation (BP) decoder in the error floor region on the Binary Symmetric channel (BSC). More recently, the technique of decimation which involves fixing the values of certain bits during decoding, was proposed for FAIDs in order to make them more amenable to analysis while maintaining their good performance. In this paper, we show how decimation can be used adaptively to further enhance the guaranteed error correction capability of FAIDs that are already good on a given code. The new adaptive decimation scheme proposed has marginally added complexity but can significantly improve the slope of the error floor performance of a particular FAID. We describe the adaptive decimation scheme particularly for 7-level FAIDs which propagate only 3-bit messages and provide numerical results for column-weight three codes. Analysis suggests that the failures of the new decoders are linked to stopping sets ...

  10. On the Linear Precoder Design for MIMO Channels with Finite-Alphabet Inputs and Statistical CSI

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Weiliang; Wang, Mingxi; Lu, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linear precoder design that maximizes the average mutual information of multiple-input multiple-output channels with finite-alphabet inputs and statistical channel state information known at the transmitter. This linear precoder design is an important open problem and is extremely difficult to solve: First, average mutual information lacks closed-form expression and involves complicated computations; Second, the optimization problem over precoder is nonconcave. This study explores the solution to this problem and provides the following contributions: 1) A closed-form lower bound of average mutual information is derived. It achieves asymptotic optimality at low and high signal-to-noise ratio regions and, with a constant shift, offers an accurate approximation to the average mutual information; 2) The optimal structure of the precoder is revealed, and a unified two-step iterative algorithm is proposed to solve this problem. Numerical examples show the convergence and the efficacy of ...

  11. Modeling discrete combinatorial systems as alphabetic bipartite networks: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monojit; Ganguly, Niloy; Maiti, Abyayananda; Mukherjee, Animesh; Brusch, Lutz; Deutsch, Andreas; Peruani, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Genes and human languages are discrete combinatorial systems (DCSs), in which the basic building blocks are finite sets of elementary units: nucleotides or codons in a DNA sequence, and letters or words in a language. Different combinations of these finite units give rise to potentially infinite numbers of genes or sentences. This type of DCSs can be represented as an alphabetic bipartite network (ABN) where there are two kinds of nodes, one type represents the elementary units while the other type represents their combinations. Here, we extend and generalize recent analytical findings for ABNs derived in [Peruani, Europhys. Lett. 79, 28001 (2007)] and empirically investigate two real world systems in terms of ABNs, the codon gene and the phoneme-language network. The one-mode projections onto the elementary basic units are also studied theoretically as well as in real world ABNs. We propose the use of ABNs as a means for inferring the mechanisms underlying the growth of real world DCSs.

  12. Reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators: Trends in the alphabetization of authorship in economics and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    The paper adds a category to the list of possible negative steering effects of bibliometric indicators with a category for changes in credit assignment. The results of a longitudinal study of credit assignment practices in the fields of economics and information science are presented. The practice...... of alphabetization of authorship is demonstrated to vary significantly between the two fields. A slight increase is demonstrated to have taken place in economics during the last 30 years (1978-2007). A substantial decrease is demonstrated to have taken place in information science during the same period. A possible...... explanation for the demonstrated difference could be that information scientists have been much more aware of the bibliometric consequences of being first author compared to their colleagues in comparable fields (e.g., economics). This and other possible reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators...

  13. Alphabet-Inspired Design of (Hetero)Aromatic Push-Pull Chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klikar, Milan; Solanke, Parmeshwar; Tydlitát, Jiří; Bureš, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Push-pull molecules represent a unique and fascinating class of organic π-conjugated materials. Herein, we provide a summary of their recent extraordinary design inspired by letters of the alphabet, especially focusing on H-, L-, T-, V-, X-, and Y-shaped molecules. Representative structures from each class were presented and their fundamental properties and prospective applications were discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to molecules recently prepared in our laboratory with T-, X-, and Y-shaped arrangements based on indan-1,3-dione, benzene, pyridine, pyrazine, imidazole, and triphenylamine. These push-pull molecules turned out to be very efficient charge-transfer chromophores with tunable properties suitable for second-order nonlinear optics, two-photon absorption, reversible pH-induced and photochromic switching, photocatalysis, and intercalation.

  14. On Secrecy Rate Analysis of MIMO Wiretap Channels Driven by Finite-Alphabet Input

    CERN Document Server

    Bashar, Shafi; Xiao, Chengshan

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of finite-alphabet source input on the secrecy rate of a multi-antenna wiretap system. Existing works have characterized maximum achievable secrecy rate or secrecy capacity for single and multiple antenna systems based on Gaussian source signals and secrecy code. Despite the impracticality of Gaussian sources, the compact closed-form expression of mutual information between linear channel Gaussian input and corresponding output has led to broad application of Gaussian input assumption in physical secrecy analysis. For practical considerations, we study the effect of finite discrete-constellation on the achievable secrecy rate of multiple-antenna wire-tap channels. Our proposed precoding scheme converts the multi-antenna system into a bank of parallel channels. Based on this precoding strategy, we propose a decentralized power allocation algorithm based on dual decomposition for maximizing the achievable secrecy rate. In addition, we analyze the achievable secrecy rate for fin...

  15. An Analysis on the Application of Rescale Range and Fractals in the Characterisation of English Alphabets in a Doctoral Thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen Abiola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents an analysis on two key approaches to studying the characterization of English alphabets in doctoral thesis. The approaches (rescale range analysis (RSA and fractal characterization (FC are discussed from the simulation point of view. For RSA, Hurst exponent value was used for the string of English alphabets in composing doctoral abstracts of engineering-based research work. FC involves the combined application of Cantor dust knowledge and fractal box dimension estimate by box counting and probability. For the two approaches, four engineering-based doctoral abstracts were studied with the total length of 512 alphabets in each case. The average computerized rescale range value was found to increase with the increase in data length for all cases. The Hurst exponent values for all cases distinctively range between 0.4146 and 0.4873 (i.e. negative correlation. The relative percentage error computed for the estimated fractal box dimension of Cantor Dust when compared with the literature result was 15.7% (i.e. the algorithm used in this study for the estimate will tolerate maximum of 15.7% error for any study case: Comparisons of sorted alphabets by frequency and estimated fractal box dimension for four abstract cases range between 37% to 77% agreement. The average percentage agreement among the four cases sorted by frequency was 31.5% and the average was 43% for sorting done by estimated fractal box dimension (due to recognition of placement and timing of usage of the English language alphabets in the studied cases. The graphs of estimated probability and fractal box dimension distribution for the studied cases follows trend.

  16. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  17. Calibration and statistical techniques for building an interactive screen for learning of alphabets by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riby Abraham Boby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation details of a portable interactive device called Image-projective Desktop Varnamala Trainer. The device uses a projector to produce a virtual display on a flat surface. For enabling interaction, the information about a user’s hand movement is obtained from a single two-dimensional scanning laser range finder in contrast with a camera sensor used in many earlier applications. A generalized calibration process to obtain exact transformation from projected screen coordinate system to sensor coordinate system is proposed in this article and implemented for enabling interaction. This permits production of large interactive displays with minimal cost. Additionally, it makes the entire system portable, that is, display can be produced on any planar surface like floor, tabletop, and so on. The calibration and its performance have been evaluated by varying screen sizes and the number of points used for calibration. The device was successfully calibrated for different screens. A novel learning-based methodology for predicting a user’s behaviour was then realized to improve the system’s performance. This has been experimentally evaluated, and the overall accuracy of prediction was about 96%. An application was then designed for this set-up to improve the learning of alphabets by the children through an interactive audiovisual feedback system. It uses a game-based methodology to help students learn in a fun way. Currently, it has bilingual (Hindi and English user interface to enable learning of alphabets and elementary mathematics. A user survey was conducted after demonstrating it to school children. The survey results are very encouraging. Additionally, a study to ascertain the improvement in the learning outcome of the children was done. The results clearly indicate an improvement in the learning outcome of the children who used the device over those who did not.

  18. Sur l’origine de l’écriture libyque. Quelques propositions On the origin of the Libyco-Berber alphabet: A few proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Casajus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article propose quelques hypothèses sur l’origine des alphabets dits libyques. Attestés par plus d’un millier d’inscriptions recueillies dans toute l’Afrique du Nord, depuis la Libye jusqu’aux îles Canaries, ces alphabets sont selon toute vraisemblance les ancêtres des alphabets touaregs actuels. La seule inscription qui ait pu être datée avec un degré raisonnable de certitude est une bilingue libyco-punique, mise au jour sur le site de Dougga (Tunisie, qui daterait de 139 avant J.-C. Il semble que les alphabets libyques existaient déjà alors depuis plusieurs siècles. Leurs créateurs ont emprunté quelques lettres (au moins quatre aux alphabets phénico-puniques. Pour composer les autres lettres, ils semblent avoir eu recours à des procédés géométriques simples qu’on essaie ici de reconstituer.A few hypotheses about the origin of the so-called “Libyan” alphabets are presented. Attested in more than a thousand inscriptions from Libya to the Canary Islands in northern Africa, these alphabets are probably the forebears of the current ones used by the Tuareg. The only inscription that has been dated (139 BCE with a reasonable degree of certainty is bilingual, Libyco-Punic, from Dougga in Tunisia. The “Libyan” alphabets apparently already existed, several centuries earlier. Their creators borrowed a few — at least four — letters from the Phoenician/Punic alphabets; and apparently used simple geometric procedures, which are reconstituted herein, for the other letters.

  19. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  20. Basic processes in reading: semantics affects speeded naming of high-frequency words in an alphabetic script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, B; Besner, D

    2001-03-01

    Previous work on single-word naming in university-level readers has shown that semantic factors affect the naming of low frequency words both in an alphabetic script like English, which is often irregular in terms of the spelling-sound correspondences, and in the syllabic Japanese Kana script, in which the spelling-sound correspondences are consistent. The present experiment shows that a semantic factor (imageability) affects naming time to both low- and high-frequency words in an alphabetic script (Persian) when the word is opaque (vowels not specified) but not when it is transparent (vowels specified). Other characteristics of opaque words that promote the use of semantics are discussed. At least in some orthographies, semantics play a larger role in single-word naming than previously thought.

  1. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths. Alphabetical Index by Name, 1 October 1979 Through 30 September 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    L HUGO GABR I E L S T 3 3 WORLDWIDE U . S. ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY D E A T H S ALPHABETICAL INDEX BY NAME OCTOBER 1, 1 9 7 9 THROUGH SEPTEMBER...SALAZAR MA R K E UGENE SALAZAR MAR K J U S T I N SALAZAR VICTOR ANTHONY SALCE R A YMOND V SALCEDO PA U L ME RCED SALCIDO B R IAN DANNY

  2. Gaining the upper hand: comparison of alphabetic and keyboard positions as spatial features of letters producing distinct S-R compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Julia; Neumann, Roland

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored which stimulus feature, alphabetic or keyboard position, primarily influences letter processing in different task settings. In Experiment 1 (alphabetic position judgment) a response side effect (faster responses when the location of letters within the alphabet or on the keyboard maps onto the response hand) could be observed for alphabetic position as task-relevant stimulus feature. In Experiments 2 and 3 participants responded to a non-spatial stimulus feature (uppercase-lowercase classification) so that both attributes can be characterized as task-irrelevant. The pattern indicated that a keyboard position-hand correspondence effect emerged independent of the time window (after stimulus onset) in which the response was given. However, an alphabetic position-hand correspondence effect only emerged when participants were forced to delay their responses by 450ms. The overall pattern indicated that although both features were processed and translated into a spatial code reflecting their position within the alphabet vs. on the keyboard, the relevance of these features to the task as well as the time that elapsed since stimulus onset determined which attribute of the letters was effective in yielding a stimulus-response compatibility effect.

  3. Decimation-Enhanced Finite Alphabet Iterative Decoders for LDPC codes on the BSC

    CERN Document Server

    Planjery, Shiva Kumar; Declercq, David

    2011-01-01

    Finite alphabet iterative decoders (FAID) with multilevel messages that can surpass BP in the error floor region for LDPC codes on the BSC were previously proposed. In this paper, we propose decimation-enhanced decoders. The technique of decimation which is incorporated into the message update rule, involves fixing certain bits of the code to a particular value. Under appropriately chosen rules, decimation can significantly reduce the number of iterations required to correct a fixed number of errors, while maintaining the good performance of the original decoder in the error floor region. At the same time, the algorithm is much more amenable to analysis. We shall provide a simple decimation scheme for a particularly good 7-level FAID for column-weight three codes on the BSC, that helps to correct a fixed number of errors in fewer iterations, and provide insights into the analysis of the decoder. We shall also examine the conditions under which the decimation-enhanced 7-level FAID performs at least as good as ...

  4. Alphabetic skills in preschool: a preliminary study of letter naming and letter writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Molnar, Andrew; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Development of letter naming and writing (skills in writing first name, dictated and copied letters, and dictated and copied numbers) was examined in 79 preschool children (M age = 56 months). Skills were assessed in the fall to determine the status of these procedural skills that are components of alphabetic knowledge at the start of the school year. Children with high letter-naming scores also had high scores on letter writing, including dictated or copied letters and writing some or all of the letters of their names. Letter-naming skills were related to number-writing skills whether the numbers were dictated or copied. The highest writing scores were found for first name writing compared to writing or copying letters and numbers. A focus on the development of procedural knowledge in the preschool period may yield the hopep for impacts on later reading skills that has not been found in curricula emphasizing conceptual knowledge (e.g., knowledge of print concepts, book conventions).

  5. Evidence from Meteorites for Multiple Possible Amino Acid Alphabets for the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question for the origins of life is understanding which amino acids made up the first proteins synthesized during the origins of life. The canonical set of 20 - 22 amino acids used in proteins are all alpha-amino, alpha-hydrogen isomers that, nevertheless, show considerable variability in properties including size, hydrophobicity, and ionizability. Abiotic amino acid synthesis experiments such as Miller-Urey spark discharge reactions produce a set of up to 23 amino acids, depending on starting materials and reaction conditions, with significant abundances of both alpha- and non-alpha-amino acid isomers. These two sets of amino acids do not completely overlap; of the 23 spark discharge amino acids, only 11 are used in modern proteins. Furthermore, because our understanding of conditions on the early Earth are limited, it is unclear which set(s) of conditions employed in spark discharge or hydrothermal reactions are correct, leaving us with significant uncertainty about the amino acid alphabet available for the origins of life on Earth. Meteorites, the surviving remnants of asteroids and comets that fall to the Earth, offer the potential to study authentic samples of naturally-occurring abiotic chemistry, and thus can provide an alternative approach to constraining the amino acid library during the origins of life.

  6. Robust Real-Time and Rotation-Invariant American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2012-07-01

    The automatic interpretation of human gestures can be used for a natural interaction with computers without the use of mechanical devices such as keyboards and mice. The recognition of hand postures have been studied for many years. However, most of the literature in this area has considered 2D images which cannot provide a full description of the hand gestures. In addition, a rotation-invariant identification remains an unsolved problem even with the use of 2D images. The objective of the current study is to design a rotation-invariant recognition process while using a 3D signature for classifying hand postures. An heuristic and voxelbased signature has been designed and implemented. The tracking of the hand motion is achieved with the Kalman filter. A unique training image per posture is used in the supervised classification. The designed recognition process and the tracking procedure have been successfully evaluated. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed rotation invariant 3D hand posture signature which leads to 98.24% recognition rate after testing 12723 samples of 12 gestures taken from the alphabet of the American Sign Language.

  7. mulPBA: an efficient multiple protein structure alignment method based on a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, Sylvain; Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2014-04-01

    The increasing number of available protein structures requires efficient tools for multiple structure comparison. Indeed, multiple structural alignments are essential for the analysis of function, evolution and architecture of protein structures. For this purpose, we proposed a new web server called multiple Protein Block Alignment (mulPBA). This server implements a method based on a structural alphabet to describe the backbone conformation of a protein chain in terms of dihedral angles. This 'sequence-like' representation enables the use of powerful sequence alignment methods for primary structure comparison, followed by an iterative refinement of the structural superposition. This approach yields alignments superior to most of the rigid-body alignment methods and highly comparable with the flexible structure comparison approaches. We implement this method in a web server designed to do multiple structure superimpositions from a set of structures given by the user. Outputs are given as both sequence alignment and superposed 3D structures visualized directly by static images generated by PyMol or through a Jmol applet allowing dynamic interaction. Multiple global quality measures are given. Relatedness between structures is indicated by a distance dendogram. Superimposed structures in PDB format can be also downloaded, and the results are quickly obtained. mulPBA server can be accessed at www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/mulpba/ .

  8. "Perception of the speech code" revisited: Speech is alphabetic after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol A; Shankweiler, Donald; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We revisit an article, "Perception of the Speech Code" (PSC), published in this journal 50 years ago (Liberman, Cooper, Shankweiler, & Studdert-Kennedy, 1967) and address one of its legacies concerning the status of phonetic segments, which persists in theories of speech today. In the perspective of PSC, segments both exist (in language as known) and do not exist (in articulation or the acoustic speech signal). Findings interpreted as showing that speech is not a sound alphabet, but, rather, phonemes are encoded in the signal, coupled with findings that listeners perceive articulation, led to the motor theory of speech perception, a highly controversial legacy of PSC. However, a second legacy, the paradoxical perspective on segments has been mostly unquestioned. We remove the paradox by offering an alternative supported by converging evidence that segments exist in language both as known and as used. We support the existence of segments in both language knowledge and in production by showing that phonetic segments are articulatory and dynamic and that coarticulation does not eliminate them. We show that segments leave an acoustic signature that listeners can track. This suggests that speech is well-adapted to public communication in facilitating, not creating a barrier to, exchange of language forms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. War of Alphabets in Transnistria. European Court of Human Rights and the “Catan Case”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Alexianu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present and analyze the European Court of Human Rights Judgment on the question of violation of human rights regarding language and script use in Transnistrian schools. This research is important in the field of globalization and cultural differences because it studies the intercourse between the legal issues and the political implications of an ECtHR decision towards Transnistria – a hot spot on the international relations map since 1991. This paper wants to bring a deeper approach regarding the question of language and script use in the Republic of Moldova which was the core of the dispute between the left and the right bank of the Nistru river that later turned into the armed conflict in Transnistria. The method used was to put into historical context the Courts’ decision of major importance on the Catan and Others v. Moldova and Russia case. Following the presentation and interpretation of the historical background of the language and alphabet issues in Moldova this work underlines the dynamics of the direct connection that exists between international politics, international law and regional crisis. This paper may elicit a more analytical interest for research groups interested in the conflict in Transnistria, the language dispute in Moldova and in international jurisprudence regarding the right to education, but it can also be useful to European or regional political decisional factors engaged in the peaceful conflict resolution. The key contribution of this paper consists of emphasizing the political implications of an ECtHR decision regarding the Republic of Moldova and the conflict in Transnistria.

  10. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroger, L. [University of California Davis (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  11. Dactyl Alphabet Gesture Recognition in a Video Sequence Using Microsoft Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhin, S. G.; Mestetskiy, L. M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an efficient framework for solving the problem of static gesture recognition based on data obtained from the web cameras and depth sensor Kinect (RGB-D - data). Each gesture given by a pair of images: color image and depth map. The database store gestures by it features description, genereated by frame for each gesture of the alphabet. Recognition algorithm takes as input a video sequence (a sequence of frames) for marking, put in correspondence with each frame sequence gesture from the database, or decide that there is no suitable gesture in the database. First, classification of the frame of the video sequence is done separately without interframe information. Then, a sequence of successful marked frames in equal gesture is grouped into a single static gesture. We propose a method combined segmentation of frame by depth map and RGB-image. The primary segmentation is based on the depth map. It gives information about the position and allows to get hands rough border. Then, based on the color image border is specified and performed analysis of the shape of the hand. Method of continuous skeleton is used to generate features. We propose a method of skeleton terminal branches, which gives the opportunity to determine the position of the fingers and wrist. Classification features for gesture is description of the position of the fingers relative to the wrist. The experiments were carried out with the developed algorithm on the example of the American Sign Language. American Sign Language gesture has several components, including the shape of the hand, its orientation in space and the type of movement. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated on the base of collected gestures consisting of 2700 frames.

  12. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  13. Discovering structural motifs using a structural alphabet: Application to magnesium-binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Carmay

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many metalloproteins, sequence motifs characteristic of metal-binding sites have not been found or are so short that they would not be expected to be metal-specific. Striking examples of such metalloproteins are those containing Mg2+, one of the most versatile metal cofactors in cellular biochemistry. Even when Mg2+-proteins share insufficient sequence homology to identify Mg2+-specific sequence motifs, they may still share similarity in the Mg2+-binding site structure. However, no structural motifs characteristic of Mg2+-binding sites have been reported. Thus, our aims are (i to develop a general method for discovering structural patterns/motifs characteristic of ligand-binding sites, given the 3D protein structures, and (ii to apply it to Mg2+-proteins sharing 2+-structural motifs are identified as recurring structural patterns. Results The structural alphabet-based motif discovery method has revealed the structural preference of Mg2+-binding sites for certain local/secondary structures: compared to all residues in the Mg2+-proteins, both first and second-shell Mg2+-ligands prefer loops to helices. Even when the Mg2+-proteins share no significant sequence homology, some of them share a similar Mg2+-binding site structure: 4 Mg2+-structural motifs, comprising 21% of the binding sites, were found. In particular, one of the Mg2+-structural motifs found maps to a specific functional group, namely, hydrolases. Furthermore, 2 of the motifs were not found in non metalloproteins or in Ca2+-binding proteins. The structural motifs discovered thus capture some essential biochemical and/or evolutionary properties, and hence may be useful for discovering proteins where Mg2+ plays an important biological role. Conclusion The structural motif discovery method presented herein is general and can be applied to any set of proteins with known 3D structures. This new method is timely considering the increasing number of structures for

  14. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang eZhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.

  15. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of word frequency (WF) and syllable frequency (SF) are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of WF and SF, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory WF and SF effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The SF effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency) constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the SF effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the SF effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between WF and SF showed that the SF effect is independent of the WF effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.

  16. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system.

  17. The Effectiveness of Using Augmented Reality Apps in Teaching the English Alphabet to Kindergarten Children: A Case Study in the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Al-Jafar, Ali A.; Al-Yousefi, Zainab H.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research study scrutinized the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) applications (apps) as a teaching and learning tool when instructing kindergarten children in the English alphabet in the State of Kuwait. The study compared two groups: (a) experimental, taught using AR apps, and (b) control, taught using traditional…

  18. Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Elaine; Morales, Celia; Gil, Verónica; Jiménez-Suárez, Elizabeth

    2016-04-11

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from theEarly Grade Writing Assessment(Jiménez, in press) were used to assign the participants to one of four groups with different ability patterns: poor handwriters, poor spellers, a mixed group, and typically achieving students. Groups were equalized by a matching strategy, resulting in a final sample of 352 children. A MANOVA was executed to analyze effects of group and grade on orthographic motor integration (fluency of alphabet writing) and the number of omissions when writing the alphabet (accuracy of alphabet writing) by keyboard writing mode. The results indicated that poor handwriters did not differ from typically achieving children in both variables, whereas the poor spellers did perform below the typical achievers and the poor handwriters. The difficulties of poor handwriters seem to be alleviated by the use of the keyboard; however, children with spelling difficulties might need extra instruction to become fluent keyboard writers.

  19. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  20. Where Can You See Language Contact between English and British Sign Language? The Use of the Manual Alphabet in Place-Names and BSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    Just as minority spoken languages borrow from surrounding majority languages, so British Sign Language (BSL) borrows signs from English. BSL may borrow from both spoken and written English, but here we focus on the processes involved in borrowing from the written English word, using the manual alphabet. The end result of borrowing depends on an…

  1. 基于OpenType的国际音标字库研究与实现%Research and Realization on International Phonetic Alphabet Based on Open Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯日古楞; 木仁

    2014-01-01

    国际音标在语言学的学习和研究中应用广泛,因其字母和符号繁多,经常会出现显示不够美观甚至出现混乱之处。该文主要探讨和研究国际音标符号特点,OpenType 字库及其高级排版特性,并给出了一种采用 OpenType 字库技术解决国际音标 TrueType 字库中存在的附加符(Diacritics)出现位置偏差、附加符与元音或辅音叠加等影响字符显示问题的解决方案。%International phonetic alphabets are widely used in language learning and the study on lin-guistics .But the display of the alphabets is not often perfect or even is mixed because of a variety of letters and symbols .This paper mainly investigates the features of International Phonetic Alphabet symbols , Open Type Font as well as its characteristics of the advanced typesetting .It is proposed that the affecting appearance problems ,such as location deviation of diacritics in International Phonetic Alphabet True Type Font ,overlap of diacritics and vowels or consonant ,would be solved down with Open Type Font skills .

  2. The Effectiveness of Using Augmented Reality Apps in Teaching the English Alphabet to Kindergarten Children: A Case Study in the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Al-Jafar, Ali A.; Al-Yousefi, Zainab H.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research study scrutinized the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) applications (apps) as a teaching and learning tool when instructing kindergarten children in the English alphabet in the State of Kuwait. The study compared two groups: (a) experimental, taught using AR apps, and (b) control, taught using traditional…

  3. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The "Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado"…

  4. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  5. Phonological processing deficits and the acquisition of the alphabetic principle in a severely delayed reader: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Catherine G; Drover, James; Dyck, Carrie

    2009-11-01

    At the end of first grade, TM did not know the alphabet and could read no words. He could not tap syllables in words, had difficulty producing rhyming words and retrieving the phonological representations of words, and he could not discriminate many phoneme contrasts. He learned letter-sound correspondences first for single-consonant onsets and then later for the final consonant in a word but had difficulty with letter-sound associations for vowels. TM's ability to select a printed word to match a spoken word on the basis of the initial or final letter and sound was interpreted as evidence of Ehri's phonetic-cue reading. Using the Glass Analysis method, the authors taught TM to read and he became an independent reader. We discuss how his phonological processing deficits contributed to his reading difficulties.

  6. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  7. Introducing an Etnosemiotic Approach to develop Multimedia Material for Supporting the Alphabetization Process for a Mexican Indigenous Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Garcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of globalization in countries’ education programs is the loss of their native languages. The loss of native languages does not only affect the research work of anthropologists, linguists, and ethnologists; moreover the country’s identity and culture. In this context, our research aims to establish some ethnic contexts which influence students’ learning and to provide dynamic material to support the learning process in an indigenous language. More specifically, in this paper an etnosemiotic approach is presented to create interactive multimedia material for supporting the alphabetization process in the Zapoteca language in the Mexican Region of Oaxaca. This approach is oriented towards elementary schooling and aims to address some current necessities in indigenous education.

  8. Evolución conceptual de la alfabetización en información a partir de la alfabetización múltiple en su perspectiva educativa y bibliotecaria Conceptual evolution of alphabetization in information based on multiple alphabetization in a library science and educational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Marzal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el origen de la alfabetización en la información desde el punto de vista de la lectura y escritura propias de los hipermedios, que es algo diferente de la "alfabetización" textual. Los hipermedia poseen su propia gramática del discurso electrónico dado que su mensaje es múltiple como consecuencia de la preeminencia de las TIC en cuanto al contenido, del usuario en cuanto al diseño y de sus funciones en cuanto a un nuevo espacio para la educación. Se define la alfabetización en información con ayuda de la "alfabetización múltiple" a través de las competencias informativas para el conocimiento y la proyección de éstas en el sistema educativo.The origin of alphabetization in information is analyzed from the reading and writing points of view prevalent in hypermedia, which are different from alphabetization based on texts. Hypermedia possess its own electronic discourse grammar, since its message is multiple due to prevalence of ISTs in what concerns to content; of users about design; and of its functions about a new space to education. Alphabetization in information is defined, based on multiple alphabetization through informative competences for knowledge and the projection of these on the educational system.

  9. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado ("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in writing the alphabet and selecting allographs mediated the differences in spelling between good and poor keyboarders in the free-writing task. Execution in the allograph selection task and writing alphabet from memory had different degrees of predictability in each of the groups in explaining the level of fluency and spelling in the free-writing task sentences, depending on the grade. These results suggest that early assessment of writing by means of the computer keyboard can provide clues and guidelines for intervention and training to strengthen specific skills to improve writing performance in the early primary grades in transcription skills by keyboarding.

  10. Site-specific labeling of RNA by combining genetic alphabet expansion transcription and copper-free click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Tatsuhiko; Ando, Ami; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro

    2015-08-18

    Site-specific labeling of long-chain RNAs with desired molecular probes is an imperative technique to facilitate studies of functional RNA molecules. By genetic alphabet expansion using an artificial third base pair, called an unnatural base pair, we present a post-transcriptional modification method for RNA transcripts containing an incorporated azide-linked unnatural base at specific positions, using a copper-free click reaction. The unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa) functions in transcription. Thus, we chemically synthesized a triphosphate substrate of 4-(4-azidopentyl)-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (N3-PaTP), which can be site-specifically introduced into RNA, opposite Ds in templates by T7 transcription. The N3-Pa incorporated in the transcripts was modified with dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) derivatives. We demonstrated the transcription of 17-, 76- and 260-mer RNA molecules and their site-specific labeling with Alexa 488, Alexa 594 and biotin. This method will be useful for preparing RNA molecules labeled with any functional groups of interest, toward in vivo experiments.

  11. Universal Visual Features Might Be Necessary for Fluent Reading. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Reading in Braille and Cyrillic Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Radziun, Dominika; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Sowa, Joanna E; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e.g., Cyrillic). Using a lexical decision task, we examined Visual Braille reading speed and efficiency in sighted Braille teachers. As a control, we tested learners of a natural visual script, Cyrillic. Both groups participated in a two semester course of either visual Braille or Russian while their reading speed and accuracy was tested at regular intervals. The results show that visual Braille reading is slow, prone to errors and highly serial, even in Braille readers with years of prior reading experience. Although subjects showed some improvements in their visual Braille reading accuracy and speed following the course, the effect of word length on reading speed (typically observed in beginning readers) was remained very sizeable through all testing sessions. These results are in stark contrast to Cyrillic, a natural script, where only 3 months of learning were sufficient to achieve relative proficiency. Taken together, these results suggest that visual features such as line junctions and their combinations might be necessary for efficient reading.

  12. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences.

  13. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  14. Towards real-time and rotation-invariant American Sign Language alphabet recognition using a range camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Hervé; Lichti, Derek D

    2012-10-29

    The automatic interpretation of human gestures can be used for a natural interaction with computers while getting rid of mechanical devices such as keyboards and mice. In order to achieve this objective, the recognition of hand postures has been studied for many years. However, most of the literature in this area has considered 2D images which cannot provide a full description of the hand gestures. In addition, a rotation-invariant identification remains an unsolved problem, even with the use of 2D images. The objective of the current study was to design a rotation-invariant recognition process while using a 3D signature for classifying hand postures. A heuristic and voxel-based signature has been designed and implemented. The tracking of the hand motion is achieved with the Kalman filter. A unique training image per posture is used in the supervised classification. The designed recognition process, the tracking procedure and the segmentation algorithm have been successfully evaluated. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed rotation invariant 3D hand posture signature which leads to 93.88% recognition rate after testing 14,732 samples of 12 postures taken from the alphabet of the American Sign Language.

  15. Towards Real-Time and Rotation-Invariant American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Lichti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic interpretation of human gestures can be used for a natural interaction with computers while getting rid of mechanical devices such as keyboards and mice. In order to achieve this objective, the recognition of hand postures has been studied for many years. However, most of the literature in this area has considered 2D images which cannot provide a full description of the hand gestures. In addition, a rotation-invariant identification remains an unsolved problem, even with the use of 2D images. The objective of the current study was to design a rotation-invariant recognition process while using a 3D signature for classifying hand postures. A heuristic and voxel-based signature has been designed and implemented. The tracking of the hand motion is achieved with the Kalman filter. A unique training image per posture is used in the supervised classification. The designed recognition process, the tracking procedure and the segmentation algorithm have been successfully evaluated. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed rotation invariant 3D hand posture signature which leads to 93.88% recognition rate after testing 14,732 samples of 12 postures taken from the alphabet of the American Sign Language.

  16. Autonomous assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides built from an expanded DNA alphabet. Total synthesis of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen K. Merritt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many synthetic biologists seek to increase the degree of autonomy in the assembly of long DNA (L-DNA constructs from short synthetic DNA fragments, which are today quite inexpensive because of automated solid-phase synthesis. However, the low information density of DNA built from just four nucleotide “letters”, the presence of strong (G:C and weak (A:T nucleobase pairs, the non-canonical folded structures that compete with Watson–Crick pairing, and other features intrinsic to natural DNA, generally prevent the autonomous assembly of short single-stranded oligonucleotides greater than a dozen or so.Results: We describe a new strategy to autonomously assemble L-DNA constructs from fragments of synthetic single-stranded DNA. This strategy uses an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS that adds nucleotides to the four (G, A, C, and T found in standard DNA by shuffling hydrogen-bonding units on the nucleobases, all while retaining the overall Watson–Crick base-pairing geometry. The added information density allows larger numbers of synthetic fragments to self-assemble without off-target hybridization, hairpin formation, and non-canonical folding interactions. The AEGIS pairs are then converted into standard pairs to produce a fully natural L-DNA product. Here, we report the autonomous assembly of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance using this strategy. Synthetic fragments were built from a six-letter alphabet having two AEGIS components, 5-methyl-2’-deoxyisocytidine and 2’-deoxyisoguanosine (respectively S and B, at their overlapping ends. Gaps in the overlapped assembly were then filled in using DNA polymerases, and the nicks were sealed by ligase. The S:B pairs in the ligated construct were then converted to T:A pairs during PCR amplification. When cloned into a plasmid, the product was shown to make Escherichia coli resistant to kanamycin. A parallel study that attempted to assemble similarly sized genes

  17. Alphabetic and funcational (illiteracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Loberger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available On basis of an international research (E. Možina, 2000 about functional literacy from 1998, it is possible to conclude that one can be preoccupied with functional literacy of the Slovenians. The research has shown that only 3% of people reaches levels 4 and 5 with text literacy, 5 % with documentation literacy and a mere 10 % with calculus. Minimum level, which still enables active participation in a modern technological society is reached by a further 20%, which means that 70% of the Slovenian population is incapable to appropriately respond to the circumstances of the  environment and independently  resolve problems on basis of understanding daily situations of life. Some factors of funcational illiteracy of people appear, for instance, when under- standing timetables, composing short or long texts (letters, memos, requests, applications ..., following instructions or reading pharmaceutical explanations, understanding one’s own diseases, deciding on the way of treatment, using media and modern technology ... Solving the problem of functional illiteracy is connected with the level of general education, socialisation of an individual, spreading the social network, which enables an indivi- dual with social and action-oriented competencies. On the other hand it follows the trends of new forms of working and surviving under the influence of globalisation, which forces an individual into lifelong learning and raising the added value of a workplace. Functionally illiterate people are  retarded  in their personal development and are incapable of taking  responsibility of their own lifelong learning. For this reason, they are also incapable of bringing themselves out of the situation, where their development has been brough to a standstill.

  18. Systematic exploration of a class of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs yields multiple new candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Kirandeep; Malyshev, Denis A; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Kubelka, Tomáš; Hocek, Michal; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a family of unnatural base pairs (UBPs), which rely on hydrophobic and packing interactions for pairing and which are well replicated and transcribed. While the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM) has received the most attention, and has been used to expand the genetic alphabet of a living organism, recent efforts have identified dTPT3-dNaM, which is replicated with even higher fidelity. These efforts also resulted in more UBPs than could be independently analyzed, and thus we now report a PCR-based screen to identify the most promising. While we found that dTPT3-dNaM is generally the most promising UBP, we identified several others that are replicated nearly as well and significantly better than d5SICS-dNaM, and are thus viable candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet of a living organism. Moreover, the results suggest that continued optimization should be possible, and that the putatively essential hydrogen-bond acceptor at the position ortho to the glycosidic linkage may not be required. These results clearly demonstrate the generality of hydrophobic forces for the control of base pairing within DNA, provide a wealth of new structure-activity relationship data and importantly identify multiple new candidates for in vivo evaluation and further optimization.

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 16 (Panhandle Food Sales-Ray Gene Electric Co Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 466 1990 ANNUAL PRIME CONTRACTS AWARDS ALPHABETICALLY BY CONTRACTOR, BY STATE OR COUNTRY, AND PLACE. PT-16 (PANHANDLE FOOD SALES-RAY GENE ...4 I-l e~ I 0 MM 0)1 47470:14710) 0) 0) 0) I" gene , I LA 4 00 0) co -4 -FF- F- C (D <r- 0CD I~ gene , U0 -4 0. C4 0> 0D-4-4-40 C> C- N0 -4 (n L-4 cn...LW ,U ’L a) I CIme 𔃺" 0)0)100)0)10)0) (00 0 Ei(Cn" cc cc c c c c c c c c c 410mc’ " ::U. C 001. C00 r-0C0C r00 C w izI0’ M" ~ 000000 , . > .0 000 s-s

  20. Alphabet Issues in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language / Türkçenin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretiminde Alfabe Sorunu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra ŞENGÜL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the extent of alphabet problems experienced by foreigners as they learn Turkish and offer solutions. Even though the literature includes numerous studies that focus on alphabet issues in the teaching of Turkish to foreigners, the topic has never been studied independently. In order to do this, 45 foreign students attending Atatürk University Language Education Training and Research Center, Gaziantep University Turkish Education Training and Research Center and Fırat University Language Education Training and Research Center to learn Turkish at C1 level were asked to respond to an 8-item semi-structured interview and write a dictated text. The data showed that most students had difficulty vocalizing and writing the following letters/sound of the Turkish alphabet: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü, c, ç, ğ, l, ş, y. Usually, they were confused between back and front vowels. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yabancıların Türkçe öğrenirken yaşadıkları alfabe sorununun hangi boyutlarda olduğunu ortaya koymak, yaşanan sıkıntılara yönelik çözüm önerileri sunmaktır. Alan yazınına bakıldığında birçok çalışmada yabancılara Türkçe öğretiminde alfabe sorunundan bahsedildiği fakat konunun bağımsız olarak ele alınmadığı görülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda, Atatürk Üniversitesi Dil Eğitimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezinde, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Türkçe Öğretimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezinde ve Fırat Üniversitesi Dil Eğitim-Öğretim ve Araştırma Merkezinde Türkçe öğrenen C1 düzeyindeki 45 yabancı öğrenciye 8 maddelik yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu uygulanmış ve dikte yöntemiyle metin yazdırılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda öğrencilerin çoğunluğunun Türk alfabesinde yer alan a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü, c, ç, ğ, l, ş, y

  1. Discussion on the Effect of Chinese Phonetic Alphabet in Primary School Chinese Teaching%浅谈汉语拼音在小学语文教育中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛蓉芳

    2014-01-01

    汉语拼音是小学教学的重要内容,是小学生打开知识大门的金钥匙。详细阐述汉语拼音在识字、学习普通话、阅读、写作和使用工具等方面的作用,以期提高教师对汉语拼音的重视度。%Chinese phonetic teaching is an important content of primary school teaching,is the golden key to open the door of knowledge. This paper will elaborate on the role of Chinese phonetic alphabet in literacy,learning mandarin,reading,writing and use tools and so on,in order to improve the teachers’ attention to Chinese phonetic alphabet.

  2. Terminal sequence importance of de novo proteins from binary-patterned library: stable artificial proteins with 11- or 12-amino acid alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2012-06-01

    Successful approaches of de novo protein design suggest a great potential to create novel structural folds and to understand natural rules of protein folding. For these purposes, smaller and simpler de novo proteins have been developed. Here, we constructed smaller proteins by removing the terminal sequences from stable de novo vTAJ proteins and compared stabilities between mutant and original proteins. vTAJ proteins were screened from an α3β3 binary-patterned library which was designed with polar/ nonpolar periodicities of α-helix and β-sheet. vTAJ proteins have the additional terminal sequences due to the method of constructing the genetically repeated library sequences. By removing the parts of the sequences, we successfully obtained the stable smaller de novo protein mutants with fewer amino acid alphabets than the originals. However, these mutants showed the differences on ANS binding properties and stabilities against denaturant and pH change. The terminal sequences, which were designed just as flexible linkers not as secondary structure units, sufficiently affected these physicochemical details. This study showed implications for adjusting protein stabilities by designing N- and C-terminal sequences.

  3. Disfunções dos músculos oblíquos nas variações alfabéticas Oblique muscle dysfunctions in alphabetic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oyi de Oliveira

    2001-11-01

    ção de oblíquo inferior bilateral associada à hipofunção de oblíquo superior bilateral (30 casos. Conclusões: Os resultados desse trabalho confirmam a importância das disfunções de oblíquos na etiopatogenia das anisotropias em "A" e "V". Nas anisotropias em "A" a disfunção de motilidade extrínseca ocular mais freqüente foi a hiperfunção de oblíquo superior; nas anisotropias em "V", foi a hiperfunção de oblíquo inferior.Purpose: To determine the importance of oblique muscle dysfunctions in the etiopathogeny of alphabetic syndromes ("A" and "V"; to determine which oblique dysfunction is more often associated with each alphabetic syndrome. Methods: 178 patients with eso/exodeviations and alphabetic syndromes ("A" or "V", with or without oblique muscle dysfunctions, were retrospectivelly studied. Patients with special forms of strabismus (syndromes and paresis and patients with previous strabismus surgery were excluded from the study. Results: 78 patients with "A" pattern were studied: 44 women and 34 men; 61 patients were 20 years old or younger and 17 patients were older; 59 eso- and 19 exodeviations; 58 patients with an "A" pattern of 30 prismatic diopters or smaller, 12 patients with "A" pattern diagnosed by the corneal reflex only and 8 patients with the variation greater than 30; oblique muscle dysfunctions were observed in 70 of the 78 patients studied (bilateral superior oblique overaction associated with bilateral inferior oblique underaction (31 cases and isolated bilateral superior oblique overaction (12 cases were more frequently found.One hundred patients with "V" pattern were studied: 58 women and 42 men; 77 patients were 10 years old or younger; 65 eso- and 34 exodeviations and 1 orthotropia; 71 patients with "V" ranging from 10 to 30 prismatic diopters; oblique muscle dysfunctions were found in 93 patients and isolated bilateral inferior oblique overaction (33 cases and bilateral inferior oblique muscle overaction associated with bilateral

  4. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. Methods We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department’s new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication “buttons” were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.). In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.). Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60) were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. Results The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P < 0.0001). The findings were the same regardless of the order of testing (i.e. alphabetical-categorical vs. categorical - alphabetical) and participants’ years of clinical experience. Most anesthesia providers made no (0) errors for most trials (N = 96/120 trials, lower 95% limit 73%, P < 0.0001). There was no difference in error rates between the two formats (P = 0.53). Conclusions The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our

  5. iDNA-Prot|dis: identifying DNA-binding proteins by incorporating amino acid distance-pairs and reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Playing crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide sequences, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression, DNA-binding proteins are essential ingredients for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteomes. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is a critical challenge to develop automated methods for accurate and rapidly identifying DNA-binding proteins based on their sequence information alone. Here, a novel predictor, called "iDNA-Prot|dis", was established by incorporating the amino acid distance-pair coupling information and the amino acid reduced alphabet profile into the general pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC vector. The former can capture the characteristics of DNA-binding proteins so as to enhance its prediction quality, while the latter can reduce the dimension of PseAAC vector so as to speed up its prediction process. It was observed by the rigorous jackknife and independent dataset tests that the new predictor outperformed the existing predictors for the same purpose. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot|dis is accessible to the public at http://bioinformatics.hitsz.edu.cn/iDNA-Prot_dis/. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step protocol guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get their desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematic equations that are presented in this paper just for the integrity of its developing process. It is anticipated that the iDNA-Prot|dis predictor may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins, or at the very least, play a complementary role to the existing predictors in this regard.

  6. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus isolates: the "mec alphabet" with specific consideration of mecC, a mec homolog associated with zoonotic S. aureus lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Ballhausen, Britta; Köck, Robin; Kriegeskorte, André

    2014-10-01

    Livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have globally emerged during the past decade. In Europe, this was particularly due to the occurrence of LA-MRSA strains associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. However, more recently animal-adapted clonal lineages of S. aureus showing phenotypic methicillin resistance have been identified such as CC130, CC599, CC59, CC1943 and CC425. These newly emerging LA-MRSA CCs/STs caused infections in animals and zoonoses in humans. In contrast to other S. aureus clonal lineages, the methicillin resistance of the latter CCs/STs is based on a mecA gene homolog, designated mecC, which is part of a distinct SCCmec type (SCCmec XI). Including mecB found in Macrococcus caseolyticus, henceforth, the "mec alphabet" comprises three major gene types with several allotypes. As known for mecA, the gene homolog mecC is also not restricted to S. aureus, but found in several staphylococcal species including S. sciuri, S. stepanovicii and S. xylosus (mecC1 allotype). First investigations showed a wide geographical distribution of mecC-MRSA in Europe and a broad diversity of host species including livestock, companion and wildlife animals. In particular, wild rodents and insectivores might serve as reservoir for staphylococci harboring mecC. Economic burden may be caused by mastitis of dairy cattle. Livestock animals may likely serve as source for human infections with mecC-MRSA; reported cases comprise skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis and bacteremia. Due to the divergent molecular nature of mecC-MRSA, its diagnostics is hampered by difficulties to verify the methicillin resistance using phenotypic as well as DNA-based procedures, which could have negative consequences for therapy of mecC-MRSA-caused infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Anil A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthesia information management system (AIMS records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. Methods We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department’s new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication “buttons” were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.. In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.. Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60 were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. Results The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P  Conclusions The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our department’s design of our final intraoperative electronic anesthesia record. This testing approach using cognitive and usability engineering methods can be used to objectively design and evaluate many aspects of the clinician-computer interaction in electronic health records.

  8. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sickness (African trypanosomiasis) Alveolar Echinococcosis (Echinococcosis, Hydatid Disease) Amebiasis ( Entamoeba histolytica Infection) American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) Ancylostomiasis ( ...

  9. The Hangulphabet: A Descriptive Alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Robert; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the Hangulphabet, a new writing system that should prove useful in a number of contexts. Using the Hangulphabet, a user can instantly see voicing, manner and place of articulation of any phoneme found in human language. The Hangulphabet places consonant graphemes on a grid with the x-axis representing the place of articulation and the y-axis representing manner of articulation. Each individual grapheme contains radicals from both axes where the points intersect. The top r...

  10. Alphabetic literacy and psychological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais, José

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta contribuição examinamos as conseqüências da aquisição de um sistema alfabético de representação da linguagem sonre as estruturas psicológicas. Em primeiro lugar, descrevemos os dados empíricos que demonstram que a literacia alfabética suscita a emergência da consciência fonémica. Muitos destes estudos foram realizados em populações de iletrados de Portugal, Espanha e Brasil. Distinguimos entre a sensibilidade fonológica, a consciência fonológica e a consciência fonémica. Em seguida, apresentamos as conseqüências da consciência fonémica sobre a maneira como as pessoas conceptualizam a fonologia de sua língua e fazem atenção a ela. Por fim, mostramos que a literacia alfabética influencia os estádios tardios do reconhecimento das palavras faladas mas não os processos mais precoces, entre os quais em especial a extração automática da informação fonética

  11. The Phenomena of Alphabetic Words Used in Chinese Language─ ─Studying the Students Language Behavior in Yangzhou University as an Example%汉语中字母词使用态度调查研究──以扬州大学在读学生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏程伟

    2014-01-01

    As one kind of foreign words ,alphabetic word is widely used in Chinese .Nowadays ,a host of changes have occurred not only in alphabetic word ,but also in the people's different attitudes towards al-phabetic word .This paper mainly studied the undergraduates and postgraduates as research objects .By re-searching the related questionnaire survey ,the writer analyzed people's overall attitudes toward alphabetic word and concluded that the factors affected .The main part analyzed the students'general attitudes toward alphabetic word and the factors connected by each index from nine indexes in the questionnaire .The writer drew the conclusion that the main factors were about the environments , the characteristics of college students ,professional knowledge ,and the conciseness of the alphabetic word itself .%字母词作为一种外来词,在汉语中已广泛应用。经过不同媒介的传播,不仅是字母词本身在发生着变化,不同的群体对字母词的态度也在悄然改变。论文将扬州大学学生作为调查对象,以调查问卷形式考察学生对于字母词的态度及影响其使用态度的相关因素。通过调查问卷的9个指标分析出大学生字母词使用的总体态度以及指标所反映出的影响因素。调查统计结果后发现,环境因素、大学生群体特点、专业知识、字母词自身简洁的特点是主要影响因素。

  12. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Anil A; Dexter, Franklin; Tucker, Peter; Todd, Michael M

    2012-05-29

    Anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department's new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication "buttons" were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.). In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.). Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60) were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P anesthesia providers made no (0) errors for most trials (N = 96/120 trials, lower 95% limit 73%, P anesthesia record. This testing approach using cognitive and usability engineering methods can be used to objectively design and evaluate many aspects of the clinician-computer interaction in electronic health records.

  13. Physical Layer Security Transmission Condition for Finite Alphabet Input System%有限字符输入系统的物理层安全传输条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔波; 刘璐; 金梁

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the problem that the artificial noise method can be cracked by the eavesdropper with multiple antennas in wireless communication systems, a sufficient condition is proposed for secure physical layer transmission with finite alphabet inputs. Under this guideline, a signal-like artificial noise method is designed to ensure the system security transmission. Analysis reveals that the equivalent channel between the finite alphabet input and the eavesdropper’s noise-free output is a Discrete Noisy Lossless Channel (DNLC). Since the reversibility of the input under a DNLC provides the necessary condition for eavesdropping, the eavesdropper can augment its antennas to successfully squeeze out the secure information, nullifying the system’s secrecy mutual information. As a result, destroying the reversibility of the input signal becomes a sufficient condition for the secure physical layer transmission with finite alphabet inputs. The signal-like artificial noise method satisfies the sufficient condition, which can ensure the secure physical layer transmission. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of this method.%针对无线数字通信系统中人工噪声方法可被多天线窃听者破解的问题,该文提出有限字符输入下物理层安全传输的一个充分条件,并以此为指导设计了一种类符号人工噪声方法。分析表明,人工噪声方法下,有限字符输入信号和窃听者无噪接收信号之间的等效信道是一个离散有噪无损信道(Discrete Noisy Lossless Channel, DNLC)。由于DNLC输入信号的可逆性为窃密提供了必要条件,窃听者通过增加天线可使窃听信道容量达到合法用户的信道容量上限,致使系统的保密互信息为零,因此破坏输入信号的可逆性是有限字符输入下物理层安全传输的一个充分条件。类符号人工噪声方法满足这一充分条件,可以保证物理层安全传输,仿真结果也表明了该方法的有效性。

  14. TURK ALPHABET REFORM AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THE APPLICATIONS IN IZMIR TÜRK HARF İNKILȂBI İLE MİLLET MEKTEPLERİ VE İZMİR’DEKİ UYGULAMALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayvaz MORKOÇ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turk alphabet reform not only generalized literacy, but also caused fundamental changed in social, cultural and political areas in Turkey. Turk letters of Latin origin is like the symbol of the desire of young republic to direct towards western civilization. The article consists of three parts. In the first part, Turk alphabet reform was reviewed with the main lines. In the second part, there are researches that were carried by us on public schools. In the third part, the applications carried out in Izmir at that time are presented.By means of the article, firstly, missions and objectives of Turkish alphabet reform and public schools were determined. Then, the results obtained were detected. It is aimed in this study at presenting the data and the results that was obtained to the science world. Türk Harf İnkılâbı, yalnızca okuyup yazmayı yaygınlaştırmakla sınırlı kalmamış, aynı zamanda Türkiye’de sosyal, kültürel ve siyasî alanlarda köklü değişiklikler de meydana getirmiştir. Latin kökenli Türk harfleri, genç Cumhuriyet’in Batı medeniyetine yönelme arzusunun sembolü gibidir. Makale, üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde Türk Harf İnkılâbı ana hatlarıyla gözden geçirilmiştir. İkinci bölümde Millet Mektepleri üzerine yaptığımız araştırmalar yer almaktadır. Üçüncü bölümde ise o yıllarda İzmir’de yapılan uygulamalar anlatılmaktadır.Makale aracılığıyla önce Türk Harf İnkılâbı ile Millet Mekteplerinin görev ve amaçları belirlenmiştir. Daha sonra elde edilen sonuçlar tespit edilmiştir. Bu araştırmayla elde edilen verilerin ve ulaşılan sonuçların bilim dünyasına sunulması hedeflenmektedir.

  15. High-Affinity DNA Aptamer Generation Targeting von Willebrand Factor A1-Domain by Genetic Alphabet Expansion for Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment Using Two Types of Libraries Composed of Five Different Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Ken-Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro

    2017-01-11

    The novel evolutionary engineering method ExSELEX (genetic alphabet expansion for systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) provides high-affinity DNA aptamers that specifically bind to target molecules, by introducing an artificial hydrophobic base analogue as a fifth component into DNA aptamers. Here, we present a newer version of ExSELEX, using a library with completely randomized sequences consisting of five components: four natural bases and one unnatural hydrophobic base, 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds). In contrast to the limited number of Ds-containing sequence combinations in our previous library, the increased complexity of the new randomized library could improve the success rates of high-affinity aptamer generation. To this end, we developed a sequencing method for each clone in the enriched library after several rounds of selection. Using the improved library, we generated a Ds-containing DNA aptamer targeting von Willebrand factor A1-domain (vWF) with significantly higher affinity (KD = 75 pM), relative to those generated by the initial version of ExSELEX, as well as that of the known DNA aptamer consisting of only the natural bases. In addition, the Ds-containing DNA aptamer was stabilized by introducing a mini-hairpin DNA resistant to nucleases, without any loss of affinity (KD = 61 pM). This new version is expected to consistently produce high-affinity DNA aptamers.

  16. 借助汉语拼音背英语音标、写英语单词%Memorize English Phonetic Alphabet and Write EnglishWords with the Help of Pinyin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭记翠

    2012-01-01

    Qu Gang invented "English phonetic alphabet" which reveals the basic regularity of English pronunciation.He also puts forward the theory of "the similarity of world phonetic sound".He points out that every language on earth has its own feature.According to the theory,this paper analyzes the origin of the Chinese pronunciation with a rough style,and the origin of English pronunciation with a gentle style."The fisherman-like phonetic alphabet" is created combining the advantages of Chinese Pinyin and Qu Gang's "English phonetic alphabet".Chinese learners can learn English phonetic alphabet as they learn Chinese Pinyin while memorize English words as they write Chinese Pinyin.%曲刚发明了揭示英语发音规律的语音大表,提出了"世界语音大同说"。同时也指出:地球上的每一种语言,都有自己的发音特征。根据上述理论,文章分析了汉语粗犷式发音和英语细腻式发音的由来。结合汉语拼音和曲刚语音大表,终于收获升级版的"渔民语音大表",学生可以像背汉语拼音一样学习、背诵英语音标,可以像写汉语拼音一样写英语单词。

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Bio-Research is a bi-annual journal of Biological Research and ... These include theoretical biochemistry, Biophysical chemistry, animal and plant ... for the dissemination of contemporary economic issues–theoretical, ...

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 57 ... Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune .... Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology .... of research and inquiry in theoretical, empirical and experimental studies.

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Directional (Aural STL/Relays) 74.536 Antenna location— LPTV/TV Translator 74.737 FM Translators/Boosters 74.1237 Antenna structure, marking and lighting (All Services) 74.30 Antenna structure, Use of common (All Services) 74.22 Antenna systems (TV Auxiliaries) 74.641 Antennas (ITFS) 74.937 Application...

  20. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (AM) 73.184 Chief operators 73.1870 Children's TV programs 73.4050 (*) Cigarette advertising 73.4055... 73.207 NCE-FM 73.507 Administrative changes in authorizations— FM 73.212 TV 73.615 Advertising... stations, Minimum separation— FM 73.207 NCE-FM 73.507 Combination advertising rates; joint sales...

  1. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... Articles on these areas are published after critical peer review. ... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ... Architecture and Urban Design, Building Construction, Economics and Management, ... It has sections for reviews, original research, clinical perspectives, book ...

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by ... In consonance with best academic practices, it equally takes a very ... Economics and Firms, Human Development & Social Economics, ...

  3. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks...... in the activities of the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect. Learning activities involved both typical instructional methods, and the use of specifically designed tools for tabletop surface computers. The paper focuses on writing activities and on how the affordances of surface...

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 62 of 62 ... The journal seeks to further the academic study and the practice of ... Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of ... Articles published by the journal are of value to foresters, resource managers and society at large. ... SPiL Plus is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed ...

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 22 of 22 ... Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from ... resources management, and to bridge the gap between research ... Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. ... Original contributions in the following broad areas are suitable for ...

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research is published by the .... Contributions should attempt a synthesis of emic and etic methodologies and applications. .... open-access academic journal that publishes scholarly research ... an indispensable resource for the executive leadership of universities ...

  7. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Z

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Technical Notes of significant contribution may be considered for publication. ... reports and other materials of interest to human resource researchers. ZJER CALL FOR PAPERS: Research articles are invited from interested scholars and researchers in ...

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... It is intended to provide locally and internationally relevant updates to the ... and re-evaluate earlier or current research or publications by an author or authors. ... The journal publishes research articles that are empirical and ...

  9. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... ... are published. View Journal | Current Issue | Register This Journal is Open Access ... The target of the journal is researchers and policy makers. ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719.

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Maritime education and training; Maritime technology; Maritime ... media, cultural studies, law, education, leisure science and tourism. ... Articles covering social theory and the history and politics of the hospitality industry are welcome. ... research work in the field of health and related biological sciences.

  11. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to .... media, cultural studies, public health, education, nursing science and social work. .... Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of ...

  12. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a ... The editors invite scholarly manuscripts in theory and practice of all fields of education, .... EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of Theatre and Media Arts. Ekpoma ...

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... and History, Management, Communication, Media and Information Sciences. .... or programme application in the field of Education and the Behavioural Sciences.

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 62 ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... health communication, structural and environmental intervention, financing, policy, media, etc). ..... Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Movement Education, ...

  15. Visual Alphabets: Video Classification by End Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Petrushin, Valery A.; Khan, Latifur

    2006-01-01

    The work presented here introduces a real-time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification c

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter P

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... We publish original scientific studies, comments on currents health initiatives, ... in the area of scholarly writing and publication among new writers. ... particularly Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Ethnobiology, Plant ...

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 93 of 93 ... The African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) is a biannual ... of brief reports of new findings, techniques and equipment of importance to ..... of all aspects of medicine (Basic and Clinical), Health Sciences, Nursing, ...

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an ... Articles cover, among others, aspects of religious studies, philosophy, ... Arts, Philosophy, English Language, Literature in English, History, Music, ...

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health ... Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs ... Civic organisations and the new and innovative programmes, activities, and ...

  20. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks...... in the activities of the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect. Learning activities involved both typical instructional methods, and the use of specifically designed tools for tabletop surface computers. The paper focuses on writing activities and on how the affordances of surface...

  1. Protein structure mining using a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, M; de Brevern, A G; Srinivasan, N; Offmann, B

    2008-05-01

    We present a comprehensive evaluation of a new structure mining method called PB-ALIGN. It is based on the encoding of protein structure as 1D sequence of a combination of 16 short structural motifs or protein blocks (PBs). PBs are short motifs capable of representing most of the local structural features of a protein backbone. Using derived PB substitution matrix and simple dynamic programming algorithm, PB sequences are aligned the same way amino acid sequences to yield structure alignment. PBs are short motifs capable of representing most of the local structural features of a protein backbone. Alignment of these local features as sequence of symbols enables fast detection of structural similarities between two proteins. Ability of the method to characterize and align regions beyond regular secondary structures, for example, N and C caps of helix and loops connecting regular structures, puts it a step ahead of existing methods, which strongly rely on secondary structure elements. PB-ALIGN achieved efficiency of 85% in extracting true fold from a large database of 7259 SCOP domains and was successful in 82% cases to identify true super-family members. On comparison to 13 existing structure comparison/mining methods, PB-ALIGN emerged as the best on general ability test dataset and was at par with methods like YAKUSA and CE on nontrivial test dataset. Furthermore, the proposed method performed well when compared to flexible structure alignment method like FATCAT and outperforms in processing speed (less than 45 s per database scan). This work also establishes a reliable cut-off value for the demarcation of similar folds. It finally shows that global alignment scores of unrelated structures using PBs follow an extreme value distribution. PB-ALIGN is freely available on web server called Protein Block Expert (PBE) at http://bioinformatics.univ-reunion.fr/PBE/.

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter M

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... ... theory and research evidence to the policy and practice of higher education. ... It incorporates original research studies, policy analysis, case ... and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings.

  3. Handstrokes for Recognition of Alphabets& Digits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrudula S Deshmukh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Handgestures since ancient times have been used for communication even before speech and language were developed. They have proved to be very effective means of communication. Thus, many new technologies attempt to use hand gestures for developing Human Computer Interfaces. However the practical usage of these interface solutions is limited because of two primary reasons: one, they are either not user friendly, or two, are expensive. Keeping this in mind along with the special requirements of the physically disabled users, a system is proposed which will accept handstrokes as an input from the user and display the corresponding English character [A-Z]/digit [0-9] to the user along with the narration. This system will be helpful for physically disabled users to learn our language, thus enabling them to communicate with us in our language. It can also be used as an innovative way of teaching children.

  4. "FÉ CEGA, FACA AMOLADA”: PROJETO AVÁ-CANOEIRO. RELATO DAS ATIVIDADES DE LETRAMENTO E SISTEMATIZAÇÃO DE AQUISIÇÃO DA ESCRITA/LEITURA ALFABÉTICA "BLIND FAITH, SHARP KNIFE": AVA-CANOEIRO PROJECT. REPORT OF LITERACY ACTIVITIES AND SYSTEMATIZING ACQUISITION OF WRITE / READ ALPHABETICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA LUCIA BIGONJAL BRAGGIO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresento as atividades de educação escolar realizadas de 26 a 30 deagosto, na última visita da 1a Etapa do Projeto Avá-Canoeiro, realizada por mim epelo bolsista e meu orientando José Estevão Rocha Arantes, com parte do grupodos seis Avá-Canoeiro residentes na área indígena Avá-Canoeiro, Minaçu, Goiás,considerado em perigo de extinção. Nele, faço uma descrição do processo deaquisição da leitura/escrita alfabética nesta última visita. Nesta visita foi instauradaa sistematização do processo de aquisição da escrita/leitura alfabética (quedistingo da fase inicial de letramento em um sentido bastante amplo, que perdurapor toda a vida. A fim de contextualizar as atividades de aquisição, discuto primeiramenteo percurso histórico do grupo Avá-Canoeiro no seu contato com asociedade envolvente, focalizando a língua e o atual estado sociolingüístico dogrupo, os quais iluminam a educação escolar do grupo.From September of 2002 to August of 2003 was developped with the indigenouspeople Ava-Canoeiro of Minaçu/GO, a program of school education, dealing specifically with literacy, or better, their first approach to the alphabetic writtenlanguage. During this process, they interacted with the written language in allof their functions, significations, supports, styles, genders etc., in order to beprepared to start a literacy program, initiated in this last visit of the first part ofthe the whole program that should be instaured through their own knowledgenot only of the alphabetic written language, but mainly of their real world. In myview, by being proud of their culture and language, they will able to have moresuccess and more critical awareness, to deal with two differents ways of thinkingand consciously acting as citizens in their country. The history of the contactof the group with the whites and the tipological sociolinguistic situation gavea great support to the literacy program.

  5. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improving the bioavailability of huperzine A by lymphatic uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (Hup-A is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS was used to enhance the oral bioavailability and lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A. A single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP technique and a chylomicron flow-blocking approach were used to study its intestinal absorption, mesenteric lymph node distribution and intestinal lymphatic uptake. The value of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC of Hup-A SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of a Hup-A suspension (P<0.01. The absorption rate constant (Ka and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for Hup-A in different parts of the intestine suggested a passive transport mechanism, and the values of Ka and Papp of Hup-A SMEDDS in the ileum were much higher than those in other intestinal segments. The determination of Hup-A concentration in mesenteric lymph nodes can be used to explain the intestinal lymphatic absorption of Hup-A SMEDDS. For Hup-A SMEDDS, the values of AUC and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of the blocking model were significantly lower than those of the control model (P<0.05. The proportion of lymphatic transport of Hup-A SMEDDS and Hup-A suspension were about 40% and 5%, respectively, suggesting that SMEDDS can significantly improve the intestinal lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A.

  6. New Alphabet-Dependent Morphological Transition in Random RNA Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valba, O. V.; Tamm, M. V.; Nechaev, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    We study the fraction f of nucleotides involved in the formation of a cactuslike secondary structure of random heteropolymer RNA-like molecules. In the low-temperature limit, we study this fraction as a function of the number c of different nucleotide species. We show, that with changing c, the secondary structures of random RNAs undergo a morphological transition: f(c)→1 for c≤ccr as the chain length n goes to infinity, signaling the formation of a virtually perfect gapless secondary structure; while f(c)ccr, which means that a nonperfect structure with gaps is formed. The strict upper and lower bounds 2≤ccr≤4 are proven, and the numerical evidence for ccr is presented. The relevance of the transition from the evolutional point of view is discussed.

  7. Tertiary alphabet for the observable protein structural universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Craig O; Zhou, Jianfu; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2016-11-22

    Here, we systematically decompose the known protein structural universe into its basic elements, which we dub tertiary structural motifs (TERMs). A TERM is a compact backbone fragment that captures the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary environments around a given residue, comprising one or more disjoint segments (three on average). We seek the set of universal TERMs that capture all structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), finding remarkable degeneracy. Only ∼600 TERMs are sufficient to describe 50% of the PDB at sub-Angstrom resolution. However, more rare geometries also exist, and the overall structural coverage grows logarithmically with the number of TERMs. We go on to show that universal TERMs provide an effective mapping between sequence and structure. We demonstrate that TERM-based statistics alone are sufficient to recapitulate close-to-native sequences given either NMR or X-ray backbones. Furthermore, sequence variability predicted from TERM data agrees closely with evolutionary variation. Finally, locations of TERMs in protein chains can be predicted from sequence alone based on sequence signatures emergent from TERM instances in the PDB. For multisegment motifs, this method identifies spatially adjacent fragments that are not contiguous in sequence-a major bottleneck in structure prediction. Although all TERMs recur in diverse proteins, some appear specialized for certain functions, such as interface formation, metal coordination, or even water binding. Structural biology has benefited greatly from previously observed degeneracies in structure. The decomposition of the known structural universe into a finite set of compact TERMs offers exciting opportunities toward better understanding, design, and prediction of protein structure.

  8. New Languages and New Alphabetizations – Prime Subjects for Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Eugenia Aguilar González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some educational policies, pedagogical practices, and the curricular development of primary education in Mexico from the disciplines of Communication/Education. The purpose is to understand that the inclusion of the use of technologies and media literacy in the national curriculum cannot be carried out without diagnoses and prior discussions. These reforms do not guarantee the development of the necessary level of competence needed by the men and women of the 21st century. For these educational reforms to be successful, they should be considered the content of the new curriculum and to eliminate the old educational practices. These reforms must address the present conditions of the country in accordance with an extensive social dialog and a wide social perspective. One can use examples such as the case of Enciclomedia; of the national curriculum evaluation named Enlace; and some contents of the Spanish program to contrast contradictions and successes of the educational policies in the development of democracy in Mexico

  9. Reading Hidden Messages Through Deciphered Manual Alphabets on Classic Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Decipherment is the tool used to uncover several types of hand signs that played vital roles in the creation of hidden messages in classic artwork. A 3,100 B.C. bas-relief of The 'Kaph' Telescope, formerly named The Narmer Palette, and Michaelangelo Buonarrotte's Battle of Cascina of 1506 were two key works of art that show certain similarities even though separated by 4,500 years. It is evident that Renaissance humanists provided artists with certain knowledge of the ancients. Results of incorporating a number of minor works of art showed that the competence of ancient Egyptians, Cretans and Australian Aboriginals, to name a few, as astronomers, was underestimated. Some deciphered Indus seals attested to a global understanding of the universe, with Gemini and the star of Thuban at the center of their attention. Certain forms of secrecy had to be undertaken for various reasons throughout the millennia. Three examples are: (1) In Italy, to keep controversial and truthful teachings discreet and hidden, artists embedded them in artwork long before the plight of Galileo Galilei and his discoveries. (2) Among Jewish Kabbalists, a well-known design was obscured in The Arnolfini Wedding painting for fear it would be lost due to persecution. (3) Michaelangelo Buonarrotte indicated several meanings through the hands of The Statue of Moses. They were overlooked by several societies, including the gesticulating culture of Italy, because they oppressed the value of signed languages. Spatial decipherment may testify to a need for the restoration of a spatial writing system for expanded linguistic accessibility. A 21st century model community for sign language residents and employees will benefit visual learners, particularly visual artists and non-phonetic decipherers, to better uncover, understand and perhaps use ancient hand forms to restore ancient knowledge. Moreover, the National Association of Teaching English (NATE) has recently endorsed the addition of two skills, viewing and visual representing, to the traditional list of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Students will master these two new skills far more effectively when they are exposed to such a signing community.

  10. REVEALING NON-ALPHABETICAL GUISES OF SPAM-TRIGGER VOCABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A. ROJAS-GALEANO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El 75% del correo electrónico que se transmite hoy en día, corresponde a mensajes masivos no solicitados (comúnmente denominados spam, lo que evidencia la necesidad de continuar fortaleciendo los mecanismos de protección contra su propagación. Uno de los tretas más ingeniosas utilizadas últimamente por los spammers para sobrepasar los filtros basados en comparación de texto, es el enmascaramiento de las palabras vedadas mediante substituciones con símbolos no alfabéticos, de manera que aún visualmente logren transmitir la semántica del término original (por ejemplo, enmascarando viagra como v1@gr@ o como v-i-a-g-r-a. En este artículo se discute una técnica simple pero efectiva para contrarrestar esta sutil trampa, que consiste en la adaptación de un algoritmo reconocido de apareamiento de textos para revelar efectivamente la similitud existente entre vocablos desencadenadores de filtros spam y variantes alfanuméricas enmascaradas.

  11. Typographia: A Hybrid, Alphabetic Exploration of Raleigh, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, David

    2010-01-01

    "As compositionists delve more deeply into the material and technical dimensions of digital media, the contemporary arts should be valued as a source for new approaches to hybrid forms of writing and textuality." In addition to "Typographia", this work includes a companion essay (PDF): From Street to Software: How a Lettered "Flaneur" Invented a…

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—JULIET K—KILO L—LIMA M—MIKE N—NOVEMBER O—OSCAR P—PAPA Q—QUEBEC R—ROMEO S—SIERRA T—TANGO U—UNIFORM V... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997....

  13. Sidebearings analysis of alphabet letters with complex shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Banjanin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining inter-letter space is important part of typeface designing process. The purpose of defining the letter space is to make them visually equally distant from each other within words, sentences and paragraphs creating an even value of grey, without darker or lighter areas. Different approaches for determining letter space were developed in order to facilitate this demanding process. Miguel Sousa (2006 and Walter Tracy (2003 proposes their spacing methods and in paper of De Melo Vargas (2007 and our previous work (Banjanin & Nedeljković, 2014 these methods were tested. The problems occur when defining space around letters a, f, g, s, t, z, and S, for which neither Sousa nor Tracy propose any kind of guidelines (except visual. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyse spacing values for these letters and to see if there is some kind of “formula” or some kind of guidelines which will broaden existing methods in more accurate way. We measured left and right sidebearings of these 7 problematic letters and established additional guidelines for defining letter space of those letters more accurately.

  14. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  15. The Alphabet Pyramid of Team Development and Situation Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Roy

    2001-01-01

    This pyramid model of team development has four sides--awareness, behavior, communication, and direction--on a foundation of evaluation. The four equal sides of a pyramid represent the equal importance of the different roles, including leader, within a team. All team members are involved in evaluation and deciding what is important, which empowers…

  16. The Necessity of the Alphabetic Principle to Phonemic Awareness Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Carlson, Coleen; Moats, Louisa; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which curricular choice and incorporation of phonemic awareness (PA) into the kindergarten curriculum affects growth in kindergarten literacy skills and first-grade reading and spelling outcomes. Provides large-scale classroom support for findings on PA reported by the National Reading Panel. (SG)

  17. Typographia: A Hybrid, Alphabetic Exploration of Raleigh, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, David

    2010-01-01

    "As compositionists delve more deeply into the material and technical dimensions of digital media, the contemporary arts should be valued as a source for new approaches to hybrid forms of writing and textuality." In addition to "Typographia", this work includes a companion essay (PDF): From Street to Software: How a Lettered…

  18. Statehood, language, and alphabet: a Kazakhstan case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tajibaeva, Saule; Kozyrev, Timur

    2007-01-01

    As a young state, just 15 years old, the Republic of Kazakhstan is still developing its national identity and civic spirit formula. The absence or, at least, precariousness of the basis on which a civic nation united by a shared system of values could emerge is a popular topic of discussion. More often than not this problem is seen through the prism of ethnic relations, which, in turn, are reduced to the "autochthonous population"-the Russian speakers dichotomy. 1 Today, this dichotomy is sti...

  19. Reducing iron in the brain: a novel pharmacologic mechanism of huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Tian; Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Gong, Qi; Wu, Ka-Chun; Jiang, Li-Rong; Lu, Li-Na; Zhu, Zhou-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2014-05-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase derived from a plant, is a licensed anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United States. In addition to acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, HupA possesses neuroprotective properties. However, the relevant mechanism is unknown. Here, we showed that the neuroprotective effect of HupA was derived from a novel action on brain iron regulation. HupA treatment reduced insoluble and soluble beta amyloid levels, ameliorated amyloid plaques formation, and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic AD mice. Also, HupA decreased beta amyloid oligomers and amyloid precursor protein levels, and increased A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease Domain 10 (ADAM10) expression in these treated AD mice. However, these beneficial effects of HupA were largely abolished by feeding the animals with a high iron diet. In parallel, we found that HupA decreased iron content in the brain and demonstrated that HupA also has a role to reduce the expression of transferrin-receptor 1 as well as the transferrin-bound iron uptake in cultured neurons. The findings implied that reducing iron in the brain is a novel mechanism of HupA in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Estado absoluto e ensino das primeiras letras: as escolas régias (1772-1794, na tese de Áurea Adão (1997 - Absolutist state and alphabetization classes: escolas régias (1772-1794, as postulates Áurea Adão (1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juraci Maia Cavalcante

    2011-03-01

    -chave: história da educação; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ABSOLUTIST STATE AND ALPHABETIZATION CLASSES: ESCOLAS RÉGIAS (1772-1794, AS POSTULATES ÁUREA ADÃO (1997 Abstract The study of Aurea Adão regarding the “aulas régias”, which were instituted by pombalina reform in the second half of the XVIII century, presented in this study is part of a larger research about the Portuguese Educational History. The object of that study has too many qualities which make clear why it was so relevantly considered among many other findings in that historiography, either for treating history as a trade, taking into consideration its methodologies, which can be shown by the way documental sources and gaps are dealt with, or for the author’s prudence in the explanations and evaluations about the meaning of the Pombal Reform and its developments in the Reign of D. Maria, regarding elementary school, and in the confrontation with the consulted historiography. The position of the author, as a historian, shows a steady balance when she tries to understand the influence received by the reform in the ideological and political environment of Illuminist Europe, avoiding ideological judgments, which produce clear eulogy or unfounded critics. If we look at it form the perspective of time, her study, although centered in a short period of time, is clearly supported on a strategy to look both at the past and future, which allows her to reconstruct the Pombalina reform from the confrontation between what was happening before it and its future dynamic in the Reign of D. José. She examined the school structure where the reform originated and what happened with the end of the carrier of Pombal Minister, recreating the past/present/future as a place to be observed in history, avoiding the linear-chronological narrative, usually observed in studies of educational history that are based on official documents and archives. Keywords: history of education; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ESTADO

  1. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 9900 Osteoporosis, with joint manifestations 5013 Otitis media: Externa 6210 Nonsuppurative 6201... Post-surgical residual 6844 Pregnancy, surgical complications 7623 Progressive muscular atrophy...

  2. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  3. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    H H > ~ ~ i 0~~~ z z0 0 ZUl C2 0r 00 0 00 00u00 0o 0 0 " U 40 𔃾E4. W 0 E- U NU U 0 "" cc 0, X e uu0 z"nU 0 -4 0 > ! : z0 ozz 0 , H C0 H - U2- 0- 00...r. -UE4 ) j r4 OW U/ Or"c SOC/K 0- M U-I 0 -0. E-4 HI HAZ Uc Un 7 0 CI 00 E- CO O C50 TD 0 HI 0 z I u E-IfClIF HI- , HI u 0 U)-QI0 C/I r0- r u ;> C

  4. Guide alphabetique des professeurs--utilisateurs de chansons (An Alphabetic Guide for Teachers Who Use Songs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Louis Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An annotated listing of recordings, useful in the foreign language classroom. The classifications are: Africa, Adolescents, Canada, Clubs, Children, Foreign Singers; Songs useful for testing, Folklore, Francophone singers, Guitar music and Traditional folk songs. Some books and periodicals are also listed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. Alphabetic List of all DoD Prime Contractors. FY 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    O E-4 0 0 Q zt 0 QO U- NI -40>C U2~ " CO 04 r.4 44: Ezw 0014 2 N I lo L34 to0 U) 0~ 04 OO t0A4LE-4~~~ 0 00 ,4." 00 CO 0 U0.0WV )Q Q U 0~~ n2 t > z0 UC...0 t 0:C 0 L a-4 0 Ca) Z U) w~ z Ŕ 00 0- w EZW P4 F-44 W 0uu z ) 0 U 0~ -4Q.0 z- 09 U u W0 V zU L) L)"pm> " (_)C 140 U) ~ ~ z0 =Z!~ Q z0 O E-4 I

  6. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    21, . 2 ~ 4 c. 4 - 5 A: -0to M w n"O4W- OC0.400 4; to I- 3- ’-i tO9h-i So 0. W ;Rv i 0.ý - t~ 0 l)t; v =0..- UM UN E .. Z UW WP-6 - EZW WE U-M 6 ~h... 1d CI) 0 N w)I I.MM M R1 R PC .0 c r. .3 N W IMa 0 ( .1) ca N C. c . *~Pi) (0 a ’I1 P(0 ’r. t! P. ; 9-I’ w -3. 0n ow V..Z - ’ (Ao r w N r o wU ~ VO4...0.zU0U. -lD00~~dl1NI N0 .~N 0 00 M i-94 o-. w 0 1 0 C30 E 0 ~ O D~~ 1~1- :01-. ~ d10( 1d 𔃽 r- 0󈧇.N~ o D ’OWW3-N0 N11000N N O O O 4O og -oOz’ M103 0 0

  7. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart M of... - Alphabetical Listing of Tribes and Corresponding Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tribe of Oregon §§ 49.10011 to 49.10040 Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Indians of Oregon §§ 49.10041 to 49... Corresponding Sections Indian Tribe Refer to the following sections in subpart M Burns Paiute Tribe of the Burns Paiute Indian Colony of Oregon §§ 49.9861 to 49.9890 Chehalis Reservation, Washington-Confederated Tribes...

  8. Syllabic Schemes and Knowledge of the Alphabet in Reading Acquisition: "Onset" or "Nucleus" Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cárdenas, A. F.; Díaz-Furlong, H. A.; Díaz-Furlong, A.; Sankey-García, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing consensus that, in reading acquisition, it is essential to provide children with learning activities that promote the development of reading cognitive schemes, particularly intra-syllabic related patterns, there is no agreement on which kind of syllabic schemes should be worked out in the first place. The main aim of…

  9. A Control-Oriented Notion of Finite State Approximation for Systems Over Finite Alphabets

    CERN Document Server

    Tarraf, Danielle C

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating discrete-time plants with finite-valued sensors and actuators by deterministic finite memory systems for the purpose of certified-by-design controller synthesis. We propose a control-oriented notion of input/output approximation for these systems, building on ideas from classical robust control theory. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed notion of approximation to the control synthesis problem, and we conclude with a discussion of its key features, their merits and limitations.

  10. Is surface dyslexia in Chinese the same as in alphabetic one?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ben-yan; ZHAO Xiao-yu; WANG Yan-wen; XU Ming-wei; WENG Xu-chu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Cognitive neuropsychology has made great contributions to our understanding of the neural basis of language since Broca's seminal work;1 the primary neural circuitries for language processing have been documented.

  11. Expertise with characters in alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems engage overlapping occipito-temporal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan C-N; Jobard, Gael; James, Karin H; James, Thomas W; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-02-01

    Parts of the left ventral visual pathway are engaged selectively during the perception of words, letter strings, and even single letters. While studies have shown overlap between activations for letters and characters across writing systems, they adopted group analyses with very limited spatial resolution, or used words and letter strings that have been shown to activate different regions from those activated by single characters. The current study compared activity within individual participants for the perception of single characters from different writing systems. Roman letters, Chinese characters, objects, and faces were presented to Chinese-English bilinguals and English readers with no Chinese reading experience. Individual subject analyses revealed a large overlap between Roman- and Chinese-selective areas in the bilinguals. In general, the activity in the Roman-selective area of the left hemisphere is associated with experience with the script, as non-Chinese readers showed lower activations to Chinese characters than to Roman letters. Further analyses found considerable variation within non-Chinese readers in the activation for Chinese characters: while the majority had no selectivity for Chinese characters at all, some showed activations for Chinese characters at locations similar to those selective for Roman letters. The results suggest that both stimulus properties and experience are important factors in determining the response to single characters across writing systems.

  12. The ABCs of Teaching Alphabet Knowledge: Affordances and Challenges of "Weaving" Visible and Invisible Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Beryl; Richard-Bossez, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    As researchers interested in the pursuit of high-quality/high-equity literacy learning outcomes, the authors focus on the learning experiences of five early years French students, with a special regard for those who are already considered as being at risk of educational failure. The authors narrow the empirical focus to a single lesson on a…

  13. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors (No Dollars), FY83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    INC THE DIABLO PAINT DEVICES 6 COMPONENTS CO DIAGNOSTIC RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS INC CONTRACTORU RECEIVING C TS OF S25,000 OR MORE - (OCT 82 SEP 03) PAGE 97...VALVE REGULATOR CO GUARDIAN ELECTRIC MFG CO GRIMES MFG CO GROVER CONSTRUCTION CO INC GUARDIAN EXPORT CORP GRIMES OIL CO INC GROVER LEE CONSTRUCTION...CO GUARDIAN PARACHUTE GRINSLEY GRIMSLEY INC GROVES ATKINSON BALL JV GUARDO AErANO GRI MSLEYS HOUSE OF TOOLS INC GROVES CONTRACT SERVICES GUAYNABO

  14. Multiplexing scheme for simplified entanglement-based large-alphabet quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Dada, Adetunmise C

    2015-01-01

    We propose a practical quantum cryptographic scheme which combines high information capacity, such as provided by high-dimensional quantum entanglement, with the simplicity of a two-dimensional Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell test for security verification. By applying a state combining entanglement in a two-dimensional degree of freedom, such as photon polarization, with high-dimensional correlations in another degree of freedom, such as photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) or path, the scheme provides a considerably simplified route towards security verification in quantum key distribution (QKD) aimed at exploiting high-dimensional quantum systems for increased secure key rates. It also benefits from security against collective attacks and is feasible using currently available technologies.

  15. Linking the Shapes of Alphabet Letters to Their Sounds: The Case of Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter's name) are easier to learn than…

  16. Synesthesia for manual alphabet letters and numeral signs in second-language users of signed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Lyons, Tanya; Eagleman, David; Woll, Bencie; Ward, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    Many synesthetes experience colors when viewing letters or digits. We document, for the first time, an analogous phenomenon among users of signed languages who showed color synesthesia for fingerspelled letters and signed numerals. Four synesthetes experienced colors when they viewed manual letters and numerals (in two cases, colors were subjectively projected on to the hands). There was a correspondence between the colors experienced for written graphemes and their manual counterparts, suggesting that the development of these two types of synesthesia is interdependent despite the fact that these systems are superficially distinct and rely on different perceptual recognition mechanisms in the brain.

  17. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors (No Dollars), FY84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    SERV ENTE NATIONAL PER L" ENERGIA EL ENVIRONMENTAL ABATEMENT CORP ENGINEERING SCNC ASSOC ENTE NAZIONALE PER L ELETIRICI ENVIRONMENTAL AIR CONTROL INC...INC M K LABORATORIES INC M T L SYSTEMS INC M B INDUSTRIES INC M L ENERGIA INC M T R INC M B R ASSOCIATES INC M LADER CO Prepared by Washington...INSTALLATION CO INC PIERCE INDUSTRIES INC PINEVILLE CITY OF PIPE MOVERS INC PIERCE J B FNDTN CT INC PINKARD CONSTRUCTION CO PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE

  18. Evolution of the genetic code from the GC- to the AGUC-alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov, Denis A.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis of the evolution of the genetic code is proposed, the leading mechanism of which is the nucleotide spontaneous damage leading to AT-enrichment of the genome. The hypothesis accounts for stability of the genetic code towards point mutations, the presence of code dialects, and the symmetry of the genetic code table.

  19. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Cix I_ C- hi W 2 2. hi 0 0 4Y -: IWO~z m- hi C.> :3 . U-4 0h 0q 1 i >0 0 1 -_ .. i.-I 0 4 34~~N 0 .-. 0 .- I- Z ChiCO 0.0W 00hi ir 02 0. v4 co ~ 0 -3Y0...go ot~zm ." .8 ~ 6 A:3" 6i22 44 W 04> < j02~ .Z0 0-4>. w .- O- g4) L)C U) 0 ba. 04 4c’J N 0 oo0ul i 4c4 coB 2,W a. lcj i 4 LOLA 0 8. W. iO E 0 0-coi

  20. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  1. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in…

  2. Non-normal Limiting Distribution for Optimal Alignment Scores of Strings in Binary Alphabets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jun Tao; Matzinger, Heinrich; Popescu, Ionel

    2017-07-01

    We consider two independent binary i.i.d. random strings X and Y of equal length n and the optimal alignments according to a symmetric scoring functions only. We decompose the space of scoring functions into five components. Two of these components add a part to the optimal score which does not depend on the alignment and which is asymptotically normal. We show that when we restrict the number of gaps sufficiently and add them only into one sequence, then the alignment score can be decomposed into a part which is normal and has order O(√{n}) and a part which is on a smaller order and tends to a Tracy-Widom distribution. Adding gaps only into one sequence is equivalent to aligning a string with its descendants in case of mutations and deletes. For testing relatedness of strings, the normal part is irrelevant, since it does not depend on the alignment hence it can be safely removed from the test statistic.

  3. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  4. 76 FR 38533 - Alphabetical Listings: Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons; Blocked Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ..., specially designated terrorists, specially designated global terrorists, foreign terrorist organizations...-6, Wheelock Hse, 20 Pedder St, Central, Hong Kong; PO Box 1894, Baniyas St, Deira, Dubai City, United Arab Emirates; PO Box 1894, Al Wasl Rd, Jumeirah, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 43 Avenue...

  5. Linking the shapes of alphabet letters to their sounds: the case of Hebrew

    OpenAIRE

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter’s name) are easier to learn than others (such as that of w, where the sound is not in the name). The present study examined Hebrew, where variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter...

  6. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards. Part 1. Alphabetical Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    EA MS 99 Cabinet, Dough Proofing, Insulated Portable, 36&PAN Capacity, For Mobile Field mIL1.C.2233EE 7320 GL 10 Aug 84 GL SA 99 Bakery Cabinet, Dough ...TITLE NUMBER FSC PREP DATE CUSTODIAN Cabinet, Dough -proofing, (18 Pan Capacity) ................................. .W-C.20E (1) 7320 /GL 10 Dec 87 GL...FFF.C.641D 8520 % 17 Apr 75 Cream, Sour , (Cultured Or Acidified

  7. Sub-vocal speech pattern recognition of Hindi alphabet with surface electromyography signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munna Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently electromyography (EMG based speech signals have been used as pattern recognition of phoneme, vocal frequency estimation, browser interface, and classification of speech related problem identification. Attempts have been made to use EMG signal for sub-vocal speech pattern recognition of Hindi phonemes fx1,fx2,fx3,fx4 and Hindi words. That provides the command sub-vocally to control the devices. Sub-vocal EMG data were collected from more than 10 healthy subjects aged between 25 and 30 years. EMG-based sub-vocal database are acquired from four channel BIOPAC MP-30 acquisition system. Four pairs of Ag-AgCl electrodes placed in the participant neck area of skin. AR coefficients and Cepstral coefficients were computed as features of EMG-based sub-vocal signal. Furthermore, these features are classified by HMM classifier. H2M MATLAB toolbox was used to develop HMM classifier for classification of phonemes. Results were averaged on 10 subjects. An average classification accuracy of Ka is found to be 85% whereas the classification accuracy of Kha and Gha is in between 88% and 90%. The classification accuracy rate of Ga was found to be 78% which was lesser as compared to Kha and Gha.

  8. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    by controlling excess noise. Sci. Rep. 6, 19201 (2016). [30] Treiber, A. et al. A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks . New J. Phys. 11, 045013 (2009). ...research has focused on extending the range of QKD links well beyond 100 km [13–15], deployed QKD networks will include a variety of link lengths with...2009). [14] Wang, S. et al. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber. Opt. Lett. 37, 1008–1010 (2012). [15] Korzh, B

  9. Evidence for Causal Relations between Executive Functions and Alphabetic Skills Based on Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2014-01-01

    Children showing poor executive functioning may not fully benefit from learning experiences at home and school and may lag behind in literacy skills. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 276 kindergarten children. Executive functions and literacy skills were tested at about 61?months and again a year later. In line with earlier studies,…

  10. The Tutte-Grothendieck group of a convergent alphabetic rewriting system

    CERN Document Server

    Poinsot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The two operations, deletion and contraction of an edge, on multigraphs directly lead to the Tutte polynomial which satisfies a universal problem. As observed by Brylawski in terms of order relations, these operations may be interpreted as a particular instance of a general theory which involves universal invariants like the Tutte polynomial, and a universal group, called the Tutte-Grothendieck group. In this contribution, Brylawski's theory is extended in two ways: first of all, the order relation is replaced by a string rewriting system, and secondly, commutativity by partial commutations (that permits a kind of interpolation between non commutativity and full commutativity). This allows us to clarify the relations between the semigroup subject to rewriting and the Tutte-Grothendieck group: the later is actually the Grothendieck group completion of the former, up to the free adjunction of a unit (this was even not mention by Brylawski), and normal forms may be seen as universal invariants. Moreover we prove...

  11. The alphabet soup agenda : what can Iceland learn from global programmes?

    OpenAIRE

    Allyson Macdonald 1952

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy-making is a complex issue, with some decisions being made far from the classroom or school. Iceland belongs to a multitude of international organisations which concern themselves with educational policy and achievement. Two such organisations are UNESCO and the OECD and the aim of this article is to see what we might learn from some of their activities, in this case focusing on sustainable development and educating for sustainability. Several years ago the United Nations ch...

  12. An Empirical Evaluation of Coding Methods for Multi-Symbol Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of different methods of data compression coding in several situations. Huffman's code, arithmetic coding, fixed codes, fast approximations to arithmetic coding, and splay coding are discussed in terms of their speed, memory requirements, and proximity to optimal performance. Recommendations for the best methods of…

  13. Non-normal Limiting Distribution for Optimal Alignment Scores of Strings in Binary Alphabets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jun Tao; Matzinger, Heinrich; Popescu, Ionel

    2017-09-01

    We consider two independent binary i.i.d. random strings X and Y of equal length n and the optimal alignments according to a symmetric scoring functions only. We decompose the space of scoring functions into five components. Two of these components add a part to the optimal score which does not depend on the alignment and which is asymptotically normal. We show that when we restrict the number of gaps sufficiently and add them only into one sequence, then the alignment score can be decomposed into a part which is normal and has order O(√{n}) and a part which is on a smaller order and tends to a Tracy-Widom distribution. Adding gaps only into one sequence is equivalent to aligning a string with its descendants in case of mutations and deletes. For testing relatedness of strings, the normal part is irrelevant, since it does not depend on the alignment hence it can be safely removed from the test statistic.

  14. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  15. Phonemic awareness in alphabetically literate Japanese adults: the influence of the first acquired writing system

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kolinsky, Régine; Spagnoletti, Carmela; Morais, Jose

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the nature of the metaphonological units that are used by Japanese native speakers who know both mora-based and phoneme-based writing systems. In three experiments, participants were asked to perform a reversal task. The results show that, in comparison to phonemes and syllables, moras are the most prominent units in spontaneous reversal. On the other hand, the participants were perfectly able to manipulate phonemes under request. Yet, detailed analysis of their pho...

  16. Categorization of COPD patients in Turkey via GOLD 2013 strategy document: ALPHABET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakan Gunen,1 Mehmet Yilmaz,2 Oguz Aktas,1 Pinar Ergun,3 Mediha Gonenc Ortakoylu,4 Atike Demir,5 Pelin Cetinkaya,6 Alev Gurgun,7 Muge Otlu,8 Aykut Cilli,9 Ufuk Yilmaz,5 Nurdan Kokturk,10 Ipek Candemir,3 Halil Ibrahim Yakar,1 Idilhan Ar,11 Aylin Konya111Department of Chest Diseases, Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Chest Diseases, Safranbolu State Hospital, Karabuk, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Diseases, Ataturk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Chest Diseases, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Chest Diseases, Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey; 6Department of Chest Diseases, Cukurova Dr Askim Tufekci State Hospital, Adana, Turkey; 7Department of Chest Diseases, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey; 8Department of Chest Diseases, Bingol State Hospital, Bingol, Turkey; 9Department of Chest Diseases, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey; 10Department of Chest Diseases, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; 11Medical Department, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Istanbul, TurkeyObjective: To determine distribution of COPD assessment categories and physicians’ adherence to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2013 strategy in Turkish COPD patients.Methods: A total of 1,610 COPD patients (mean [standard deviation] age: 62.6 [9.9] years, 85.7% were males were included in this multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study. Patients were categorized via GOLD 2013 strategy document. Consistency between reported and re-classified GOLD categories, and measures used for symptom evaluation and exacerbation was analyzed.Results: Overall, 41.1% of patients were assigned to GOLD A, while 13.2% were assigned to GOLD C categories. Long-acting beta-2 agonist + long-acting muscarinic antagonist + inhaled corticosteroid regimen was the most common treatment (62.0%. Over-treatment was noted in >70% of GOLD A, B, and C patients. A high consistency between measures of symptom evaluation (Kappa coefficient =0.993, P<0.0001 and a low-moderate consistency between exacerbation risk measures (Kappa coefficient =0.237, P<0.0001 were noted.Conclusion: Our findings revealed GOLD A as the most prevalent category in Turkish cohort of COPD patients. Group assignment was altered depending on the chosen measure for symptom and risk assessment. Physician non-adherence to treatment recommendations in GOLD 2013 document leading to over-treatment in patients assigned to GOLD A, B, and C categories was also detected.Keywords: combined COPD assessment, symptoms, exacerbation risk, physician adherence, Turkey

  17. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  18. Reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators: Trends in the alphabetization of authorship in economics and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    The paper adds a category to the list of possible negative steering effects of bibliometric indicators with a category for changes in credit assignment. The results of a longitudinal study of credit assignment practices in the fields of economics and information science are presented. The practice...... explanation for the demonstrated difference could be that information scientists have been much more aware of the bibliometric consequences of being first author compared to their colleagues in comparable fields (e.g., economics). This and other possible reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators...

  19. Two spelling programmes that promote understanding of the alphabetic principle in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Alves Martins & Cristina Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to test two programmes designed to lead preschool children to use conventional letters to spell the initial consonants of words. These programmes differed in terms of the characteristics of the vowels that followed those consonants. The participants were 45 five-year-old Portuguese children whose spelling was pre-syllabic - they used strings of random letters in their spelling, making no attempt to match the oral to the written language. They were divided into two experimental and a control group. Their age, level of intelligence, and phonological awareness were controlled. Their spelling was assessed in a pre- and a post-test. In-between, children from the experimental groups participated in two programmes where they had to think about the relationships between the initial consonant and the corresponding phoneme in different words: In Experimental Group 1, the initial consonants were followed by an open vowel, and in Experimental Group 2, these same consonants were followed by a closed vowel. The control group classified geometric shapes. Experimental Group 1 achieved better results than Experimental Group 2 following open vowels, being more able to generalize the phonological procedures to sounds that were not taught during the programmes. Both experimental groups used conventional letters to represent several phonemes in the post-test whereas the control group continued to produce pre-syllabic spellings.

  20. Elementos relevantes de la arquitectura de marca en la empresa. El caso de Google-Alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Porto, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    La gestión de la cartera de marcas de una empresa no pasa solo por desarrollar estrategias individuales para cada una de ellas, sino que también es necesario un plan que proporcione consistencia en el conjunto. La estrategia de arquitectura de marcas (objeto del presente trabajo) es la que ofrece esa perspectiva global, tiene en cuenta el papel que cada marca juega en la empresa y otorga un valor propio al conjunto del que se ven beneficiadas todas ellas. Las sinergias que se crean al ejecuta...

  1. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    pulse time and measured pulse time (20, 26) and by monitoring the fraction of detection events originating from single-photon emission with weak...protection against a Trojan horse attack. The bright synchronization pulse was produced by a continuous-wave laser modulated by an electro-optic

  2. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for major efforts in terms of Research and Development, investment aid and operational aid. Should co-financing of this aid include a contribution from sectors which received substantial initial development aid and which are now highly profitable? 8. Since nuclear energy is one of the factors in the debate on tackling climate change and energy self-sufficiency, how can the Community find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste, enhancing nuclear safety and expanding research into the reactors of the future, and in particular fusion technology? 9. Which policies should enable the European Union to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol? What action could be taken in order fully to exploit potential energy savings which would help to reduce both our external dependence and CO{sub 2} emissions? 10. Can an ambitious programme to promote biofuels and other substitute fuels, including hydrogen, geared to 20% of total fuel consumption by 2020, continue to be implemented via national initiatives, or are co-ordinated decisions required on taxation, distribution and prospects for agricultural production? 11. Should energy saving in buildings, whether public or private, new or under renovation, be promoted through incentives such as tax breaks, or are regulatory measures required along the lines of those adopted for major industrial installations? 12. Energy saving in the transport sector depends on redressing the growing imbalance between road haulage and rail. Is this imbalance inevitable, or could corrective action be taken, however unpopular, notably to encourage lower use of cars in urban areas? How can the aims of opening up the sector to competition, investment in infrastructure to remove bottlenecks and inter-modality be reconciled? 13. How can we develop more collaborative visions and integrate the long-term dimension into deliberations and actions undertaken by public authorities and other involved parties in order to evolve a sustainable system of energy supply. How are we to prepare the energy options for the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. 75 FR 38211 - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MULTIACTIVA DE ADMINISTRACION Y MANEJO ADMACOOP), Carrera 28A No. 14-29, Bogota, Colombia; Calle 12B No. 28-58... Kingdom ADMINISTRACION INMOBILIARIA BOLIVAR S.A., Avenida 2CN No. 24N-92, Cali, Colombia; Calle 17N No. 6N...

  4. Alphabetic List of all DoD Prime Contractors, FY 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    V) oo o 2 ___ m__ 0 I)u00 9H %I EI uE48Z MOD Z ) 01 § 1 Cc U., P 0 0) 4 C) I-I 0 I’-4 CO ECC 2-40 0020402 ") z 44I ൹--4- 01N2 0 1U-4Z 9- I -X0: l 40...2 IL 0 lot 9-40~"" no HOMO - 200 -~oH 4 0 IZS’ 00 2 z~0sS0 0- 00 QI4I m 0 ’C a~09 40Q t 8 014 to 0 I.4V 8 , N 1 0 .49-49-8 - 00 01-04 o1-4 4 u 0 0

  5. High-SNR Capacity of AWGN Channels with Generic Alphabet Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    over functions, in the sense that IIw(f1U1 + f2U2, V ) = f1(w) IIw(U1, V ) + f2(w) IIw( U2 , V ) The values IIw(U, V ) and Sw,NU , formally defined in...operator Sw,ν . From linear algebra it is well-known that the self-adjoint Sw,ν has real eigenvectors u1, u2 forming an orthonormal basis of TwW with...about w0, define geodesics γ1, γ2 through w0 with velocities u1, u2 , respectively. γi may be approximated to 2nd order at w0 by a circle in the (ui, ν

  6. Detecting respiratory viral RNA using expanded genetic alphabets and self-avoiding DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Sharma, Nidhi; Hoshika, Shuichi; Bradley, Andrea C; Bradley, Kevin M; Yang, Zunyi; Benner, Steven A

    2015-11-15

    Nucleic acid (NA)-targeted tests detect and quantify viral DNA and RNA (collectively xNA) to support epidemiological surveillance and, in individual patients, to guide therapy. They commonly use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR. Although these all have rapid turnaround, they are expensive to run. Multiplexing would allow their cost to be spread over multiple targets, but often only with lower sensitivity and accuracy, noise, false positives, and false negatives; these arise by interactions between the multiple nucleic acid primers and probes in a multiplexed kit. Here we offer a multiplexed assay for a panel of respiratory viruses that mitigates these problems by combining several nucleic acid analogs from the emerging field of synthetic biology: (i) self-avoiding molecular recognition systems (SAMRSs), which facilitate multiplexing, and (ii) artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGISs), which enable low-noise PCR. These are supplemented by "transliteration" technology, which converts standard nucleotides in a target to AEGIS nucleotides in a product, improving hybridization. The combination supports a multiplexed Luminex-based respiratory panel that potentially differentiates influenza viruses A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, detecting as few as 10 MERS virions in a 20-μl sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... naphthalene sulfonic acid, sodium salt solution 34 2 DNS Dimethyloctanoic acid 4 DMO Dimethyl phthalate 34 DTL... sulfonic acid, sodium salt solution DNS Sodium hydrogen sulfide, Sodium carbonate solution 0 1, 2...

  8. Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui WANG; Han YAN; Xi-can TANG

    2006-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Compared with tacrine, donepezil, and rivastigmine, HupA has better penetration through the blood-brain barrier, higher oral bioavailability, and longer duration of AChE inhibitory action. HupA has been found to improve cognitive deficits in a broad range of animal models. HupA possesses the ability to protect cells against hydrogen peroxide, β-amyloid protein (or peptide), glutamate,ischemia and staurosporine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. These protective effects are related to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, regulate the expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, P53, and caspase-3, protect mitochondria, upregulate nerve growth factor and its receptors, and interfere with amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Antagonizing effects of HupA on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and potassium currents may also contribute to its neuroprotection as well. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents, canines, and healthy human volunteers indicated that HupA was absorbed rapidly, distributed widely in the body, and eliminated at a moderate rate with the property of slow and prolonged release after oral administration. Animal and clinical safety tests showed that HupA had no unexpected toxicity, particularly the dose-limiting hepatotoxicity induced by tacrine. The phase Ⅳ clinical trials in China have demonstrated that HupA significantly improved memory deficits in elderly people with benign senescent forgetfulness, and patients with Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, with minimal peripheral cholinergic side effects and no unexpected toxicity. HupA can also be used as a protective agent against organophosphate intoxication.

  9. Amylase and Lipase Detection in Hemorrhaged Animals Treated with HBOC-201

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    oise Arnaud1.2, Richard McCarron1.2 and Daniel Freilich1.2 1Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA 2Unifonned Services University of...assistance. Address correspondence to Fran~ oise Arnaud, PhD., 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Operational and Undersea Medicine, Naval Medical Research Center

  10. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  11. The NMDA receptor ion channel: a site for binding of Huperzine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R K; Nigam, S V; Weitz, J A; Dave, J R; Doctor, B P; Ved, H S

    2001-12-01

    Huperzine A (HUP-A), first isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata, is a potent, reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (Life Sci. 54: 991-997). Because HUP-A has been shown to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, is more stable than the carbamates used as pretreatments for organophosphate poisoning (OP) and the HUP-A:AChE complex has a longer half-life than other prophylactic sequestering agents, HUP-A has been proposed as a pretreatment drug for nerve agent toxicity by protecting AChE from irreversible OP-induced phosphonylation. More recently (NeuroReport 8: 963-968), pretreatment of embryonic neuronal cultures with HUP-A reduced glutamate-induced cell death and also decreased glutamate-induced calcium mobilization. These results suggest that HUP-A might interfere with and be beneficial for excitatory amino acid overstimulation, such as seen in ischemia, where persistent elevation of internal calcium levels by activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate subtype receptor is found. We have now investigated the interaction of HUP-A with glutamate receptors. Freshly frozen cortex or synaptic plasma membranes were used, providing 60-90% specific radioligand binding. Huperzine A (< or =100 microM) had no effect on the binding of [3H]glutamate (low- and high-affinity glutamate sites), [3H]MDL 105,519 (NMDA glycine regulatory site), [3H]ifenprodil (NMDA polyamine site) or [3H]CGS 19755 (NMDA antagonist). In contrast with these results, HUP-A non-competitively (Hill slope < 1) inhibited [3H]MK-801 and [3H]TCP binding (co-located NMDA ion channel PCP site) with pseudo K(i) approximately 6 microM. Furthermore, when neuronal cultures were pretreated with HUP-A for 45 min prior to NMDA exposure, HUP-A dose-dependently inhibited the NMDA-induced toxicity. Although HUP-A has been implicated to interact with cholinergic receptors, it was without effect at 100 microM on muscarinic (measured by

  12. Effects of huperzine A on secretion of nerve growth factor in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li TANG; Rui WANG; Xi-can TANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on neuritogenic activity and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). Methods: After being treated with 10 μmol/L HupA, neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells was observed and counted under phase-contrast microscopy. Mitogenic activity was assayed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release. AChE activity, mRNA and protein expression were measured by the Ellman's method, RT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. NGF mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA assays. Results: Treatment of PC 12 cells with 10 μmol/L HupA for 48 h markedly increased the number of neuritebearing cells, but caused no significant alteration in cell viability or other signs of cytotoxicity. In addition to inhibiting AChE activity, 10 μmol/L HupA also increased the mRNA and protein levels of this enzyme. In addition, following 2 h exposure of the astrocytes to 10 μmol/L HupA, there was a significant up-regulation of mRNA for NGF and P75 low-affinity NGF receptor. The protein level of NGF was also increased after 24 h treatment with HupA. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that HupA has a direct or indirect neurotrophic activity, which might be beneficial in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease.

  13. Theoretical Characterization of the H-Bonding and Stacking Potential of Two Non-Standard Nucleobases Expanding the Genetic Alphabet

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-02-16

    We report a quantum chemical characterization of the non-natural (synthetic) H-bonded base pair formed by 6-amino-5-nitro-2(1H)-pyridone (Z) and 2-amino-imidazo [1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (P). The Z:P base pair, orthogonal to the classical G:C base pair, has been introduced in DNA molecules for expanding the genetic code. Our results indicate that the Z:P base pair closely mimics the G:C base pair both in terms of structure and stability. To clarify the role of the NO2 group on the C5 position of the Z base, we compared the stability of the Z:P base pair with that of base pairs having different functional group on the C5 position of Z. Our results indicate that the electron donating/withdrawing properties of the group in the C5 position has a clear impact on the stability of the Z:P base pair, with the strong electron withdrawing nitro group achieving the largest stabilizing effect on the H-bonding interaction, and the strong electron donating NH2 group destabilizing the Z:P pair by almost 4 kcal/mol. Finally, our gas phase and in water calculations confirm that the Z-nitro group reinforce the stacking interaction with its adjacent purine or pyrimidine ring.

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 5. (Comtech Microwave Corp.-DOB Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    LA00z 2 2 co z0o-.Z 0d NE I (N 41-0 ,0 Z In 0 0 000 1-1 0 00 000 0 -.1 = ~I0N 4420. 01 0C 0 0. 0 a 20.0.0) 0 0 000 0 < Zul Co0-t 11W 1 w 0 0 0 -4 1 (0-4...I= Haz I) Hl Is IM 1.- 09 w- ~ I 1- Hf I 0)a KS N 4 4 r-N 4 < <Ŕ-4-40 Ifl(0) m’ -N r-M) N - N cc 4c -4 < Z of - I CON H0 >-0.-40 >--40000 -4-4-40 0

  15. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 11. (Kalidescope Shipping, Inc.-Lous Electronics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    H Z ON H2 N moo -4-4-4 NC) ccHIO H Zoe 0 0 0 CK ’I 00o 04e4 0002u~ U I, E 1 ON o i 01 w w 00 1-1 - - U- U- 2U-U-U-0 ZUL -U-0 4 Hf ’u I ON II C) Cl .1...I 0 ZZ 00 0 00 wi ZuL 0 .LU. U. .L. U ILi so ’c) itI.’ C 04 NN 0) (0 to 0 r- W 4) r- -.1m 4If I fN -I -4 44l 000(m 0)(0 a) (D( (D m O r- -4Ni C 4 A...0000 0000 010 n x 40 r-- )00 3-4 3-4* 00 4 -4 C a) : I (-14c 11 .CLn** 0 C C.) ) c ) M )* 04 c Q- * wulAC"** 43N ASN* 1L" M𔃺 M-I 040 Haz 02 ->-)I

  16. Alphabet Strategy for diabetes care: A multi-professional,evidence-based, outcome-directed approach to management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the rising global prevalence in diabetes, healthcaresystems are facing a growing challenge to provideefficient and effective diabetes care management inthe face of spiralling treatment costs. Diabetes is amajor cause of premature mortality and associatedwith devastating complications especially if managedpoorly. Although diabetes care is improving in Englandand Wales, recent audit data suggests care remainsimperfect with wide geographical variations in quality.Diabetes care is expensive with a sizeable amount ofavailable expenditure used for treating the complicationsof diabetes. A target driven, long-term, multifactorialintervention in patients with type 2 diabetes has beenshown to reduce mortality and morbidity. The alphabetstrategy is a novel approach to effective diabetes careprovision, aiming to address patient education andempowerment, provide consistent comprehensivecare delivered in a timely fashion, and allowing multidisciplinaryteam work.

  17. Exploring the potential of a structural alphabet-based tool for mining multiple target conformations and target flexibility insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Triki, Dhoha; Senac, Caroline; Flatters, Delphine; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Protein flexibility is often implied in binding with different partners and is essential for protein function. The growing number of macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank entries and their redundancy has become a major source of structural knowledge of the protein universe. The analysis of structural variability through available redundant structures of a target, called multiple target conformations (MTC), obtained using experimental or modeling methods and under different biological conditions or different sources is one way to explore protein flexibility. This analysis is essential to improve the understanding of various mechanisms associated with protein target function and flexibility. In this study, we explored structural variability of three biological targets by analyzing different MTC sets associated with these targets. To facilitate the study of these MTC sets, we have developed an efficient tool, SA-conf, dedicated to capturing and linking the amino acid and local structure variability and analyzing the target structural variability space. The advantage of SA-conf is that it could be applied to divers sets composed of MTCs available in the PDB obtained using NMR and crystallography or homology models. This tool could also be applied to analyze MTC sets obtained by dynamics approaches. Our results showed that SA-conf tool is effective to quantify the structural variability of a MTC set and to localize the structural variable positions and regions of the target. By selecting adapted MTC subsets and comparing their variability detected by SA-conf, we highlighted different sources of target flexibility such as induced by binding partner, by mutation and intrinsic flexibility. Our results support the interest to mine available structures associated with a target using to offer valuable insight into target flexibility and interaction mechanisms. The SA-conf executable script, with a set of pre-compiled binaries are available at http://www.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr/recherche/plateformes/logiciels.

  18. Evidence of Alphabetic Knowledge in Writing: Connections to Letter and Word Identification Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Armstrong, Natalie E.; Culver, Brittany L.; White, Jamie M.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The writing skills of 286 children (157 female and 129 male) were studied by comparing name writing and letter writing scores from preschool to kindergarten with letter and word reading scores over the same time period. Two rubrics for scoring writing were compared to determine if scores based on multiple components (i.e., letter formation,…

  19. Bibliography of PNL publications in management of radioactive wastes, subject-indexed (alphabetically) and listed chronologically (latest issues first)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1976-07-01

    The citations are arranged under: actinides, alpha particles, americium, beta particles, calcination, cements, ceramics, cesium, containers, decontamination, evaporation, fluidized bed, glass, ground release, high-level wastes, incinerators, liquid wastes, marine disposal, melting, nonradioactive waste disposal, Pu, radiation doses, radiation protection, disposal, processing, radionuclide migration, Ru, safety, separation processes, soils, solidification, solid wastes, stack disposal, temperature, thermal conductivity, transmutation, tritium, underground disposal, U, volatility, and waste disposal/management/processing/storage/transportation. (DLC)

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 7 (Delta Engineering Services - Electronic Design Engr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 21 (VU Color Inc-Zymed Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    oIn In 1--. in -4 to( IC) In r,. r’- U- c 4 0) INi 41 , ’’) m’ 4’) C24 0000 N" In M’ - C’) m’ 00 00 -4 1 M -4N iI 4-2) 0000 Do 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 UN0 IM...2 I.- 2 $-- -So IO 44~ 0t 03 0F- -4 0 H IIt4 I-H TIO C24 z 2 cc 2 2 2 r- 24 ON E 0 m 0 t-o 0 1-1 0 43 a o I N 110Q 0 0Q 0 u 0 0 - -1 - -41-1 t- 4...C> in N I Mm It LLA oo Woo-.1 zoo 0c)o)-j oo 0) CY) -.1 (7) 0) C) 0) -1 CY) -i cn oo a (71 at III I M IN It q L) < < cc < < W to 0 < m N :: ClsI 0

  2. RVUs, SGR, RUC, and Alphabet Soup: Utility of an iPad App to Teach Healthcare Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Ana P; Baird, Grayson L; Ashkan, Mark; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an iPad app for teaching healthcare economics milestones. Institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant survey assessment of radiology residents' knowledge of healthcare economics before and following review of the Healthcare Economics iPad app was undertaken at two residencies. Residents received an electronic link to the pre survey, answered 13 general knowledge questions, rated their knowledge of healthcare economics milestones, and reported any prior economics/business background. During the conference, residents reviewed the app on their iPads. They then received a link to the post survey. Responses were entered using REDCap and a unique yet anonymous code was used to link each resident's pre and post results. A follow-up survey was completed at 3 months using REDCap. Sixty-two of 69 (90%) residents completed the pre survey. Mean and median age was 30 years. Thirty-two of 62 (52%) were men and 30/62 (48%) were women. Twenty-nine percent (18/62) were postgraduate year (PGY) 2, 24% (15/62) PGY 3, 19% (12/62) PGY 4, 26% (16/62) PGY 5, and 1.6% (1/62) PGY 6. Thirty-four percent (21/62) reported some economics/business background. Residents' mean self-assessment of their knowledge of healthcare economics milestones was fair on the pre survey, significantly improved on the post survey, and plateaued at 3 months. Fifty-nine residents completed the post survey; 60 completed the 3-month follow-up. Residents demonstrated a significant increase in healthcare economics knowledge on post survey. At 3-month follow-up, significant decreases in gained knowledge were observed only in residents for whom the material was not integrated into the curriculum. Teaching with iPad apps offers an alternative, effective way to teach basics of healthcare economics milestones. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 11 (Hilton Systems Inc -International Industries Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    00 ) ON 0r- f)- 0(1-1 N oo C otN -II D n l C’N - ’-0 0N 04 - 0 CDLA 1’- NN -40 -D lOGO C --f .. 14 - il I I I I I I I I I 10 - -4 00 -4 0) 0) 0) 0) 0D...A11 10 m 4(1 CI (00 10 <D 0 1(0 (4 -1 -*It j-I -ti j 1 -114 -14 1N N r > KfC i i-I - of ’D I <( m it 4 44 LAO<< U)U IL- C LAO L𔃻 ~ I- Ai>> tor)> LNMMM...aI in C) < S10-40 mI 02o 0 C>00N 0D C D>C>0 0 0 Q0 N>C 0 0 II 000 il m02 0202020OU220 C1 a 0 4 n 4 l Z logo IfIL I ( L) C’i’CJ(C’C.CJ’e’C1(J (4

  4. "In the same way a poem contains the alphabet": the significance of translation in William I. Grossman's Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail S

    2009-02-01

    William I. Grossman's contributions to psychoanalysis have been insufficiently appreciated, perhaps because his writing is concentrated and his meaning consequently difficult to unpack. One of his most important contributions is a remarkable description of the systematic way Freud imagined, thought, and theorized, beginning long before he created psychoanalysis. This way of thinking exemplifies Freud's theories even as it organizes his thinking. It is flexible, expandable, hierarchical, and recursive. Grossman's reading provides a window into Freud's texts that yields exciting new insights, including the idea that a transformative version of translation, a perception of the way Freud thinks creatively, may help psychoanalysts of different cultures and systems of thought communicate across boundaries. André Green's concept of the pathological negative is used as an example of how Grossman's Freud can facilitate a crossing of cultural and theoretical boundaries.

  5. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., CULTURAL, AND TO CREATE SOCIETY-SIRAT; a.k.a. ASSOCIATION FOR EDUCATION, CULTURE AND BUILDING SOCIETY-SIRAT... FOUNDATION; a.k.a. STICHTING AL-AQSA; a.k.a. SWEDISH CHARITABLE AQSA EST.), Noblev 79 NB, Malmo 21433, Sweden; Nobelvagen 79 NB, Malmo 21433, Sweden AL-AQSA FOUNDATION (a.k.a. AL-AQSA ASBL; a.k.a. AL-AQSA...

  6. Predicting kindergartners' end of year spelling ability from their reading, alphabetic, vocabulary, and phonological awareness skills, and prior literacy experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Rouby, Aaron D.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Lee, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of home literacy, parental education and demographic factors in addition to conventional literacy skills at the beginning and end of kindergarten in predicting end of kindergarten spelling achievement. The present study involved 9 schools and 29 classrooms serving an economically and ethnically diverse population (n = 288). Students spelled three types of words: sight words, decodable real words, and decodable pseudowords; conventional and invented spellings are reported. Results from a three step hierarchical regression indicated the variables accounted for 66% of the variance in spelling scores, and the single strongest spring predictor was a one-minute letter-sound fluency test. Implications for instruction and for identifying students at risk for future spelling and reading difficulties are discussed. PMID:25221382

  7. Huperzine A: is it an effective disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ming eQian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta. It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has non-cholinergic effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death.

  8. Simultaneously preparative purification of Huperzine A and Huperzine B from Huperzia serrata by macroporous resin and preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongchao; Liang, Hao; Kuang, Pengqun; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Yan

    2012-09-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) and Huperzine B (HupB) are natural alkaloids existed in Lycopodium plants. They both have potential clinical application for treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD). For the purpose of better utilizing the limited plant resources, a quick and low cost method to separate and purify HupA and HupB from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) was established in this paper. Low polarity macroporous resin SP850 was selected from eight kinds of resins during initial purification. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was proved to be the best acid modifier reagent among all acids used in our experiment for improving separation. HupA and HupB were baseline separated on a C18 column by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (Preparative HPLC), the optimal gradient mobile phase system contained methanol increasing from 15% (v/v) to 35% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) TFA within the water. The purity of HupA and HupB obtained was 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, and the total recovery for them was 83.0% and 81.8%, respectively.

  9. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 12. Mantech International Corporation-Modular Devices, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  11. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 2 (Allied Supply Co Inc-Ashley Machine & Tool Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 14. Okinawa Kankyo-Pultrusions Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 85. Part 19 (Star & Stripes - Tokimori Kensetsu Co Ltd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    40 (0 0 ) ( - ) ( in0 N1~ 44(44 -4 -4 1 4 I 0 U . L) 140 In In In tic N 1- I1, 70(040 4 .4 -4 . 0 ( 10 )1( 4 In 0 I I I IN~ InN ) ) I- ca 10C) ) 4 4l...1 (00 CI (UN 4NNɜcE -4 0-4.4< 4) N CO" < 0 ( aULA N-I-4 -4 4.4 (UN m i m - < 00 0 I .)- )- >>-0 -P.J NNW E>>= CL 01 UM m>- >->-J >-~ NL .44 N14 3I...0 CO . M4 N 0 60 in inin4 I- C.4 C CM 4l -IN N .4 4l C44 4C4 w I I I (A 0 -0 I- COjCOj 0l -4 (04 N-40 (0 N N"C " tIC jI 0 0 - W0 6 0 0 N N 00- 0N N

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 10 (Germer Equipment Co-Hamilton Hilton National Wembley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    1- -4 -4 >,-4 .-4 N4 a"( LnL inAI It I M(D0 < I 0,0 ""C(NJ(N C> 40 0 - Izr COO0 (D 400C 0. "i.-(00 I 0--- 0000 04 --4 Ln w 3 - 000 .-I 0- 0 = LullI ... JB nr 0n Or r B n n r n .t it 0Z0Z0Z Z Z ZZ Z Z It 0ZZZ ZZZZZZZmmm C If I in ’T1 C) I NN N NN N N NN.IjINN N N NN N N N N N NNNN NNNINNNN aI <j

  15. 31 CFR Appendix B to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Vessels That Are the Property of Blocked Persons or Specially Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CUBA Acechilly Navigation Co., Malta ACEFROSTY CUBA Acefrosty Shipping Co., Malta AIN ZALAH IRAQ Iraq... SHIPPING (SDN) CARIBBEAN SALVOR CUBA Malta Tug 669 856 9H2275 Compania Navegacion Golfo S.A. CASABLANCA CUBA Epamac Shipping Co., Ltd., Malta CELTIC CUBA Cyprus Bulk Carrier 27652 16582 C4WU Atlantic...

  16. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 6 (Dyncorp, Fort Belvoir, Virginia - Federal Improvement Co Inc, Vandenberg AFB, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    000N 10 C. 0-I 0-4-4. 0.-44 C0.-4 -4z 0.-I C 0-4 -4 z 0.- IL 14 0. -I C3 N 2 1 0N HZj 0 Z0) 10)0)0 10)0 x0mo x 1) 10)0)0 m) X0) mcm 4 N 16 1 ON1 N.0403-4...4ZZZZZ td z2ZZ9* IUzzzzz2zzzz * 1 100 aZ 2 0 a - C-) O3 W w 000 34 (0 -I N C40.1 N 000 M0C000000(10*0I000 W 0 V CV)0 0) P -N a NN000 mY n-410n fnanin...0) 1-1 a CY) CK -* CY) w <D C> 1,- 0) 4m Uj CI) -4 tD 00 0) 1- l-- to 0 0 Dom 0 L) <> Q 0 C> C> 0 X-40 - 0 C 1-- -- 4 -4 W C> 0 XO-4QO OCDO ɘ U) a

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 11 (International Computer Corp - Kloze N S Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    N 0 mC. m.( m( m0 C) (0 (0 (0 0 Nf.0 r. cNNr4NO (0 en (0 MSP (0 *50 -W (0 -1 0 0 0 0 NC) 000 0 "-4 0 I(( (0 (1 1) P7 L) (0 in 4. -.4-4 m -& (D U (0... acCA -4N NN CcC4c xC4 NN N4 10L 0 ( Z-4 -I 4N . ".. (0 N 1-.U -4 .4 co -lOI m a) a) mne M 0. N r. I0 I0 I 0- 0. nc c n CI C% 004 0 00 0 04 " "N . .0

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 16. (Prime Mover Company, The-Rodriguez General Contractors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

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  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 5 (CSR INC-Colson Business Systems Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    w4 -- 4.4 0N" N4 4 U 0I0-4N40 MV r. -iMllmM NC4 a .4 ) MMM arna - -4 * W-No -Mcv t-Pt-VP sea 0n a r- V.V-P 000000 In N4 N 4 1 IO 0N 2 SiP. 00000000...4 1 W4 11 a 0U a DOC.) ais t.00 4.00 a a 03M) Z 000 -4C 1 0 -4 -4 na 0 -44 Natat , -i C404-0iN. CI04 ~C14-4-40 NI CM -4 CM0505C05( 404 -4 -4 N 4N...0-44 i 4c 4 C sea Kz -u w4m’ CY w4 MON 40 w4 Nd N- ty a @3 aw.H0 0 000 o 0 0 0 0 0 00 * w.-, ZZ 2 z 222 z 2 z 2 Z 2 ZZ 00 z 4* 0-4-4IT a 00 a 4 I (a

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 9 (Hewlett Packard Company, Foster City, California - International Bus MCHS Corp, Louisville, Kentucky), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

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  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 3 (Ashley Steel Inc-Bettencourt R E Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    04 L- " N Csl (’J 04 4 eq 0 CNI (Nlcsll < C4 03 -4 C-4 < 11 CF) go >- >- >- td >- (a >- M>- (a>-Nl INN a)>- IM>- -- 4 L) L) x U) M-44D If M>- (.)ZZZ... TD (NN 14 ** i 4o, M( 4 𔃺( LOOaaOOOOOa OOC> OO>Oa0 LO >COW0 M-10(4 ICf-4N Nl C-4 ’ -4 -40 .- CO O’-4 00 , Oa i)n C00 00 00 Cl, -xInC> 0 0 1 (04 c...0) -1 070) -1 ə I wC1N i 1(A I.- I- 1-- 1,- 3t1o I0) HZj f 0 F9- 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 41if I M C 611 9I- (A) 0 1.- 0 0 1.- 0 9- 0 1-- I I ) 119i ll

  2. Propuesta integral de alfabetización digital para el Siglo XXI Integral proposal of digital alphabetization for the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión integral de la alfabetización digital basada en el contexto social, sus necesidades y expectativas; las potencialidades de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación que pueden llegar a ser, oportunidades para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida, y la interacción de destrezas, conocimientos y formación de actitudes y comportamientos frente al aprendizaje mediado por tecnologías. This article presents a comprehensive view of digital literacy based on the social context, their needs and expectations; it also explains the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT that can become opportunities for improving the quality of life, and interaction skills, knowledge and shaping of attitudes and behavior in regard to technology-mediated learning.

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 8 (Piros Construction Inc-Smith Russ Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    3 F OC02 0187 F49642-82-C0287 A C C 1 2 2 S208 000 Si LANDSCAPING - GROUNDSKEEPING 8 A 9 4 J 018 1 B J 1 E 40 SILVERTON CONSTRUCTION CO INC HOLLOMAN...A 3 4 J 018 1 B J 1 1 84 LOCATION TOTAL 4 374 SILVERTON CONSTRUCTION CO INC WHITE SANDS MSL RG NEW MEXICO 048932 1265 32 1 C OAD07 0168 DAAD07-83...I 388 2 A C2467 F116 N62467-82-C0346 E C C 1 2 2 Y126 000 C2 CONSTRUCTION/MISSILE SYSTEM 8 A 3 4 J 018 1B J 1 A 699 LOCATION TOTAL 4 1,530 SILVERTON

  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 17 (Ray Industries-Service Screw Company Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    C4 4- 00) P 4-. 4 6.4 -00 66 o 411110 0 < 0 0 0C 0 0 0 o 6 I 0 aIN N (0(0( 66OO 1-1 0((000 ( 40 6-0-f- 0 *4000000 M6 -4 (04 U 1 (0(00 6000000 0 00 N00...1141-I 11022 )0 )ɘ OI LWlLI.UIAUU.WW NISZZZ NZZ Ox X0 411110 00 00 0 0a <I Cf) 11 N N -4-4 0 CL.11 14 < INEU 10 10-r ** 0 00 NNVl-=NFlNr f.r-N N Ilp

  5. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 5 (Castle Stove Co Inc, Quincy, Illinois - Dyncorp, Wichita Falls, Texas), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

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  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 18. Taylor-Ramsey, Furniture-United Airlines Services Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  7. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths: Alphabetical Index by Name, (Aakhus Daniel Joseph - Zysk Carol Rose), October 1, 1979 thru September 30, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

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  8. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths, Alphabetical Index by Name. Part 2 (LE BLANK WENDELL JOHN - ZYSK CAROL ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

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  9. 音标教学与英语词汇自主学习能力培养%Phonetic Alphabet Teaching and Lexical Autonomous Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2008-01-01

    词汇是英语学习的基础,语音教学又是词汇学习的基础.而音标教学是语音教学的核心.可见音标教学在英语教学中的重要性,因此音标教学必须提前集中扣字母教学同时进行.

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 85. Part 14 (Middletown Limousine Sus - North American Carbide Tooling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  11. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 6 (Delaco Supreme Tool & Gear Inc - Electronic Measurements Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 10 (Hi Plains Supply - International Cnslt Eng Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 6. Donnegan Systems, Incorporated-Fairfield Machine Company, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 12 (International Insignia Corp -Korea Guano Co Ltd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    34 lI-J U.J .- JON>ON--4CKo i 3iN o a4 -e -4 0 L 10 MM (004 Colo0 "C-4 0u (a,)(D0 maCo to 64 00 0 000(( 10 6(0 4-4O 20 20000 . " 0 000 04 0 >000 M...L 0ofIIIN ca " to 43- z- <- I-0 C 0 20 20000 z 0 O(l 0fC IN " at4 a 0 Z c n -0 -~~~. - of’E I a-4 1’- - 0 4- 4- w .L4 w I=I M(-v ItW 0 . 2 L 0 0 0n I...000( ( 4 - 0 L (0 0 -00 0 - o (0 00 0 0 of (0- (D 0 --0 0-3 0-----00o00---~ 0o0 0 L~ I(03 itIL .000 U.0 u0 0 00 O 0O O ’ C>( o m 00MD w0 0( (O I

  15. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 14. (Nor Cal Aerospace-PHP Healthcare Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 00 00L 00 00000Ouu 00L 11wotI M-4 of 4- 20000 24" 2,0) 20 2Dz0) 21f- Z) 0) Z00))) m Z0C) 4 I 0 4 1 00 0000 00 00 00 00 00 0000 00000000 00 LA" 1 1M...04 40N000001A’ 0. of m0 I IM -4 itIl - I--44 1 (Nm-.4C’)4 O CD 0 0 C’) 0 -4 w -4 In m m wN m (DCm -"Jo ifto100(-4 113 34 :3 1(104 . 34 :30 394 : 30AN...14C’) w 00 20000 00 MI1 0-4 1-1 -4 t-4 0 l’-40 I-0 0 0000 0 -4 41) 1-10N 񓀠 01’) 14-I1M-4 oz 0 cr0 w nUc) ~0U1- r- r- W x <<a0 at0 cr0 w N 444 00

  16. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 15 (Mountain States Caulking Inc-Pangborn Corp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    of (.) 1-* 11 MMMMW<W < L L L LA- W L LA- Mwn<<<<<U-L o L Ll- Ll- LA- L W L) CY) 11 <<<<<<< < ononnanM<n<<<<<<OaU Canino L) 04 M MM < : (.)-4

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 13 (NCR Media Products Division, Rockville, Maryland - Picker International Inc, San Francisco, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    COOZ 00)0) N I mooN N 1-44444-~--- --- ~.4-- 1-1 NL >00 *.4)) 0 N I mc 4 N 4 ~ 1 Z Z E -00000000 fo-4( m cl CU) 0 -4( (MCI00 000 N I moob N.402 2 Z 2 r...4-4.4e44--4 "Ina)I-4w ..-- -I W)-4-4- N I moob 11 0222 CS!22 C1422 2 22 2 Z in2Z 2 in2Z CI2 24 1 )r. - N- of 0 II. I mo if-4 t N- :, 0 0 II moo(-~004N

  18. Structural and energetic characterization of the emissive RNA alphabet based on the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle core

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-06-01

    We present theoretical characterization of fluorescent non-natural nucleobases, tzA, tzG, tzC, and tzU, derived from the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle. Consistent with the experimental evidence, our calculations show that the non-natural bases have minimal impact on the geometry and stability of the classical Watson-Crick base pairs, allowing them to accurately mimic natural bases in a RNA duplex, in terms of H-bonding. In contrast, our calculations indicate that H-bonded base pairs involving the Hoogsteen edge are destabilized relative to their natural counterparts. Analysis of the photophysical properties of the non-natural bases allowed us to correlate their absorption/emission peaks to the strong impact of the modification on the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO, which is stabilized by roughly 1.0-1.2 eV relative to the natural analogues, while the highest occupied molecular orbital, HOMO, is not substantially affected. As a result, the HOMO-LUMO gap is reduced from 5.3-5.5 eV in the natural bases to 4.0-4.4 eV in the modified ones, with a consequent bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra. © 2016 the Owner Societies.

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 19. (Tube Manufacturing Co., Inc.-Voith-Turbo GMBH & Co. KG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    l)4 P. 0 MID (7000 l) -4(W0(0 (’) -4 Min 4E 1 0) r If C)) in 0)00000 0 0 0)0 0).-I 0-400 C11000 V)-4 V)-4 4 I0440) to004-)0 000000flI蓐 004< 00 I...4,4I-I .-inriafr)Llf)fifril -4111)1 *0 0 0000000 00 001-410 41m 0 0-40D 1-. 00-4 -4 . .4 .C00-4.-4..4. 00 UH I 000 It IL.. 0) m 0CC 0 C11000 0 C

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 20. Waste Service Contracts, Incorporated-Zytron Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    C4 a1 04 NcN ci C-i ciNe 4 e I ( I o )I 4 1 C4 N N "N" 44 C-i C1 U4C4N I( 4 ’ I I 1W 1C0401 0 4 0 0 0 0 00 - a 0 -j C 1 0 0 - 001 n 0 I 0 0 0’ 0...1 4 000 0 0 - l- -1 - -4 ’- U 1 - -4 I co000 0) >.04 U C- N3 I-IN " N .11 .-4.. -4 NNi NNN ""UNm 40000’o U~ -U 40 CU ) LUZ 4w ()C 4 Z ccIUUUZ L 04

  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 19. United Ameritec Corporation-Waste Management, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    0 .0 10)0 0 0 0 4 0 40 󈧄 404041( 40 D A40 40 40 0 o6W 10 maO0000000000 0 0000 00a0 a000 00 O𔃺 I 4)M: IN4 . .N " "......- 4 4( 1 I N N CINe to - 1...11 1-00 00 w1 0 c 0000o I Na No -INW N N CN NN4C1 P.- .- .1- 0) -440)󈧄U0 ML U: L00 inU) U -U 0- LUZ 00Z 44 U -44U(.Zm4 𔃺 -4 𔃺 in 4 0 0 00 0

  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 10. Input S R L-Kodensha Company, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    nN"MMVWL)W c’)N C4) M’ Nl - r4 N 0N I *-- I Z-o i * 4 1 40 00 I 0-4c’) 0 I 84 Nn W 04 W 4n 4 4 0 0 4’ ciNe 30-401 -44 0 000000 00 0 0 *0 01 o 0 0 04...1 N- r-L 4 t ) 0 C ) 0) U-0 C N0 Ma CM C IL) 41 K 0 L) L t O 00 0 LUZ o w 0- U- c- < u IL 41v 0 0 0 v 00 0 0 0 m< I C fL) < N C4 X a- .4N -4 -IN

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 5. Conti Corporation-Donley-Bundy & Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 17 (Ray Industries-Service Screw Company Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    D (D (D < <:D DD =3:3 ()) 0) a < In II lm.-4c> 11-4Z -4z ozzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzZZZZZ r-zz* xzz* 11 Ima) Illaz luz -4zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzZZZZ>-** ozz...Intc>00a0c 01- -4NC’ (0r-- "* CN0 N1C400 ci NI r < it I 4 44) 41 N-4 N~j-4-4 (D0wwwW 0400 0 3 000000 (n (11N C11 < i m ciNe HI <’ 16 NO> NC,0 N4X44 r-0...4z -qzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 4ZZZZZZ 4Z -4z -4zzzz MC" ::MZZZ* MZ>-Zzzzzzzzzzzz* MZZZZZZ* faz luz fazzzz moo r) 1 0 L) N r- mo In In c ) 0 40 L) r-Lnoo CMO

  5. Early Writing among Ancient Vikings and Today's Pre-Schoolers: A Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Reading Acquisition and Alphabets as Effective Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Ake

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports some observations on pre-school children's spontaneous as well as adult-supported spelling behaviour and makes comparisons between aspects of these early literacy activities and some features of spellings from mostly twelfth- to fourteenth-century Norwegian runic inscriptions. The runic inscriptions originate from a…

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 18. (Sipman-Newman Joint Venture-Synernet Corp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    4- 4- 4- 4- 44-4 r- 0 I ម ) I P..LU.WW W p WWWL WWL. L .W LU.L-LL L L.L.LL .L LU . U. -U. U LLL. .. LL. r-l I140’) I 13333 CL L C C M L MCL(L L C C...1000-4 1 Z Ci Z z 4c .6 < 4 4C I1 0..-4 1Z ’ "s w -Cc w w a 00 Cc 99 CO-4 IsO - 000) WflN 4f w0 4I-- (no) "M0 010(0(10 0i 00) 000010 ONj 0. 00-4 ŕ...f ~C en :D Q00 C-.4z O o 00 00 -4--t-44 -4 -Iz a.- 0i&fs4(00 .- 1 I 00 .00-4 10 no ae ent 0 s iso 4 - 0 W~40000o en 0 W -4-4 n 00 L.1 W100 IO is-O

  7. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 10. (Hitachi Instruments, Inc.-International Cordage, Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    13333 0444 0 L. 0ɜ...i ois P.Psr- iso C# , P% IIJJ-4 1 w im-407 InL 0 -4N0 I 0 -40< 10-4-4 1 00 10-40 1 UA)Nl � I -4-4 10000 : -4-4 loaf- I4 0000 : -4-4 � I -411...I0Wo4 I -c < < M-4004 1..is -isisiso- P _isisWW 0 i r.. -j I, 1-1, 8 -j r- --- isO -1 iiiit C"K M00-4 I <" "NNN < 4N -C0 4 0 04 NO dr’NI " "

  8. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 9. (Potomac Edison Company - Southern Alcohol Fuels, Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    in O L) IL)C0 0 0 00 0000 0 0 0 000 000 V M CD L)’ CLL LO < 00 0000 0 0 0 000 000 * .0’<ɘ<O 00 0000 0 0 0 000 000 LL MOMO <«’ ’C < < < cUOC0 ) 𔃺n 0...000.: 0000 00000 0 0 10C’,)ZCo 0 0 0 0 0 V.MUO 0000 00000 0 0 E K 0 0 0 0 0 0000u 0000 00000 0 0 00000).)L 0 0 0 0 0 W MOMO ~ 000c C0 00000 LU M r 0a...0 U-I MOMO (i 1.1< MOMOO>- 0--- ---------------------- P. 0) NWjC~ C) O CD CD MCCCIC. CO M iyCOCCOCCjCCUCC Y) LCO 0 00. 4<. < < ɟ 1 0 < < < CO a)CDd

  9. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 2. (Bay Area Controls - Cirtech Corporation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    N MOMO )0)- _j OJ D1 0 0 W) ----------------- WI IiiCC4Z --- <ɜ Wic) U N (D (((( (0.4L 0 Ir 0 ’CD CmsWNNNNwix 0 N K0 :)_ C DOD0000-)CDOD))) a...c 0q ) i) I) to q caI o w~ 0q 90 - V)V * WI co 0 , ( t 0 cor- CYCY J~0 OMOtn M- MoMO c I -, i N ) C) (1) C) NMN IOK )Mr-0q CII ) if) )0C) In 1--’ 0...8217 0 00 wo 00 0 woo 0ɘ 00<<ᝰ 0 >- IC1. U. MOMO 0o0o < 0 M00 t 󈧄C ’ N 0)0) a- Nl N N INNcj---- - co 0M 0. < 004 V)In crt 004 7v F- 0 0- 0 0 40 4 0

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 9 (Smith S J Co Inc-Univar Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    B C Z 5 2 2 V114 000 S STEVEDORING 7 9 4 5 L 06 1 A K i B - -00207 B C Z 5 2 2 V114 000 1 STEVEDORING 7 9 4 5 L 06 1 A K I ; TIFF CULTURE INC -00207...A1B GAS TURBINES AND JET ENGINES 8 A 3 6 J 016 1 B J I C UNIMARE UFFICIO VIAGGI E TURISMO ITALY 031940 0000 IT 2 A NA112 0027 N68171-83-C0021 B C Z 5

  11. Propuesta integral de alfabetización digital para el Siglo XXI Integral proposal of digital alphabetization for the 21st century.

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una visión integral de la alfabetización digital basada en el contexto social, sus necesidades y expectativas; las potencialidades de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación que pueden llegar a ser, oportunidades para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida, y la interacción de destrezas, conocimientos y formación de actitudes y comportamientos frente al aprendizaje mediado por tecnologías. This article presents a comprehensive view of digital literacy based on t...

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 7, (McKee Roofing Co Inc-Pirelli Cable Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    1 2 2 Y199 000 C2 C01STRUCTI0N/MISCELLANEOIJS B 8 A 8 ZI J 016 I 3 1 1 Mf - SPEC WIRE & CABLE C 2 I OA110 0419 1400228-8 SALAMANCA NEW YOrK 056667...63 4 H 00400 3746 OLA4 LOCATION TOTAL 2 367 EL MONTE CALIFORNIA 080320 2020 05 MILLER ENGINEERING 2-28 B C B 5 2 2 6750 000 CgE PIIOTOGRAPHIC...C C 1 2 2 N012 000 81 INSTALLATION OF EO/FIRE CONT 8 A 3 5 A 1007 5 A J 1 1 -3 MOTOROLA INC EL MONTE CALIFORNIA 625560 2020 05 5 G OCWO9 0077 GSOOC9

  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 1 (A & A Chemical Toilet Rentals-Benatec Associate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    TOTAL 3 131 ATLANTIC & PACIFIC INDUSTRIES INC RAYMOND MAINE 091736 1535 20 1 0 OAAO9 1526 DAAA09-83-C0401 B C A 5 2 2 1040 000 AS CHEMICAL WEAPONS...27 BAYER ELEKTRIZITAETS LIEFERUNGS AG GERMANY 101303 0000 GY 1 E OCA90 0711 DACA90-82-00068 B C Z 5 2 2 R211 000 C2 ARCHITECT/ENGINEER - GENERAL 7 9 4... BAYER MARTIN GERMANY 101305 0000 GY I K OJA04 0106 OAJAOd-83-CO028 B C Z 5 2 2 Z163 000 C2 MAINT-REPAIR-ALTER/TROOP HOU 7 9 3 5 L 06 1 B J I J 94 1 K

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 4 (Burnside Construction Company - Colton Equipment Co).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    woo CO 0-C 0-cc 00 Q m 0 0 "-4’ t4 co C’) ə( m4 4 " 2 oO-4 0 O CO U 0 CO 3 xO C X CO-E N 03 0a 4 UC4 w 0 ac a-o w D0 0 an 00 ChICO cpnI to 2 .U. 0 0...C - 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 < N N N < 00.0L lOLA ~0 0 C) 0 0 ’ I w I 0)I .44 N 0 0 . *~~~~0 0 IV ’ C ’C )0N ’N’ In 0OO 4 I r MWWW OOWW-4 (DO w OO ow CW...0 N, NNV ON C4N r, 0 -mr- LAO Coj (D m 0 lOLA 0 0 0 0 0 0 N -- 0 0 0 0 N, 0 *n 𔃺 LAI N1 Co LANL - -4 -4- -4 --" -4 -4 -4 I ~1 4 C(o 000000 .4 1 oDN

  15. Did you know that your student that is being long to alphabetize is agitated and inattentive only an oral breather it can be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Andréia Kühn Chedid

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents another look at a new factor that could interfere with the literacy of children: the oral breathing. Thus, discussions on the key symptoms, biological factors and finally, some considerations that will help us to think improvements to the learning of children do in their initial literacy.

  16. How Do Children Who Can't Hear Learn to Read an Alphabetic Script? A Review of the Literature on Reading and Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, C

    2000-01-01

    I review the literature on reading and deafness, focusing on the role of three broad factors in acquisition and skilled reading: the method of encoding print; language-specific knowledge (i.e., English); and general language knowledge. I explore the contribution of three communication systems to reading: spoken language, English-based sign, and American Sign Language. Their potential contribution to literacy is mediated by four parameters on which they differ: codability, structural isomorphism, accessibility, and processibility. Finally, I discuss the implications for additional research as well as for education.

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 18 (University of Virginia, Carsonville, Virginia - Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, Massachusetts), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Washington Headquarters Services (DOD) Directorate for Information Operations and Reports Arlington, VA DIOR-ST-18-91-PT-18 DTI( Approved for public...0)Of)0) UsN I 0)cn N In 00 -000 -4i~ naccc C 0-’ 1-0C N cc e0W00000)-40000D4 0 N cI 0)) N N -40-INNN . f.0)C70 OCN N -4 " NO-4 -4C) m 0) C) N I 0a)0

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 8. (Miller Herman, Inc. - Poten & Partners, Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Cww ( I < < 0 z 0 ID 0 0 12-(l j e- -1 0< 0 0 0C 0< L 0 0(, LO1 00 Co0r LOmC L< ()0 LO1 M - N XN IXNNNNNNNN .jNC~ -N C\\1 jN X N xNC JN ev( NNliciN _j...N NNNNNNNNNN N N :C. ---- --- --- --- -- N NN X - * Z Z * 00 Z a z M-0) ’CC))CCCC)’ ILC (C) Cl) 0 00( lomC )C) >-’) < M-NiN N N N N N N JN <N D N l

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 15. (Ogilvie Electronics-Prime Engineering Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    32 34 I 3I< IU- 340 <<C 𔃺 3m 𔃺DI(! 40N 3(0 I (014 W(0 (00 C)(0 00NC1 3-’I) Nl-4 04 0 (D ’qCl) -*(0 00) 00 O(0 ម N 300O 0-4 0-4 3’=0)-40 InO0 000...N.N.N a I ZI-ZI mammam n an mmmmmowNOO 011)( -4NM q tn V NItW.-I 00000 0 0 000000000 000 00 00 0 00: swot I 0000000 0" 00 00) 00 (D ’wOW0 "t tt1t V V v...0000000 000000003(000(03 Ij w w I30000(0I C’n" -40) M0 U) U) N mmmmmmmC)C)O 0)C’)C’)C’ 3(0000( < 4 0n (0, 4o < < 4444 4444 I (0004 3 00 0) 3m 0 co coK U

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 14. (Monarch Engineering-Ogie Trinidad, Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    4 -4-4 w-4 -4 -4 -44 -4- -4-4 4-44 -4 .-- w4 4 4 -4 -4.4 on -4 co I MOO<n( I.=N mo co4 mooNNN N N NN N N NN N N N N o 0I MO011) IN 3m O 00n X...CI -40 .~-4 ( 0 oo I-CEO INC4-4-* 04 N 04 %NNNQ ) 0 n -4 LnN -4W0 0 N.- m0 -- 0 c a 3M - .- 40 .- 4 s 0N I3I000)-4 3-I I-000N000000 t0 30 1.-4 130 1...0 in o .4 0.e P.t SWot * o 0 0 -40 40 M0 In Mso weI in IwOq* 1 N" N 10N4to 0 8.0 0 CIO -1.4 1IWOq* I ft go c00 (V) z 10 NN x1 I WO0 I N- r- CV)3 P0 to

  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 13 (Korea Marien Ind Co Inc Ltd -Markair)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    otA 01. O0 -4 LO 00 10-02 CL I E*O1m C) CLO 00 3--4 CI C24 -I0 0 4 0 0 1-4’ 40(7I ) 0) 0) 0) 0F) C)il 021’) Il.-Nr- 0 001’ CV0N00-0’L ) 4 4 C’) r...M0M3 w Hof 0(02 -4-4-4 CmC)’)CCC"Cmt C)C) ’C Ul )mmC1 1 1 l COW of(0 C>000 OOOOOOO 000 CI >00 0000 0 000>00C0 00 CLSI ~ It 00(0< of =C0 0 0 -4

  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 2. American Steel & Wldg. Company-Becker Sand & Gravel Company, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    t 4 -N(-1N "O 1-It z ) 0 UI4N -" niL Cv44Cl) l * RtU )L OClCC O(w0 3 0 a) CYOa)a)0)0 C0 0 0 0 4l ’ 0 N 𔃻 (n.Jm-4N - tTC L n n(Dt (0( DC r -P ,0 00 ’-4...14 -4 :.- ISA PA c ic C-4 -4 L)I C041-4 -. -4 m4s( 0 ~ -14 0 tO x4 -4-0 -6 -4 2:4,4 NE CY U4 c-4 - L,4 -44 441.4 -4- 005(0.440 00 In In m0 40 mu 00

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 6 (Johnson Textile & Plastics Co-McKee Robert E Gen Contractor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    S203 000 $1 ; rOOD SERVICE 8 A 4 4 J 01B I B J I C ,BT31-62-D0104 E C C 5 2 2 5203 000 SI FOOD SERVICE 8 A 4 4 j1 0113 P J I F- iST31-82-DO104 E C C 5...EGGS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 B 3 I D:1 2 B C Z 1 2 2 8910 000 82 DAIRY FOODS AND EGGS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 D ’I I H B C Z 1 2 2 8910 000 82 DAIRY rOODS AND EGGS 6 6 4...2 S206 000 Si LANDSCAPING - GROUNDSKEEFINO ? 3 8 3 I L (,U00 IA TECNICA UFFICIO S R L ITALY 079720 0000 IT 1 I OJAOI 0136 DAJAOI-83,C0197 a C 2 5 2 2

  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 11 (Lemmon Company, Sellersville Pennsylvania - McEwen Construction, Beale AFB, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    z Q z a zz 0 zz o zzzzzzzzzzzz zzz :Qaqmtw :0 jai : am Zt IWAJ : % * :QvO 0-00 t Qqtco : 4c 4c 4c<.c 0-t-C COMO 4 -C to to logo -1ɜc 9 d acv) v 000...v) S -4 a) P, m w n~n v n 4.t 0n r- 0) - .0 UY oI) KfC I mV0 IS >0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 coo IfI a -(4 SI ’ C )C ) ’ 0 I KSo I to4...000 000CatoC 0 0 mOMMIM 000000 O isC 0. U Or- 4 4c4c 4 ccC4C 4 444វ 44C4C4< logo MO 0 )0 U I04 N NN N NNNNNN N NO-.NNNN NNISNISI UIOV <<< 4 44 444

  5. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 14 (Picker International Inc, Aurora, Colorado - Roofing Systems Inc, Fort Lewis, Washington), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    000 0o0 - .4 ..I . 4 i I I I I I I IS 11-U I logo 0) 07) 0) N(D I’ Rt (A U LU I Oat>(. " oNNNcj4.4. 0N O)NNNN* 0 04 -4-4-4-4-4-4 4I 0. .- 4 0.4 ONM...11W000 aI C) in I.. to 01(t00 Ha CIO0 HI MI r. 0- 11 -4 -4 -4 -4-4 -4 W-4-I4 .4 -- 4 -4 -4 -I-4-4 4I H 0 O SO CO( it 0(0 (0 CflVl)C(A 0NN C. 000 logo ...0 0 .0 K m 00 (-4N KfC 0 00. 00000000 0 C 0 0 0 0 C 0 K 30 -4C𔃻 1 00 00000000 0 0 40 0 C 0 .0 Kf 0-40 I itI I 00-44:41 If 4- I-- 111((( NY Nl Nl NY

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 7 (Federal Improvement Co Inc, Virginia Beach, Virginia - Giordano Associates Inc, Robins AFB, Georgia), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    O0 -4IC))N1t0W, 000 -i n’ -0 . logo --Kf.40I.4-4 I 4 -1-4 0In10 4043,0.-4-4.44 NN04 0-4-oJM’ inZ 4 Co -4N in K mr 14 0-44 K0 00 0 O 0 &0000O0000...4 qT n q 2 No I CON Ks X LA W -4 afIn)cqv-4) Wo 0) wonooO 0 400000,00 0 KfC ICON Kf :) In -A a- 140000001- 4 0 00>00 N 000) o000) 0) a * aON a 6 1.4 M

  7. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 1 (102 Construction Inc, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma - American Management Systems Inc, Linthicum, Maryland), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    C ONK I 3000 KfC S :Mm 0300 K n 0 nWWWwWr -w0 w0 00 Y 0M0 )r )0)0 ) M( M. 4- 41K o 300 K 0 >C ,04 04 0000004 000C C .C C ,4 4 K) N I 03’- KS -4 -4 4...CI UCIOO a WI ND 0 Q a N .I I6M a* It -I C4 0to C sa..8 I logo a- -U0I 000 M 0 lAon 00 Wn .4-t 6- 44 C 3- 400 0v .0-4 a) CL I- COC M0 U W1-4 Ad

  8. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 1. (A. B. Dick - Bay Architects Associates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    I0 I-0. 1 sit.I logo J (0E ZEC. -Z 1-0004 20 N~~4 - 0-O I- > a >0 -ON O0000 --- NO O -won OWNZ 04 .- W- -4--- N J i OrD 00(00>-MO 00 ODO DOWX) -WW D...CYC C N N ONC -Ncl a0 w -- - - - - - - N - - C :0K): - - - -- -- - ----- M0 0 0 0 kf) NY 0 0 : 0 0C)C ON - V-N ---------- ---------------- n- kfc ) ) I

  9. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 17 (Teknar Inc, Fenton, Missouri - University of Virginia, Austin, Texas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    4 .4--4 -,4 -4-4 -4--4 -4 -4 -4 -4--44N -4 -4 110 4) 1 2c002 I (0 logo c r- -40 qt44 00)0))00 .- 4 -4-44--4-1.-4 0) it .1I02cca 2 IX (71M toc--(C... KfC O v) W14 11 200 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000004 0000 "loCin-0000 0 Ko no *20 K &0000000000.0.00.0.0N0.0.0.0.00.0NM0.0.000000 I K U c a I

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 3. (Bakers Constr. Co., Inc.-Burns Lumber Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    000-I 41=0000 -0 1=0 W~n .J0000110000000000000 00 00 4-4(0-I 1= 1- Ln 1I. n X0 N 14 d eI eZl dxx dx 40o 40 -54(00-I 44蓐 "w4 Mw4 "’i4 0-4...8217)44 044 0-W4N v’I Ezl -ZmI amow Nmcpm 01CO-N-( 0(00 -4 0aIOjw0.*-s 000 0000 0 00000000000000000 -40-40000 . NIWOV I (040( NeNNNIS 0 (0MWt(0(0 -w0.v I

  11. Domestic Contractor Establishment Code (CEC) Alphabetical Listing. (A and C Electrical-North Bridge Plaza Inc.). Fiscal Year 1993. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    gzo N ’ dO’S N N ’ ’ ’ 0 4 0" C’- in -a, OU o𔃺 00 c 0 0 I-o- 0E- - 0- -o.- N ~ ~~ ~ ~ No co2 ,,: D- ,_ a o N E.S. 0<~~u co-L EZLN n) 0 0 -c W 0. -4xw v

  12. Reading Development in two Alphabetic Systems Differing in Orthographic Consistency: A longitudinal study of French-speaking children enrolled in a Dutch immersion program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Lecocq

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining reading development in bilinguals have led to conflicting conclusions regarding the language in which reading development should take place first. Whereas some studies suggest that reading instruction should take place in the most proficient language first, other studies suggest that reading acquisition should take place in the most consistent orthographic system first. The present study examined two research questions: (1 the relative impact of oral proficiency and orthographic transparency in second-language reading acquisition, and (2 the influence of reading acquisition in one language on the development of reading skills in the other language. To examine these questions, we compared reading development in French-native children attending a Dutch immersion program and learning to read either in Dutch first (most consistent orthography or in French first (least consistent orthography but native language. Following a longitudinal design, the data were gathered over different sessions spanning from Grade 1 to Grade 3. The children in immersion were presented with a series of experimental and standardised tasks examining their levels of oral proficiency as well as their reading abilities in their first and, subsequently in their second, languages of reading instruction. Their performances were compared to the ones of French and Dutch monolinguals. The results showed that by the end of Grade 2, the children instructed to read in Dutch first read in both languages as well as their monolingual peers. In contrast, the children instructed to read in French first lagged behind the other Dutch-speaking groups in Dutch reading tasks. These findings extend the notion that differences across languages in terms of orthographic transparency impact on reading development to the French-Dutch pair, and strongly support the view that there are potentially significant benefits to learn to read in the most consistent orthographic system first, even though it is the least proficient language, since it boosts phonological processes and improves subsequent reading acquisition in both languages.

  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 9. (Giusti & Renshaw Construction-Hitachi America, Ltd.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    0to0 1- I CDCo~n 4 -4 0l)00 0l P .. n 0l In -4 (D r., n0 NOCh 00 a(0.- 04 N C (0 14 -i N4 0000 -4 .-4 l 0 001Mop-. I en - - -4-4Mot0- I On CL I Mot- I...00r- a N CN 1 000D 1 -- i- 1 o~an 1 -i-i 1 00.4 1 -i-i a0 Ncv 1 -i-i in0-4 a1 C0-OCI I -a-MU .LA .MWIL.IL .. M A - .. MIL 0U I s -)000 a NN~lC

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 8 (Giordano Associates Inc, Long Branch, New Jersey - Hewlett Packard Company, Cupertino, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    4 w >-4.4 >< > >4 4 44 4 4 4 >< 4 4 4 4 0 a 1a W i-I HOMO 040 00C 0 0 .-4 -4 -4,4 4,4-4-4 O,400 C)0 00 C. O0 C 0 0 0 44 44 4 N HiIinI I OC 00m (00 0...co C4 u90 zco ooo0OOO VIC aooc 00 fCCC WE -c CCX04040ooc o e rIs. .4P-4-1-4w--4~-4 coo 4 v (0~0 4 04 > rC4 U .4=-P r-PPP-PI ECC I,-6.4-4.4.4.4...4 . a0 0. a I 40e 8 in0P1N-NNN0omcoomm~nU)ni*’mmmUnomS11U-ENNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN(4~ ecc % ... a I cc CV n CN-4 a-4 - -4--1400 400 4 0 DPCDP4oo o o Cooooooo

  15. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 4. (Eastern Car Construction Company - General Displays Company).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    tD --00 C)VC)0C M...00000000000000000000000 00000o I 0 - I I< - I 0000-K)K)K) oK)K))K)KK) 0KK )K))K)KK)K))K)KIOK))I0000 U0C)C)00C ulxa-l-000000 --- 00 -- 0000000000)W0000000000000000 00000...Iq* .U M - LL I 0- z- 0- 00 z- U 0C 0KK ) 0000 z. C0 C) 00-- - - - 04 - - 0 004 I 4 4 CO k0 C.- If)0 C 0 ’ JD nC N C) 𔃻) Li) if JI~ Z’ I 𔃻) .0 W i

  16. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 11. (Tucker & Associates Contg - Zytron Corporation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    8217000 co ho C1 (1)C N))) 4l N) 0i m) 44 0. 0O CO1 CK) CDt CD01 CD01OD C0 CD 0Dr D C 000000D1D-C O CD04 0 0ii 0D (D(DCDA0 000 TD .N N, 0 M )-O OC _j to...a N9 CL 0 M 0D<I aC)C) UQ o 00F - - C wI I 0 f 9 : - NC a o- cc I at w 0.- 0 (1).< 0KK -0 ON -A10M1a Y I- W0 00 Zv ILD 00 r 0 0 Z zK) M (1) 1 0...O Uf) ------ - - - - - - CD N ~ 0 0 0 0 (D 0 0 0 tD - - - ) 0)N OD- 0.- 0 0--------- - L)- 0- if) 0 iN C’ (D 0 0 0 17 0 0 o~ ~~ -~U- - C- -- C-) -C

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 10 (Universal Aircraft Parts Inc-Zytron Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    VALLEY TREE 0 CONSTRUCTION ISABELLA CALIFORNIA 093028 3225 05 5 1 OCWO5 0086 DACWO5-83-C0113 A C E 5 2 2 Y244 000 C2 CONSTRUCTION/SEWERAGE & WAST 8 A...2360 39 VITALITY JUICE DISPENSERS B C A 5 2 2 6636 000 A48 ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBERS AND R 8 A 6 2 J 0000 0 1 A 25.0 2 A TK404 0032 N00612-83-C B C A 5 2 2...400-83-C2065 D C A 5 2 2 6685 000 C9E PRESSURE TEMP HUMIDITY INSTR 6 A 3 4 J 01B 1 B J I E 2 WELCH GRAPE JUICE 400-83-C2187 B C A 5 2 2 6685 000 C9E

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 6. (Data-Easton Machine Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    0W-4 -- -- 4408 1-(ON4 I mm-.J M0C)C)-i m (14(0)~s-- tCC ( m9 ~0) 0 l -.1 M 0’(O 10(04I 0100 0 0 45 OIL C 0( , LLLA.LA.Q-UQLL1L 4 O1Lti. u 0 41(0ON 1...4-I---IMO IW0 L~ t I0(MOO in 0/ -f~lf~l 4 W ~f(n ( (n ( MfIflIfL WtW0ICLJO) I f. I0) -4 -i if-t-rr--r- --. -r-., - oer - 1 aW0CM I In o o0L I I In i n

  19. iDPF-PseRAAAC: A Web-Server for Identifying the Defensin Peptide Family and Subfamily Using Pseudo Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Zuo

    Full Text Available Defensins as one of the most abundant classes of antimicrobial peptides are an essential part of the innate immunity that has evolved in most living organisms from lower organisms to humans. To identify specific defensins as interesting antifungal leads, in this study, we constructed a more rigorous benchmark dataset and the iDPF-PseRAAAC server was developed to predict the defensin family and subfamily. Using reduced dipeptide compositions were used, the overall accuracy of proposed method increased to 95.10% for the defensin family, and 98.39% for the vertebrate subfamily, which is higher than the accuracy from other methods. The jackknife test shows that more than 4% improvement was obtained comparing with the previous method. A free online server was further established for the convenience of most experimental scientists at http://wlxy.imu.edu.cn/college/biostation/fuwu/iDPF-PseRAAAC/index.asp. A friendly guide is provided to describe how to use the web server. We anticipate that iDPF-PseRAAAC may become a useful high-throughput tool for both basic research and drug design.

  20. Validating UX and UI Elements for Serious Children’s Language Learning Games : Case studies: Lola’s Alphabet Train and Kids Learn To Read

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Digital games as tools in children’s language learning have great positive potential. They provide an alternative to traditional learning methods and challenge them and studies show that they have worked successfully in teaching kids a specific problem. They can be used as tools in schools and in preparation for school depending on their educational content and even be integrated into the curriculum. The choices in graphic design in serious games have a large impact on the usability, play...

  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 13. (Marshall Electronics. Inc.-Monarch Crown Corp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    000000a 1-0 1-00000000000 -00-4 39 w0 moon dewca00 acca QCUQ0 w9 100000000 300-4 310 if- 24ɜ IN"" IN 14 4 < 4300 w-4 34 -C- C2 44 * 4 C4 X 1000-4 130...im0nC. 1 awI0 m 1 1- P1 I* N r- GoG 0G00 al60 G 0 0 11100 40 Go s00 00 otI Wjom I f. M~ In)Cr, an an1 an v 4*v- *- I ~ v - w 4 *,rI .I w0om I M0 of’-I...121000 ac0 acc00 MCC a0 ccn arc bI00.4 :10000000000000000 -NCIS 1 000 go go go g01,100.4 1000 0 cooNNNaNNa Q0 800.4 18 P P r 1--- -1-1-11P -1-1- P1 -1-1- r

  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 9 (Good-All Electric - Hi Grade Food Products).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    2 222221 01 p1 -44 ( 𔃺 0 ( 4 0 I j IN- nI 1n I 0 0 W -4I 0 n - C’n InIn -4 0 -1l 1 ) 1 N P4 N1 N) m4- m ,.44-4r 40 i IA 00 ’t.- V4 000 ’)C)’ q4 V...0 .I ....... N N -. 4 I I o~~uL~o onnonnn~i~~~o~ mrL~~~uL)L~uL~~www~~vw~~~ co wI4- 1 - 4- 4 - 4 44 4- 44- 4- 1 4- 4- 4- - 4- 4- 4 4- 4- 4 4-.1 -0 P1 ...0o 00- 0.).. 0 00. a𔃾-00.m 0 0-l X Do a 4 10O 0 񓀠 Ŕ 1000 9-0 0 004 � 0M 04 C acCa 01- L 00 00 -00 U0 000- 1-)a 0 G 00- c4000 0o 01 - O a - 04

  3. Optimal Prefix Free Code: word-RAM Linear and Algebraic Instance Optimal

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new technique to compute an optimal prefix-free code over $\\alphabetSize$ symbols from their frequencies $\\{\\frequency_1,..,\\frequency_\\alphabetSize\\}$. This technique yields an algorithm running in linear time in the $\\Omega(\\lg \\alphabetSize)$-word RAM model when each frequency holds into $\\Oh(1)$ words, hence improving on the $\\Oh(\\alphabetSize\\lg\\lg\\alphabetSize)$ solution based on sorting in the word RAM model. In a more restricted model, this yields also an algorithm performing $\\Oh(\\alphabetSize(1{+}\\entropy(\\alphabetSize_1,...,\\alphabetSize_\

  4. Zoological exploration of the continental shelf of Surinam: The foraminifera of the shelf of Surinam and the Guyanas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1983-01-01

    INDEX Introduction.................................................................................................................................... P. 5 List of samples studied for Foraminifera .................................................................................... P. 7 Alphabetic

  5. Huperzine A protects sepsis associated encephalopathy by promoting the deficient cholinergic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sen-Zhi; Huang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Lin-Qiang; Han, Yong-Li; Han, Qian-Peng; Zhu, Gao-Feng; Wen, Miao-Yun; Deng, Yi-Yu; Zeng, Hong-Ke

    2016-09-19

    Neuroinflammatory deregulation in the brain plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE). Given the mounting evidence of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the cholinergic nervous system, it is surprising that there is little information about its changes in the brain during sepsis. To elucidate the role of the cholinergic nervous system in SAE, hippocampal choline acetyltransferase, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1, acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine were evaluated in LPS-induced sepsis rats. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuronal apoptosis, and animal cognitive performance were also assessed. Furthermore, therapeutic effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Huperzine A (HupA) on the hippocampal cholinergic nervous function and neuroinflammation were evaluated. A deficiency of the cholinergic nervous function was revealed in SAE, accompanied with over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines, increase in neuronal apoptosis and brain cognitive impairment. HupA remarkably promoted the deficient cholinergic nervous function and attenuated the abnormal neuroinflammation in SAE, paralleled with the recovery of brain function. We suggest that the deficiency of the cholinergic nervous function and the abnormal neuroinflammation are synergistically implicated in the pathogenesis of SAE. Thus, HupA is a potential therapeutic candidate for SAE, as it improves the deficient cholinergic nervous function and exerts anti-inflammatory action.

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 2 (Amkor A&E Inc/SAC Intl Ltd(JV) - Bay Oak Construction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    coro -H< •oo «<<z M c c...CMOCM in coo co<m COCO CO ocooo Oinvn< ooo oo in r~ooo coot* ZtO’tO o<oo M<OC0 MOZO < Oinenf MCMCOhv ZCMOCM 3 OCQO Ör~ocM oo win oo<o...IM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM OOOO-I oooo< oooot- o ujuJ UJH- co o> ro oo uu<uz o OOOOM coro -Hro>- Minin^in«c "—•Of IO

  7. A Literacy Program for Adult City Core Illiterates: An Investigation of Experiential Factors ...; The Development of an Instrument to Predict Success ...; and a Study of the Initial Teaching Alphabet ... . Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don A.; Newman, Anabel P.

    This study involving 207 adult city-core illiterates from Buffalo and Niagara Falls, New York, reading below third grade level, examined (a) educational characteristics and abilities of adult illiterates important to the improvement of reading materials and programs; (b) a study of the use of i.t.a. with adult-centered materials paced to adult…

  8. Cartilhas de alfabetização: a redescoberta do Código Alfabético Cartillas de alfabetización: el redescubrimiento del Código Alfabético Primers: the rediscovery of the Alphabetic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Araujo e Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as 19 cartilhas de alfabetização aprovadas pelo Ministério da Educação (MEC para uso nas escolas públicas a partir de 2010. A análise tem por objetivo verificar em que medida foram cumpridos dois dos aspectos centrais do processo de alfabetização estabelecidos pelo Edital: o tratamento das relações fonema/grafema e o desenvolvimento da fluência de leitura. O artigo contrasta as bases conceituais usadas nas orientações gerais do MEC e nas bibliografias citadas pelos autores com o paradigma da Ciência Cognitiva da Leitura. A análise das atividades propostas nas cartilhas demonstra que menos de 1% das cartilhas ensina a decodificar e nenhuma delas promove a fluência de leitura. O artigo discute as razões pelas quais nem os autores seguiram as recomendações do Programa Nacional do Livro Didático (PNLD nem as autoridades do MEC abriram mão do requisito pelo qual a não observância do Edital, segundo qualquer um dos critérios, resulta em exclusão. E sugere que as concepções de alfabetização subjacentes às propostas analisadas, contrastadas com o paradigma da ciência cognitiva da alfabetização, podem explicar o entendimento dos autores, mas não explicam o descumprimento ostensivo das recomendações do Edital.El presente artículo analiza las 19 cartillas de alfabetización aprobadas por el MEC/PNLD (Ministerio de Educación de Brasil /Programa Nacional del Libro Didáctico para uso en las escuelas públicas a partir de 2010. El análisis tiene como objetivo verificar en qué medida dos de los aspectos centrales del proceso de alfabetización establecidos por el Edicto de Licitación se cumplieron: el tratamiento de las relaciones fonema/grafema y el desarrollo de la fluidez de la lectura. El artículo coteja las bases conceptuales usadas en las orientaciones generales del MEC y en las bibliografías citadas por los autores con el paradigma de la Ciencia Cognitiva de la Lectura. El análisis de las actividades propuestas en las cartillas demuestra que menos del 1% de las cartillas enseña a decodificar y ninguna de ellas promueve la fluidez de la lectura. El artículo discute las razones por las cuales ni los autores siguieron las recomendaciones del PNLD (Programa Nacional del Libro Didáctico ni las autoridades del MEC desistieron del requisito por el cual la no observancia del Edicto según cualquier criterio resulta en exclusión. También sugiere que las concepciones de alfabetización subyacentes a las propuestas analizadas, cotejadas con el paradigma de la ciencia cognitiva de la alfabetización, pueden explicar la comprensión de los autores, pero no explican el no cumplimiento ostensivo de las recomendaciones del Edicto.This paper analyzes the 19 primers approved by MEC/PNLD for use in public schools from 2010 onwards. The purpose of the paper is to assess the extent to which the authors of the primers complied with two requirements established in the Terms of Reference concerning the central aspects of learning to read: decoding and reading fluency. The paper compares the conceptual basis proposed by MEC and the references used by the authors with the paradigm of the Cognitive Science of Reading. The analysis of the primers reveals that less than 1% of the activities are related to decoding and there are no activities to promote reading fluency. The paper suggests a hypothesis to explain why the authors did not comply with the requirements and why the MEC authorities did not enforce these requirements. The paper also suggests that the underlying ideas of teaching and reading in the books approved by MEC, when compared with the paradigm of the Cognitive Science of Reading may explain the author's interpretation of the Terms of Reference but does not explain the explicit violation of its requirements.

  9. 《现代汉语词典》注音拼写的连写分写问题%Hyphenation of notational phonetic alphabets in The Modern Chinese Dictionary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2000-01-01

    @@ 《现代汉语词典》(以下简称《现汉》)1996年出版修订本,“修订工作主要从词语增删、推行规范、增补修正释义、增补用例、完善体例等几个方面进行”.在“推行规范”方面,《现汉》“编写的目……

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 15 (Roofmasters Inc, Texarkana, Texas - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    NO 00 N" -. Kfc 0 I 0-4 II 00ɜc 0000000 000W 0000 00W0 In-.1 1-- < 11-4 <C’ <O 04 CCl if6<I Co-4 iI)>-00 )-ZZZ )-Z >-2z >-2 0 0 -jo -i00a ru. . - LA...w 00 LM( 0 0 9L go . logo < I w5(0 -4 00 0 ?-- U t- t- 0 4-0000 &a P. Moo =40 040 U H 0 o 004D 33 030 0)-’ EMn L000 Goc 0 03000 0 o ir- -400 .00C 0)0(a

  11. La Alfabetización informacional : una alfabetización pendiente en la era digital

    OpenAIRE

    Vives i Gràcia, Josep

    2006-01-01

    The information literacy within the scope of the digital alphabetization is located. The skills that are developed within this alphabetization intend to obtain that the citizens are independents and self-sufficient in the use of the digital information.

  12. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: bibliography of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    The bibliographic citations in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has three arrangements: alphabetically by author, alphabetically by publication, and numerically by reference number.

  13. Finite Automation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This self-paced narrated tutorial covers the following about Finite Automata: Uses, Examples, Alphabet, strings, concatenation, powers of an alphabet, Languages (automata and formal languages), Deterministic finite automata (DFA) SW4600 Automata, Formal Specification and Run-time Verification

  14. La Alfabetización informacional : una alfabetización pendiente en la era digital

    OpenAIRE

    Vives i Gràcia, Josep

    2006-01-01

    The information literacy within the scope of the digital alphabetization is located. The skills that are developed within this alphabetization intend to obtain that the citizens are independents and self-sufficient in the use of the digital information.

  15. Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1986). Establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. Table 3 includes in a single sequence, listed in the Cyrillic alphabetic order, the 118 single or diacritic-carrying characters that appear in one or another of the considered alphabets.

  16. Glagolitic Script as a Manifestation of Sacred Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Uspenskij

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the Glagolitic alphabet was constructed as an ideographic illustration of sacred knowledge. The author attempts to demonstrate some basic ideas encoded in the forms of the letters. At the same time the alphabet seems to reveal the acquaintance of the inventor of the Glagolitic alphabet – St Cyril the Philosopher – with Semitic languages.

  17. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  18. Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zu Zhu

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1 Tetrahydropalmatine (THP and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+-THP and (--THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (--THP and (--stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3 Huperzine A (Hup-A is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4 Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.

  19. 野生蛇足石杉产生物碱和石杉碱甲内生真菌分离鉴定%Identification of alkaloids and huperzine A-producing endophytic fungi isolated from wild Huperzia serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文霞; 宋涛; 杨时珍; 李小峰; 张寒; 武永红; 杜东辉; 王钰杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To screen endophytic fungal strains isolated from wild Huperzia serrata which can produce alkaloids and huperzine A (HupA). Methods Thirty-three endophytic fungal strains were obtained from H.serrata.Alkaloid production was assayed with alkaloid precipitation and acid dye colorimetry. Then, the crude extracts of alkaloids produced from fungal strains were analyzed by modulation of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) activity, TLC and HPLC. Identification of endophytic fungi producing HupA was based on morphology analysis. Results Seven alkaloids produced by endophytic fungal strains were determined based on alkaloid precipitation and acid dye colorimetry, among which strain V generated HupA in vitro. Morphology analysis showed that strain V belonged to Penicillium. Conclusion A high percentage of fungal strains isolated from H.serrata leaves has alkaloid producing potentials. It is the first report that Penicillium species produced HupA. The screening of endophytic fungi producing HupA based on alkaloid precipitation and acid dye colorimetry, AChE activity and structure identification are more efficient and directive.%目的:从野生蛇足石杉中筛选产生物碱和石杉碱甲内生真菌。方法从野生蛇足石杉中分离获得的33株内生真菌为研究起点,采用生物碱沉淀法和酸性染料比色法筛选产生物碱菌株;构建乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制活性测定模型、通过薄层色谱(TLC)及高效液相色谱(HPLC)测定,分析是否产生石杉碱甲,并利用形态学对菌株进行初步鉴定。结果筛选出7株产生物碱菌株,并从中筛选出一株产石杉碱甲菌株V,初步鉴定为1株青霉菌属真菌。结论在分离自野生蛇足石杉叶片中内生真菌产生物碱真菌比例较高,内生真菌V能在发酵条件下产生石杉碱甲。利用生物碱沉淀法及酸性染料法共同筛选产生物碱菌株更具有高效性,利用乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制活性测定模型进行活

  20. Polarization for arbitrary discrete memoryless channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sasoglu, Eren; Telatar, Emre; Arikan, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Channel polarization, originally proposed for binary-input channels, is generalized to arbitrary discrete memoryless channels. Specifically, it is shown that when the input alphabet size is a prime number, a similar construction to that for the binary case leads to polarization. This method can be extended to channels of composite input alphabet sizes by decomposing such channels into a set of channels with prime input alphabet sizes. It is also shown that all discrete memoryless channels can...

  1. 75 FR 20363 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... the appropriate service center. Dated: April 13, 2010. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Robert Feldman, Executive Secretary. Institutions in Liquidation (In alphabetical order) FDIC ref. no. Bank...

  2. Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...

  3. Análisis de la aplicación de un sistema de actividad ad hoc para la promoción de habilidades metacognitivas de alfabetización académica Analysis Of Results Of Application Of System Of Activity Ad Hoc For The Promotion Of Abilities Metacognition Of Academic Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Colombo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro proyecto de investigación aborda una de las problemáticas de la enseñanza universitaria: la promoción de habilidades metacognitivas de alfabetización académica (PHMAA. El marco teórico adoptado corresponde a la Psicología Histórico-Cultural. Es una investigación cualitativa, según el modelo de investigación "estudio evolutivo del trabajo"que se realizó en contextos naturales de interacción áulica universitaria con un diseño longitudinal que abordó el estudio de los mismos grupos de alumnos en un lapso cuatrimestral para la misma cohorte 2006. La unidad de análisis escogida fue el "sistema de actividad áulico universitario". Se trabajó con dos muestras: una para el sistema de actividad artificial ad hoc y otra para el sistema de actividad tradicional, las que fueron analizadas y comparadas. Se utilizaron artefactos mediadores dentro del sistema ad hoc para la PHMAA. En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados del análisis y la comparación de evaluaciones escritas de los alumnos de ambos grupos.In our research project we examine one of the main issues on university level teaching: the promotion of metacognitive skills in academic literacy process (PHMAA in Spanish. The theoretical framework used is Historical - Cultural Psychology. It is a qualitative research, along the lines of investigation "evolutionary study of work" that took place in contexts of natural interaction classroom university with a design that addressed the longitudinal study of the same groups of students within four months for the same cohort 2006. The unit of analysis is chosen the "system activity classroom university." We worked with two samples: one for the system of artificial ad hoc activity and one for the traditional system, which were analyzed and compared. Mediators devices were used within the ad hoc system for PHMAA. In this article outlines the results of the analysis and comparison of written assessments of students in both groups.

  4. Abstracts to be Delivered at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia, Alphabetized According to the Surname of the First Author. Full-text Abstracts Can be Accessed at www.pulsus.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the titles of the abstracts to be presented at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada (April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia. The full-text abstracts are available online.

  5. 拼音性母语阅读障碍的预测及其对我国英语阅读障碍高危儿童鉴定的启示%The Prediction of Dyslexia in Alphabetic Native Language and Its Implications for the Identification of Chinese Children at the Risk of EFL Dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天剑

    2012-01-01

    阅读障碍不仅影响母语阅读,也影响外语阅读.为了促进中国儿童英语外语阅读障碍的研究,本文对国外拼音性母语中阅读障碍的预测技术进行综述.最后作者提出了拼音性母语儿童阅读障碍的研究成果对我国英语阅读障碍高危儿童鉴定的启示.

  6. 科技名词汉语拼音难点探析--以《两岸科技常用词典》为例%The Exploration on Difficulties in the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet of Scientific Terms:Case Study of The Cross-straits Common Dictionary on Science & Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜翔; 李志江

    2015-01-01

    According to Basic Rules of Chinese Pinyin Orthography, about 19 500 terms of proper nouns are listed in The Cross-straits Common Dictionary on Science & Technology. The paper explores the difficult points when giving the Pinyin form, such as integrity of concept, combining or not, hyphen use, etc. , explains how to tackle these problems, and shows thinking and evidence of the approach.%《两岸科技常用词典》根据《汉语拼音正词法基本规则》,给出了19500条科技名词的拼写形式。重点探析了科技名词拼写中概念整体性、分连写、连接号使用等方面的难点,交代了处理这些难点的具体方法,并阐明之所以这样处理的思路和依据。

  7. 文字起源及象形文字、楔形文字、中国文字和字母文字之异同%The Origin of Writings and the Similarities and Differences Between Hieroglyphs,Cuneiform, Chinese Characters and Alphabet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇虹

    2006-01-01

    文章讨论了象形文字的概念和人类文字雏形即文字画概念的根本区分,认为"象形文字"一词符合古文字命名法规律,象形文字、楔形文字和中国文字都是表意符和声符并用文字,塞姆语字母文字独立起源于两大文明之间,受两河流域文明影响较大,埃及文字的象形特征保持了三千年,它的象形字体和演化出的两种简化的、不太象形的手写字体一直并用.

  8. Huperzine A for treatment of cogniitve impairment in major depressive disorder:a systemaitc review of randomized controlled trials%石杉碱甲对重度抑郁症患者认知功能障碍的治疗:一项随机对照试验的系统综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 向应强; Ungvari GS; Chiu F.K. H; Ng H. C; 王颖; 项玉涛

    2016-01-01

    认知症状相关。%Background:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been shown to be effecitve in treaitng cogniitve impairment in animal models and in human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Huperzine A (HupA), a Tradiitonal Chinese Medicine derived from a genus of clubmosses known as Huperzineserrata, is a powerful AChE inhibitor that has been used as an adjuncitve treatment for MDD, but no meta-analysis on HupA augmentaiton for MDD has yet been reported. Aim:Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTS) about HupA augmentaiton in the treatment of MDD to evaluate its effcacy and safety. Methods:Two evaluators independently searched nine English-language and Chinese-language databases, selected relevant studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria, extracted data about outcome and safety, and conducted quality assessments and data synthesis. Results:Three low-quality RCTs (pooled n=238) from China were identified that compared monotherapy antidepressant treatment for depression versus combined treatment with antidepressants and HupA. Participants in the studies ranged from 16 to 60 years of age. The average duration of adjunctive antidepressant and HupA treatment in the studies was only 6.7 weeks. All three studies were open label and non-blinded, so their overall quality was judged as poor. Meta-analysis of the pooled sample found no signiifcant difference in the improvement in depressive symptoms between the two groups (weighted mean difference:-1.90 (95%CI:-4.23, 0.44), p=0.11). However, the adjuncitve HupA group did have signiifcantly greater improvement than the antidepressant only group in cognitive functioning (as assessed by the Wisconsin Card Soritng Test and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and in quality of life. There was no signiifcant difference in the incidence of adverse drug reacitons between groups. Conclusions:The data available on the effectiveness and safety of adjunctive treatment using HupA in patients with MDD who are receiving

  9. Collection Organization in a Mathematical Research Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubman, Nancy

    The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences Library at New York University, with a collection of 30,000 books, 13,000 bound periodicals, 450 current periodical subscriptions, and miscellaneous reports, documents, and reprints, shelves books alphabetically by author, and journals alphabetically by title. Conference proceedings and lecture notes…

  10. Learning Eigenvectors for Free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, W.M.; Kotlowski, W.T.; Warmuth, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the classical problem of predicting a sequence of outcomes from a finite alphabet to the matrix domain. In this extension, the alphabet of n outcomes is replaced by the set of all dyads, i.e. outer products uu^T where u is a vector in R^n of unit length. Whereas in the classical case the g

  11. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  12. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  13. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  14. 12 CFR 1261.7 - Election process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experience in the areas of financial management, auditing and accounting, risk management practices... state in the election; (ii) An alphabetical listing of the names of each nominee for a public interest... community interests; (iii) An alphabetical listing of the names nominee for the other...

  15. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  16. Meanwhile, some Math

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Brian Rotman’s book Becoming Beside Ourselves: The alphabet, Ghosts, and Distributed Human Being (2008), ends befittingly with a number of hypothetical situations. As the book revolves around the question of what to do with the archaic, old-fashioned, and now useless system of alphabetization, fr...

  17. Solar energy technical training directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1979-06-01

    Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse information. An alphabetical index of institutions in included. (MHR)

  18. Evolution of surname distribution under gender-equality measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuerza, L F

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model for the evolution of the surnames distribution under a gender-equality measurement presently discussed in the Spanish parliament (the children take the surname of the father or the mother according to alphabetical order). We quantify how this would bias the alphabetical distribution of surnames, and analyze its effect on the present distribution of the surnames in Spain.

  19. Script Ease: A Step-by-Step Guide from Manuscript to Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Marian; Parkhurst, Christine

    Designed with children in mind, this workbook lays out the fundamentals of the italic alphabet so that it can be used by teachers and other adults as a guide in teaching children. The workbook is based on the idea that, besides being both "beautiful and readable," the italic alphabet has the advantage of presenting a logical progression…

  20. 笑话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    I Am the Ninth Letter of the Alphabet Teacher:Give me a sentence starting with I,Tommy. Tommy:Yes,sir.I is... Teacher:No,no,Tommy!Don’t say"I is ...",you should say"I am...". Tommy:All right,sir.I am the ninth letter of the alphabet.

  1. Meanwhile, some Math

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Brian Rotman’s book Becoming Beside Ourselves: The alphabet, Ghosts, and Distributed Human Being (2008), ends befittingly with a number of hypothetical situations. As the book revolves around the question of what to do with the archaic, old-fashioned, and now useless system of alphabetization, fr...

  2. Morphisms, Symbolic Sequences, and Their Standard Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekking, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Morphisms are homomorphisms under the concatenation operation of the set of words over a finite alphabet. Changing the elements of the finite alphabet does not change the morphism in an essential way. We propose a method to select a unique representative from all these morphisms. This has applicatio

  3. 石杉碱甲对D-半乳糖诱导的老年性聋大鼠听觉中枢Kir4.1表达的影响%Effect of huperzine A on expression of Kir4.1 in auditory cortex of presbycusis rats induced by D-galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德秋; 顾健; 阮清伟; 敖华飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Huperzine A ( HupA ) on expression of Kir4. 1 in auditory cortex of presbycusis rats induced by D-galactose ( D-gal ). Methods A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in the study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. ① D-gal group: rats were daily subcutaneously injected with 200 mg/kg D-gal for 8 weeks;②Control group: rats were given the same volume of saline; ③ D-gal + HupA group: rats were received both D-gal ( 200 mg/kg )and HupA ( 0. 1 mg/kg )in the same way. Central auditory function was evaluated by auditory brainstem response ( ABR ) before and after the treatment. Western blotting analyse and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of Kir4. 1 in auditory cortex( AC ) and inferior colliculus ( IC ). Results The thresholds of ABR in the three groups all showed no significant change after treatment. However, compared with the control group, the ABR latency( wave Ⅲ and wave Ⅴ ) and Ⅰ-Ⅴ interpeak latency in both drug groups were delayed (P<0.01; P < 0.05 ), and the latency in D-gal group was much longer ( P < 0. 05 ). Compared with the D-gal group, the D-gal + HupA group showed increased expression of Kir4. l( P <0. 05 ). The distribution of Kir4. 1 in IC was not significantly different between the control group and the D-gal + HupA group, which supported the results of the western blotting. Conclusions HupA could enhance the expression of Kir4. 1 in auditory cortex of presbycusis rats induced by D-galactose, which might play an important role in preventing and treating the presbycusis-induced Kir4. 1 decreasing in auditory center.)%目的 研究石杉碱甲(HupA)对D-半乳糖(D-gal)诱导的老年性聋大鼠听皮质和下丘内Kir4.1表达的影响.方法出生后3~4周Sprague-Dawley雄性大鼠45只,随机平均分为3组.D-gal组用5% D-gal(200 mg/kg)对大鼠行颈背部皮下连续注射,共8周;D-gal+HupA组大鼠颈背部皮下注射同体积5% D-gal(200

  4. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments - FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C. (comp.)

    1983-12-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope.

  5. Stable Isotope Customer List and Summary of Shipments. FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, J. G. [comp.

    1985-11-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  7. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments, FY 1985. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, J.G. (comp.)

    1986-01-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope.

  8. Stable-isotope customer list and summary of shipments, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C. (comp.)

    1983-04-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The inforamtion is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope.

  9. Bibliography of the seasonal thermal energy storage library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Casper, G.; Kawin, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    The Main Listing is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Each citation includes the author's name, title, publisher, publication date, and where applicable, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) number or other document number. The number preceding each citation is the identification number for that document in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Library. Occasionally, one or two alphabetic characters are added to the identification number. These alphabetic characters indicate that the document is contained in a collection of papers, such as the proceedings of a conference. An Author Index and an Identification Number Index are included. (WHK)

  10. Pedagogical Mediation as an Educational Strategy for Students with Mental Illness in alphabetization level offered in the National Psychiatric Hospital La mediación pedagógica como una estrategia para la atención educativa de las personas con enfermedad mental en el Programa de Educación Abierta, en el nivel de alfabetización que se imparte en el Hospital Nacional Psiquiátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hidalgo Montoya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the work of teachers in the Open Education Program of the National Psychiatric Hospital (Costa Rica and identifies the learning barriers of the student population. It aims at promoting educational delivery strategies adapted to the needs of the community attending the literacy level. This is a qualitative study with a participatory action research design. Information was collected through interviews to teachers, observation, and pedagogical mediation with the teachers of the program. The results indicate that the pedagogical mediation methodology contributed to improve the access of students to the curriculum. Among the conclusions, it is recommended to implement significant curriculum modifications focused on the student population and a classroom methodology adjusted to the different learning needs. Finally, it is recommended to have an interdisciplinary team to support the teaching staff working with students with mental illness.Recibido 24 de julio de 2012 • Corregido 29 de enero de 2013 • Aceptado 13 de marzo de 2013La investigación se enfoca en la atención que brindan el personal docente a los usuarios y usuarias del Programa de Educación Abierta que se ofrece en el Hospital Nacional Psiquiátrico e identifica las barreras existentes para el aprendizaje del estudiantado en el programa. El objetivo principal de la investigación es promover, por medio de la mediación pedagógica, una atención educativa ajustada a las necesidades de la población que asiste al nivel de alfabetización. El enfoque del estudio es cualitativo. El diseño utilizado fue el de investigación acción. Para recolectar información se utilizaron entrevistas dirigidas a los docentes, observación y la aplicación de una mediación pedagógica con las docentes del programa. Entre los principales resultados se puede mencionar que la metodología utilizada durante las mediaciones produjo una mejora en el acceso estudiantil al currículo. Como recomendación se requieren aplicar adecuaciones curriculares significativas a los estudiantes y una metodología de aula ajustada a la diversidad de los aprendizajes. Así mismo, se recomienda el establecimiento de un equipo interdisciplinario que provea de ayuda a las docentes que trabajan con estudiantes con enfermedad mental.

  11. Hands-On Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Dawn

    1984-01-01

    Patterns and directions are given for making bulletin boards that teach language arts and mathematics skills through hands-on student involvement. The boards help teach multiplication tables, word contractions, letter sounds, homonyms, compound words, alphabetization, and other skills. (PP)

  12. Definitions of power supply vocabulary. Pt. 10. Gas supply contracts. Begriffsbestimmungen in der Energiewirtschaft. T. 10. Begriffe in Gasversorgungsvertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Alphabetic lists of characters, abbrevitations, terms and definitions in the following categories: Contract partners and supply contracts; terms relating to work, volumes, and services; terms relating to prices and cost; price groups; price types; time concepts. (HP).

  13. Glosario explicativo ingles-castellano de terminos de Gramatica Generativa Transformacional (An English-Spanish Explanatory Glossary of Terminology in Transformational Generative Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Diaz, Anibal; Zierer, Ernesto

    This glossary provides Spanish translations for English technical terminology used in work connected with transformational generative grammar and theory. Approximately 300 terms are listed alphabetically in English with Spanish equivalents, Spanish explanations, and examples where necessary. (VM)

  14. Chaves para classificação de galhas de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera em Myrtaceae na Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro Keys to separation of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera galls on Myrtaceae at Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys to Cecidomyiidae galls occuring on Myrtaceae by genus of the host plant, in alphabetical order, are presented. Data on gall makers, predators and inquilinous species are given, as well as illustrations of the galls.

  15. ADN Programs Accredited by the National League for Nursing, 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursing Outlook, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The complete list of programs leading to an associate degree in nursing that are accredited by the National League for Nursing is presented, without annotation. The institutions are listed alphabetically by State. (Author/AJ)

  16. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study confirmed that agraphia is an important feature in patients with AD. The writing error profile in patients whose native language is Chinese was unique compared to patients using the alphabetic language system.

  17. 76 FR 71867 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... inapplicable because this regulation involves a military or foreign affairs function of the United States. (See... (c) By adding under China, in alphabetical order, one Chinese entity; 0 (d) By adding under Hong Kong...

  18. NCDC Surface Weather Records Inventory - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alphabetic listing by state of all the aviation, synoptic, supplementary airways, and similar observations on file at NCDC from the beginning of the record through...

  19. Computer science: Nanoscale connections for brain-like circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenstein, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Tiny circuit elements called memristors have been used as connections in an artificial neural network - enabling the system to learn to recognize letters of the alphabet from imperfect images. See Letter p.61

  20. Using generalized maxout networks and phoneme mapping for low resource ASR- a case study on Flemish-Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multilingual deep neural networks (DNNs) have been successfully used to improve under-resourced speech recognizers. Common approaches use either a merged universal phoneme set based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) or a...

  1. On Reading, Writing, and Computers: A Conversation with John Martin Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ron, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    With a simplified alphabet and interactive computer programing, John Henry Martin has developed a system by which children can learn to read and write far better than usual. In this interview, he explains his approach. (Author/MLF)

  2. Best Books 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 45 children's books and 29 young adult books selected by School Library Journal's Book Review staff and Young Adult Review committee, respectively. Arrangement is alphabetical by author with the grade level indicated for children's books. (EJS)

  3. The Use of an Improved Access Structure in Dictionaries*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    structure which guides the user within a dictionary article to the search zone in ... to ensure an optimal retrieval of information. Successful information retrieval ..... deviation from the alphabetical ordering is determined on semantic grounds.

  4. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of autism among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  5. Rethinking displacement and the protection of female asylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. Effects of various concentrations of gonadotropins and 17β estradiol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  7. Ocular morbidity among refugees in southwest Ethiopia | Gelaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  8. Refugees and asylum seekers: Barriers to accessing South Africa's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  9. Sorption of toxic metal ions in aqueous environment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  10. Terrestrial ecology in South Africa and South West Africa – project abstracts for 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystems Programmes, Cooperative Scientific Programmes

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Brief descriptions of over 200 research projects undertaken during 1979 in South African and South West African terrestrial ecosystems are presented. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically according to author name and a keyword index is provided...

  11. Terrestrial ecology in South Africa - project abstracts for 1980-1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huntley, BJ

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts are provided for research projects conducted during 1980-1981 in South African terrestrial ecosystems. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically according to author name and a keyword index is provided....

  12. Non-approximability of weighted multiple sequence alignment for arbitrary metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the multiple sequence alignment problem with weighted sum-of-pairs score is APX-hard for arbitrary metric scoring functions over the binary alphabet. This holds even when the weights are restricted to zero and one.

  13. RAPSearch: a fast protein similarity search tool for short reads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Yuzhen; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Tang, Haixu

    2011-01-01

    ... of the very sizes of the short read datasets. We developed a fast protein similarity search tool RAPSearch that utilizes a reduced amino acid alphabet and suffix array to detect seeds of flexible length. For short reads...

  14. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  15. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments - FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C. (comp.)

    1979-05-01

    This compilation is divided into four sections: alphabetical lists of customers, of isotopes (cross-referenced to customer numbers), and of states and countries (cross-referenced to customer numbers), and a tabulation of the shipments of each isotope. (DLC)

  16. Hands-On Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Dawn

    1984-01-01

    Patterns and directions are given for making bulletin boards that teach language arts and mathematics skills through hands-on student involvement. The boards help teach multiplication tables, word contractions, letter sounds, homonyms, compound words, alphabetization, and other skills. (PP)

  17. Polymer Structure--Organic Aspects (Definitions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Seymour, Raymond B.

    1988-01-01

    Lists alphabetically the definitions of key organic-based terms used in characterizing the structure of polymers. Includes several common polymers, some of their uses and their respective structures. (CW)

  18. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  19. Effects of dehydration on performance in man: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of studies on the effect of dehydration on human performance and related physiological mechanisms. The annotations are listed in alphabetical order by first author and cover material through June 1973.

  20. Annotated Bibliography of the Washington-DuBois Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of articles and books published prior to 1994 that contain information relevant to the Washington-Dubois debate. References are listed alphabetically by author and cover the years 1901 through 1993. (GLR)

  1. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  2. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. This is Revision 16, dated September 2015.

  3. Review of traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of literature concerning traffic conflicts technique studies is presented. The 101 references arranged alphabetically by authors' names are given with abstract. The procedure used in compiling this survey is outlined.

  4. How Women Changed History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivienne; Gill; 袁爱萍

    2003-01-01

    Men sometimes say, "We are better and cleverer than women. Women never invent things. We do. " It is true that men have invented a lot of useful things: the alphabet, machines, rockets, and guns, too.

  5. National Cemetery Administration Memorial Inventory, August 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This is the most recent list all monuments cataloged by the History Program, as required. The objects are provided alphabetically by cemetery name; other formats are...

  6. GMJ V 13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcbee

    2001-10-01

    Oct 1, 2001 ... Evidentially, his effective educational leadership made immense difference in pedagogical strategies that translated into ... such as initiative, courage and intelligence which .... alphabets, words, music, film or the computer - for.

  7. Webster's word power essential students' companion general knowledge of the English language

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Helps the student with facts and resource on English grammar, specialist subjects from art to physics, with sections on world facts, Latin and Greek words; Chemical elements; Greek alphabet; the scientific classification of animal; help on essay writing and composition.

  8. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  9. SOME RANGE MANAGEMENT TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Yüksek

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 79 important rangeland terms have been defined according to current literature. The terms have been defined Turkish alphabetical order and the english meaning of the terms have been given in paranthesis.

  10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Kazakh Students in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木拉提.克扎衣别克; Nazigul Talipbai; Bahytgul Kizaibek

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the advantages and disadvantages for English learners among Kazakh students in Xinjiang are discussed.The main advantages given them are the consistency of Kazakh alphabet with English alphabet; the cognate words shared by these two language; and the positive impact of Kazakh rich vocabulary resource on language learning.Disadvantages mainly include linguistic differences between the two language as well as the lack of appropriate text books for Kazakh students.

  11. A Harmony Search Algorithm with Multi-pitch Adjustment Rate for Symbolic Time Series Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almahdi M. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation task in time series data mining has been a critical issue because the direct manipulation of continuous, high-dimensional data is extremely difficult to complete efficiently. One time series representation approach is a symbolic representation called the Symbolic Aggregate Approximation (SAX. The main function of SAX is to find the appropriate numbers of alphabet symbols and word size that represent the time series. The aim is to achieve the largest alphabet size and maximum word length with the minimum error rate. The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated approach for a symbolic time series data representation that attempts to improve SAX by improving alphabet and word size. The Relative Frequency (RF binning method is employed to obtain alphabet size and is integrated with the proposed Multi-pitch Harmony Search (HSMPAR algorithm to calculate the optimum alphabet and word size. RF is used because of its ability to obtain a sufficient number of intervals with a low error rate compared to other related techniques. HSMPAR algorithm is an optimization algorithm that randomly generates solutions for alphabet and word sizes and selects the best solutions. HS algorithms are compatible with multi-pitch adjustment. The integration of the RF and HSMPAR algorithms is developed to maximize information rather than to improve the error rate. The algorithms are tested on 20 standard time series datasets and are compared with the meta-heuristic algorithms GENEBLA and the original SAX algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method generates larger alphabet and word sizes and achieves a lower error rate than the compared methods. With larger alphabet and word sizes, the proposed method is capable of preserving important information.

  12. Status Report on Speech Research 1 July - 31 December 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    way. Stimuli were typed in the Roman alphabet in the center of 35 mm Prime U Film slides. Three experimental lists were composed for each language...Memo & Cognition, 1980, 8, 124-1 32. Lukatela, G., & Turvey, M. T. Some experiments on the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets of Serbo-Croatian. In J. F...publication of Jakobson’s Kinderaprache. Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze in 1941. Jakobson ’ s proposals quickly became standard dogma because they offered an

  13. The ZOG Approach to Man-Machine Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-23

    message handling). Its usefulness as a command language, of course, arises not from any special logica character, but in its potential for explaining and...McCracken and A. Nowell number of options is limited to nine so that digits may be used for selectors. Options share space with the text; that is, the...line. Options are selected by digits , local pads by upper case alphabetics, and global pads by lower case alphabetics. Any selection which is inert (has

  14. Dynamically multilayered visual system of the multifractal fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M S; Grebogi, Celso; Köberle, Roland

    2006-10-27

    We dynamically analyze our experimental results on the motion sensitive spiking H1 neuron of the fly's visual system. We find that the fly uses an alphabet composed of a few letters to encode the information contained in the stimulus. The alphabet dynamics is multifractal both with and without stimulus, though the multifractality increases with the stimulus entropy. This is in sharp contrast to models generating independent spike intervals, whose dynamics is monofractal.

  15. CIA-CIA LANGUAGE: FROM THE ERA OF ORAL TO THE ERA OF WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Tae-Young

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe the background of Cia-Cia language society's adoption and use of Hangeul (Korean alphabet) as its writing system that was begun in July 2009. The issue has caused Indonesian society and neighborhood countries curious, since Latin alphabet is world widely used as the most common writing system at present time. On the other side, the historical background of writing system's development which has been implemented sustainably through borrowing and adapting process p...

  16. M-ary Anti - Uniform Huffman Codes for Infinite Sources With Geometric Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tarniceriu, Daniela; Munteanu, Valeriu; Zaharia, Gheorghe,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we consider the class of generalized antiuniform Huffman (AUH) codes for sources with infinite alphabet and geometric distribution. This distribution leads to infinite anti- uniform sources for some ranges of its parameters. Huffman coding of these sources results in AUH codes. We perform a generalization of binary Huffman encoding, using a M-letter code alphabet and prove that as a result of this encoding, sources with memory are obtained. For these sour...

  17. Entropy-Based Bounds On Redundancies Of Huffman Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic J.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents extension of theory of redundancy of binary prefix code of Huffman type which includes derivation of variety of bounds expressed in terms of entropy of source and size of alphabet. Recent developments yielded bounds on redundancy of Huffman code in terms of probabilities of various components in source alphabet. In practice, redundancies of optimal prefix codes often closer to 0 than to 1.

  18. PERSIAN CULTURE AND THE ZOROASTRIAN RELIGION%世界文明之族之七--波斯文明及宗教

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The culture of the Persians, in the narrower sense of intellectual and artistic achievements, was largely derived from that of previous civilizations. Much of it came from Mesopotamia, but a great deal of it from Egypt, and some from Lydia and northern Palestine. Their system of writing was originally the Babylonian cuneiform1, but in time they devised an alphabet of thirty-nine letters, based upon the alphabet of the Aramears who traded within their borders.

  19. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  20. Norms and Team Formation: Evidence from Research Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Garcia; Joshua Serman

    2015-01-01

    Scientific, artistic, and professional work is increasingly performed in groups. In this study, we seek to understand the extent to which norms influence the composition of such groups. In particular, we analyze the effect of the alphabetical norm in academic citations on the composition of research teams in economics. First, we present a model of endogenous team formation given the alphabetical norm and analyze the effect of the norm on the desirability of any two individuals to conduct a jo...

  1. The Local Genius Typography as a Source of Idea for Latin-based Typeface Design in Visual Communication Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Haswanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During its long history, slowly but sure, Indonesia had accepted the influence of the written language from various nation and civilization. Approximately in the 15th century AD, European brought their language system, Latin, to Indonesia, which had been developed until present time. The usage of Latin alphabet for daily communication in Indonesia has created a disadvantage for the local/ethnic language, especially since the Latin provided an easier writing and speaking system. Latin uses alphabet system in which one sound represents one letter: A, B, C, etc. In contrast, the ethnic language uses syllable system in which one sound could consist of more than one letter (a, ba, ta, ka, nga, kha, etc. The growing of the nation of Indonesia with its various ethnic groups created the need for unification language, a language with a universal system. Furthermore, the alphabet system is easier to be used for various written and spoken language in the world. The richness of ethnic alphabet from Indonesia could become infinite ideas in developing computer typefaces. A typographer could design Latin alphabet with the characteristic of ethnic alphabets by capturing the traditional elements from the letters. These findings could enrich the field of visual communication nowadays. 

  2. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  3. Impact of phonological processing skills on written language acquisition in illiterate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Steffen; Beyer, Reinhard; Hild, Isabella; Schneider, Nancy; Horn, Eleanor; Schaadt, Gesa; Foth, Manja; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

    2012-02-15

    Illiteracy remains a world-wide problem not only for children but also for adults. Phonological processing has been defined as a crucial factor for the acquisition of written language, which usually occurs in childhood. However, it is unclear to what extent phonological processing is necessary in order for adults to acquire written language skills. We tested 47 illiterate adults before and after a one-year alphabetization course in several cognitive domains relevant to phonological processing and compared their results to 41 matched controls who did not take part in the alphabetization course. Phonological awareness in the narrower sense (e.g., phoneme association) was a stronger predictor of alphabetization outcome than demographic variables such as years of education. In addition, despite improvement of illiterate individuals in phonological awareness, short-term memory, and visual attention from before to after the alphabetization course, they did not reach the phonological processing level of literate controls. Our results confirm that the alphabetization of adults requires and enhances phonological processes similar to those of children. Nevertheless, specific aspects, such as improvements in short-term memory or visual attention, need to be considered in order to improve and optimize alphabetization programs for adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 产生物碱和石杉碱甲蛇足石杉内生真菌的初步研究%Alkaloid and Huperzine A-Producing Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Huperzia serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏经迁; 黄彬; 邱慧; 颜玲妹; 张君诚; 杨民和

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To screen endophytic fungal strains isolated from Huperzia serrata. Which can produce alkaloid and hu-perzine A. METHODS Fourteen endophytic fungal strains were obtained from H. Serrata. Alkaloid production was assayed with acid dye colorimetry. Then, the crude extracts of alkaloid-producing fungal strains were analyzed by HPLC for the presence of huperzine A (HupA). Identification of endophytic fungi producing HupA was based on morphology and ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequence analysis. RESULTS Eight alkaloid-producing endophytic fungal strains were determined based on acid dye colorimetry, among which, strain SY-02 generated HupA in vitro. Morphology and ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequence analysis showed that strain SY-02 was a Xylarialern species. CONCLUSION A high percentage of fungal strains isolated from H. Serrata have alkaloid-producing potentials. It is the first report that Xylarialem species produced huperzine A. , The screening of endophytic fungi producing huperzine A based on alkaloid-producing potential, activity and structure identification is more directive.%目的 筛选产生物碱和石杉碱甲的内生真菌.方法 以分离自健康蛇足石杉植株组织中的14株内生真菌为材料,采用酸性染料比色法筛选产生物碱的菌株;在此基础上,对内生真菌发醇液进行HPLC测定,分析是否产生石杉碱甲;并利用形态学和rDNA ITS序列分析进行菌种的初步鉴定.结果 筛选出8株产生物碱的菌株,并从中筛选出一株产生石衫碱甲的内生真菌SY-02,初步鉴定内生真菌SY-02为1株炭角菌.结论 在分离自蛇足石杉的内生真菌中,能产生生物碱的真菌比例较高,内生真菌菌株SY-02能在发酵条件下产生石杉碱甲.以产生物碱的菌株为出发菌株,结合活性及结构检测,可以使产石杉碱甲内生真菌的筛选更具有方向性.

  5. Protein structure search and local structure characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Shih-Yen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural similarities among proteins can provide valuable insight into their functional mechanisms and relationships. As the number of available three-dimensional (3D protein structures increases, a greater variety of studies can be conducted with increasing efficiency, among which is the design of protein structural alphabets. Structural alphabets allow us to characterize local structures of proteins and describe the global folding structure of a protein using a one-dimensional (1D sequence. Thus, 1D sequences can be used to identify structural similarities among proteins using standard sequence alignment tools such as BLAST or FASTA. Results We used self-organizing maps in combination with a minimum spanning tree algorithm to determine the optimum size of a structural alphabet and applied the k-means algorithm to group protein fragnts into clusters. The centroids of these clusters defined the structural alphabet. We also developed a flexible matrix training system to build a substitution matrix (TRISUM-169 for our alphabet. Based on FASTA and using TRISUM-169 as the substitution matrix, we developed the SA-FAST alignment tool. We compared the performance of SA-FAST with that of various search tools in database-scale search tasks and found that SA-FAST was highly competitive in all tests conducted. Further, we evaluated the performance of our structural alphabet in recognizing specific structural domains of EGF and EGF-like proteins. Our method successfully recovered more EGF sub-domains using our structural alphabet than when using other structural alphabets. SA-FAST can be found at http://140.113.166.178/safast/. Conclusion The goal of this project was two-fold. First, we wanted to introduce a modular design pipeline to those who have been working with structural alphabets. Secondly, we wanted to open the door to researchers who have done substantial work in biological sequences but have yet to enter the field of protein

  6. A complex biological system: the fly's visual module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S; de Almeida, Lirio O B; Slaets, Jan F W; Köberle, Roland; Grebogi, Celso

    2008-02-13

    Is the characterization of biological systems as complex systems in the mathematical sense a fruitful assertion? In this paper we argue in the affirmative, although obviously we do not attempt to confront all the issues raised by this question. We use the fly's visual system as an example and analyse our experimental results of one particular neuron in the fly's visual system from this point of view. We find that the motion-sensitive 'H1' neuron, which converts incoming signals into a sequence of identical pulses or 'spikes', encodes the information contained in the stimulus into an alphabet composed of a few letters. This encoding occurs on multilayered sets, one of the features attributed to complex systems. The conversion of intervals between consecutive occurrences of spikes into an alphabet requires us to construct a generating partition. This entails a one-to-one correspondence between sequences of spike intervals and words written in the alphabet. The alphabet dynamics is multifractal both with and without stimulus, though the multifractality increases with the stimulus entropy. This is in sharp contrast to models generating independent spike intervals, such as models using Poisson statistics, whose dynamics is monofractal. We embed the support of the probability measure, which describes the distribution of words written in this alphabet, in a two-dimensional space, whose topology can be reproduced by an M-shaped map. This map has positive Lyapunov exponents, indicating a chaotic-like encoding.

  7. Estimation of pure qubits on circles

    CERN Document Server

    Braunstein, S L; Severini, S; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Ghosh, Sibasish; Severini, Simone

    2004-01-01

    Gisin and Popescu [PRL, 83, 432 (1999)] have shown that more information about their direction can be obtained from a pair of anti-parallel spins compared to a pair of parallel spins, where the first member of the pair (which we call the pointer member) can point equally along any direction in the Bloch sphere. They argued that this was due to the difference in dimensionality spanned by these two alphabets of states. Here we consider similar alphabets, but with the first spin restricted to a fixed small circle of the Bloch sphere. In this case, the dimensionality spanned by the anti-parallel versus parallel alphabet is now equal. However, the anti-parallel alphabet is found to still contain more information in general. We generalize this to having N parallel spins and M anti-parallel spins. When the pointer member is restricted to a small circle these alphabets again span spaces of equal dimension, yet in general, more directional information can be found for sets with smaller |N-M| for any fixed total number...

  8. Identification and characterization of the major huperzine a metabolite in rat blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gregory E; Hicks, Rickey P; Skanchy, David; Moorad-Doctor, Deborah R; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Ved, Haresh S

    2004-01-01

    Huperzine A (Hup A) is under investigation as a treatment of Alzheimer's disease because of its properties of reversible and specific AChE inhibition. It has additional interesting pharmacological effects such as the protection of primary neuronal cells isolated from embryonic rat brains from glutamate-induced toxicity. We have isolated a new compound which has similar absorbance characteristics as Hup A from blood of rats administered Hup A. Monitoring the effluent from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of blood collected 60 min after Hup A treatment at an absorbance of 308 nm (lambdamax for Hup A), yielded a peak height and area for this compound that was approximately 1.4-fold the initial Hup A peak. The compound was isolated from RP-HPLC fractions from blood and liver for analysis by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The compound gave an (M+H)+ ion with m/z 259 in positive ion mode, yielding a molecular weight (MW) of 258. If derived from Hup A (MW 242), the change in MW indicates a mass gain of 16. This would be consistent with the addition of a single oxygen or a hydroxylation. To determine the location of the modification, it was examined by 1H NMR, and it was found that the added mass was due to a single epoxidation yielding 13,14-epoxy Hup-A.

  9. Identification and characterization of outer membrane vesicle-associated proteins in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, Seul I; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a primary cause of enteric diseases and has acquired a variety of virulence factors during its evolution into a pathogen. Secreted virulence factors interact with commensal flora and host cells and enable Salmonella to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from many Gram-negative bacteria function as a mechanism for the secretion of complex mixtures, including virulence factors. We performed a proteomic analysis of OMVs that were isolated under standard laboratory and acidic minimal medium conditions and identified 14 OMV-associated proteins that were observed in the OMV fraction isolated only under the acidic minimal medium conditions, which reproduced the nutrient-deficient intracellular milieu. The inferred roles of these 14 proteins were diverse, including transporter, enzyme, and transcriptional regulator. The absence of these proteins influenced Salmonella survival inside murine macrophages. Eleven of these proteins were predicted to possess secretion signal sequences at their N termini, and three (HupA, GlnH, and PhoN) of the proteins were found to be translocated into the cytoplasm of host cells. The comparative proteomic profiling of OMVs performed in this study revealed different protein compositions in the OMVs isolated under the two different conditions, which indicates that the OMV cargo depends on the growth conditions and provides a deeper insight into how Salmonella utilizes OMVs to adapt to environmental changes. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Specialization and Universals in the Development of Reading Skill: How Chinese Research Informs a Universal Science of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles; Cao, Fan; Booth, James

    2013-01-01

    Understanding Chinese reading is important for identifying the universal aspects of reading, separated from those aspects that are specific to alphabetic writing or to English in particular. Chinese and alphabetic writing make different demands on reading and learning to read, despite reading procedures and their supporting brain networks that are partly universal. Learning to read accommodates the demands of a writing system through the specialization of brain networks that support word identification. This specialization increases with reading development, leading to differences in the brain networks for alphabetic and Chinese reading. We suggest that beyond reading procedures that are partly universal and partly writing-system specific, functional reading universals arise across writing systems in their adaptation to human cognitive abilities.

  11. Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: principles of lexical organization in a given language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ram; Kugler, Tamar; Deutsch, Avital; Forster, Kenneth I

    2005-11-01

    Most models of visual word recognition in alphabetic orthographies assume that words are lexically organized according to orthographic similarity. Support for this is provided by form-priming experiments that demonstrate robust facilitation when primes and targets share similar sequences of letters. The authors examined form-orthographic priming effects in Hebrew, Arabic, and English. Hebrew and Arabic have an alphabetic writing system but a Semitic morphological structure. Hebrew morphemic units are composed of noncontiguous phonemic (and letter) sequences in a given word. Results demonstrate that form-priming effects in Hebrew or Arabic are unreliable, whereas morphological priming effects with minimal letter overlap are robust. Hebrew bilingual subjects, by contrast, showed robust form-priming effects with English material, suggesting that Semitic words are lexically organized by morphological rather than orthographic principles. The authors conclude that morphology can constrain lexical organization even in alphabetic orthographies and that visual processing of words is first determined by morphological characteristics.

  12. Acquired dyslexia in three writing systems: study of a Portuguese-Japanese bilingual aphasic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying learning and the inheritance of learned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Brian G; Maddox, Stephanie A; Klengel, Torsten; Ressler, Kerry J

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression and regulation is an important sculptor of the behavior of organisms. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression not by altering the genetic alphabet but rather by the addition of chemical modifications to proteins associated with the alphabet or of methyl marks to the alphabet itself. Being dynamic, epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation serve as an important bridge between environmental stimuli and genotype. In this review, we outline epigenetic mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated in animals and humans. Using fear learning as a framework, we then delineate how such mechanisms underlie learning and stress responsiveness. Finally, we discuss how epigenetic mechanisms might inform us about the transgenerational inheritance of behavioral traits that are being increasingly reported.

  14. Transfer of instances in cognitive skill learning: adult age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eredita, Michael A; Hoyer, William J

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the utilization of pretrained problem-solution associations (i.e., instances) in memory-based cognitive skill learning in younger and older adults. In Experiment 1, participants were given practice with repeated alphabet-arithmetic problems and then trained on a compound skill-learning task that incorporated the pretrained alphabet-arithmetic items. In Experiment 2, participants were pretrained with compound problems, and then trained on just the alphabet-arithmetic items that were part of the compound problems. In both experiments, utilization of pretrained instances was much greater for younger adults than for older adults. These findings can be taken to imply that failure to retrieve and apply reoccurring instances is a primary source of age-related deficits in the transfer of cognitive skill learning across task situations.

  15. National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A; Kramer, K A

    1979-01-01

    The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

  16. Markov Modelling of Fingerprinting Systems for Collision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guénolé C. M. Silvestre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fingerprinting, also known as robust or perceptual hashing, aims at representing multimedia signals through compact and perceptually significant descriptors (hash values. In this paper, we examine the probability of collision of a certain general class of robust hashing systems that, in its binary alphabet version, encompasses a number of existing robust audio hashing algorithms. Our analysis relies on modelling the fingerprint (hash symbols by means of Markov chains, which is generally realistic due to the hash synchronization properties usually required in multimedia identification. We provide theoretical expressions of performance, and show that the use of M-ary alphabets is advantageous with respect to binary alphabets. We show how these general expressions explain the performance of Philips fingerprinting, whose probability of collision had only been previously estimated through heuristics.

  17. Acquired Dyslexia in Three Writing Systems: Study of a Portuguese-Japanese Bilingual Aphasic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes. PMID:22713387

  18. Handwritten Bangla Basic and Compound character recognition using MLP and SVM classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach for recognition of handwritten compound Bangla characters, along with the Basic characters of Bangla alphabet, is presented here. Compared to English like Roman script, one of the major stumbling blocks in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of handwritten Bangla script is the large number of complex shaped character classes of Bangla alphabet. In addition to 50 basic character classes, there are nearly 160 complex shaped compound character classes in Bangla alphabet. Dealing with such a large varieties of handwritten characters with a suitably designed feature set is a challenging problem. Uncertainty and imprecision are inherent in handwritten script. Moreover, such a large varieties of complex shaped characters, some of which have close resemblance, makes the problem of OCR of handwritten Bangla characters more difficult. Considering the complexity of the problem, the present approach makes an attempt to identify compound character classes from most frequently to less frequently occurred o...

  19. Information-Theoretic Viewpoints on Optimal Causal Coding-Decoding Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gorantla, Siva

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider an interacting two-agent sequential decision-making problem consisting of a Markov source process, a causal encoder with feedback, and a causal decoder. Motivated by a desire to foster links between control and information theory, we augment the standard formulation by considering general alphabets and a cost function operating on current and previous symbols. Using dynamic programming, we provide a structural result whereby an optimal scheme exists that operates on appropriate sufficient statistics. We emphasize an example where the decoder alphabet lies in a space of beliefs on the source alphabet, and the additive cost function is a log likelihood ratio pertaining to sequential information gain. We also consider the inverse optimal control problem, where a fixed encoder/decoder pair satisfying statistical conditions is shown to be optimal for some cost function, using probabilistic matching. We provide examples of the applicability of this framework to communication with feedback,...

  20. Yayıncılığın Bilgi Hizmetlerine Etkisi: Tarihsel Araştırma / The Effect of Printing and Publishing on Information Services in Turkey: A Historical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. İnci Önal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at presenting a survey of history of printing and publishing until present-day developments in Turkey, firstly within the period of 1729 up till November the 1st 1928, whereby the Arabic alphabet was in use, and afterwards investigating the era within at the start of which the Latin alphabet was adopted. Special emphasis was attributed to the development of library services. The Latin alphabet era was examined in greater detail with reference to the new ideas leading to create channels of information diffusion, such as printing and publishing activities, reading and writing courses for the public, facilities of further education and use of libraries as information centres. Conclusively, problems of publishers, librarians and educators were presented in view of an historical perspective. Basing upon the arguments stemming from the historical investigation, suggestions for the solutions of those problems were also forwarded.

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Archaeology and Historical Linguistics: the case of ALPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mertzani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through a comparative analysis of archaic Greek alphabets with Minoan hieroglyphs, the Linear A and B signs, the Cypro-Minoan and Classical Cypriot syllabaries, as well as other ancient scripts in Mediterranean and Mesopotamia areas (e.g., Egyptian hieroglyphs, the paper examines (a the graphical shaping of the letter alpha, and (b its suggested phonetic value throughout the years.  In doing so, an interdisciplinary approach is applied, combining research from the areas of historical linguistics, epigraphy archaeology, and phonosemantics-linguistics.  This is an ongoing research and its existing data so far combat the wide spread belief that the archaic Greek alphabet is originated by the Phoenician alphabet, demonstrating evidence of language similarities (in terms of (a, and (b, even in early Neolithic Greece and the Balkans.  The paper proposes the adoption of an interdisciplinary methodology in examining and revisiting research in epigraphy and historical linguistics.

  2. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  3. Bibliography of publications on Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II (ERB-II). 1955-July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D B [comp.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography is divided into 15 broad areas, or categories, of interest. The same publication is listed in more than one category if its content applies to several areas of interest. Under each category, the publications are listed (1) by calendar year of publication and (2) then alphabetically by last name of the first author given. Publications that have no evident author (or compiler or editor) are listed alphabetically by title at the end of the listing for the calendar year in which they were published. Only open literature (that which can be obtained through libraries and other sources available to the public) are listed.

  4. Forms of Sounds as Shown on an Oscilloscope by Roulette Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, G W; Barton, S H

    1963-12-13

    It has been found that with an oscilloscope driven through a simple network of two resistors and two capacitors it is possible to produce recognizable pictures from speech sounds. These pictures thus become a natural phonetic alphabet, with which both standard pronunciation and the nuances of dialect and accent can be represented. While a given speech sound has certain invariant characteristics, it has also an overlay of accent, which can be represented in the alphabetic character. It is suggested that the technique may be useful in teaching deaf children to speak.

  5. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  6. Problems on Finite Automata and the Exponential Time Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Fernau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study several classical decision problems on finite automata under the (Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. We focus on three types of problems: universality, equivalence, and emptiness of intersection. All these problems are known to be CoNP-hard for nondeterministic finite automata, even when restricted to unary input alphabets. A different type of problems on finite automata relates to aperiodicity and to synchronizing words. We also consider finite automata that work on commutative alphabets and those working on two-dimensional words.

  7. EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message-passing...

  8. Ankyrin-2variants associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation storm in patients with intermittent early repolarization pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Brøndberg, Anders; Pedersen, Lisbeth Noerum; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2015-01-01

    estimated effects for three child outcomes: receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, and alphabet knowledge. PD produced a medium effect for process quality and a large effect for structural quality but no effect for educator knowledge. PD also produced a small to medium effect for phonological...... awareness and a small effect for alphabet knowledge, but these were not predicted by gains in educator outcomes. Although course and coaching intensity and duration were related to effect sizes, the total number of PD components was the strongest predictor of process quality. The results suggested that PD...

  9. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  10. How Young Children Learn to Read

    OpenAIRE

    Íris Jóhanna Ólafsdóttir 1984

    2016-01-01

    Every child experiences the process of learning to read differently. This essay is to show what it means to read. There are different factors that contribute to reading. Beginning readers need to have phonological and phonemic awareness; That means knowing how the sounds of the language work and how to manipulate them. The alphabet is the basis needed for spelling words since they are made up on letters of the alphabet. The vocabulary is the words that the readers know and need to be able to ...

  11. Mixing, Ergodic, and Nonergodic Processes with Rapidly Growing Information between Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dębowski, Łukasz

    2011-01-01

    We construct mixing processes over an infinite alphabet and ergodic processes over a finite alphabet for which Shannon mutual information between adjacent blocks of length $n$ grows as $n^\\beta$, where $\\beta\\in(0,1)$. The processes are a modification of nonergodic Santa Fe processes, which were introduced in the context of natural language modeling. The rates of mutual information for the latter processes are alike and also established in this paper. As an auxiliary result, it is shown that infinite direct products of mixing or weakly mixing processes are mixing or weakly mixing respectively.

  12. Energy information data base: report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)

  13. Access 1996: A directory of permanent plots which monitor flora, fauna, climate, hydrology, soil, geology, and the effects of anthropogenic changes at 132 biosphere reserves in 27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This directory summarizes information about environmental data collected in permanent monitoring and research plots in 132 biosphere reserves in Canada, the United States, and 25 European countries. The text of the directory is organized alphabetically by country and, within each country, alphabetically according to the name of the biosphere reserve. Tabular summaries of information on permanent plots are provided. The summaries are organized topically . A general summary of basic information on permanent plots is followed by more detailed information on permanent plots dedicated primarily to monitroing and research on particular topics.

  14. Tight Bounds on the Average Length, Entropy, and Redundancy of Anti-Uniform Huffman Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajer, Soheil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the class of anti-uniform Huffman codes and derive tight lower and upper bounds on the average length, entropy, and redundancy of such codes in terms of the alphabet size of the source. The Fibonacci distributions are introduced which play a fundamental role in AUH codes. It is shown that such distributions maximize the average length and the entropy of the code for a given alphabet size. Another previously known bound on the entropy for given average length follows immediately from our results.

  15. Окуригана в современном японском языке

    OpenAIRE

    Пряхина, Л.

    1995-01-01

    A mixed script is the main principle of a Japanese script, i.e. hieroglyphs and the 'cana' alphabet are used simultaneously in such a script. The 'cana' alphabet is used for writing both separate words and word-changing forms of verbs and adjectives which have hieroglyphic way of writing. In a text many hieroglyphs are accompanied with a cana which is called okurigana in such cases. Sometimes it is difficult to decide which part of a word must be written in okurigana and which one in hierogly...

  16. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness between Chinese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Sihui; Xiao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Substantial biliteracy research on two alphabetic languages has indicated that, once it is fostered in the first language (L1) literacy experience, morphological awareness can transfer and facilitate second language (L2) reading. It is still unclear, however, whether L1 metalinguistic awareness transfers in the same manner across typologically…

  17. Citizens Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    1968-01-01

    This document contains the results of a national survey designed to determine the composition and location of permanent citizens advisory committees operating within the nation's school districts. The 52 district-wide, continuing citizens advisory bodies identified by 290 responding school systems are listed alphabetically by State. The following…

  18. Vocabulary plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Students who can use a term conversantly in academic environments know how to use it precisely in their writing and in their interactions with others; they can be said to deeply know, not just the word term in alphabetic or spoken forms, but the connections to ideas the term embodies. When students are intrigued by words and ideas, they want to…

  19. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  20. Bibliography of Journal Articles in Social Psychology: First Half of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Deborah R.; Hendrick, Clyde

    The present bibliography updates three previous manuscripts which Hendrick helped develop. Articles from five journals are arranged alphabetically by heading and by author under 31 subject headings. The journals are Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Journal…