WorldWideScience

Sample records for hupa unifon alphabet

  1. Hupa Consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This modified alphabet booklet belongs to a series of bilingual instructional materials in Hupa and English. The booklet begins with a Hupa Unifon alphabet chart giving the symbols used to reproduce the most simple version of the sounds in the Hupa language. Nearly 200 basic vocabulary words and phrases are given. A Hupa consonant is followed by…

  2. New Hupa Spelling Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Part of a series of materials in Hupa and English, this speller was developed by adult Hupas studying their native language for use by elementary students also studying the Hupa language. The speller begins with a Hupa Unifon alphabet chart giving all of the symbols used to reproduce the most simple version of the sounds in the Hupa language.…

  3. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  4. Hupa Natural Resources Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Created by children in grades 5-8 who were enrolled in a year-long Hupa language class, this computer-generated, bilingual book contains descriptions and illustrations of local animals, birds, and fish. The introduction explains that students worked on a Macintosh computer able to print the Unifon alphabet used in writing the Hupa language.…

  5. Hupa Language: Literature and Culture. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom, Ed.; And Others

    One in a series of materials developed to revive the Hupa language and renew knowledge of Hupa culture, this lexicon includes vocabulary, phrases, and stories in Hupa and English. The major portion of the document is an English-Hupa lexicon of basic vocabulary listed alphabetically by the English words. In addition to the Hupa and English terms,…

  6. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  7. Hupa Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Lessons used in a Hupa bilingual class during the 1986-87 academic year are compiled in this manual, which was generated cooperatively by the Hupa teachers. The lessons are arranged in a progression from easier to harder and cover vocabulary, conversations, verbs, holidays, and stories. The first two chapters present basic vocabulary terms for…

  8. Alphabet everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    There is a world of letters just waiting to be discovered in the world around us -- if we know how to look for it. In this engaging and delightful book, photographer Elliott Kaufman reveals the "secret" life of the alphabet through his photographs, showing how letters can be found in things we encounter everyday. Each letter of the alphabet is represented by multiple images, each unintentionally created by the intersection of architectural details, shadows, light, or natural elements as caught by Kaufman's keen eye. Some are obvious, while others demand a little more imagination to recognize, inviting the readers to start their own game of hunting for letters! This fun approach also reinforces the notion that learning to see the familiar in new ways encourages visual literacy and creativity.

  9. [Experimental study on protective effects of HupA in the treatment of isocarbophos poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xie, Guang-yun; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jin-xiu

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic and prophylactic efficiency of HupA in mice with acute isocarbophos poisoning, and the protective effects of the HupA on AChE inhibited by isocarbophos. Mice were randomizedly divided into the non-treatment group, the atropine control group, the HupA treatment group and the atropine and HupA combined treatment group. Toxic signs and survival rates were observed and compared among these groups. The AChE activity was monitored in the whole blood, the red cells and brain tissue exposed to isocarbophos in the either treated with HupA or non-treated groups. In HupA treatment group compared with the non-treatment group, toxic signs were significantly decreased and the survival rate was increased. The therapeutic efficiency in the atropine and HupA combined treatment group was better than other groups. After isocarbophos was administered, the AChE activity in the HupA treatment group and the non-treatment group was decreased. However, the AChE activity in the whole blood (1.096 +/- 0.111), (1.262 +/- 0.146), (1.181 +/- 0.353) U/ml, the red cells (0.798 +/- 0.063), (1.000 +/- 0.176), (0.837 +/- 0.331) and the brain tissue (13.739 +/- 2.970), (18.507 +/- 3.466), (10.764 +/- 2.212) U/g in HupA treatment group 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after isocarbophos was administered was significantly higher than those in the non-treatment group (P HupA has therapeutic effect on mice with acute isocarbophos poisoning. The protective effect of HupA on blood and brain AChE inhibited by isocarbophos may be one of the mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of HupA in acute Isocarbophos poisoning.

  10. Our Home Forever. The Hupa Indians of Northern California. [1988 Reprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Byron, Jr.

    For thousands of years, the people of the Hupa tribe have lived in villages beside the Trinity River in a beautiful rich valley in northwestern California. Hupa culture and traditions are extensive, elaborate, and intimately bound up with their homeland. The first white men entered the valley in 1828, although coastal traders' goods had filtered…

  11. The Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS): A Program Exemplifying Diversity and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vernon R.; Joseph, Everette; Smith, Sonya; Yu, Tsann-wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from developing an interdisciplinary graduate program (IDP) during the last 10 y: The Howard University Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS). HUPAS is the first advanced degree program in the atmospheric sciences, or related fields such as meteorology and earth system sciences,…

  12. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The...

  13. Iodination of the humic samples from HUPA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Barre, N.; Gimenez, N.; Miserque, F.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of iodine with natural organic matter in general and with humic substances (HS) in particular, has been the subject of numerous studies. It has come to a consensus that in soils as well as in aquatic systems, the speciation of iodine is closely related to the redox potential of the medium. In oxidizing media, as in sea water or upper horizons, the major part of iodine is found in iodate form IO 3 - , whereas in reducing media, iodide I - is the major specie. Nevertheless, it has been shown that in some cases, organically bound iodine can dominate the speciation either as methyl iodide or bounded to humic substances. It is now also clear that this reactivity is closely related to the occurrence of molecular iodine I 2 (aq) and its disproportionation to HIO and I - . The reaction scheme can be viewed as an electrophilic substitution of an hydrogen to an iodine atom on a phenolic ring. This scheme has been validated in the case of HS on different samples including HUPA, and the covalent character of this interaction has been shown using electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, in some of the latter studies, the characterization of the final reaction products did not satisfy the authors completely as total separation from I - could not be achieved. Thus, further studies were led using HUPA samples: natural humic and fulvic extract from Gorleben and synthetic samples obtained form FZ Rossendorf. Dialysis procedures were envisaged to improve the incomplete separation between the colloidal humic matter and the iodide ions either unreacted or produced by the reaction. (orig.)

  14. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The LexA repressor, which controls the expression of the sfiA gene, was present in hupA hupB mutant bacteria in concentrations half of those of the parent bacteria, but this decrease was independent of the specific cleavage of the LexA repressor by activated RecA protein. One possibility to account for the filamentous morphology of hupA hupB mutant bacteria is that the lack of HU protein alters the expression of specific genes, such as lexA and fts cell division genes. Images PMID:2019558

  15. Primary structure and mapping of the hupA gene of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, N P; Hillyard, D

    1988-01-01

    In bacteria, the complex nucleoid structure is folded and maintained by negative superhelical tension and a set of type II DNA-binding proteins, also called histonelike proteins. The most abundant type II DNA-binding protein is HU. Southern blot analysis showed that Salmonella typhimurium contained two HU genes that corresponded to Escherichia coli genes hupA (encoding HU-2 protein) and hupB (encoding HU-1). Salmonella hupA was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. C...

  16. Primary structure and mapping of the hupA gene of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, N P; Hillyard, D

    1988-01-01

    In bacteria, the complex nucleoid structure is folded and maintained by negative superhelical tension and a set of type II DNA-binding proteins, also called histonelike proteins. The most abundant type II DNA-binding protein is HU. Southern blot analysis showed that Salmonella typhimurium contained two HU genes that corresponded to Escherichia coli genes hupA (encoding HU-2 protein) and hupB (encoding HU-1). Salmonella hupA was cloned, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. Comparison of hupA of E. coli and S. typhimurium revealed that the HU-2 proteins were identical and that there was high conservation of nucleotide sequences outside the coding frames of the genes. A 300-member genomic library of S. typhimurium was constructed by using random transposition of MudP, a specialized chimeric P22-Mu phage that packages chromosomal DNA unidirectionally from its insertion point. Oligonucleotide hybridization against the library identified one MudP insertion that lies within 28 kilobases of hupA; the MudP was 12% linked to purH at 90.5 min on the standard map. Plasmids expressing HU-2 had a surprising phenotype; they caused growth arrest when they were introduced into E. coli strains bearing a himA or hip mutation. These results suggest that IHF and HU have interactive roles in bacteria. Images PMID:3056912

  17. Iodination of the humic samples from Hupa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Barre, N.; Gimenez, N.; Miserque, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Iodine radioactive isotopes, such as 129 I, are important radionuclides due to their significant impact in geological disposal: in the conditions of natural reducing groundwaters, iodine would essentially be present in the form of highly mobile iodide anion. But in shallow waters the presence of molecular iodine is to be taken into account. The interaction of iodine with natural organic matter in general and with humic substances (HS) in particular, has been the subject of numerous studies. It has been shown that in some cases, organically bound iodine can dominate the speciation either as methyl iodide or bound to humic substances [1, 2]. It is now also clear that this reactivity is closely related to the occurrence of molecular iodine I 2 (aq). The reaction scheme can be viewed as an electrophilic substitution of a hydrogen atom by an iodine atom on a phenolic ring. Nevertheless, in some of the latter studies, the characterization of the final reaction products did not satisfy the authors completely as total separation from I - produced during the iodination could not be achieved. Thus, further studies were led using samples from the CCE HUPA project: natural humic and fulvic extract from Gorleben [3] and synthetic samples obtained from FZ Rossendorf [4]. Dialysis procedures were envisaged to improve the incomplete separation between the colloidal humic matter and the iodide ions either unreacted or produced by the reaction [2]. The iodination of these samples were monitored using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. As in previous studies [2], the kinetics could not be linearized in simple order but the trends were conform to simple phenolic patterns. The apparent rates could nevertheless be correlated to the aromaticity (H/C ratio) of the samples. After dialysis, the iodine humic/fulvic interaction was characterised to occur as a carbon-iodine covalent bonding by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) [5]. Electro-spray ionisation

  18. The Alphabet of the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    One of the most culturally inspiring – yet unexpected – venues where you can find an exhibition about CERN and particle physics these days is the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt. Discover The Alphabet of the Universe: from CERN to North Africa and the Middle East in the cradle of knowledge par excellence.   The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition in Alexandria. (Image credit: Bibliotheca Alexandrina) With its 400 square metres surface area, about 40 exhibits and more than 50 people involved, The Alphabet of the Universe exhibition was inaugurated on 19 January in the Planetarium Science Centre (PSC), one of the main attractions of the New Library of Alexandria. “The exhibition has been designed to cover four main themes related to particle physics and CERN: what we know; open issues; accelerators and detectors; computing and applications,” explains Barbara Gallavotti, curator of the exhibition. “The exhibits were designed b...

  19. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2010), s. 1100-1109 ISSN 0272-7757 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : admissions to school * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2010

  20. Regulation of the Vibrio vulnificus hupA gene by temperature alteration and cyclic AMP receptor protein and evaluation of its role in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Hwan; Choi, Sang Ho

    2009-03-01

    Availability of free iron is extremely limited in the mammalian host, and the acquisition of iron in the host is essential for successful infection by pathogenic bacteria. Expression of many genes involved in acquiring iron is regulated in response to the level of iron availability, and iron regulation is mediated by Fur. In this study, cellular levels of Vibrio vulnificus HupA, a heme receptor protein, and the hupA transcript were found to increase in cells grown at 40 degrees C compared to cells grown at 30 degrees C. The results suggested that change in growth temperature, in addition to iron availability, is an environmental cue controlling the expression of the hupA gene. The influence of global regulatory proteins on the expression of hupA was examined, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) was found to activate the expression of hupA at the transcriptional level. CRP exerts its effects by directly binding to DNA upstream of the hupA promoter P(hupA), and a CRP binding site, centered at 174 bp upstream of the transcription start site, was identified by a DNase I protection assay. Finally, a hupA mutant showed reduced virulence in mice and in tissue cultures, in which growth of the hupA mutant was impaired, indicating that HupA of V. vulnificus is essential for survival and multiplication during infection.

  1. Regulation of the Vibrio vulnificus hupA Gene by Temperature Alteration and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Evaluation of Its Role in Virulence▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Hwan; Choi, Sang Ho

    2009-01-01

    Availability of free iron is extremely limited in the mammalian host, and the acquisition of iron in the host is essential for successful infection by pathogenic bacteria. Expression of many genes involved in acquiring iron is regulated in response to the level of iron availability, and iron regulation is mediated by Fur. In this study, cellular levels of Vibrio vulnificus HupA, a heme receptor protein, and the hupA transcript were found to increase in cells grown at 40°C compared to cells grown at 30°C. The results suggested that change in growth temperature, in addition to iron availability, is an environmental cue controlling the expression of the hupA gene. The influence of global regulatory proteins on the expression of hupA was examined, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) was found to activate the expression of hupA at the transcriptional level. CRP exerts its effects by directly binding to DNA upstream of the hupA promoter PhupA, and a CRP binding site, centered at 174 bp upstream of the transcription start site, was identified by a DNase I protection assay. Finally, a hupA mutant showed reduced virulence in mice and in tissue cultures, in which growth of the hupA mutant was impaired, indicating that HupA of V. vulnificus is essential for survival and multiplication during infection. PMID:19139193

  2. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of HUPA organic substances: natural and synthetic humic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, N.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Reiller, P.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on the characterisation of the HUPA organic materials, i.e. natural humic substances ''GOHY 573'' (fulvic acid FA and humic acid HA) extracted from the Gorleben ground waters, and synthetic humic acids ''M1'' and ''M42'' obtained from a standard melanoidin preparation from FZ Rossendorf, are presented in this paper. XPS investigations were focused on the determination of the chemical environment of the major elements as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, and on the identification of trace metals trapped by these organic compounds. (orig.)

  4. ALPHABETS OF THE MODERN SLAVIC LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE TABLES AND ACCOMPANYING EXPLANATIONS IN THIS OUTLINE ARE INTENDED FOR THE NON-SPECIALIST IN SLAVIC LANGUAGES WHO WISHES TO LEARN THE APPROXIMATE PRONUNCIATION AND TRANSLITERATION OF WORDS WRITTEN IN THE SLAVIC ALPHABET. EACH ALPHABET TREATED (CZECH, RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN, BIELORUSSIAN, BULGARIAN, SLOVENIAN, SERBO-CROATIAN, POLISH, CHURCH SLAVIC,…

  5. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index... SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A Antenna... Changes in equipment 78.109 Conditions for license 78.27 Coordination, frequencies 78.36 Cross reference...

  6. Decoding the Assessment Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paula

    2010-10-01

    The number of assessment instruments that help physics instructors evaluate the conceptual learning of their students has grown over the last twenty years. Today, the number of tests that are available begin to look like an alphabet soup, FCI, MBT, TUG-K, CSE, CSM, CSEM, DIRECT, BEMA, LOCE, FMCE, SEMCO, etc. What can these assessment tests do for you that is different from what you regularly do? How do these tests differ from the tests and other assessments you already give in class? What is meant by formative and summative assessment and why should you care? What are some of the issues associated with giving one of these assessment tests? These are the questions that will be addressed in this talk.

  7. Logic-Symbolic and Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dair Aily Franco de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to recoup the ideas and the proposal of H. Furth (1973, pointing it as another option to try to work with the children’s difficulties in the alphabetization process. The author considers the substitution of “schools of the language” for “schools of the thought”, that is, to substitute the option of the teacher in the reading-writing education, in its traditional form, of how to transform graphical signals into sonorous and vice-versa, for that one of the thought consolidation, feeding the intellect in development of the child by exercises of “symbolic logic”. For theoretical basing, we still present some aspects of the psychogenetic theory, as well as other works carried through more recently on the subject, that even so “transvestite” (disguised with new clothing, still find their beddings in the J. Piaget’s basis.

  8. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  9. Preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of HupA PLGA microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liang; Fu, Fenghua; Liu, Wanhui; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin; He, Jie; Yu, Xin; Yu, Pengfei; Tian, Jingwei

    2013-03-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), including Huperzine A (HupA), have been the mainstay of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AChEIs can cause gastrointestinal side effects, which has been related to the high Cmax and short tmax after oral administration. Clinical trials have verified that extended-release formulation with lower Cmax and prolonged tmax, such as rivastigmine patch, could perform a similar efficacy with significantly improved tolerability compared with the oral formulations. In this study, we developed an extended-release microspheres formulation of HupA (called as HAM) with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as drug carrier. HAM has showed the loading rate as 1.35% (w/w) and yielded 42% with mean particle size at 72.6 μm. In vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies have showed that HAM produced a relatively smooth and continuous drug concentration in 14 days. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetics data have demonstrated that the Cmax was lower and the tmax was considerably later in single intramuscular administration of HAM (1,000 μg/kg) than the counterparts in single intragastric administration of HAT (75 μg/kg/d). Meanwhile, HAM has performed a continuous inhibition to brain AChE activity in normal rats and improvement of memory deficit in Aβ1-40 i.c.v. infused AD rat model for 14 days. The results have suggested that HAM has performed good extended-release properties and good prolonged pharmacological efficacy in vivo in the 2-week period, and could exert a similar efficacy with significantly lowered gastrointestinal side effects as compared with oral formulation.

  10. A multifractal formalism for countable alphabet subshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meson, Alejandro; Vericat, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We study here the multifractal spectrum of local entropies for subshifts with an infinite alphabet. The description of this spectrum is obtained from the Legendre transform of a free energy map and Gibbs states associated with adequate potentials. The lack of compactness in the symbolic space necessitates modifications to the description for the compact case, i.e. for finite alphabet. In particular, the class of potentials must be restricted to a narrower one than that considered for the compact case

  11. Characterization of a Vibrio vulnificus LysR homologue, HupR, which regulates expression of the haem uptake outer membrane protein, HupA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C M; Quackenbush, J

    2001-12-01

    In Vibrio vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. Here, we show that the DNA upstream of hupA (haem uptake receptor) in V. vulnificus encodes a protein in the inverse orientation to hupA (named hupR). HupR shares homology with the LysR family of positive transcriptional activators. A hupA-lacZ fusion contained on a plasmid was transformed into Fur(-), Fur(+)and HupR(-)strains of V. vulnificus. The beta-galactosidase assays and Northern blot analysis showed that transcription of hupA is negatively regulated by iron and the Fur repressor in V. vulnificus. Under low-iron conditions with added haemin, the expression of hupA in the hupR mutant was significantly lower than in the wild-type. This diminished response to haem was detected by both Northern blot and hupA-lacZ fusion analysis. The haem response of hupA in the hupR mutant was restored to wild-type levels when complemented with hupR in trans. These studies suggest that HupR may act as a positive regulator of hupA transcription under low-iron conditions in the presence of haemin. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Alphabetical order effects in school admissions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 483-498 ISSN 0267-1522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : admissions * alphabetical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2016

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T ... and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna. ... Les principaux thèmes qui y sont abordés recouvrent les axes de recherche ...

  14. Autoregulation of transcription of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli: evidence for steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains induced by HU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K; Yasuzawa, K; Hirose, M; Kano, Y; Goshima, N; Tanaka, H; Imamoto, F

    1994-06-01

    The molecular mechanism of autoregulation of expression of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli was examined. The promoter of the gene contains a palindromic sequence with the potential to form a cruciform DNA structure in which the -35 sequence lies at the base of the stem and the -10 sequence forms a single-stranded loop. An artificial promoter lacking the palindrome, which was constructed by replacing a 10 nucleotide repeat for the predicted cruciform arm by a sequence in the opposite orientation, was not subject to HU-repression. DNA relaxation induced by deleting HU proteins and/or inhibiting DNA gyrase in cells results in increased expression from the hupA promoter. We propose that initiation of transcription of the hupA gene is negatively regulated by steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains for formation of the cruciform configuration, which is facilitated at least in part by negative supercoiling of the hupA promoter DNA region. The promoter region of the hupB gene also contains a palindromic sequence that can assume a cruciform configuration. Negative regulation of this gene by HU proteins may occur by a mechanism similar to that operating for the hupA gene.

  15. Regulation of the Vibrio vulnificus hupA Gene by Temperature Alteration and Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Evaluation of Its Role in Virulence▿

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Hwan; Choi, Sang Ho

    2009-01-01

    Availability of free iron is extremely limited in the mammalian host, and the acquisition of iron in the host is essential for successful infection by pathogenic bacteria. Expression of many genes involved in acquiring iron is regulated in response to the level of iron availability, and iron regulation is mediated by Fur. In this study, cellular levels of Vibrio vulnificus HupA, a heme receptor protein, and the hupA transcript were found to increase in cells grown at 40°C compared to cells gr...

  16. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  17. Theoretical explanations for preschoolers' lowercase alphabet knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence Turnbull, Khara L; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Wiggins, Alice K

    2010-12-01

    Letter knowledge is a key aspect of children's language development, yet relatively little research has aimed to understand the nature of lowercase letter knowledge. We considered 4 hypotheses about children's lowercase letter knowledge simultaneously--uppercase familiarity, uppercase-lowercase similarity, own-name advantage, and frequency in printed English--as well as 3 interactions. Participants were 461 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years, all of whom attended public preschool programs serving primarily children from low-income homes, who completed a letter naming task. Uppercase familiarity was the strongest predictor of children's lowercase alphabet knowledge; children were more than 16 times more likely to know a lowercase letter if they knew the corresponding uppercase letter. Uppercase-lowercase similarity and frequency in printed English also predicted children's lowercase letter knowledge, as did the interaction between uppercase familiarity and own-name advantage and the interaction between uppercase familiarity and uppercase-lowercase similarity. Findings suggest that transference from uppercase letter knowledge may be a primary mechanism for lowercase letter knowledge and that young children's knowledge of the lowercase alphabet letters is multiply determined.

  18. Nurturing Phonemic Awareness and Alphabetic Knowledge in Pre-Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Patricia L.

    Reading research continues to identify phonemic awareness and knowledge of the alphabetic principle as key factors in the literacy acquisition process and to indicate that they greatly facilitate decoding efforts. While research indicates that phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge are necessary to literacy acquisition, many early childhood…

  19. On alphabetic presentations of Clifford algebras and their possible applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toppan, F.; Verbeek, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constructing a class of representations of Clifford algebras that can be named “alphabetic (re)presentations.” The Clifford algebra generators are expressed as m-letter words written with a three-character or a four-character alphabet. We formulate the

  20. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families.

  1. A Chemical Alphabet for Macromolecular Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; McGuiness, Daniel Tunç; Marshall, Alan; Smith, Jeremy; Taylor, Stephen

    2018-06-08

    Molecular communications in macroscale environments is an emerging field of study driven by the intriguing prospect of sending coded information over olfactory networks. For the first time, this article reports two signal modulation techniques (on-off keying-OOK, and concentration shift keying-CSK) which have been used to encode and transmit digital information using odors over distances of 1-4 m. Molecular transmission of digital data was experimentally investigated for the letter "r" with a binary value of 01110010 (ASCII) for a gas stream network channel (up to 4 m) using mass spectrometry (MS) as the main detection-decoding system. The generation and modulation of the chemical signals was achieved using an automated odor emitter (OE) which is based on the controlled evaporation of a chemical analyte and its diffusion into a carrier gas stream. The chemical signals produced propagate within a confined channel to reach the demodulator-MS. Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with different diffusion coefficient values in air at ambient conditions. Representative compounds investigated include acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane. For the first time, the binary code ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is combined with chemical signaling to generate a molecular representation of the English alphabet. Transmission experiments of fixed-width molecular signals corresponding to letters of the alphabet over varying distances are shown. A binary message corresponding to the word "ion" was synthesized using chemical signals and transmitted within a physical channel over a distance of 2 m.

  2. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Universal Partial Words over Non-Binary Alphabets

    OpenAIRE

    Goeckner, Bennet; Groothuis, Corbin; Hettle, Cyrus; Kell, Brian; Kirkpatrick, Pamela; Kirsch, Rachel; Solava, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Chen, Kitaev, M\\"{u}tze, and Sun recently introduced the notion of universal partial words, a generalization of universal words and de Bruijn sequences. Universal partial words allow for a wild-card character $\\diamond$, which is a placeholder for any letter in the alphabet. We settle and strengthen conjectures posed in the same paper where this notion was introduced. For non-binary alphabets, we show that universal partial words have periodic $\\diamond$ structure and are cyclic, and we give ...

  5. From the Alphabet to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevisa La Rocca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues of social and cultural construction of the concepts of time, space, and thought. This analysis is matched by a parallel between the physics and those of communication. To be used as a reference is the shift from the Newtonian conception of time and space to the one proposed by Einstein. In fact, the concepts of space and time outlined in Newtonian physics well befits to what is the cultural and experiential that outlines M. McLuhan in his description of the aural and visual culture—an examination that, starting from the introduction of the alphabet, takes us to Gutenberg and the electric media. The revolution introduced by Einstein seems similar to the one that goes to the concepts of time, space, and thought with the advent of the Net. This article includes a review of the literature on the subject, through the lesson of Meyrowitz, McLuhan, Innis, Castells, Appadurai, Manovich, Berners-Lee to get to Carr. Facing this path is referred to as the birth of the hypertext moment of transition from linear thinking to the reticular.

  6. Neuron recycling for learning the alphabetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar-Cabral, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss an approach to the phonic method of learning-teaching early literacy development, namely that the visual neurons must be recycled to recognize the small differences among pertinent letter features. In addition to the challenge of segmenting the speech chain and the syllable for learning the alphabetic principles, neuroscience has demonstrated another major challenge: neurons in mammals are programmed to process visual signals symmetrically. In order to develop early literacy, visual neurons must be recycled to overcome this initial programming together with phonological awareness, expanding it with the ability to delimit words, including clitics, as well as assigning stress to words. To achieve this goal, Scliar's Early Literacy Development System was proposed and tested. Sixteen subjects (10 girls and 6 boys) comprised the experimental group (mean age 6.02 years), and 16 subjects (7 girls and 9 boys) formed the control group (mean age 6.10 years). The research instruments were a psychosociolinguistic questionnaire to reveal the subjects' profile and a post-test battery of tests. At the beginning of the experiment, the experimental group was submitted to an intervention program based on Scliar's Early Literacy Development System. One of the tests is discussed in this paper, the grapheme-phoneme test: subjects had to read aloud a pseudoword with 4 graphemes, signaled by the experimenter and designed to assess the subject's ability to convert a grapheme into its correspondent phoneme. The average value for the test group was 25.0 correct answers (SD = 11.4); the control group had an average of 14.3 correct answers (SD = 10.6): The difference was significant. The experimental results validate Scliar's Early Literacy Development System and indicate the need to redesign early literacy development methods. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Structural alphabets derived from attractors in conformational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinjung Jens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical and partially redundant nature of protein structures justifies the definition of frequently occurring conformations of short fragments as 'states'. Collections of selected representatives for these states define Structural Alphabets, describing the most typical local conformations within protein structures. These alphabets form a bridge between the string-oriented methods of sequence analysis and the coordinate-oriented methods of protein structure analysis. Results A Structural Alphabet has been derived by clustering all four-residue fragments of a high-resolution subset of the protein data bank and extracting the high-density states as representative conformational states. Each fragment is uniquely defined by a set of three independent angles corresponding to its degrees of freedom, capturing in simple and intuitive terms the properties of the conformational space. The fragments of the Structural Alphabet are equivalent to the conformational attractors and therefore yield a most informative encoding of proteins. Proteins can be reconstructed within the experimental uncertainty in structure determination and ensembles of structures can be encoded with accuracy and robustness. Conclusions The density-based Structural Alphabet provides a novel tool to describe local conformations and it is specifically suitable for application in studies of protein dynamics.

  8. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

  9. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  10. The Coral Reef Alphabet Book for American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Larry G.

    This book, produced for the American Samoa Department of Education Marine Enhancement Program, presents underwater color photography of coral reef life in an alphabetical resource. The specimens are described in English, and some are translated into the Samoan language. A picture-matching learning exercise and a glossary of scientific and oceanic…

  11. ALPHABET "Ante Portas": How English Text Invades Japanese Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the prominence of written English on shop signs in Japan. Based on data from a larger empirical study into multilingual signs in Tokyo, the most common ways of using English and the roman alphabet on Japanese shops signs are identified. It is argued that the ambivalent nature of English loan words plays a key role in the ever…

  12. Parents' Goals for and Perceptions of Alphabet Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sarah N.; Evans, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents' goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read,…

  13. Mastering the International Phonetic Alphabet; Guide and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Donald M.

    The present volume, containing lessons with practice and review exercises, offers a systematic presentation of the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) most widely used as a simplified means of representing the pronunciation of General American English. The transcription symbols presented are those primarily employed by Kenyon and…

  14. Government Acronyms and Alphabetic Designations Used in DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The compilation consists of a guide to acronyms and alphabetic designations used by the Department of Defense (DOD), federal government and foreign military organizations on documents to designate reports on research monitored by them and cataloged by the Defense Documentation Center (DDC). In all instances the acronyms are those actually used by…

  15. Alphabetics: A History of Our Alphabet. A Source Guide for Self-Directed Units. Great Ideas Series. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Sally J.

    This teaching resource presents a historical perspective of the alphabet which encompasses a study of major contributions by: (1) "Prehistoric People"; (2) "The Sumerians"; (3) "The Egyptians"; (4) "The Chinese"; (5) "The Greeks"; and (6) "The Romans." Background information, vocabulary study, student activities, a letter history, and a…

  16. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  17. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Jardak, Seifallah

    2016-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  18. The protection of the Cyrillic alphabet in telecommunications: Taxation aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilović Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Cyrillic and other specific alphabets is discouraged in some telecommunication services. In this paper; the author focuses on unequal treatment of the Cyrillic alphabet in telecommunications (in SMS messages, which is incompatible with the interests of a multilingual society to cherish its linguistic heritage and diversity. Referring to the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression (2005, the author suggests introducing measures which would lead to removing the discriminatory pricing of Cyrillic SMS messages; and introducing tax measures which would support mobile network operators and prevent possible market inequalities stemming from introducing these measures. The suggested solution is applicable to any multicultural society facing the same problem; regardless of languages in question.

  19. Bi-alphabetic pulse compression radar signal design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bi-alphabetic radar; Hamming scan; back-tracking; merit factor; ... of 14.08, 12.10, 9.85, 8.85, 8.83, 8.86, 8.58 and 8.50 respectively. Beyond n ˆ 59 but below n ˆ 117, the highest merit factor available is 9.56. Known high merit ... subjected to dual ternary±binary interpretation to facilitate a coincidence detection scheme.

  20. Genesis, visual attributes and contemporary communication features of the alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Cvitić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 5,000 years of human literacy, the alphabet system has developed from pictograms and ideograms to the contemporary system of Latin letters. The simplification of primary pictograms and their transformation to ideograms followed the major goal of written communication – to transmit thoughts and ideas. Besides, written communication has enabled preservation of knowledge, and that has generated the expansion of information and its availability today. The high speed of gathering written information, as well as its superabundance, calls for rethinking of semiotic features of Latin letters as the basic units of written communication in the Western world, especially in terms of marketing communication and its effectiveness. The written expression is the major tool of branding and getting closer to target market segments. Social development influences the development of communication, which is visible through numerous brands and signs, i.e. symbols that make products and companies recognizable in the market. The distinct sign forms of the alphabet are used to suggest the story of a brand, product or service. A constituent element of its comprehension is conscious or unconscious knowledge drawn from different sources in the environment. The history of human literacy, the development of each particular letter, the communication rules of the contemporary marketplace, the impact of brands and information superabundance make up the basis for further research into communication features of the alphabet, semantics of written forms and their redefinition in the context of effective marketing communication.

  1. Efficient motif finding algorithms for large-alphabet inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying motifs, recurring or conserved patterns, in the biological sequence data sets. To solve this task, we present a new deterministic algorithm for finding patterns that are embedded as exact or inexact instances in all or most of the input strings. Results The proposed algorithm (1 improves search efficiency compared to existing algorithms, and (2 scales well with the size of alphabet. On a synthetic planted DNA motif finding problem our algorithm is over 10× more efficient than MITRA, PMSPrune, and RISOTTO for long motifs. Improvements are orders of magnitude higher in the same setting with large alphabets. On benchmark TF-binding site problems (FNP, CRP, LexA we observed reduction in running time of over 12×, with high detection accuracy. The algorithm was also successful in rapidly identifying protein motifs in Lipocalin, Zinc metallopeptidase, and supersecondary structure motifs for Cadherin and Immunoglobin families. Conclusions Our algorithm reduces computational complexity of the current motif finding algorithms and demonstrate strong running time improvements over existing exact algorithms, especially in important and difficult cases of large-alphabet sequences.

  2. Alphabetic Phonics: An organization and expansion of orton-gillingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A R

    1985-01-01

    Alphabetic Phonics is a sequential language curriculum designed to assure that all students can achieve literacy. This curriculum is a 1980's organization and extension of the Orton-Gillingham-Childs multisensory teaching of the structure of English. Alphabetic Phonics allows 95 percent of the auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners in a regular classroom to master written English. The curriculum includes modern behavioral, psychological, and educational theories and practice. Developed initially as remediation for dyslexics, Alphabetic Phonics is succeeding both with small groups of severely blocked dyslexics and as prevention in regular classrooms in the primary grades. Administrators, classroom teachers, clinicians, remedial, and resource room specialists, as well as speech and language therapists representing small and large schools (public and private; remedial and accelerated) have traveled to Texas from forty states and six foreign countries during the past ten years to earn graduate credit in one or more of the four month-long Introductory Courses held each year. Teachers report that cultural minority students and those learning English as a second language benefit especially from reading instruction which emphasizes the foundations of English and time-on-task activities to effect mastery. Outreach programs and multimedia tools are being developed and implemented to broaden the programs availability to groups with varied needs.

  3. Building a New Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culkin, John; Drexel, John

    1981-01-01

    Media education specialist John Culkin talks with editor John Drexel about learning to read in the television age--and discusses a new alphabet, UNIFON, that may help solve the literacy crisis. (Editor)

  4. dNTPs :  the alphabet of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    From microscopic bacteria to the giant whale, every single living organism on Earth uses the same language of life: DNA. Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates––dNTPs (dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP)––are the building blocks of DNA and are therefore the “alphabet of life”. A balanced supply of dNTPs is essential for integral DNA transactions such as faithful genome duplication and repair. The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) not only synthesizes all four dNTPs but also primarily maintains the cru...

  5. Reflections of Debates Upon Alphabet (Letter to Journal of Sebilürreşad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Soğukömeroğulları

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Otoman State which had used Arabic alphabet until a certain period the issue of writing in Latin alphabet was gained currency thanks to the students who had been to Europe and the embassadors who had come from Europe in 18th and 19th centuries. After Tanzimat (reforms in 1839 amendment of letters had been given point first and then it was abondoned and alphabet replacement attempts began. In later periods serious arguments among the ones in favour and against the transition to Latin alphabet occured. One of the media organs in which these arguments had been appeared was Sebilürreşad. In all these articles acceptance of Latin alphabet was refused and instead the amendment of current letters was required. Some of the articles were taken from the journals of that time and according to the broadcasting policy of the journal occupied a certain place even a little. When the journal had leaned to nationalism and Turanism in its first periods afteryears a critisism began in a distinct manner. The articles related to Latin alphabet belonged to the first periods of the journal. It was seen that especially Turks who had been forced to accept Latin alphabet by Russia in Turkish world were taken place in newspaper columns and it was emphasized that this situation would interrupt the unity within Turkish world. Relections of civilization, printery, economy, colonialism and nationalism in terms of alphabet were also taken place in the journal

  6. The Effects of Orthographic Depth on Learning to Read Alphabetic, Syllabic, and Logographic Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Natsume, Miwa; Stavropoulou, Katerina; Hoxhallari, Lorenc; Van Daal, Victor H.P.; Polyzoe, Nicoletta; Tsipa, Maria-Louisa; Petalas, Michalis

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on reading acquisition in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Children between 6 and 15 years old read aloud in transparent syllabic Japanese hiragana, alphabets of increasing orthographic depth (Albanian, Greek, English), and orthographically opaque Japanese kanji ideograms,…

  7. Kichwa or Quichua? Competing Alphabets, Political Histories, and Complicated Reading in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Over the past century, missionary educators, nation-state and academic planners, and literacy development workers have used alphabets for political ends for traditionally marginalized languages, and Native peoples have contested such planning with other alphabet proposals. Yet literacy work now often overlooks that there are multiple alphabets…

  8. Alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities: evidence from a comprehensive local database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of alphabetical co-authorship in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), based on data from the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of SSH research output in Flanders (2000-2013). Using an unbiased estimator of the share of intentional alphabetical co-authorship (IAC), we find that alphabetical co-authorship is more engrained in SSH than in science as a whole. Within the SSH, large differences exist between disciplines. The highest proportions of IAC are found for Literature, Economics & business, and History. Furthermore, alphabetical co-authorship varies with publication type: it occurs most often in books, is less common in articles in journals or in books, and is rare in proceedings papers. The use of alphabetical co-authorship appears to be slowly declining. (Author)

  9. Moving Beyond of The Alphabet Soup of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chris; Coates, Thomas J.; Curran, James

    2010-01-01

    It is time to scrap the “ABCs” and elevate the debate on HIV prevention beyond the incessant controversies over individual interventions. The ABCs are a woefully incomplete list of necessary prevention interventions, but the goal should not be to just add more letters to the prevention alphabet. Instead, advancing global HIV prevention means holding national gover nments, donors and global agencies accountable for prevention efforts that are tailored to national epidemics, bring quality interventions to a scale, and address environmental factors in vulnerability. The debate is not so much about one intervention or another, but whether countries have a comprehensive prevention effort in place that responds to their own unique situations. PMID:18641471

  10. A Note on Sequence Prediction over Large Alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Gagie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Building on results from data compression, we prove nearly tight bounds on how well sequences of length n can be predicted in terms of the size σ of the alphabet and the length k of the context considered when making predictions. We compare the performance achievable by an adaptive predictor with no advance knowledge of the sequence, to the performance achievable by the optimal static predictor using a table listing the frequency of each (k + 1-tuple in the sequence. We show that, if the elements of the sequence are chosen uniformly at random, then an adaptive predictor can compete in the expected case if k ≤ logσ n – 3 – ε, for a constant ε > 0, but not if k ≥ logσ n.

  11. Interplay of the modified nucleotide phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) with global regulatory proteins in Escherichia coli: modulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent gene expression and interaction with the HupA regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; Motta, Sara; Mauri, Pierluigi; Landini, Paolo; Rossi, Elio

    2016-11-25

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, some intermediates of the sulfate assimilation and cysteine biosynthesis pathway can act as signal molecules and modulate gene expression. In addition to sensing and utilization of sulphur sources, these signaling mechanisms also impact more global cell processes, such as resistance to antimicrobial agents and biofilm formation. In a recent work, we have shown that inactivation of the cysH gene, encoding phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase, and the consequent increase in intracellular PAPS concentration, strongly affect production of several cell surface-associated structures, enhancing surface adhesion and cell aggregation. In order to identify the molecular mechanism relaying intracellular PAPS concentration to regulation of cell surface-associated structures, we looked for mutations able to suppress the effects of cysH inactivation. We found that mutations in the adenylate cyclase-encoding cyaA gene abolished the effects of PAPS accumulation; consistent with this result, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent gene expression appears to be increased in the cysH mutant. Experiments aimed at the direct identification of proteins interacting with either CysC or CysH, i.e. the PAPS-related proteins APS kinase and PAPS reductase, allowed us to identify several regulators, namely, CspC, CspE, HNS and HupA. Protein-protein interaction between HupA and CysH was confirmed by a bacterial two hybrid system, and inactivation of the hupA gene enhanced the effects of the cysH mutation in terms of production of cell surface-associated factors. Our results indicate that PAPS can modulate different regulatory systems, providing evidence that this molecule acts as a global signal molecule in E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Rousan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  13. A hidden markov model derived structural alphabet for proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Gautier, R; Tufféry, P

    2004-06-04

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depends on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have set up a hidden Markov model that discretizes protein backbone conformation as series of overlapping fragments (states) of four residues length. This approach learns simultaneously the geometry of the states and their connections. We obtain, using a statistical criterion, an optimal systematic decomposition of the conformational variability of the protein peptidic chain in 27 states with strong connection logic. This result is stable over different protein sets. Our model fits well the previous knowledge related to protein architecture organisation and seems able to grab some subtle details of protein organisation, such as helix sub-level organisation schemes. Taking into account the dependence between the states results in a description of local protein structure of low complexity. On an average, the model makes use of only 8.3 states among 27 to describe each position of a protein structure. Although we use short fragments, the learning process on entire protein conformations captures the logic of the assembly on a larger scale. Using such a model, the structure of proteins can be reconstructed with an average accuracy close to 1.1A root-mean-square deviation and for a complexity of only 3. Finally, we also observe that sequence specificity increases with the number of states of the structural alphabet. Such models can constitute a very relevant approach to the analysis of protein architecture in particular for protein structure prediction.

  14. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiYan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.

  15. An Interactive Augmented Reality Implementation of Hijaiyah Alphabet for Children Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Akbar, F.; Syahputra, M. F.; Budiman, M. A.; Hizriadi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Hijaiyah alphabet is letters used in the Qur’an. An attractive and exciting learning process of Hijaiyah alphabet is necessary for the children. One of the alternatives to create attractive and interesting learning process of Hijaiyah alphabet is to develop it into a mobile application using augmented reality technology. Augmented reality is a technology that combines two-dimensional or three-dimensional virtual objects into actual three-dimensional circles and projects them in real time. The purpose of application aims to foster the children interest in learning Hijaiyah alphabet. This application is using Smartphone and marker as the medium. It was built using Unity and augmented reality library, namely Vuforia, then using Blender as the 3D object modeling software. The output generated from this research is the learning application of Hijaiyah letters using augmented reality. How to use it is as follows: first, place marker that has been registered and printed; second, the smartphone camera will track the marker. If the marker is invalid, the user should repeat the tracking process. If the marker is valid and identified, the marker will have projected the objects of Hijaiyah alphabet in three-dimensional form. Lastly, the user can learn and understand the shape and pronunciation of Hijaiyah alphabet by touching the virtual button on the marker

  16. Mining protein loops using a structural alphabet and statistical exceptionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein loops encompass 50% of protein residues in available three-dimensional structures. These regions are often involved in protein functions, e.g. binding site, catalytic pocket... However, the description of protein loops with conventional tools is an uneasy task. Regular secondary structures, helices and strands, have been widely studied whereas loops, because they are highly variable in terms of sequence and structure, are difficult to analyze. Due to data sparsity, long loops have rarely been systematically studied. Results We developed a simple and accurate method that allows the description and analysis of the structures of short and long loops using structural motifs without restriction on loop length. This method is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA. HMM-SA allows the simplification of a three-dimensional protein structure into a one-dimensional string of states, where each state is a four-residue prototype fragment, called structural letter. The difficult task of the structural grouping of huge data sets is thus easily accomplished by handling structural letter strings as in conventional protein sequence analysis. We systematically extracted all seven-residue fragments in a bank of 93000 protein loops and grouped them according to the structural-letter sequence, named structural word. This approach permits a systematic analysis of loops of all sizes since we consider the structural motifs of seven residues rather than complete loops. We focused the analysis on highly recurrent words of loops (observed more than 30 times. Our study reveals that 73% of loop-lengths are covered by only 3310 highly recurrent structural words out of 28274 observed words. These structural words have low structural variability (mean RMSd of 0.85 Å. As expected, half of these motifs display a flanking-region preference but interestingly, two thirds are shared by short (less than 12 residues and long loops. Moreover, half of

  17. Mining protein loops using a structural alphabet and statistical exceptionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Nuel, Gregory; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2010-02-04

    Protein loops encompass 50% of protein residues in available three-dimensional structures. These regions are often involved in protein functions, e.g. binding site, catalytic pocket... However, the description of protein loops with conventional tools is an uneasy task. Regular secondary structures, helices and strands, have been widely studied whereas loops, because they are highly variable in terms of sequence and structure, are difficult to analyze. Due to data sparsity, long loops have rarely been systematically studied. We developed a simple and accurate method that allows the description and analysis of the structures of short and long loops using structural motifs without restriction on loop length. This method is based on the structural alphabet HMM-SA. HMM-SA allows the simplification of a three-dimensional protein structure into a one-dimensional string of states, where each state is a four-residue prototype fragment, called structural letter. The difficult task of the structural grouping of huge data sets is thus easily accomplished by handling structural letter strings as in conventional protein sequence analysis. We systematically extracted all seven-residue fragments in a bank of 93000 protein loops and grouped them according to the structural-letter sequence, named structural word. This approach permits a systematic analysis of loops of all sizes since we consider the structural motifs of seven residues rather than complete loops. We focused the analysis on highly recurrent words of loops (observed more than 30 times). Our study reveals that 73% of loop-lengths are covered by only 3310 highly recurrent structural words out of 28274 observed words). These structural words have low structural variability (mean RMSd of 0.85 A). As expected, half of these motifs display a flanking-region preference but interestingly, two thirds are shared by short (less than 12 residues) and long loops. Moreover, half of recurrent motifs exhibit a significant level of

  18. Neuroscience applied to learning alphabetic principles: new proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Scliar-Cabral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p187   This study reviews recent data on functional illiteracy and advances on neuroscience about the reading process. alarming figures on functional illiteracy will be presented with examples of UK and brazil. Empirical evidences brought by neuroscience prove the neuropsychological basis constructs, namely invariance already claimed by modern linguistics. however, emphasis will be given to the psychological reality of letters’ feature invariance, demonstrated by various experiments which had been recently run by neuroscientists. two types of invariance are shown, the spatial and the font invariance, exemplified by a description of invariant features of the roman alphabet. We then cite the major difficulties faced at by beginning readers, namely, how to dismember the chain speech into words (separated in the written space by blanks and the syllable into its units, in order to link them to their correspondent graphemes (composed by one or more letters.  in addition, one of the major difficulties is how to teach neurons to dissymmetrize the letter features. neuroscience conclusions from experiments about the readingprocess demonstrate that neurons of the  occipito-temporalventral region of the left hemisphere must be recycled in orderto learn how to recognize the written word.  altogether withthe results obtained on a well succeeded experience run by theprogram Early intervention initiative (Eii and by an experimentrun in a Florianopolis school, in 2012, they give support to thestrategies to prevent functional illiteracy.

  19. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  20. Amino acid alphabet reduction preserves fold information contained in contact interactions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Armando D

    2015-12-01

    To reduce complexity, understand generalized rules of protein folding, and facilitate de novo protein design, the 20-letter amino acid alphabet is commonly reduced to a smaller alphabet by clustering amino acids based on some measure of similarity. In this work, we seek the optimal alphabet that preserves as much of the structural information found in long-range (contact) interactions among amino acids in natively-folded proteins. We employ the Information Maximization Device, based on information theory, to partition the amino acids into well-defined clusters. Numbering from 2 to 19 groups, these optimal clusters of amino acids, while generated automatically, embody well-known properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity/polarity, charge, size, and aromaticity, and are demonstrated to maintain the discriminative power of long-range interactions with minimal loss of mutual information. Our measurements suggest that reduced alphabets (of less than 10) are able to capture virtually all of the information residing in native contacts and may be sufficient for fold recognition, as demonstrated by extensive threading tests. In an expansive survey of the literature, we observe that alphabets derived from various approaches-including those derived from physicochemical intuition, local structure considerations, and sequence alignments of remote homologs-fare consistently well in preserving contact interaction information, highlighting a convergence in the various factors thought to be relevant to the folding code. Moreover, we find that alphabets commonly used in experimental protein design are nearly optimal and are largely coherent with observations that have arisen in this work. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  2. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  3. Hand Movements and Braille Reading Efficiency: Data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Wormsley, Diane P.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Using a subset of data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, researchers analyzed the patterns and characteristics of hand movements as predictors of reading performance. Statistically significant differences were found between one- and two-handed readers and between patterns of hand movements and reading rates. (Contains 6…

  4. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  5. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  6. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  7. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo name), see Caustic potash solution 5 2 CPS Potassium oleate 34 POE Potassium salt of polyolefin... Sodium polyacrylate solution 43 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alphabetical List of Cargoes I Table I to Part 150...

  8. Perceptual Confusions of the Manual Alphabet by Naive, Trained, and Familiar Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M. Dixie; Danhauer, Jeffrey L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the confusion resulting from reliance on visual perceptual teachers in the identification of dactylemes (handshapes) in the American Manual Alphabet (MA) is reported. A hierarchy of errors varying with subjects' degree of expertness in the MA is established. This can help manual communication teachers develop techniques for…

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  10. Promoting Alphabet Knowledge Using Peer-Mediated Intervention: A Dynamic Duo for Early Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.; Kinley, Hannah L.; Cook, Angela

    2017-01-01

    One of early childhood teachers' first questions of parents with regard to school readiness is whether the child knows the ABCs (Hyson & Tomlinson, 2014). Crucial pre-reading and writing skills, such as oral language, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet letter recognition, are important to children's cognitive development…

  11. The Ideological Aspects of Contemporary Cyrillic Alphabet Transliteration Practices in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustina Selvelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the new rules on the transliteration of the Cyrillic alphabet adopted in Bulgaria, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia over the last few years. It also considers the possible political and identity reasons underlying changes to such practices. To this aim, I contextualize the question within various ongoing debates in the respective countries, with reference to the ideologies that have emerged in the most recent post-socialist period.

  12. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold.

  13. SA-Search: a web tool for protein structure mining based on a Structural Alphabet

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Frédéric; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Hochez, Joëlle; Tufféry, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    SA-Search is a web tool that can be used to mine for protein structures and extract structural similarities. It is based on a hidden Markov model derived Structural Alphabet (SA) that allows the compression of three-dimensional (3D) protein conformations into a one-dimensional (1D) representation using a limited number of prototype conformations. Using such a representation, classical methods developed for amino acid sequences can be employed. Currently, SA-Search permits the performance of f...

  14. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    count rate of Bob’s detectors. In this detector-limited regime , it is advantageous to increase M to encode as much information as possible in each...High- rate field demonstration of large-alphabet quantum key distribution Catherine Lee,1, 2 Darius Bunandar,1 Zheshen Zhang,1 Gregory R. Steinbrecher...October 12, 2016) 2 Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables secure symmetric key exchange for information-theoretically secure com- munication via one-time

  15. Numerically Optimized Uniformly Most Powerful Alphabets for Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward Two-Way Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hekrdla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of the parametric performance of the Hierarchical-Decode-and-Forward (HDF strategy in a wireless 2-way relay channel. Promising HDF, representing the concept of wireless network coding, performs well with a pre-coding strategy that requires Channel State Information (CSI on the transceiver side. Assuming a practical case when CSI is available only on the receiver side and the channel conditions do not allow adaptive strategies, the parametrization causes significant HDF performance degradation for some modulation alphabets. Alphabets that are robust to the parametrization (denoted Uniformly Most Powerful (UMP have already been proposed restricting on the class of non-linear multi-dimensional frequency modulations. In this work, we focus on the general design of unrestricted UMP alphabets. We formulate an optimization problem which is solved by standard non-linear convex constrained optimization algorithms, particularly by Nelder-Mead global optimization search, which is further refined by the local interior-pointsmethod.

  16. American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using a Neuromorphic Sensor and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rivera-Acosta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and analysis of an American Sign Language (ASL alphabet translation system implemented in hardware using a Field-Programmable Gate Array. The system process consists of three stages, the first being the communication with the neuromorphic camera (also called Dynamic Vision Sensor, DVS sensor using the Universal Serial Bus protocol. The feature extraction of the events generated by the DVS is the second part of the process, consisting of a presentation of the digital image processing algorithms developed in software, which aim to reduce redundant information and prepare the data for the third stage. The last stage of the system process is the classification of the ASL alphabet, achieved with a single artificial neural network implemented in digital hardware for higher speed. The overall result is the development of a classification system using the ASL signs contour, fully implemented in a reconfigurable device. The experimental results consist of a comparative analysis of the recognition rate among the alphabet signs using the neuromorphic camera in order to prove the proper operation of the digital image processing algorithms. In the experiments performed with 720 samples of 24 signs, a recognition accuracy of 79.58% was obtained.

  17. The Effects of Shona Language Change on Monolingual Lexicography: The Need for a Revised Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zivenge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In this article, the phenomenon of Shona language change, its effects on lexicography and the need for a revised alphabet are discussed. Because of the defective Shona alphabet, lexicographers at the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI encountered problems in handling some words that were potential headwords in dictionaries they were compiling under the ALLEX project. The current Shona alphabet is unable to realize quite a number of sounds and morphemes in lexical items in everyday use by the native Shona speakers, because they are alien loanwords. The article was prompted by the challenges encountered during the compilation of Duramazwi reMimhanzi (Shona Musical Terms Dictionary. It shows how language change accounts for the problem of headword selection and how modifying the current alphabet can enhance monolingual Shona lexicographical work vis-à-vis the development of the Shona language. It therefore stresses the need for a revised alphabet so as to solve orthographical problems during dictionary compilation.

    PFUPISO YECHINYORWA: Matambudziko Anosanganwa Nawo Mukugadzira Maduramazwi eMutauro Mumwe chete neKuda Kwekushanduka Kwemutauro weChiShona: Panofanirwa Kuva neManyorerwo eChiShona Matsva. Muchinyorwa chino vanyori vanoongorora kushanduka kuri kuita mutauro weChiShona nekufamba kuri kuita nguva nematambudziko anosanganikwa nawo nekuda kweshanduko iyi zvikurusei mukugadzira maduramazwi ari mururimi rweChiShona chete. Vanyori vanoonesawo pfungwa yekuti panodiwa manyorerwo matsva. Nyanzvi dzinogadzira maduramazwi paAfrican Languages Research Institute (ALRI dzinosangana namadambudziko esarudzo yamazwi padzinenge dzichisarudza mazwi adzinenge dzichida kuisa mumaduramazwi adzinogadzira pachirongwa chokugadzira maduramazwi chinonzi ALLEX. Dambudziko resarudzo yemazwi rinowanikwa nekuda kwechimiro chebumbiro remanyorerwo eChiShona risingatenderi mamwe mavara ari mune imwe mitauro asiri muChiShona. Bumbiro iri

  18. Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, Joachim A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphing functions is an important topic in algebra and precalculus high school courses. The functions that are usually discussed include polynomials, rational, exponential, and trigonometric functions along with their inverses. These functions can be used to teach different aspects of function theory: domain, range, monotonicity, inverse…

  19. Illegal alphabets and adult biliteracy latino migrants crossing the linguistic border, expanded edition

    CERN Document Server

    Kalmar, Tomás Mario

    2015-01-01

    How do "illegal aliens" chart the speech sounds of colloquial English? This book is timeless in offering an unusually direct entry into how a group of Mexican fruit pickers analyze their first encounter with local American speech in a tiny rural Midwestern community in the United States. Readers see close up how intelligently migrant workers help each other use what they already know-the alphabetic principle of one letter, one sound-to teach each other, from scratch, at the very first contact, a language which none of them can speak. They see how and why the strategies adult immigrants actually use in order to cope with English in the real world seem to have little in common with those used in publicly funded bilingual and ESL classrooms. What's new in this expanded edition of Tomás Mario Kalmar's landmark Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy are in-depth commentaries from six distinguished scholars-Peter Elbow, Ofelia García, James Paul Gee, Hervé Varenne, Luis Vázquez León, Karen Velasquez-who bring ...

  20. Exploring the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet: When genomics meets thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2007-01-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of life is that despite the diversified apparent shapes, similar building blocks and infrastructures, such as standard amino acids and canonical genetic codes, are shared by most life on Earth. Thus, it is challenging to explore: why nature just selects these building blocks and strategies from numerous candidates to construct life? Was this deterministic or fortuitous? Thanks to the rapid progress in genomics, bioinformatics and synthetic biology, more and more basic principles underlying life design and construction were disclosed in the past decade. However, since the origin of early life is substantially a chemical process, to understand the enigma of life origin, chemists' efforts can not be neglected. In this paper, we focus on the evolution of standard amino-acid alphabet and indicate that chemistry, especially thermodynamics, is indeed critical to understanding the forming mechanisms of amino-acid alphabet. It is revealed that nature prefers low free energy and thus ubiquitous (cheap) small amino acids when beginning to build life, which is compatible with many recent findings from genomics and bioinformatics

  1. Modes of Alphabet Letter Production during Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Interrelationships with Each Other and Other Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Alstad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although handwriting is typically taught during early childhood and keyboarding may not be taught explicitly, both may be relevant to writing development in the later grades. Thus, Study 1 investigated automatic production of the ordered alphabet from memory for manuscript (unjoined, cursive (joined, keyboard letter modes (alphabet 15 sec, their relationships with each other, and spelling and composing in typically developing writers in grades 4 to 7 (n =113. Study 2 compared students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=27, dyslexia (impaired word spelling, n=40, or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD (impaired syntax composing, n=11 or controls without specific writing disabilities (n=10 in grades 4 to 9 (n=88 on the same alphabet 15 modes, manner of copying, spelling, and sentence composing. In Study 1, sequential multilevel model regressions of predictor alphabet 15 letter production/selection modes on spelling and composition outcomes, measured annually from grade 4 to grade 7 (ages 9 to 13 years, showed that only the cursive mode uniquely, positively, and consistently predicted both spelling and composing in each grade. For composing, in grade 4 manuscript mode was positively predictive and in grades 5-7 keyboard selection was. In Study 2 all letter production modes correlated with each other and one’s best and fast sentence copying, spelling, and timed sentence composing. The groups with specific writing disabilities differed from control group on alphabet 15 manuscript mode, copy fast, and timed sentence composing. The dysgraphia and dyslexia groups differed on copying sentences in one’s best handwriting, with the dysgraphia group scoring lower. The educational and theoretical significance of the findings are discussed for multiple modes and manners of letter production/selection of the alphabet that support spelling and composing beyond the early grades in students with and without specific writing

  2. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  3. Reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators: Trends in the alphabetization of authorship in economics and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    The paper adds a category to the list of possible negative steering effects of bibliometric indicators with a category for changes in credit assignment. The results of a longitudinal study of credit assignment practices in the fields of economics and information science are presented. The practice...... of alphabetization of authorship is demonstrated to vary significantly between the two fields. A slight increase is demonstrated to have taken place in economics during the last 30 years (1978-2007). A substantial decrease is demonstrated to have taken place in information science during the same period. A possible...... explanation for the demonstrated difference could be that information scientists have been much more aware of the bibliometric consequences of being first author compared to their colleagues in comparable fields (e.g., economics). This and other possible reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators...

  4. Unnatural base pair systems toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet in the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet of DNA, several artificial third base pairs (unnatural base pairs) have been created. Synthetic DNAs containing the unnatural base pairs can be amplified faithfully by PCR, along with the natural A-T and G-C pairs, and transcribed into RNA. The unnatural base pair systems now have high potential to open the door to next generation biotechnology. The creation of unnatural base pairs is a consequence of repeating "proof of concept" experiments. In the process, initially designed base pairs were modified to address their weak points. Some of them were artificially evolved to ones with higher efficiency and selectivity in polymerase reactions, while others were eliminated from the analysis. Here, we describe the process of unnatural base pair development, as well as the tests of their applications.

  5. Educational Games for Early Childhood: Using Tabletop Surface Computers for Teaching the Arabic Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents initial evaluation regarding the use of simple educational games on tabletop surface computers to teach Kindergarten students in Qatar the Arabic alphabet. This effort is part of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a 3-year endeavor aimed to teach 5-year-olds Modern Standard...... to the students, along with data collected from system log files and class observations. Result analysis suggests that these kinds of games could be useful in (a) enhancing students’ engagement in language learning, (b) increasing their exposure to MSA, and (c) developing their vocabulary....... Arabic (MSA). The paper describes a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9 weeks in the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect and they were early users of similar surface technologies. The paper presents three of the games available...

  6. Balinese Alphabet Sebagai Aplikasi Media Pembelajaran Aksara Bali Berbasis Android Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ary Setiyawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksara Bali menjadi salah satu kekayaan budaya Bali yang hampir punah walaupun sebagaian besar insitusi pendidikan di Bali telah melakukan pembelajaran Aksara Bali tersebut. Metode pengajaran dapat menjadi salah satu faktor terhadap ketidaktertarikan siswa khususnya anak-anak akan Aksara Bali apabila penyampaian yang diberikan kurang. Media pembelajaran Aksara Balimenjadi solusi yang dikemas berbentuk sebuah aplikasi yang dapat dipasang/di-install pada gadget yang menggunakan sistem operasi Android. Aplikasi ini berfokuskan pada pembelajaran Aksara Bali (mengenal bentuk, bunyi, tulisan, dan merangkai kata serta permainan menggunakan Aksara Bali. Aplikasi Balinese Alphabet telah berjalan sukses pada sistem operasi Android dan termasuk dalam kategori baik sesuai pada hasil yang didapat dari hasil survey dengan rincian penilaian tertinggi dari aspek grafis visual dan audio terletak pada kategori baik dengan persentase sejumlah 47%, sedangkan penilaian tertinggi dari aspek entertainment dan pembelajaran terletak pada kategori baik dengan persentase sejumlah 57%.   Kata Kunci: Media Pembelajaran, Budaya Bali, Aksara Bali, Android.

  7. From algorithmic computing to direct retrieval: evidence from number and alphabetic arithmetic in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    1998-03-01

    A number of theories of mental arithmetic suggest that the ability to solve simple addition and subtraction problems develops from an algorithmic strategy toward a strategy based on the direct retrieval of the result from memory. In the experiment presented here, 2nd and 12th graders were asked to solve two tasks of number and alphabet arithmetic. The subjects transformed series of 1 to 4 numbers or letters (item span) by adding or subtracting an operand varying from 1 to 4 (operation span). Although both the item and operation span were associated with major and identical effects in the case of both numbers and letters at 2nd grade, such effects were clearly observable only in the case of letters for the adult subjects. This suggests the use of an algorithmic strategy for both types of material in the case of the children and for the letters only in the case of the adults, who retrieved numerical results directly from memory.

  8. SA-Search: a web tool for protein structure mining based on a Structural Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Frédéric; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Hochez, Joëlle; Tufféry, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    SA-Search is a web tool that can be used to mine for protein structures and extract structural similarities. It is based on a hidden Markov model derived Structural Alphabet (SA) that allows the compression of three-dimensional (3D) protein conformations into a one-dimensional (1D) representation using a limited number of prototype conformations. Using such a representation, classical methods developed for amino acid sequences can be employed. Currently, SA-Search permits the performance of fast 3D similarity searches such as the extraction of exact words using a suffix tree approach, and the search for fuzzy words viewed as a simple 1D sequence alignment problem. SA-Search is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/cgi-bin/SA-Search.

  9. Calibration and statistical techniques for building an interactive screen for learning of alphabets by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riby Abraham Boby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation details of a portable interactive device called Image-projective Desktop Varnamala Trainer. The device uses a projector to produce a virtual display on a flat surface. For enabling interaction, the information about a user’s hand movement is obtained from a single two-dimensional scanning laser range finder in contrast with a camera sensor used in many earlier applications. A generalized calibration process to obtain exact transformation from projected screen coordinate system to sensor coordinate system is proposed in this article and implemented for enabling interaction. This permits production of large interactive displays with minimal cost. Additionally, it makes the entire system portable, that is, display can be produced on any planar surface like floor, tabletop, and so on. The calibration and its performance have been evaluated by varying screen sizes and the number of points used for calibration. The device was successfully calibrated for different screens. A novel learning-based methodology for predicting a user’s behaviour was then realized to improve the system’s performance. This has been experimentally evaluated, and the overall accuracy of prediction was about 96%. An application was then designed for this set-up to improve the learning of alphabets by the children through an interactive audiovisual feedback system. It uses a game-based methodology to help students learn in a fun way. Currently, it has bilingual (Hindi and English user interface to enable learning of alphabets and elementary mathematics. A user survey was conducted after demonstrating it to school children. The survey results are very encouraging. Additionally, a study to ascertain the improvement in the learning outcome of the children was done. The results clearly indicate an improvement in the learning outcome of the children who used the device over those who did not.

  10. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  11. Sur l’origine de l’écriture libyque. Quelques propositions On the origin of the Libyco-Berber alphabet: A few proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Casajus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article propose quelques hypothèses sur l’origine des alphabets dits libyques. Attestés par plus d’un millier d’inscriptions recueillies dans toute l’Afrique du Nord, depuis la Libye jusqu’aux îles Canaries, ces alphabets sont selon toute vraisemblance les ancêtres des alphabets touaregs actuels. La seule inscription qui ait pu être datée avec un degré raisonnable de certitude est une bilingue libyco-punique, mise au jour sur le site de Dougga (Tunisie, qui daterait de 139 avant J.-C. Il semble que les alphabets libyques existaient déjà alors depuis plusieurs siècles. Leurs créateurs ont emprunté quelques lettres (au moins quatre aux alphabets phénico-puniques. Pour composer les autres lettres, ils semblent avoir eu recours à des procédés géométriques simples qu’on essaie ici de reconstituer.A few hypotheses about the origin of the so-called “Libyan” alphabets are presented. Attested in more than a thousand inscriptions from Libya to the Canary Islands in northern Africa, these alphabets are probably the forebears of the current ones used by the Tuareg. The only inscription that has been dated (139 BCE with a reasonable degree of certainty is bilingual, Libyco-Punic, from Dougga in Tunisia. The “Libyan” alphabets apparently already existed, several centuries earlier. Their creators borrowed a few — at least four — letters from the Phoenician/Punic alphabets; and apparently used simple geometric procedures, which are reconstituted herein, for the other letters.

  12. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture.

  13. Viewing speech in action: speech articulation videos in the public domain that demonstrate the sounds of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, S.; Beavan, D.; Lawson, E.; Leplâtre, G.; Scobbie, J. M.; Stuart-Smith, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce recently released, publicly available resources, which allow users to watch videos of hidden articulators (e.g. the tongue) during the production of various types of sounds found in the world’s languages. The articulation videos on these resources are linked to a clickable International Phonetic Alphabet chart ([International Phonetic Association. 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. ...

  14. The colors of the alphabet: naturally-biased associations between shape and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-04-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate children, and adults. We found that pre-literate children associate O with white and X with black and discovered that they also associate I and ameboid nonsense shapes with white; Z and jagged nonsense shapes with black; and C with yellow; but do not make a number of other associations (B blue; Y yellow; A red; G green) seen in literate children and adults. The toddlers' mappings were based on the shape and not the sound of the letter. The results suggest that sensory cortical organization initially binds specific colors to some specific shapes and that learning to read can induce additional associations, likely through the influence of higher order networks as letters take on meaning.

  15. Parameter-Invariant Hierarchical Exclusive Alphabet Design for 2-WRC with HDF Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Uřičář

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical eXclusive Code (HXC for the Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF strategy in the Wireless 2-Way Relay Channel (2-WRC has the achievable rate region extended beyond the classical MAC region. Although direct HXC design is in general highly complex, a layered approach to HXC design is a feasible solution. While the outer layer code of the layered HXC can be any state-of-the-art capacity approaching code, the inner layer must be designed in such a way that the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (received at the relay will be provided. The simplest case of the inner HXC layer is a simple signal space channel symbol memoryless mapper called Hierarchical eXclusive Alphabet (HXA. The proper design of HXA is important, especially in the case of parametric channels, where channel parametrization (e.g. phase rotation can violate the exclusive property of hierarchical symbols (as seen by the relay, resulting in significant capacity degradation. In this paper we introduce an example of a geometrical approach to Parameter-Invariant HXA design, and we show that the corresponding hierarchical MAC capacity region extends beyond the classical MAC region, irrespective of the channel pametrization.

  16. Structural deformation upon protein-protein interaction: a structural alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juliette; Regad, Leslie; Lecornet, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2008-02-28

    In a number of protein-protein complexes, the 3D structures of bound and unbound partners significantly differ, supporting the induced fit hypothesis for protein-protein binding. In this study, we explore the induced fit modifications on a set of 124 proteins available in both bound and unbound forms, in terms of local structure. The local structure is described thanks to a structural alphabet of 27 structural letters that allows a detailed description of the backbone. Using a control set to distinguish induced fit from experimental error and natural protein flexibility, we show that the fraction of structural letters modified upon binding is significantly greater than in the control set (36% versus 28%). This proportion is even greater in the interface regions (41%). Interface regions preferentially involve coils. Our analysis further reveals that some structural letters in coil are not favored in the interface. We show that certain structural letters in coil are particularly subject to modifications at the interface, and that the severity of structural change also varies. These information are used to derive a structural letter substitution matrix that summarizes the local structural changes observed in our data set. We also illustrate the usefulness of our approach to identify common binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Our study provides qualitative information about induced fit. These results could be of help for flexible docking.

  17. Structural deformation upon protein-protein interaction: A structural alphabet approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecornet Hélène

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of protein-protein complexes, the 3D structures of bound and unbound partners significantly differ, supporting the induced fit hypothesis for protein-protein binding. Results In this study, we explore the induced fit modifications on a set of 124 proteins available in both bound and unbound forms, in terms of local structure. The local structure is described thanks to a structural alphabet of 27 structural letters that allows a detailed description of the backbone. Using a control set to distinguish induced fit from experimental error and natural protein flexibility, we show that the fraction of structural letters modified upon binding is significantly greater than in the control set (36% versus 28%. This proportion is even greater in the interface regions (41%. Interface regions preferentially involve coils. Our analysis further reveals that some structural letters in coil are not favored in the interface. We show that certain structural letters in coil are particularly subject to modifications at the interface, and that the severity of structural change also varies. These information are used to derive a structural letter substitution matrix that summarizes the local structural changes observed in our data set. We also illustrate the usefulness of our approach to identify common binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Conclusion Our study provides qualitative information about induced fit. These results could be of help for flexible docking.

  18. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroger, L. [University of California Davis (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  19. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  20. MO-AB-201-03: The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, L.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  1. Cyrillic alphabet as the designation of national identity among students of University of Priština with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miketić Sanja D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between culture and nationality and in that sense - national identity of a particular community - is a known thing for a long time. Nationality is usually strongly connected to culture. We will only mention few of their joint characteristics: language, religion, art, customs, tradition etc. In this article special attention will be paid to one of the features of national identity - language - and we will focus on the usage of Cyrillic alphabet of our target group (students of University of Priština, with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica. The study consists of two smaller researches. In the first part we explored reactions of students at University of Priština and we assumed that they will have different reactions towards Cyrillic alphabet and Latin alphabet used as stimuli-words comparing to pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high schools and students of University of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš presented in The associative dictionary of Serbian language (Asocjativni rečnik srpskog jezika, 2005. In the second part we tried to find out if our informants prefer the usage of Cyrillic or Latin alphabet, and which one they find better in the esthetic sense. We compared attitudes of students who enroll University of Priština to attitudes of students who enroll University of Belgrade and differences between their attitudes. With both researches we wanted to see if there are formed verbal stereotypes with positive or negative connotation, and what are the attitudes on using Cyrillic alphabet among students in the age of expansion of Latin alphabet. We concluded that Cyrillic alphabet is more used and valued at University of Priština than in the rest of Republic of Serbia and the reason for that might be the stronger sense of national identity among these students.

  2. LOOP CALCULUS AND BELIEF PROPAGATION FOR Q-ARY ALPHABET: LOOP TOWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; CHERNYAK, VLADIMIR [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    Loop calculus introduced in [1], [2] constitutes a new theoretical tool that explicitly expresses symbol Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) solution of a general statistical inference problem via a solution of the Belief Propagation (BP) equations. This finding brought a new significance to the BP concept, which in the past was thought of as just a loop-free approximation. In this paper they continue a discussion of the Loop Calculus, partitioning the results into three Sections. In Section 1 they introduce a new formulation of the Loop Calculus in terms of a set of transformations (gauges) that keeping the partition function of the problem invariant. The full expression contains two terms referred to as the 'ground state' and 'excited states' contributions. The BP equations are interpreted as a special (BP) gauge fixing condition that emerges as a special orthogonality constraint between the ground state and excited states, which also selects loop contributions as the only surviving ones among the excited states. In Section 2 they demonstrate how the invariant interpretation of the Loop Calculus, introduced in Section 1, allows a natural extension to the case of a general q-ary alphabet, this is achieved via a loop tower sequential construction. The ground level in the tower is exactly equivalent to assigning one color (out of q available) to the 'ground state' and considering all 'excited' states colored in the remaining (q-1) colors, according to the loop calculus rule. Sequentially, the second level in the tower corresponds to selecting a loop from the previous step, colored in (q-1) colors, and repeating the same ground vs excited states splitting procedure into one and (q-2) colors respectively. The construction proceeds till the full (q-1)-levels deep loop tower (and the corresponding contributions to the partition function) are established. In Section 3 they discuss an ultimate relation between the loop calculus and the Bethe

  3. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  4. Syllable frequency and word frequency effects in spoken and written word production in a non-alphabetic script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang eZhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of word frequency and syllable frequency are well-established phenomena in domain such as spoken production in alphabetic languages. Chinese, as a non-alphabetic language, presents unique lexical and phonological properties in speech production. For example, the proximate unit of phonological encoding is syllable in Chinese but segments in Dutch, French or English. The present study investigated the effects of word frequency and syllable frequency, and their interaction in Chinese written and spoken production. Significant facilitatory word frequency and syllable frequency effects were observed in spoken as well as in written production. The syllable frequency effect in writing indicated that phonological properties (i.e., syllabic frequency constrain orthographic output via a lexical route, at least, in Chinese written production. However, the syllable frequency effect over repetitions was divergent in both modalities: it was significant in the former two repetitions in spoken whereas it was significant in the second repetition only in written. Due to the fragility of the syllable frequency effect in writing, we suggest that the phonological influence in handwritten production is not mandatory and universal, and it is modulated by experimental manipulations. This provides evidence for the orthographic autonomy hypothesis, rather than the phonological mediation hypothesis. The absence of an interaction between word frequency and syllable frequency showed that the syllable frequency effect is independent of the word frequency effect in spoken and written output modalities. The implications of these results on written production models are discussed.

  5. Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle through Invented Spelling among Hearing-Impaired Children Learning to Read and Write: Experimentation with a Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Pauline; Boisclair, Andree; Giasson, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    Given the problems experienced by hearing-impaired individuals in learning the written language, a pedagogical approach was tested. The study examined the links between the development of representations of alphabetic system and the results in reading and writing of first graders. In the study, there were 31 hearing-impaired children and 25…

  6. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  7. The Effectiveness of Using Augmented Reality Apps in Teaching the English Alphabet to Kindergarten Children: A Case Study in the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Al-Jafar, Ali A.; Al-Yousefi, Zainab H.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research study scrutinized the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) applications (apps) as a teaching and learning tool when instructing kindergarten children in the English alphabet in the State of Kuwait. The study compared two groups: (a) experimental, taught using AR apps, and (b) control, taught using traditional…

  8. Fluency and Accuracy in Alphabet Writing by Keyboarding : A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Elaine; Morales, Celia; Gil, Verónica; Jiménez-Suárez, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether children with and without difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or both differed in alphabet writing when using a keyboard. The total sample consisted of 1,333 children from Grades 1 through 3. Scores on the spelling and handwriting factors from the

  9. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The "Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado"…

  10. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  11. The PP2C Alphabet is a negative regulator of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Caroline; Sahmi, Malha; Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Stronach, Beth; Therrien, Marc

    2009-02-01

    The Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways, also known as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways, are signaling conduits reiteratively used throughout the development and adult life of metazoans where they play central roles in the control of apoptosis, immune function, and environmental stress responses. We recently identified a Drosophila Ser/Thr phosphatase of the PP2C family, named Alphabet (Alph), which acts as a negative regulator of the Ras/ERK pathway. Here we show that Alph also plays an inhibitory role with respect to Drosophila SAPK signaling during development as well as under stress conditions such as oxidative or genotoxic stresses. Epistasis experiments suggest that Alph acts at a step upstream of the MAPKKs Hep and Lic. Consistent with this interpretation, biochemical experiments identify the upstream MAPKKKs Slpr, Tak1, and Wnd as putative substrates. Together with previous findings, this work identifies Alph as a general attenuator of MAPK signaling in Drosophila.

  12. Hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet for proteins: the learning of protein local shapes captures sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P

    2005-08-05

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.

  13. A general design strategy for block copolymer directed self-assembly patterning of integrated circuits contact holes using an alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, He; Bao, Xin-Yu; Tiberio, Richard; Wong, H-S Philip

    2015-02-11

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising lithography candidate for technology nodes beyond 14 nm. Researchers have shown contact hole patterning for random logic circuits using DSA with small physical templates. This paper introduces an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contacts configurations on integrated circuits. We illustrate, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements.

  14. Universal Visual Features Might Be Necessary for Fluent Reading. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Reading in Braille and Cyrillic Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Radziun, Dominika; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Sowa, Joanna E; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e.g., Cyrillic). Using a lexical decision task, we examined Visual Braille reading speed and efficiency in sighted Braille teachers. As a control, we tested learners of a natural visual script, Cyrillic. Both groups participated in a two semester course of either visual Braille or Russian while their reading speed and accuracy was tested at regular intervals. The results show that visual Braille reading is slow, prone to errors and highly serial, even in Braille readers with years of prior reading experience. Although subjects showed some improvements in their visual Braille reading accuracy and speed following the course, the effect of word length on reading speed (typically observed in beginning readers) was remained very sizeable through all testing sessions. These results are in stark contrast to Cyrillic, a natural script, where only 3 months of learning were sufficient to achieve relative proficiency. Taken together, these results suggest that visual features such as line junctions and their combinations might be necessary for efficient reading.

  15. ALPHABET SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING LEAP MOTION TECHNOLOGY AND RULE BASED BACKPROPAGATION-GENETIC ALGORITHM NEURAL NETWORK (RBBPGANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanti Nurul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language recognition was used to help people with normal hearing communicate effectively with the deaf and hearing-impaired. Based on survey that conducted by Multi-Center Study in Southeast Asia, Indonesia was on the top four position in number of patients with hearing disability (4.6%. Therefore, the existence of Sign Language recognition is important. Some research has been conducted on this field. Many neural network types had been used for recognizing many kinds of sign languages. However, their performance are need to be improved. This work focuses on the ASL (Alphabet Sign Language in SIBI (Sign System of Indonesian Language which uses one hand and 26 gestures. Here, thirty four features were extracted by using Leap Motion. Further, a new method, Rule Based-Backpropagation Genetic Al-gorithm Neural Network (RB-BPGANN, was used to recognize these Sign Languages. This method is combination of Rule and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPGANN. Based on experiment this pro-posed application can recognize Sign Language up to 93.8% accuracy. It was very good to recognize large multiclass instance and can be solution of overfitting problem in Neural Network algorithm.

  16. Analysis of the HIV-2 protease's adaptation to various ligands: characterization of backbone asymmetry using a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Dhoha; Cano Contreras, Mario Enrique; Flatters, Delphine; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie

    2018-01-15

    The HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer of 99 residues with asymmetric assembly and binding various ligands. We propose an exhaustive study of the local structural asymmetry between the two monomers of all available PR2 structures complexed with various inhibitors using a structural alphabet approach. On average, PR2 exhibits asymmetry in 31% of its positions-i.e., exhibiting different backbone local conformations in the two monomers. This asymmetry was observed all along its structure, particularly in the elbow and flap regions. We first differentiated structural asymmetry conserved in most PR2 structures from the one specific to some PR2. Then, we explored the origin of the detected asymmetry in PR2. We localized asymmetry that could be induced by PR2's flexibility, allowing transition from the semi-open to closed conformations and the asymmetry potentially induced by ligand binding. This latter could be important for the PR2's adaptation to diverse ligands. Our results highlighted some differences between asymmetry of PR2 bound to darunavir and amprenavir that could explain their differences of affinity. This knowledge is critical for a better description of PR2's recognition and adaptation to various ligands and for a better understanding of the resistance of PR2 to most PR2 inhibitors, a major antiretroviral class.

  17. Alphabet Writing and Allograph Selection as Predictors of Spelling in Sentences Written by Spanish-Speaking Children Who Are Poor or Good Keyboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Diaz, Alicia; Artiles, Ceferino

    This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado ("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs. good) across the grades. Results demonstrated that fluency in writing the alphabet and selecting allographs mediated the differences in spelling between good and poor keyboarders in the free-writing task. Execution in the allograph selection task and writing alphabet from memory had different degrees of predictability in each of the groups in explaining the level of fluency and spelling in the free-writing task sentences, depending on the grade. These results suggest that early assessment of writing by means of the computer keyboard can provide clues and guidelines for intervention and training to strengthen specific skills to improve writing performance in the early primary grades in transcription skills by keyboarding.

  18. Different patterns and development characteristics of processing written logographic characters and alphabetic words: an ALE meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linlin; Nie, Yaoxin; Chang, Chunqi; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-06-01

    The neural systems for phonological processing of written language have been well identified now, while models based on these neural systems are different for different language systems or age groups. Although each of such models is mostly concordant across different experiments, the results are sensitive to the experiment design and intersubject variability. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis can quantitatively synthesize the data from multiple studies and minimize the interstudy or intersubject differences. In this study, we performed two ALE meta-analysis experiments: one was to examine the neural activation patterns of the phonological processing of two different types of written languages and the other was to examine the development characteristics of such neural activation patterns based on both alphabetic language and logographic language data. The results of our first meta-analysis experiment were consistent with the meta-analysis which was based on the studies published before 2005. And there were new findings in our second meta-analysis experiment, where both adults and children groups showed great activation in the left frontal lobe, the left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral middle/superior occipital gyrus. However, the activation of the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus was found increase with the development, and the activation was found decrease in the following areas: the right claustrum and inferior frontal gyrus, the left inferior/medial frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, the right cerebellum, and the bilateral fusiform gyrus. It seems that adults involve more phonological areas, whereas children involve more orthographic areas and semantic areas. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Order of 15 September 1992 concerning the Regulations for the transport of dangerous goods (provisions on road transport and alphabetical list of goods) (Dangerous Goods 1992 No. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The specific provisions of the 1945 Order concerning the transport of dangerous goods by road have been repealed by this 1992 Order, with few exceptions. The provisions covering both road and other transport by land no longer apply to road transport, except for Appendix 6 which concerns flexible lead and equipment for pumping hydrocarbons. The repealed provisions have been replaced by provisions annexed to the 1992 Order. The Annexes concern materials and their mode of transport, transport equipment and the alphabetical list of materials which include radioactive materials. (NEA)

  20. Autonomous assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides built from an expanded DNA alphabet. Total synthesis of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen K. Merritt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many synthetic biologists seek to increase the degree of autonomy in the assembly of long DNA (L-DNA constructs from short synthetic DNA fragments, which are today quite inexpensive because of automated solid-phase synthesis. However, the low information density of DNA built from just four nucleotide “letters”, the presence of strong (G:C and weak (A:T nucleobase pairs, the non-canonical folded structures that compete with Watson–Crick pairing, and other features intrinsic to natural DNA, generally prevent the autonomous assembly of short single-stranded oligonucleotides greater than a dozen or so.Results: We describe a new strategy to autonomously assemble L-DNA constructs from fragments of synthetic single-stranded DNA. This strategy uses an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS that adds nucleotides to the four (G, A, C, and T found in standard DNA by shuffling hydrogen-bonding units on the nucleobases, all while retaining the overall Watson–Crick base-pairing geometry. The added information density allows larger numbers of synthetic fragments to self-assemble without off-target hybridization, hairpin formation, and non-canonical folding interactions. The AEGIS pairs are then converted into standard pairs to produce a fully natural L-DNA product. Here, we report the autonomous assembly of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance using this strategy. Synthetic fragments were built from a six-letter alphabet having two AEGIS components, 5-methyl-2’-deoxyisocytidine and 2’-deoxyisoguanosine (respectively S and B, at their overlapping ends. Gaps in the overlapped assembly were then filled in using DNA polymerases, and the nicks were sealed by ligase. The S:B pairs in the ligated construct were then converted to T:A pairs during PCR amplification. When cloned into a plasmid, the product was shown to make Escherichia coli resistant to kanamycin. A parallel study that attempted to assemble similarly sized genes

  1. Aglaich Savaaksrat (Alphabet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a particular letter, a black-and-white drawing which represents a word which contains this letter, and lines the child is to use for writing the letter. (CFM)

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Contracted versus Alphabetical English Braille and Attitudes of English as a Foreign Language Learners: A Case Study of a Farsi-Speaking Visually Impaired Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, Mohsen; Nazarloo, Saber Atash; Toosheh, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    In the educational system of Iran, in which English is a foreign language, the duration of primary school is six years. After that, these English as a foreign language students enter high school and start to learn English during an additional six-year period. In years seven and eight, English textbooks are embossed in alphabetic English braille;…

  3. Theoretical Characterization of Sulfur-to-Selenium Substitution in an Emissive RNA Alphabet: Impact on H-bonding Potential and Photophysical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2018-02-23

    We employ density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations to investigate the structural, energetic and optical properties of a new computationally designed RNA alphabet, where the nucleobases,tsA, tsG, tsC, and tsU (ts-bases), have been derived by replacing sulfur with selenium in the previously reported tz-bases, based on the isothiazolo[4.3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle core. We find out that the modeled non-natural bases have minimal impact on the geometry and energetics of the classical Watson-Crick base pairs, thus potentially mimicking the natural bases in a RNA duplex in terms of H-bonding. In contrast, our calculations indicate that H-bonded base pairs involving the Hoogsteen edge of purines are destabilized as compared to their natural counterparts. We also focus on the photophysical properties of the non-natural bases and correlate their absorption/emission peaks to the strong impact of the modification on the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. It is indeed stabilized by roughly 1.1-1.6 eV as compared to the natural analogues, resulting in a reduction of the gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital from 5.3-5.5 eV in the natural bases to 3.9-4.2 eV in the modified ones, with a consequent bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra. Overall, our analysis clearly indicates that the newly modelled ts-bases are expected to exhibit better fluorescent properties as compared to the previously reported tz-bases, while retaining similar H-bonding properties. In addition, we show that a new RNA alphabet based on size-extended benzo-homologated ts-bases can also form stable Watson-Crick base pairs with the natural complementary nucleobases.

  4. Besprechung: W. SEIBT-J. PREISER-KAPELLER (Hgg., Die Entstehung der kaukasischen Alphabete als kulturhistorisches Phänomen, Wien 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino DOBORJGINIDZE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Κανονικός πίνακας"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Besprechung:W. Seibt – J. Preiser-Kapeller (Hgg., Die Entstehung der kaukasischen Alphabete als kulturhistorisches Phänomen. Referate des Internationalen Symposions (Wien, 1.-4. Dezember 2005, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2011 (=Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil.-hist. Kl. Denkschriften, 430. Band; Veröffentlichungen zur Byzanzforschung, Band 28. ISBN 978-3-7001-7088-4

  5. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Anil A; Dexter, Franklin; Tucker, Peter; Todd, Michael M

    2012-05-29

    Anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department's new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication "buttons" were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.). In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.). Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60) were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P < 0.0001). The findings were the same regardless of the order of testing (i.e. alphabetical-categorical vs. categorical - alphabetical) and participants' years of clinical experience. Most anesthesia providers made no (0) errors for most trials (N = 96/120 trials, lower 95% limit 73%, P < 0.0001). There was no difference in error rates between the two formats (P = 0.53). The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our department's design of our final intraoperative electronic

  6. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Anil A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthesia information management system (AIMS records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. Methods We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department’s new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication “buttons” were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.. In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.. Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60 were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. Results The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P  Conclusions The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our department’s design of our final intraoperative electronic anesthesia record. This testing approach using cognitive and usability engineering methods can be used to objectively design and evaluate many aspects of the clinician-computer interaction in electronic health records.

  7. More On the "Alphabetic Neurosis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenburger, Fred E.; Loney, Jan

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the hypothesis that people with last names beginning with the letters "S" through "Z" are 50 percent more neurotic than those people in the "A" through "R" group. The author's research does not support this hypothesis. (HMV)

  8. Mathematics Games with the Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, John

    2004-01-01

    Sometimes the first step towards making a new (mathematics) game is discovering an unexpected possibility in some hitherto unplayed-with piece of equipment. At other times the first step is inventing new equipment. But rarely is any "new" idea for a game wholly original, either as a way of playing a game, or in its equipment. As…

  9. Multi-Level Visual Alphabets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; van der Schaar, Jetske; van den Broek, Egon; den Uyl, Marten J.; van der Putten, Peter; Djemal, K.; Deriche, M.

    2010-01-01

    A central debate in visual perception theory is the argument for indirect versus direct perception; i.e., the use of intermediate, abstract, and hierarchical representations versus direct semantic interpretation of images through interaction with the outside world. We present a content-based

  10. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cercarial Dermatitis) Swimming Pools Back To Top T Taeniasis ( Taenia Infection, Tapeworm Infection) Tapeworm Infection (Taeniasis, Taenia Infection) Toxocariasis ( Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans, ...

  11. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It seeks to provide a forum for the dissemination of research, review articles and ... The Journal has a special focus on Islam in Africa, and on contemporary Islamic Thought. ... is an international, bi-annual official publication of African ... Sci. applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, under ...

  12. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It particularly welcomes work of an interdisciplinary nature that brings together history, religion, politics, culture and law. The Journal has a ... The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and ...

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... Jos Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed journal and editorially independent publication of the Association of Resident Doctors of Jos University .... The Journal of Business Researchseeks to promote and disseminate knowledge in the various disciplines of Management, Accounting, Marketing and other ...

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a ... Therefore, the thrust of the EPR is to provide readers with ideas that help them ... The Egyptian Journal of Biology is now closed to all new submissions

  15. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this ...

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter M

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... ... reports and academic theses are all appropriate contributions. ... Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official ... Therefore, the editor invites contributions that link relevant theory and ... It publishes articles on a wide range of topics in literature, language, linguistics and theatre studies.

  17. Alphabet Avenue: Wordplay in the Fast Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Dave

    This collection of palindromes, pangrams, acrostics, word squares and word ladders, visual and numerical puzzles, silly names, and much more is designed to delight, surprise, and challenge both the novice and the expert player of word games. It uses the metaphor of a busy, cosmopolitan city to showcase three facets of words: forms of letters,…

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... Its scope covers the fields of the geosciences, mining, metallurgy, materials science and geoenvironmental studies. ..... and it publishes original research papers, technical reports, state-of-the-art reviews and applied analyses of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad.

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Signal booster stations 74.985 Transmission standards 74.938 Wireless cable use 74.990 L Land mobile... Transmissions, Permissible (Low Power Auxiliaries) 74.831 Transmitter power (Remote Pickup) 74.461 Transmitters... 74.451 TV Auxiliaries 74.655 Lw Power Auxiliaries 74.851 ITFS 74.952 FM Translators/Boosters 74.1250...

  20. The Alphabet Soup of HIV Reservoir Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Radwa R; Li, Jonathan Z

    2017-04-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy in suppressing HIV, life-long therapy is required to avoid HIV reactivation from long-lived viral reservoirs. Currently, there is intense interest in searching for therapeutic interventions that can purge the viral reservoir to achieve complete remission in HIV patients off antiretroviral therapy. The evaluation of such interventions relies on our ability to accurately and precisely measure the true size of the viral reservoir. In this review, we assess the most commonly used HIV reservoir assays, as a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each is vital for the accurate interpretation of results and for the development of improved assays. The quantification of intracellular or plasma HIV RNA or DNA levels remains the most commonly used tests for the characterization of the viral reservoir. While cost-effective and high-throughput, these assays are not able to differentiate between replication-competent or defective fractions or quantify the number of infected cells. Viral outgrowth assays provide a lower bound for the fraction of cells that can produce infectious virus, but these assays are laborious, expensive and substantially underestimate the potential reservoir of replication-competent provirus. Newer assays are now available that seek to overcome some of these problems, including full-length proviral sequencing, inducible HIV RNA assays, ultrasensitive p24 assays and murine adoptive transfer techniques. The development and evaluation of strategies for HIV remission rely upon our ability to accurately and precisely quantify the size of the remaining viral reservoir. At this time, all current HIV reservoir assays have drawbacks such that combinations of assays are generally needed to gain a more comprehensive view of the viral reservoir. The development of novel, rapid, high-throughput assays that can sensitively quantify the levels of the replication-competent HIV reservoir is still needed.

  1. Preschool Inclusion: Navigating through Alphabet Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Rebecca; Bordin, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The number of preschool-aged children with disabilities who spend some part of their day in an inclusive school or child care setting has grown tremendously in the past ten years. Meeting the needs of these children is always challenging. However, Public Law 105-17 the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'97) mandates that children…

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Q

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quaestiones Mathematicae. Quaestiones Mathematicae publishes research papers from a wide range of mathematical topics that will often reflect the current mathematical research interests in South Africa. Published in English, the Journal receives contributions from authors around the globe. The Journal serves as an ...

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... Uganda Journal. The Uganda Journal is a publication of the Uganda Society, an open-members'association interested in all aspects and sectors of Uganda. In addition to its original central objective when first published in 1934, which was to publish information which would add to the knowledge of Uganda ...

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KCA Journal of Business Management ... In addition, the journal publishes invited research reviews and reports of ... Kiswahili is an interdisciplinary international journal devoted to the study of Kiswahili language, linguistics and literature.

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by ... research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books ...

  7. Visual Alphabets: Video classification by end users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; den Uyl, Marten J.; Petrushin, Valery A.; Khan, Latifur

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here introduces a real-time automatic scene classifier within content-based video retrieval. In our envisioned approach end users like documentalists, not image processing experts, build classifiers interactively, by simply indicating positive examples of a scene. Classification

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... ... inorganic, polymer, green, climate change, environmental chemistry and chemistry ... The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy ... and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition ...

  9. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... ... all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, ... The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed ... scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure ...

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Z

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Zede is a scientific journal on engineering science and application, produced ... of engineering knowledge and methodologies in solving engineering problems. ... in African Educational Institution; Research Methods and Ethics in Africa ... Epidemiology, Immunology, Environmental science, Hydrobiology ...

  11. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter P

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... ... comments on currents health initiatives, project and work reports, personal ... PiE challenges contributors to use innovative, provocative and creative ... particularly Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Ethnobiology, Plant ...

  12. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter N

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -disciplinary, biannual, peer-reviewed biomedical journal that has been ... is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year. ... of manuscripts and even for color reproduction of photographs.

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 62 of 62 ... The Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine is a medical journal focused on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention and related topics relevant to clinical and public health practice. The purpose of ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science is one of the leading forestry journals in the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original ... The objects of the Association journal shall be the advancement of the science and art of ..... Economics, Business Management, and Public Administration and ...

  15. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter F

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Architecture, Building, Estate Management, Environmental Management, Geography, Industrial Design, Surveying and Geoinformatics, Urban and Regional Planning, Agriculture, Forestry and Wild Life and other related fields. View Journal ...

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The Journal acts as a medium of improving the quality of health care and medical ... and Heritage, Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Semantic Web ... case reports; editorials; seminar and congress reports in relation to human health ... Rwanda Journal, Series D: Life and Natural Sciences.

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter G

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 22 of 22 ... Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and ... Please see the Author guidelines for detailed instructions.

  18. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Application and report 73.3500 FM and AM programming, Duplication of 73.242 FM assignment policies and... for 73.1940 Puerto Rico TV/FM, dual-language broadcasting in 73.1210 Q Quiet zone 73.1030 R Radiation... TV 73.669 Stereophonic pilot subcarriers—monophonic programming 73.4246 (*) Stereophonic sound...

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Notification 76.94 Network programming 76.5 Network programs: nonduplication protection 76.92 Network station....209 Possession of rules 76.301 Prime time 76.5 Program carriages, STV 76.64 Programming, Network 76.5... candidates for 76.205 PURPOSE—Part 76 76.1 Q Qualified TV station, Showing 76.55 R Rate regulation standards...

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research is published by the College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin to encourage research into ... for 2013 as per Global Impact Factors (http://globalimpactfactor.com).

  1. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719.

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 93 of 93 ... The African Journal of Social Work is an international refereed journal that serves as a forum for exchanging ideas and knowledge and discussing issues relevant to social work practice, education and research in the African region. Producing 2 issues a year, the Journal is published by the National ...

  3. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... (Technical accounts involving application of well-known techniques, and situation ... management sciences and engineering, industry chemistry, general ... The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the ...

  4. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal ... Later, the need to expand the horizon of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology.

  5. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... However, there is also room for issues of the larger international order or ... The journal is an initiative of the Phenomenology Research Group .... clinical chemistry, hydrochemistry, agrochemistry, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. .... Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry.

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 62 ... Le journal publie des communications en Anglais et en Français de tous les domains ... et de l'environnement, le financement, la politique, le média, etc). ... reports, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education ...

  7. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology, Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal. Scientists in the academia, research institutes and industries are therefore encouraged to participate actively in the propagation of their works ...

  8. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an open ... to public health, including implications for practical applications and service ... to showcase their work whilst upholding the standards of health science ... improvement of health safety and service delivery; management and ...

  9. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks in the ...... computers affected students’ performance and attitude towards the Arabic class and, consequently, the Arabic language....

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 93 of 93 ... The African Journal of Social Work is an international refereed journal ... Articles should be of sustainable development interest and include full- ..... in all the fields of sciences and biological technology, ecology, biochemistry, ...

  11. Integration of Bilingual Emphasis Program into University Curriculum. Multiple Subjects Credential Program: Hupa, Yurok, Karuk, or Tolowa Emphasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    A description of the American Indian Bilingual Teacher Credential Program offered by Humboldt State University (California) provides background information on the linguistic groups served by the program. Accompanying the program descriptions are lists of lower and upper division requirements, descriptions of competency exam, program schedule,…

  12. Novel Biopolymers Based on an Expanded Genetic Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-18

    by anion-exchange HPLC with an Alltech Associates column (Macrosphere 300A WAx, 7 um, 4.6 x 250 mm), using either of the two gradients with A = 25...energetic advantage of the correct hydrogen-bonding partner, contributing to the specificity of correct nucleotide incorporation opposite 1 in the template

  13. Reading Hidden Messages Through Deciphered Manual Alphabets on Classic Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Decipherment is the tool used to uncover several types of hand signs that played vital roles in the creation of hidden messages in classic artwork. A 3,100 B.C. bas-relief of The 'Kaph' Telescope, formerly named The Narmer Palette, and Michaelangelo Buonarrotte's Battle of Cascina of 1506 were two key works of art that show certain similarities even though separated by 4,500 years. It is evident that Renaissance humanists provided artists with certain knowledge of the ancients. Results of incorporating a number of minor works of art showed that the competence of ancient Egyptians, Cretans and Australian Aboriginals, to name a few, as astronomers, was underestimated. Some deciphered Indus seals attested to a global understanding of the universe, with Gemini and the star of Thuban at the center of their attention. Certain forms of secrecy had to be undertaken for various reasons throughout the millennia. Three examples are: (1) In Italy, to keep controversial and truthful teachings discreet and hidden, artists embedded them in artwork long before the plight of Galileo Galilei and his discoveries. (2) Among Jewish Kabbalists, a well-known design was obscured in The Arnolfini Wedding painting for fear it would be lost due to persecution. (3) Michaelangelo Buonarrotte indicated several meanings through the hands of The Statue of Moses. They were overlooked by several societies, including the gesticulating culture of Italy, because they oppressed the value of signed languages. Spatial decipherment may testify to a need for the restoration of a spatial writing system for expanded linguistic accessibility. A 21st century model community for sign language residents and employees will benefit visual learners, particularly visual artists and non-phonetic decipherers, to better uncover, understand and perhaps use ancient hand forms to restore ancient knowledge. Moreover, the National Association of Teaching English (NATE) has recently endorsed the addition of two skills, viewing and visual representing, to the traditional list of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Students will master these two new skills far more effectively when they are exposed to such a signing community.

  14. Improved chaos-based video steganography using DNA alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Kar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA based steganography plays a vital role in the field of privacy and secure communication. Here, we propose a DNA properties-based mechanism to send data hidden inside a video file. Initially, the video file is converted into image frames. Random frames are then selected and data is hidden in these at random locations by using the Least Significant Bit substitution method. We analyze the proposed architecture in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio as well as mean squared error measured between the original and steganographic files averaged over all video frames. The results show minimal degradation of the steganographic video file. Keywords: Chaotic map, DNA, Linear congruential generator, Video steganography, Least significant bit

  15. Navigating the Alphabet Soup of Labroligamentous Pathology of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Darren; Grubin, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    Because of the widespread use of eponyms and acronyms to describe labroligamentous findings in the shoulder, interpreting shoulder magnetic resonance imaging reports can be challenging. A summary of the appearance of these lesions on shoulder magnetic resonance images can help the orthopedic surgeon to understand these entities as imaging findings and to determine the appropriate treatment for patients with shoulder injuries.

  16. Regenerative liver surgeries: the alphabet soup of emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Maansi; Kluger, Michael D; Griesemer, Adam; Bentley-Hibbert, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    New surgical procedures taking advantage of the regenerative abilities of the liver are being introduced as potential curative therapies to these patients either to provide auxiliary support while the native liver recovers or undergoes hypertrophy. For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of the Milan criteria or bilobar colorectal metastases liver transplantation is not an option. Fulminant hepatic failure can be treated but requires life-long immunosuppression. These complex surgical procedures require high quality and directed imaging.

  17. Sorting the Alphabet Soup of Renal Pathology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Melendez, Sheilah M; Hartman, Matthew S; Heller, Matthew T; Okechukwu, Nancy

    2016-01-28

    Diseases of the kidney often have their names shortened, creating an arcane set of acronyms which can be confusing to both radiologists and clinicians. This review of renal pathology aims to explain some of the most commonly used acronyms within the field. For each entity, a summary of the clinical features, pathophysiology, and radiological findings is included to aid in the understanding and differentiation of these entities. Discussed topics include acute cortical necrosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipoma, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, acute tubular necrosis, localized cystic renal disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, medullary sponge kidney, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, renal papillary necrosis, transitional cell carcinoma, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alphabet Soup: ERP, CT, and ACT for OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolin, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The present article comments on the case conference presented in this issue, namely, Himle and Franklin's (Himle & Franklin, 2009) exposure and response prevention (ERP); Chosak and colleagues' (Chosak, Marques, Fama, Renaud, & Wilhelm, 2009) cognitive therapy (CT); and (Twohig, 2009) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Two questions are…

  19. Beyond Alphabet Soup: Helping College Health Professionals Understand Sexual Fluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health…

  20. Quality improvement 101 for surgeons: Navigating the alphabet soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Matthew T; Islam, Saleem

    2015-12-01

    It is a fundamental value of the surgical profession to improve care for its patients. In the last 100 years, the principles of prospective quality improvement have started to work their way into the traditional method of retrospective case review in morbidity and mortality conference. This article summarizes the history of "improvement science" and its intersection with the field of surgery. It attempts to clarify the principles and jargon that may be new or confusing to surgeons with a different vocabulary and experience. This is done to bring the significant power and resources of improvement science to the traditional efforts to improve surgical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alphabet Soup: School Library Media Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Universities offering school library media programs seek accreditation from various regional and national organizations. This accreditation makes the programs valid and marketable. School media programs within a college of education seek accreditation from specialized accrediting bodies. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education…

  2. 9 CFR 166.1 - Definitions in alphabetical order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., preparation, cooking or consumption of food, except that such term shall not include waste from ordinary..., preparation, cooking or consumption of food that has been ground and heated to a minimum temperature of 230 °F... cooked as a food for swine and which are fenced in or otherwise constructed so that swine are unable to...

  3. Apples, Bloom, and Creativity: The ABC's of Reading Alphabet Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary Agnes

    Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) combined with commonly accepted steps of the creative process (gathering material, reflection, inspiration, first draft or model, and evaluation) can be used to explore some of the possibilities of working with alphabet…

  4. REVEALING NON-ALPHABETICAL GUISES OF SPAM-TRIGGER VOCABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A. ROJAS-GALEANO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El 75% del correo electrónico que se transmite hoy en día, corresponde a mensajes masivos no solicitados (comúnmente denominados spam, lo que evidencia la necesidad de continuar fortaleciendo los mecanismos de protección contra su propagación. Uno de los tretas más ingeniosas utilizadas últimamente por los spammers para sobrepasar los filtros basados en comparación de texto, es el enmascaramiento de las palabras vedadas mediante substituciones con símbolos no alfabéticos, de manera que aún visualmente logren transmitir la semántica del término original (por ejemplo, enmascarando viagra como v1@gr@ o como v-i-a-g-r-a. En este artículo se discute una técnica simple pero efectiva para contrarrestar esta sutil trampa, que consiste en la adaptación de un algoritmo reconocido de apareamiento de textos para revelar efectivamente la similitud existente entre vocablos desencadenadores de filtros spam y variantes alfanuméricas enmascaradas.

  5. New Languages and New Alphabetizations – Prime Subjects for Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Eugenia Aguilar González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some educational policies, pedagogical practices, and the curricular development of primary education in Mexico from the disciplines of Communication/Education. The purpose is to understand that the inclusion of the use of technologies and media literacy in the national curriculum cannot be carried out without diagnoses and prior discussions. These reforms do not guarantee the development of the necessary level of competence needed by the men and women of the 21st century. For these educational reforms to be successful, they should be considered the content of the new curriculum and to eliminate the old educational practices. These reforms must address the present conditions of the country in accordance with an extensive social dialog and a wide social perspective. One can use examples such as the case of Enciclomedia; of the national curriculum evaluation named Enlace; and some contents of the Spanish program to contrast contradictions and successes of the educational policies in the development of democracy in Mexico

  6. Protein flexibility in the light of structural alphabets. \

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Craveur, P.; Joseph, A,P.; Esque, J.; Narwani, T.J.; Noël, F.; Shinada, N.; Goguet, M.; Leonard, S.; Poulain, P.; Bertrand, O.; Faure, G.; Rebehmed, J.; Ghozlane, A.; Swapna, L.S.; Bhaskara, R.M.; Barnoud, J.; Téletchéa, S.; Jallu, V.; Černý, Jiří; Schneider, Bohdan; Etchebest, C.; Srinivasan, N.; Gelly, J.-Ch.; deBrevern, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, 27 May 2015 (2015) ISSN 2296-889X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : allostery * protein complexes * protein folding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Typographia: A Hybrid, Alphabetic Exploration of Raleigh, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, David

    2010-01-01

    "As compositionists delve more deeply into the material and technical dimensions of digital media, the contemporary arts should be valued as a source for new approaches to hybrid forms of writing and textuality." In addition to "Typographia", this work includes a companion essay (PDF): From Street to Software: How a Lettered…

  8. Tertiary alphabet for the observable protein structural universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Craig O; Zhou, Jianfu; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2016-11-22

    Here, we systematically decompose the known protein structural universe into its basic elements, which we dub tertiary structural motifs (TERMs). A TERM is a compact backbone fragment that captures the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary environments around a given residue, comprising one or more disjoint segments (three on average). We seek the set of universal TERMs that capture all structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), finding remarkable degeneracy. Only ∼600 TERMs are sufficient to describe 50% of the PDB at sub-Angstrom resolution. However, more rare geometries also exist, and the overall structural coverage grows logarithmically with the number of TERMs. We go on to show that universal TERMs provide an effective mapping between sequence and structure. We demonstrate that TERM-based statistics alone are sufficient to recapitulate close-to-native sequences given either NMR or X-ray backbones. Furthermore, sequence variability predicted from TERM data agrees closely with evolutionary variation. Finally, locations of TERMs in protein chains can be predicted from sequence alone based on sequence signatures emergent from TERM instances in the PDB. For multisegment motifs, this method identifies spatially adjacent fragments that are not contiguous in sequence-a major bottleneck in structure prediction. Although all TERMs recur in diverse proteins, some appear specialized for certain functions, such as interface formation, metal coordination, or even water binding. Structural biology has benefited greatly from previously observed degeneracies in structure. The decomposition of the known structural universe into a finite set of compact TERMs offers exciting opportunities toward better understanding, design, and prediction of protein structure.

  9. Alphabet soup: making sense of genetic testing in CMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Victoria; Gharibshahi, Shahram

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of inherited neuropathies can be challenging in several ways. First, a hereditary neuropathy must be suspected. Although some family histories are clear with multiple members affected, other families require directed inquiry. Second, even when a hereditary neuropathy is clear, it can be difficult to make a genetic characterization. The field of genotyping is expanding so rapidly, it is difficult to know what tests to order. The authors share their guidelines for the diagnosis of inherited neuropathies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. An Updated Typology of Causative Constructions: Form-Function Mappings in Hupa (California Athabaskan), Chungli Ao (Tibeto-Burman) and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Ramon Matthew, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Taking up analytical issues raised primarily in Dixon (2000) and Dixon & Aikhenvald (2000), this dissertation combines descriptive work with a medium-sized (50-language) typological study. Chapter 1 situates the dissertation against a concise survey of typological-functional work on causative constructions from the last few decades, and…

  11. Estado absoluto e ensino das primeiras letras: as escolas régias (1772-1794, na tese de Áurea Adão (1997 - Absolutist state and alphabetization classes: escolas régias (1772-1794, as postulates Áurea Adão (1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juraci Maia Cavalcante

    2011-03-01

    -chave: história da educação; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ABSOLUTIST STATE AND ALPHABETIZATION CLASSES: ESCOLAS RÉGIAS (1772-1794, AS POSTULATES ÁUREA ADÃO (1997 Abstract The study of Aurea Adão regarding the “aulas régias”, which were instituted by pombalina reform in the second half of the XVIII century, presented in this study is part of a larger research about the Portuguese Educational History. The object of that study has too many qualities which make clear why it was so relevantly considered among many other findings in that historiography, either for treating history as a trade, taking into consideration its methodologies, which can be shown by the way documental sources and gaps are dealt with, or for the author’s prudence in the explanations and evaluations about the meaning of the Pombal Reform and its developments in the Reign of D. Maria, regarding elementary school, and in the confrontation with the consulted historiography. The position of the author, as a historian, shows a steady balance when she tries to understand the influence received by the reform in the ideological and political environment of Illuminist Europe, avoiding ideological judgments, which produce clear eulogy or unfounded critics. If we look at it form the perspective of time, her study, although centered in a short period of time, is clearly supported on a strategy to look both at the past and future, which allows her to reconstruct the Pombalina reform from the confrontation between what was happening before it and its future dynamic in the Reign of D. José. She examined the school structure where the reform originated and what happened with the end of the carrier of Pombal Minister, recreating the past/present/future as a place to be observed in history, avoiding the linear-chronological narrative, usually observed in studies of educational history that are based on official documents and archives. Keywords: history of education; aulas régias; Aurea Adão.   ESTADO

  12. The Influence of Orthography on the Production of Alphabetic, Second-Language Allophones by Speakers of a Non-alphabetic Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Im; Kim, Joo-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text

  13. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improving the bioavailability of huperzine A by lymphatic uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (Hup-A is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS was used to enhance the oral bioavailability and lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A. A single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP technique and a chylomicron flow-blocking approach were used to study its intestinal absorption, mesenteric lymph node distribution and intestinal lymphatic uptake. The value of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC of Hup-A SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of a Hup-A suspension (P<0.01. The absorption rate constant (Ka and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for Hup-A in different parts of the intestine suggested a passive transport mechanism, and the values of Ka and Papp of Hup-A SMEDDS in the ileum were much higher than those in other intestinal segments. The determination of Hup-A concentration in mesenteric lymph nodes can be used to explain the intestinal lymphatic absorption of Hup-A SMEDDS. For Hup-A SMEDDS, the values of AUC and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of the blocking model were significantly lower than those of the control model (P<0.05. The proportion of lymphatic transport of Hup-A SMEDDS and Hup-A suspension were about 40% and 5%, respectively, suggesting that SMEDDS can significantly improve the intestinal lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A.

  14. Teacher's Guide to Word Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Various worksheets to teach basic Hupa language--simple phrases and the vocabulary for animal names and family relationships--are presented in this guide. The introduction notes that materials have been used successfully with students in grades 4 through 8 and that the Hupa language is being taught within the context of traditional Hupa culture.…

  15. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial…

  16. The Place of Writing in Preserving an Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth; Mattz, Pam; Jackson, Silish; Campbell, Harold

    This paper shows how a traditional story can be used to teach an indigenous language, and how the inclusion of writing can help students learn the language effectively. Hupa people have told Coyote stories for thousands of years. Such Hupa stories are incorporated in Hupa language instruction using the Language Proficiency Method, which involves a…

  17. Huperzine A Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Enhances the Nonamyloidogenic Pathway in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1...

  18. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors (No Dollars), FY84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    LABORATORIES DART AND KRAFT INC DATA :NSTRUMENTS INC DATA/WARE DEVELOPMENT DART INDUSTRIES INC DATA INTERFACE SYSTEMS CORP DATABASE TEC TRNSFR CORP DARTMOUTH...SEASONS ENGINEERING LTD FORESTVILLE SUNOCO INC FORTNEY ELECTRIC CO INC FOUR SEASONS HEATING & A COND FOREX CHEMICAL CORP FORWAY INDUSTRIES INC FOUR

  19. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards. Part 1. Alphabetical Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    GS Dough Trough, Fermentation , Field .............................................................................. MIL.D.40123C 7320 GL 14 Jun 83 GL...Shake And Yogurt Mixes ...................................................................... MIL-1.43717C (1) 8910 GL 04 May 79 GL NU 50 Ice Scrapper

  20. FDA/DEA/PDMP/UDT: alphabet soup or sensible and integrated risk management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Twillman, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Both prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) and urine drug testing (UDT) are recommended as parts of an ongoing risk management approach for controlled substance prescribing. The authors provide an editorial and commentary to discuss the unique contributions of each to promote better clinical decision making for prescribers. A commentary is employed along with brief discussion comparing four states with an active PDMP in place to three states without an active PDMP as it relates back to findings on UDT in those states from a laboratory conducting liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The commentary focuses on the place of both tools (UDT and PDMP) in risk management efforts. The argument is made that relying on a PDMP alone would lead to clinical decisions that may miss a great deal of problematic or aberrant behaviors.

  1. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Institute of Technology, Cambridge , MA 02139, USA 2Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, MA 02420, USA Distribution A...the detectors or the readout electronics — is saturated by the incoming photon flux, 3 as illustrated in Figure 1(b). In this regime, which extends to...The deployed-fiber testbed comprised a pair of dark fibers running between the main campus of MIT in Cambridge , MA, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory in

  2. There's a New Alphabet in Town: ESSA and Its Implications for Students, Schools, and School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackborow, Mary; Clark, Elizabeth; Combe, Laurie; Morgitan, Judith; Tupe, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The 2015 passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) provides state education agencies with more local control over educational planning, requires development of state accountability plans, and provides opportunities for advocacy surrounding school nursing-sensitive indicators of student success. Federal Title I, II, and IV funds are available for state and local education agency utilization in meeting educational needs of impoverished students and for development of high-quality instructional and support personnel. As Specialized Instructional Support Personnel, school nurses can utilize ESSA Title funding to positively impact chronic absenteeism, school climate, and school nurse staffing. ESSA can be a resource for funding school health services and professional education. This article will assist school nurses in better understanding ESSA and how funding is allocated to states and local education agencies.

  3. 75 FR 38211 - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...] ADMINISTRADORA DE INMUEBLES VIDA, S.A. DE C.V., Blvd. Agua Caliente 1381, Colonia Revolucion, Tijuana, Baja..., Santiago, Chile; Av. Rufino Torrico 981, Lima, Peru; Av. Peru 3421, San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru.... AGBA CONSULTORES CASA DE CAMBIO), Blv Agua Caliente 148, Col. Revolucion Rio Panuco Rio Yaqui, Tijuana...

  4. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hammer toe 5282 Heart valve replacement 7016 Hematomyelia 8012 Hemorrhage: Brain 8009 Intra-ocular 6007... Prostate gland 7527 Prosthetic Implants: Ankle replacement 5056 Elbow replacement 5052 Hip replacement 5054... Varicose veins 7120 Vasculitis, primary cutaneous 7826 Vertebral fracture or dislocation 5235 Visceral...

  5. 76 FR 38533 - Alphabetical Listings: Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons; Blocked Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    .... * * * * * PART 546--DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS 0 22. The authority citation for part 546 continues to read as... Nationals and Blocked Persons List (``SDN List'') with the identifier ``[DARFUR].'' The SDN List is... Federal Register and incorporated into the SDN List with the identifier ``[BPI-DARFUR].'' * * * * * PART...

  6. Succinct Dynamic Cardinal Trees with Constant Time Operations for Small Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    ) bits and performs the following operations in O(1) time: parent, child(i), label-child(alpha), degree, subtree-size, preorder, is-ancestor(x), insert-leaf (alpha), delete-leaf(alpha). The update times are amortized. The space is close to the information theoretic lower bound. The operations...

  7. Syllabic Schemes and Knowledge of the Alphabet in Reading Acquisition: "Onset" or "Nucleus" Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cárdenas, A. F.; Díaz-Furlong, H. A.; Díaz-Furlong, A.; Sankey-García, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing consensus that, in reading acquisition, it is essential to provide children with learning activities that promote the development of reading cognitive schemes, particularly intra-syllabic related patterns, there is no agreement on which kind of syllabic schemes should be worked out in the first place. The main aim of…

  8. Reproductive ovarian testing and the alphabet soup of diagnoses: DOR, POI, POF, POR, and FOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Lisa M; Christianson, Mindy S; Stelling, James; Kearns, William G; Segars, James H

    2018-01-01

    There are large variations in the number of oocytes within each woman, and biologically, the total quantity is at its maximum before the woman is born. Scientific knowledge is limited about factors controlling the oocyte pool and how to measure it. Within fertility clinics, there is no uniform agreement on the diagnostic criteria for each common measure of ovarian reserve in women, and thus, studies often conflict. While declining oocyte quantity/quality is a normal physiologic occurrence as women age, some women experience diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) much earlier than usual and become prematurely infertile. Key clinical features of DOR are the presence of regular menstrual periods and abnormal-but-not-postmenopausal ovarian reserve test results. A common clinical challenge is counseling patients with conflicting ovarian reserve test results. The clinical diagnosis of DOR and the interpretation of ovarian reserve testing are complicated by changing lab testing options and processing for anti-mullerian hormone since 2010. Further, complicating the diagnostic and research scenario is the existence of other distinct yet related clinical terms, specifically premature ovarian failure, primary ovarian insufficiency, poor ovarian response, and functional ovarian reserve. The similarities and differences between the definitions of DOR with each of these four terms are reviewed. We recommend greater medical community involvement in terminology decisions, and the addition of DOR-specific medical subject-heading search terms.

  9. Alphabet Soup: Sagittal Balance Correction Osteotomies of the Spine-What Radiologists Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Kainth, D; Marette, S; Polly, D

    2018-04-01

    Global sagittal malalignment has been demonstrated to have correlation with clinical symptoms and is a key component to be restored in adult spinal deformity. In this article, various types of sagittal balance-correction osteotomies are reviewed primarily on the basis of the 3 most commonly used procedures: Smith-Petersen osteotomy, pedicle subtraction osteotomy, and vertebral column resection. Familiarity with the expected imaging appearance and commonly encountered complications seen on postoperative imaging studies following correction osteotomies is crucial for accurate image interpretation. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hospital Universitario y Politecnico la Fe, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Provenzale, James M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Oncology and Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultra-high Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); University of Virginia Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, 1st Floor, Room 1011, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  11. Will the alphabet soup of design criteria affect discrete choice experiment results?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Every discrete choice experiment needs one, but the impacts of a statistical design on the results are still not well understood. Comparative studies have found that efficient designs outperform especially orthogonal designs. What has been little studied is whether efficient designs come at a cos...

  12. Beyond the Alphabet Soup: Molecular Properties of Aerosol Components Influence Optics. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Components within atmospheric aerosols exhibit almost every imaginable model of chemical bonding and physical diversity. The materials run the spectrum from crystalline to amorphous, covalent to ionic, and have varying viscosities, phase, and hygroscopicity. This seminar will focus on the molecular properties of materials that influence the optical behavior of aerosols. Special focus will be placed on the polarizability of materials, hygroscopic growth, and particle phase.

  13. A note on limited pushdown alphabets in stateless deterministic pushdown automata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masopust, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2013), s. 319-328 ISSN 0129-0541 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : deterministic pushdown automata * stateless pushdown automata * realtime pushdown automata Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.326, year: 2013 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129054113500068

  14. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Provenzale, James M.; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto; Wintermark, Max

    2012-01-01

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  15. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    energy encoding is appeal - ing for its compatibility with existing telecommunications infrastructure — which lowers the barriers to widespread adoption...the detectors are just below satu- ration . Although much research has focused on extending the range of QKD links well beyond 100 km (17–19

  16. Sight Word Reading in Prereaders: Use of Logographic vs. Alphabetic Access Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Judith Anne; Ehri, Linnea C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates whether prereaders who knew all their letters are better at forming logographic access routes than letter-sound access routes into memory from words read by sight. Concludes that prereaders become capable of forming letter-sound access routes when they learn letters well enough to take advantage of the phonetic cues the letters…

  17. High-Speed Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution Using Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-28

    polarizing beam splitter, TDC: time-to-digital converter. Extra&loss& photon/bin frame size QSER secure bpp ECC secure&key&rate& none& 0.0031 64 14...to-digital converter. photon/frame frame size QSER secure bpp ECC secure&key& rate& 1.3 16 9.5 % 2.9 layered LDPC 7.3&Mbps& Figure 24: Operating

  18. PCOR, CER, and CBPR: alphabet soup or complementary fields of health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jessica G; Jones, Jennifer; Yonas, Michael; Guizzetti, Lisa; Virata, Maria C; Costlow, Monica; Morton, Sally C; Elizabeth, Miller

    2013-12-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and community- based participatory research (CBPR) are two fields of research that do not have a history of strong collaboration. However, CER and CBPR researchers could benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration to design and implement relevant, timely, action-oriented research. This commentary explores field-specific definitions of stakeholders and then outlines various roles stakeholders might play within grant-funded research. Questions such as "What stakeholders should be involved?" and "How are stakeholders involved?" are addressed. The goal of this commentary is to highlight how the expertise and experiences of CBPR investigators can enhance the field of CER and to describe strategies for encouraging stakeholder involvement in CER research through the lens of CBPR. It is recommended that a team-based approach to conducting stakeholder-engaged CER encourages multiple stakeholders and "end users" to contribute their diverse expertise to the research process and contributes to the development of research with an increased likelihood of improving patient health and healthcare. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High-SNR Capacity of AWGN Channels with Generic Alphabet Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    coordinate-independent manner and prove several novel entropy convergence theorems. A particular focus is entropy of random variables on smooth...work with differential entropy in a coordinate-independent manner , as manifolds generally cannot be parameterized entirely by any single coordinate

  20. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-01-01

    them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used

  1. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors (No Dollars), FY83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    RENOVATIONS COMMUNICATIONS APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COMPANIA TELEFONICA NACIONAL DE ES COMMERCIAL RENOVATIONS OF VA INC COMMUNICATIONS CORP OF AMERICA...CONSTRUCTION CO INC M F P ENTERPRISES INC M L ENERGIA INC M B R ASSOCIATES INC M F SERVICES INC M M L COMPUTERS INC M B T B ARCHITECTS & ENGINEERS INC M F...PIZZAGALLI CONSTRUCTION CO INC PINSON A-SOCIATES INC PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE INC PIZZOLI SPA PINTURAS ABREGO S A PIPELINE UTILITY CONSTRUCTION CO PLACE

  2. Analysis of Arguments in the Public Debate on the Alphabet Change in bilingual Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyazzat Kimanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available By focusing on an example of a public social debate on language policy, this article aims at showing the relevant contribution of argument analysis to the understanding of such debates. Argumentative discourse constitutes an essential condition for real democratic practice. Perelman & Olbrechts-Tyteca (1958: 73 point out that the commitment to argumentative practice offers an alternative to the use of violence. The relationship between argumentation and a democratic society is fundamental: argumentation is the substance of democracy, which differs from other social systems in that the only legitimate power is the power of the word. It is free will, which builds on the word alone, that enables us to live together in freedom. An important aspect of democracy, being based on a dialectic ideal, is its uncertain outcome: van Eemeren (2002: 71 characterizes democracy as «institutionalized uncertainty». Thus, insight into the functioning of argumentation contributes significantly to the understanding of democratic processes

  3. 77 FR 17104 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... objects at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, from on or about May 6, 2012, until on or about... United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with...

  4. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    u4 WC4 MA tun w w )4 044 .- 044 4 4-WZ .Z40 W£4 00C 0O O> w10 %4 f~ t 04 04 .- "War, t)e MA tC 40C 10 804:ng W I-0 mint- U 4-M0 W-0 -M :5 : Nz -9 M U...81J~ c -n. 666- -ow a. o aRc ’o ~ . ciaz 1 cia co C.i OW.aa in~~~- zaW m.4 4 "iW Z u I.0 Co" i > 0 W0 0 0I4 01-0011.I0 4IWO 00 )~~~~~~~~4~~~~~ KD I...q I 94 .4 -CMa 0 w maimaZ a4 0A1൉ U* am 160 ow 4 - 2 17 I ~~ ~, 0�L1 1 0H at4.0 t3 zZ4M I 1 .4 hij ZAW ~~*1-I 0~H~~INNM ME10.46 CL0E11 H0 f04 .U.4

  5. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    W0.) I-I0.40- .4 -- -- -- -- -- 0 -- -- - -- -- - -- -- S 5-flMN 044 W q M.40 N- Zu ,o r- r-NM oo IM WH 2 5 5.~.0 "W tun lO()0𔃾 "ts-.- 1..U00 E...H 3-W H04O 0 I-. U3 0 w w - 04 " Ř 0 0 tun N4 - 0 . Xa W 0J w O 4 40w W 00 R ) 64LaW -4 ~ ~ ~ . .o4 ~ a e. 03 H nx M~W004ý OW C!O 0.w- go c < 0 <W< V...ERA"U4 =1 OO ZAW ".e .4 Hi~ - . 114 IIL F 0 00 - 00 1.1 40 .10.0. 0 00. Z4 .4 .4 0 C2 a; < m NO > 0w N.U] 0 NI 0om WI- wU . E-4 04Cl 1-. 0.81- 0.4

  6. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  7. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  8. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in heart failure: where the alphabet begins!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljizeeri, Ahmed; Sulaiman, Abdulbaset; Alhulaimi, Naji; Alsaileek, Ahmed; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become a cornerstone in the evaluation of heart failure. It provides a comprehensive evaluation by answering all the pertinent clinical questions across the full pathological spectrum of heart failure. Nowadays, CMR is considered the gold standard in evaluation of ventricular volumes, wall motion and systolic function. Through its unique ability of tissue characterization, it provides incremental diagnostic and prognostic information and thus has emerged as a comprehensive imaging modality in heart failure. This review outlines the role of main conventional CMR sequences in the evaluation of heart failure and their impact in the management and prognosis.

  9. Hepatitis E: A Newcomer to the Hepatitis Alphabet – Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Weiss

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Canadian case of hepatitis E is described in a patient who travelled to Asia for a six-month period and spent most of his time in India. Hepatitis E shares some similarities with hepatitis A, notably the mode of transmission and the absence of chronic course. However, a few important differences have been noted, including a higher mortality rate and a high fatality rate in pregnant women. Hepatitis E is very common in developing countries and should be suspected more often in individuals with gastrointestinal complaints returning from endemic areas.

  10. Two spelling programmes that promote understanding of the alphabetic principle in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Alves Martins & Cristina Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to test two programmes designed to lead preschool children to use conventional letters to spell the initial consonants of words. These programmes differed in terms of the characteristics of the vowels that followed those consonants. The participants were 45 five-year-old Portuguese children whose spelling was pre-syllabic - they used strings of random letters in their spelling, making no attempt to match the oral to the written language. They were divided into two experimental and a control group. Their age, level of intelligence, and phonological awareness were controlled. Their spelling was assessed in a pre- and a post-test. In-between, children from the experimental groups participated in two programmes where they had to think about the relationships between the initial consonant and the corresponding phoneme in different words: In Experimental Group 1, the initial consonants were followed by an open vowel, and in Experimental Group 2, these same consonants were followed by a closed vowel. The control group classified geometric shapes. Experimental Group 1 achieved better results than Experimental Group 2 following open vowels, being more able to generalize the phonological procedures to sounds that were not taught during the programmes. Both experimental groups used conventional letters to represent several phonemes in the post-test whereas the control group continued to produce pre-syllabic spellings.

  11. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for major efforts in terms of Research and Development, investment aid and operational aid. Should co-financing of this aid include a contribution from sectors which received substantial initial development aid and which are now highly profitable? 8. Since nuclear energy is one of the factors in the debate on tackling climate change and energy self-sufficiency, how can the Community find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste, enhancing nuclear safety and expanding research into the reactors of the future, and in particular fusion technology? 9. Which policies should enable the European Union to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol? What action could be taken in order fully to exploit potential energy savings which would help to reduce both our external dependence and CO 2 emissions? 10. Can an ambitious programme to promote biofuels and other substitute fuels, including hydrogen, geared to 20% of total fuel consumption by 2020, continue to be implemented via national initiatives, or are co-ordinated decisions required on taxation, distribution and prospects for agricultural production? 11. Should energy saving in buildings, whether public or private, new or under renovation, be promoted through incentives such as tax breaks, or are regulatory measures required along the lines of those adopted for major industrial installations? 12. Energy saving in the transport sector depends on redressing the growing imbalance between road haulage and rail. Is this imbalance inevitable, or could corrective action be taken, however unpopular, notably to encourage lower use of cars in urban areas? How can the aims of opening up the sector to competition, investment in infrastructure to remove bottlenecks and inter-modality be reconciled? 13. How can we develop more collaborative visions and integrate the long-term dimension into deliberations and actions undertaken by public authorities and other involved parties in order to evolve a sustainable system of energy supply. How are we to prepare the energy options for the future. (A.L.B.)

  12. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for major efforts in terms of Research and Development, investment aid and operational aid. Should co-financing of this aid include a contribution from sectors which received substantial initial development aid and which are now highly profitable? 8. Since nuclear energy is one of the factors in the debate on tackling climate change and energy self-sufficiency, how can the Community find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste, enhancing nuclear safety and expanding research into the reactors of the future, and in particular fusion technology? 9. Which policies should enable the European Union to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol? What action could be taken in order fully to exploit potential energy savings which would help to reduce both our external dependence and CO{sub 2} emissions? 10. Can an ambitious programme to promote biofuels and other substitute fuels, including hydrogen, geared to 20% of total fuel consumption by 2020, continue to be implemented via national initiatives, or are co-ordinated decisions required on taxation, distribution and prospects for agricultural production? 11. Should energy saving in buildings, whether public or private, new or under renovation, be promoted through incentives such as tax breaks, or are regulatory measures required along the lines of those adopted for major industrial installations? 12. Energy saving in the transport sector depends on redressing the growing imbalance between road haulage and rail. Is this imbalance inevitable, or could corrective action be taken, however unpopular, notably to encourage lower use of cars in urban areas? How can the aims of opening up the sector to competition, investment in infrastructure to remove bottlenecks and inter-modality be reconciled? 13. How can we develop more collaborative visions and integrate the long-term dimension into deliberations and actions undertaken by public authorities and other involved parties in order to evolve a sustainable system of energy supply. How are we to prepare the energy options for the future. (A.L.B.)

  13. Huperzine A protects isolated rat brain mitochondria against beta-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Yang, Ling; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2009-06-01

    Our previous work in cells and animals showed that mitochondria are involved in the neuroprotective effect of huperzine A (HupA). In this study, the effects of HupA on isolated rat brain mitochondria were investigated. In addition to inhibiting the Abeta(25-35) (40 microM)-induced decrease in mitochondrial respiration, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, enzyme activity, and transmembrane potential, HupA (0.01 or 0.1 microM) effectively prevented Abeta-induced mitochondrial swelling, reactive oxygen species increase, and cytochrome c release. More interestingly, administration of HupA to isolated mitochondria promoted the rate of ATP production and blocked mitochondrial swelling caused by normal osmosis. These results indicate that HupA protects mitochondria against Abeta at least in part by preserving membrane integrity and improving energy metabolism. These direct effects on mitochondria further extend the noncholinergic functions of HupA.

  14. A Model for Minimizing Numeric Function Generator Complexity and Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    HUPa = 1-((1-SUP).*(1-MUP).*(1-BUP)).^(1/3);%./sqrt((1-SUP).*(1-MUP).*(1-BUP)); HUPb=(SUP.*MUP.*BUP).^(1/3); close all; plot(x,SUP,x,MUP,x...BUP,x, HUPa ,x,HUPb) legend(’SUP’,’MUP’,’BUP’,’ HUPa ’,’HUPb’) AXIS([0 100 0 1]) end if SUP > 100 SUP = 100; end if MUP > 100 MUP

  15. Expression and functional analysis of the lysine decarboxylase and copper amine oxidase genes from the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Wang, Zhangqian; Jan, Saad; Yang, Qian; Wang, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) isolated from Huperzia serrata is an important compound used to treat Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Recently, HupA was reported in various endophytic fungi, with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 previously isolated from H. serrata shown to produce HupA. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 to elucidate the molecular functions, biological processes, and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences. Ge...

  16. Molecular characterization of a heme-binding protein of Bacteroides fragilis BE1.

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, B R; Kusters, J G; Luirink, J; de Graaf, F K; Oudega, B

    1996-01-01

    An iron-repressible 44-kDa outer membrane protein plays a crucial role in the acquisition of heme by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis. The DNA sequence of the gene encoding the 44-kDa protein (hupA) was determined. The hupA gene encodes a protein of 431 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 48,189 Da. The hupA gene is preceded by an open reading frame of 480 bp that probably encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 18,073 Da. hupA and this open readi...

  17. Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersner, R; Ekstein, D; Dhamne, S C; Schachter, S C; Rotenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. While HupA is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, its full pharmacologic profile is incompletely described. Since previous works suggested a capacity for HupA to prophylax against seizures, we tested the HupA antiepileptic potential in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat epilepsy model and explored its mechanism of action by spectral EEG analysis and by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS), a measure of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition. We tested whether HupA suppresses seizures in the rat PTZ acute seizure model, and quantified latency to first myoclonus and to generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and spike frequency on EEG. Additionally, we measured power in the EEG gamma frequency band which is associated with GABAergic cortical interneuron activation. Then, as a step toward further examining the HupA antiepileptic mechanism of action, we tested long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) using ppTMS coupled with electromyography to assess whether HupA augments GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition of the motor evoked potential. We also tested whether the HupA effect on paired-pulse inhibition was central or peripheral by comparison of outcomes following administration of HupA or the peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine. We also tested whether the HupA effect was dependent on central muscarinic or GABAA receptors by co-administration of HupA and atropine or PTZ, respectively. In tests of antiepileptic potential, HupA suppressed seizures and epileptic spikes on EEG. Spectral EEG analysis also revealed enhanced gamma frequency band power with HupA treatment. By ppTMS we found that HupA increases intracortical inhibition and blocks PTZ-induced cortical excitation. Atropine co-administration with HupA did not alter HupA-induced intracortical inhibition suggesting independent of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors mechanism in this model

  18. Reducing iron in the brain: a novel pharmacologic mechanism of huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Tian; Qian, Zhong-Ming; He, Xuan; Gong, Qi; Wu, Ka-Chun; Jiang, Li-Rong; Lu, Li-Na; Zhu, Zhou-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2014-05-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase derived from a plant, is a licensed anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United States. In addition to acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, HupA possesses neuroprotective properties. However, the relevant mechanism is unknown. Here, we showed that the neuroprotective effect of HupA was derived from a novel action on brain iron regulation. HupA treatment reduced insoluble and soluble beta amyloid levels, ameliorated amyloid plaques formation, and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic AD mice. Also, HupA decreased beta amyloid oligomers and amyloid precursor protein levels, and increased A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease Domain 10 (ADAM10) expression in these treated AD mice. However, these beneficial effects of HupA were largely abolished by feeding the animals with a high iron diet. In parallel, we found that HupA decreased iron content in the brain and demonstrated that HupA also has a role to reduce the expression of transferrin-receptor 1 as well as the transferrin-bound iron uptake in cultured neurons. The findings implied that reducing iron in the brain is a novel mechanism of HupA in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K T; Marsh, M; Higgins, N P

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 17. (Singer Company, The-Syscon Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0000000000>C) ) 0 00000 > C 0 00 0 D0 0 C 0 00Q 0 00 0C0 00 M’l 11 10 ,11 11W 𔃼 c Wis w I ( L53 .WCl) szIt o u~j g- ~ Lzzzzz zzz zz zzzzzz 100 WC’JMMXIMIO...cootfomI r r nI nI r InIn LAAAAAfLILL LI IInlnA1 CL td 10 M 0(D00 If O n (74 q 4< n o 00 toc Y nmC)mmc Y lmmo 1lC’) WI I0)(04 11 -0 00 InIL ur o00 0...4 00 00 00 00 00 00 I -.4 IM COT I C -. 4 td -I 413-4 -T -4 00 C c44 (0(M0N0(CON 0o0IIO IIm x ( 0>C’ 0 -4 M U J1) < (1n- Na-4N~O-4 lf MO II 1 LA LA CN

  1. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....V., Blvd. Agua Caliente 1381, Colonia Revolucion, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico [SDNTK..., Argentina; Avenida Portugal No. 20, Of. 27-Comuna Santiago Centro, Santiago, Chile; Av. Rufino Torrico 981..., Sudan [SUDAN] AGBAS CONSULTORES, S.A. DE C.V. (a.k.a. AGBA CONSULTORES CASA DE CAMBIO), Blv Agua...

  2. RVUs, SGR, RUC, and Alphabet Soup: Utility of an iPad App to Teach Healthcare Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Ana P; Baird, Grayson L; Ashkan, Mark; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an iPad app for teaching healthcare economics milestones. Institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant survey assessment of radiology residents' knowledge of healthcare economics before and following review of the Healthcare Economics iPad app was undertaken at two residencies. Residents received an electronic link to the pre survey, answered 13 general knowledge questions, rated their knowledge of healthcare economics milestones, and reported any prior economics/business background. During the conference, residents reviewed the app on their iPads. They then received a link to the post survey. Responses were entered using REDCap and a unique yet anonymous code was used to link each resident's pre and post results. A follow-up survey was completed at 3 months using REDCap. Sixty-two of 69 (90%) residents completed the pre survey. Mean and median age was 30 years. Thirty-two of 62 (52%) were men and 30/62 (48%) were women. Twenty-nine percent (18/62) were postgraduate year (PGY) 2, 24% (15/62) PGY 3, 19% (12/62) PGY 4, 26% (16/62) PGY 5, and 1.6% (1/62) PGY 6. Thirty-four percent (21/62) reported some economics/business background. Residents' mean self-assessment of their knowledge of healthcare economics milestones was fair on the pre survey, significantly improved on the post survey, and plateaued at 3 months. Fifty-nine residents completed the post survey; 60 completed the 3-month follow-up. Residents demonstrated a significant increase in healthcare economics knowledge on post survey. At 3-month follow-up, significant decreases in gained knowledge were observed only in residents for whom the material was not integrated into the curriculum. Teaching with iPad apps offers an alternative, effective way to teach basics of healthcare economics milestones. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 1 (101 International-Allied Signal Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    C3 I’l- (D m cn ’t C14 r- In -I r c,) r- r-- c> r-- " cj -4 in tD I-- cy) a) In -T -4 to I rj it (74 -It 0 m t Cl) r- -4 -1 11 m (71) f- C1.1 * lr In t...4-4 -4---4 "’ -. ICL,_ 400 40 a Z o InZ -0 02zz LA- LAL uI, LI L, ,L L . 4BD . 110 (1 ( 0 0> 0 0 Q-JIf 𔃾(1 𔃺- C(1( LA - r l) D-4 -44 m-4 00 LA-I...It co 00 a (D (D C> C\\j c"I c"I M C1) U’) (D CD to C,4 C> 0 C> Cj 1 C) (D C, 11 C., 0 r, CY) Of In M CMD M> In < M < r" -4 -1 -4 tD C> C. C) (JO (D C

  4. OPPE, FPPE, QPS, and why the alphabet soup of physician assessment is essential for safer patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Michael L

    Creating a successful quality and patient safety program requires a multifaceted approach that systematically reviews overall systems and processes, but also creates a standardized framework for evaluating individual practitioner performance on a routine basis. There are two required elements of competency assessment that are typically tied to the hospital credentialing process: ongoing professional practice evaluation (OPPE) and focused professional practice evaluation (FPPE). Each of these processes are mandated by the Joint Commission, and form an important cornerstone for ensuring adequate physician performance and knowledge base. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Doctors as Stewards of medicare, or not: CAMSI, MRG, CDM, DRHC and the thin alphabet soup of physician support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Jacalyn

    2018-07-01

    Physicians are deeply involved in Canadian medicare because it is through medicare that they are paid. However, from its origins to the present physicians -as a profession - have not been strong supporters of medicare. Fearing loss of income and individual autonomy, they have frequently opposed it with criticisms, strikes, threatened job action and lawsuits. Some opponents are unaware that medicare was a boon to physician income, and many fail to connect medicare with responsibility for improving the health status of the country. This paper will trace physician involvement, support and opposition to medicare from its inception to the present, with special attention to small physician organizations that have supported medicare. It will close with a proposal for how doctors could display greater stewardship.

  6. Incorporating Stroke and Bleeding Risk Stratification Tools into Atrial Fibrillation Management Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia managed by many physicians in a variety of clinical settings. One of the most important clinical decisions related to effective AF management centers upon the need to perform accurate thromboembolic risk stratification followed by effective management decisions that align with established guidelines. This manuscript will review the present state of the art and provide guidance to physicians to enhance patient outcomes.

  7. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths. Alphabetical Index by Name, 1 October 1979 Through 30 September 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    DE LME NDO G E R A R D O MAR I GZA A I R F O R C E D E LMUNDO L I LY F E D E R I S NAVY D E LOACH B O B B Y D E A N A I R F ORCE D E LOGE B...YAN LAMON EAR LE JAME S ARTHUR EAR LEY KEN W EAR LEY R OB E R T WI L L IAM J R EAR LS M I CHAE L G EAR LS OMAR DALE EAR LY BE N JAMIN J R...8 9 B R OOK LYN E 0 4 2 2 F e b 8 2 KEN TON E 0 7 14 D e c 9 1 R OCKH I L L 0 0 2 1 4 J u l 8 1 T E XAS C I T Y E 0 6 24 Oc t 7 9

  8. "In the same way a poem contains the alphabet": the significance of translation in William I. Grossman's Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail S

    2009-02-01

    William I. Grossman's contributions to psychoanalysis have been insufficiently appreciated, perhaps because his writing is concentrated and his meaning consequently difficult to unpack. One of his most important contributions is a remarkable description of the systematic way Freud imagined, thought, and theorized, beginning long before he created psychoanalysis. This way of thinking exemplifies Freud's theories even as it organizes his thinking. It is flexible, expandable, hierarchical, and recursive. Grossman's reading provides a window into Freud's texts that yields exciting new insights, including the idea that a transformative version of translation, a perception of the way Freud thinks creatively, may help psychoanalysts of different cultures and systems of thought communicate across boundaries. André Green's concept of the pathological negative is used as an example of how Grossman's Freud can facilitate a crossing of cultural and theoretical boundaries.

  9. A DNA Structural Alphabet Distinguishes Structural Features of DNA Bound to Regulatory Proteins and in the Nucleosome Core Particle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneider, Bohdan; Bozikova, Paulina; Čech, P.; Svozil, D.; Černý, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 278. ISSN 2073-4425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001777 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : DNA * DNA-protein recognition * transcription factors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2016

  10. Theoretical Characterization of the H-Bonding and Stacking Potential of Two Non-Standard Nucleobases Expanding the Genetic Alphabet

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit; Credendino, Raffaele; Chermak, Edrisse; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    :C base pair, has been introduced in DNA molecules for expanding the genetic code. Our results indicate that the Z:P base pair closely mimics the G:C base pair both in terms of structure and stability. To clarify the role of the NO2 group on the C5

  11. Bibliography of PNL publications in management of radioactive wastes, subject-indexed (alphabetically) and listed chronologically (latest issues first)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.A.

    1976-07-01

    The citations are arranged under: actinides, alpha particles, americium, beta particles, calcination, cements, ceramics, cesium, containers, decontamination, evaporation, fluidized bed, glass, ground release, high-level wastes, incinerators, liquid wastes, marine disposal, melting, nonradioactive waste disposal, Pu, radiation doses, radiation protection, disposal, processing, radionuclide migration, Ru, safety, separation processes, soils, solidification, solid wastes, stack disposal, temperature, thermal conductivity, transmutation, tritium, underground disposal, U, volatility, and waste disposal/management/processing/storage/transportation

  12. Exploring the potential of a structural alphabet-based tool for mining multiple target conformations and target flexibility insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regad, Leslie; Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Triki, Dhoha; Senac, Caroline; Flatters, Delphine; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Protein flexibility is often implied in binding with different partners and is essential for protein function. The growing number of macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank entries and their redundancy has become a major source of structural knowledge of the protein universe. The analysis of structural variability through available redundant structures of a target, called multiple target conformations (MTC), obtained using experimental or modeling methods and under different biological conditions or different sources is one way to explore protein flexibility. This analysis is essential to improve the understanding of various mechanisms associated with protein target function and flexibility. In this study, we explored structural variability of three biological targets by analyzing different MTC sets associated with these targets. To facilitate the study of these MTC sets, we have developed an efficient tool, SA-conf, dedicated to capturing and linking the amino acid and local structure variability and analyzing the target structural variability space. The advantage of SA-conf is that it could be applied to divers sets composed of MTCs available in the PDB obtained using NMR and crystallography or homology models. This tool could also be applied to analyze MTC sets obtained by dynamics approaches. Our results showed that SA-conf tool is effective to quantify the structural variability of a MTC set and to localize the structural variable positions and regions of the target. By selecting adapted MTC subsets and comparing their variability detected by SA-conf, we highlighted different sources of target flexibility such as induced by binding partner, by mutation and intrinsic flexibility. Our results support the interest to mine available structures associated with a target using to offer valuable insight into target flexibility and interaction mechanisms. The SA-conf executable script, with a set of pre-compiled binaries are available at http://www.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr/recherche/plateformes/logiciels.

  13. Exploring the potential of a structural alphabet-based tool for mining multiple target conformations and target flexibility insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Regad

    Full Text Available Protein flexibility is often implied in binding with different partners and is essential for protein function. The growing number of macromolecular structures in the Protein Data Bank entries and their redundancy has become a major source of structural knowledge of the protein universe. The analysis of structural variability through available redundant structures of a target, called multiple target conformations (MTC, obtained using experimental or modeling methods and under different biological conditions or different sources is one way to explore protein flexibility. This analysis is essential to improve the understanding of various mechanisms associated with protein target function and flexibility. In this study, we explored structural variability of three biological targets by analyzing different MTC sets associated with these targets. To facilitate the study of these MTC sets, we have developed an efficient tool, SA-conf, dedicated to capturing and linking the amino acid and local structure variability and analyzing the target structural variability space. The advantage of SA-conf is that it could be applied to divers sets composed of MTCs available in the PDB obtained using NMR and crystallography or homology models. This tool could also be applied to analyze MTC sets obtained by dynamics approaches. Our results showed that SA-conf tool is effective to quantify the structural variability of a MTC set and to localize the structural variable positions and regions of the target. By selecting adapted MTC subsets and comparing their variability detected by SA-conf, we highlighted different sources of target flexibility such as induced by binding partner, by mutation and intrinsic flexibility. Our results support the interest to mine available structures associated with a target using to offer valuable insight into target flexibility and interaction mechanisms. The SA-conf executable script, with a set of pre-compiled binaries are available at http://www.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr/recherche/plateformes/logiciels.

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 7 (Delta Engineering Services - Electronic Design Engr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    M m CV) In4 4 m -nW nmU I C4 innonn 02-40 o . M 1 Ŝ if f8 r- r-4 -V ,MT "f.mmt ,m -P - .I)t )o I Mf *in 040 if -P4-m MI N--4-4-4- PI rI.PP NN 4 0 r...4 U000 0 4 NIO G0.0 se f8 a0 ag0l 000 w00 0040 00c OD 0W040o4O EW 1U-4 £a Oo* -Q4.4 100 040 COO31 00n 00313 00 0-0,0- $.-a£ 40-1 a Uls. 0 0 .4-4 M NN...01.4 0 3 .40iM16t-00t-40.-4 OW 0dM’ t& 0r 0 8o acCa 0 a o o E00 1,12 0008-4 .4 00 0(0A - 3: 60 1 000 00 00 00 0 V0 ( A 1.-*S~ Z.-0N0 -I 0N 4N A)w 0

  15. Theoretical Characterization of the H-Bonding and Stacking Potential of Two Non-Standard Nucleobases Expanding the Genetic Alphabet

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-02-16

    We report a quantum chemical characterization of the non-natural (synthetic) H-bonded base pair formed by 6-amino-5-nitro-2(1H)-pyridone (Z) and 2-amino-imidazo [1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (P). The Z:P base pair, orthogonal to the classical G:C base pair, has been introduced in DNA molecules for expanding the genetic code. Our results indicate that the Z:P base pair closely mimics the G:C base pair both in terms of structure and stability. To clarify the role of the NO2 group on the C5 position of the Z base, we compared the stability of the Z:P base pair with that of base pairs having different functional group on the C5 position of Z. Our results indicate that the electron donating/withdrawing properties of the group in the C5 position has a clear impact on the stability of the Z:P base pair, with the strong electron withdrawing nitro group achieving the largest stabilizing effect on the H-bonding interaction, and the strong electron donating NH2 group destabilizing the Z:P pair by almost 4 kcal/mol. Finally, our gas phase and in water calculations confirm that the Z-nitro group reinforce the stacking interaction with its adjacent purine or pyrimidine ring.

  16. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  17. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (HupA is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  18. He Is Dug Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth; And Others

    The life of a primary mythical character of the Hupa culture unfolds in this story, which was translated from a version told by an 82-year-old Hupa. The introduction summarizes the story plot explaining that the hero of the story is born under strange circumstances (dug up by a girl who ignores the warning not to dig potatoes with two leaves) and…

  19. Origin of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  20. In vitro production of huperzine A, a promising drug candidate for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

    2008-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is growing in impact on human health. With no known cure, AD is one of the most expensive diseases in the world to treat. Huperzine A (HupA), a anti-AD drug candidate from the traditional Chinese medicine Qian Ceng Ta (Huperzia serrata), has been shown to be a powerful and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has attracted widespread attention because of its unique pharmacological activities and low toxicity. As a result, HupA is becoming an important lead compound for drugs to treat AD. HupA is obtained naturally from very limited and slowly growing natural resources, members of the Huperziaceae. Unfortunately, the content of HupA is very low in the raw plant material. This has led to strong interest in developing sources of HupA. We have developed a method to propagate in vitro tissues of Phlegmariurus squarrosus, a member of the Huperziaceae, that produce high levels of HupA. The in vitro propagated tissues produce even higher levels of HupA than the natural plant, and may represent an excellent source for HupA.

  1. Expression and functional analysis of the lysine decarboxylase and copper amine oxidase genes from the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Wang, Zhangqian; Jan, Saad; Yang, Qian; Wang, Mo

    2017-06-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) isolated from Huperzia serrata is an important compound used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, HupA was reported in various endophytic fungi, with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 previously isolated from H. serrata shown to produce HupA. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 to elucidate the molecular functions, biological processes, and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes assignments allowed annotation of lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and copper amine oxidase (CAO) for their conversion of L-lysine to 5-aminopentanal during HupA biosynthesis. Additionally, we constructed a stable, high-yielding HupA-expression system resulting from the overexpression of CgLDC and CgCAO from the HupA-producing endophytic fungus C. gloeosporioides ES026 in Escherichia coli. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed CgLDC and CgCAO expression, and quantitative determination of HupA levels was assessed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, which revealed that elevated expression of CgLDC and CgCAO produced higher yields of HupA than those derived from C. gloeosporioides ES026. These results revealed CgLDC and CgCAO involvement in HupA biosynthesis and their key role in regulating HupA content in C. gloeosporioides ES026.

  2. Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-04-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.

  3. Human pathogenic bacteria as contaminants in freshly consumed vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) outbreak in Germany casted new light on the potential reservoirs of human pathogenic bacteria (HUPA) other than the ones commonly recognized in animal production chains. Soil, plants and water systems were demonstrated to be environments where HUPA

  4. HU participates in expression of a specific set of genes required for growth and survival at acidic pH in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Sun, Lianle; Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    The major histone-like Escherichia coli protein, HU, is composed of alpha and beta subunits respectively encoded by hupA and hupB in Escherichia coli. A mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB grew at a slightly slower rate than the wild type at pH 7.5. Growth of the mutant diminished with a decrease in pH, and no growth was observed at pH 4.6. Mutants of either hupA or hupB grew at all pH levels tested. The arginine-dependent survival at pH 2.5 was diminished approximately 60-fold by the deletion of both hupA and hupB, whereas the survival was slightly affected by the deletion of either hupA or hupB. The mRNA levels of adiA and adiC, which respectively encode arginine decarboxylase and arginine/agmatine antiporter, were low in the mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB. The deletion of both hupA and hupB had little effect on survival at pH 2.5 in the presence of glutamate or lysine, and expression of the genes for glutamate and lysine decarboxylases was not impaired by the deletion of the HU genes. These results suggest that HU regulates expression of the specific set of genes required for growth and survival in acidic environments.

  5. Huperzine A alleviates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and improves cognitive function after repetitive traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhengrong; Zheng, Peiying; Tan, Xiangping; Wang, Ying; Situ, Bing

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may trigger secondary injury cascades including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments targeting either primary or secondary injuries that result in long-term detrimental consequences. Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) that has been used treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of HupA in TBI and its possible mechanisms. Repetitive mild closed head injury (CHI) model was used to mimic concussive TBI. Mice were randomly assigned into three groups including sham, vehicle-treated and HupA-treated injured mice. The HupA was given at dose of 1.0 mg/kg/day and was initiated 30 min after the first injury, then administered daily for a total of 30 days. The neuronal functions including motor functions, emotion-like behaviors, learning and memory were tested. Axonal injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuroinflammation were examined as well. The results showed that injured mice treated with HupA had significant improvement in Morris water maze performance compared with vehicle-treated injured mice. HupA treatment significantly attenuated markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the injured mice. Taken together, HupA was effective in reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and behavioral recovery after TBI. HupA is a promising candidate for treatment of TBI.

  6. Effects of huperzine A on secretion of nerve growth factor in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-li; Wang, Rui; Tang, Xi-can

    2005-06-01

    To study the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on neuritogenic activity and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). After being treated with 10 micromol/L HupA, neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells was observed and counted under phase-contrast microscopy. Mitogenic activity was assayed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. AChE activity, mRNA and protein expression were measured by the Ellman method, RT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. NGF mRNA and protein levels were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA assays. Treatment of PC12 cells with 10 micromol/L HupA for 48 h markedly increased the number of neurite-bearing cells, but caused no significant alteration in cell viability or other signs of cytotoxicity. In addition to inhibiting AChE activity, 10 micromol/L HupA also increased the mRNA and protein levels of this enzyme. In addition, following 2 h exposure of the astrocytes to 10 micromol/L HupA, there was a significant up-regulation of mRNA for NGF and P75 low-affinity NGF receptor. The protein level of NGF was also increased after 24 h treatment with HupA. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that HupA has a direct or indirect neurotrophic activity, which might be beneficial in treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease.

  7. Is there a better source of huperzine A than Huperzia serrata? Huperzine A content of Huperziaceae species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoqiang; Tan, Changheng; Zhu, Dayuan; Gang, David R

    2005-03-09

    A precise and selective reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantifying huperzine A (HupA) in samples of the Huperziaceae in China. This method was used to quantify the levels of HupA in samples of Huperzia serrata collected from a single population at different times of the year, in different organs of the same H. serrata plant, and from different geographical locations of H. serrata plants in China. For different species of Huperziaceae, the highest content of HupA was found in Phlegmariurus carinatus. Members of the genus Phlegmariurus possessed higher levels of HupA than Huperzia species. H. serrata plants growing in humid forests contained significantly more HupA than plants growing in less humid environments. Finally, HupA content varied significantly by season, with the highest levels being found in mid fall and the lowest levels in early spring, suggesting that HupA is turned over in the plant.

  8. Huperzine A ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via the suppression of T cell-mediated neuronal inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Fu; Zheng, Peng; Deng, Weijuan; Yuan, Jia; Peng, Bo; Wang, Ruochen; Liu, Wenjun; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yanqing; Wu, Gencheng

    2012-07-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a sesquiterpene alkaloid and a potent and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, possesses potential anti-inflammatory properties and is used for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. However, it is still unknown whether this chemical is beneficial in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, a progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory properties of HupA in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a T-cell mediated murine model of multiple sclerosis. The following results were obtained: (1) intraperitoneal injections of HupA significantly attenuate the neurological severity of EAE in mice. (2) HupA decreases the accumulation of inflammatory cells, autoimmune-related demyelination and axonal injury in the spinal cords of EAE mice. (3) HupA down-regulates mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) and chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, and TWEAK) while enhancing levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the spinal cords of EAE mice. (4) HupA inhibits MOG(35-55) stimulation-induced T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in cultured splenocytes. (5) HupA inhibition of T-cell proliferation is reversed by the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine. We conclude that HupA can ameliorate EAE by suppressing autoimmune responses, inflammatory reactions, subsequent demyelination and axonal injury in the spinal cord. Therefore, HupA may have a potential therapeutic value for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and as a neuroimmunomodulatory drug to control human CNS pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Huperzine alkaloids from Australasian and southeast Asian Huperzia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Han; Goodger, Jason Q D; Field, Ashley R; Holtum, Joseph A M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    The pharmaceutical alkaloid huperzine A (HupA), currently used in herbal supplements and medicines worldwide, is predominantly sourced from the Chinese lycopod Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. (Lycopodiaceae), which on average contains only 0.08 mg HupA g(-1) dry weight, and is experiencing a rapid decline in China due to over-harvesting. To find a high-yielding, natural source of HupA and/or the related huperzine B (HupB) that could potentially be used as the starting material in a commercial propagation program. We surveyed 17 Huperzia species (15 indigenous to Australia and southeast Asia) for their foliar HupA and HupB concentrations. We also studied intra-specific variation for the huperzines in four species that were available in sufficient numbers, and determined tissue-specific accumulation in larger specimens. HupA was detected in 11 Australasian and southeast Asian species, with eight also containing HupB, albeit at much lower concentrations. A H. elmeri (Herter) Holub plant from the Philippines had one of the highest HupA concentrations recorded (1.01 mg g(-1) dry wt) and it also had the highest HupB content of all plants surveyed (0.34 mg g(-1) dry wt). Intra-specific HupA and HupB concentrations were extremely variable, and at the intra-plant level, reproductive strobili were found to accumulate the highest HupA concentrations. Select Huperzia species from Australia and southeast Asia have potential as the starting material for establishing commercial HupA plantations, but the high intra-specific variability observed suggests that detailed screening is needed to isolate high huperzine-yielding individuals.

  10. Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Yan, Han; Tang, Xi-can

    2006-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase(AChE). Compared with tacrine, donepezil, and rivastigmine, HupA has better penetration through the blood-brain barrier, higher oral bioavailability, and longer duration of AChE inhibitory action. HupA has been found to improve cognitive deficits in a broad range of animal models. HupA possesses the ability to protect cells against hydrogen peroxide, beta-amyloid protein (or peptide), glutamate, ischemia and staurosporine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. These protective effects are related to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, regulate the expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, P53, and caspase-3, protect mitochondria, upregulate nerve growth factor and its receptors, and interfere with amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Antagonizing effects of HupA on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and potassium currents may also contribute to its neuroprotection as well. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents, canines, and healthy human volunteers indicated that HupA was absorbed rapidly, distributed widely in the body, and eliminated at a moderate rate with the property of slow and prolonged release after oral administration. Animal and clinical safety tests showed that HupA had no unexpected toxicity, particularly the dose-limiting hepatotoxicity induced by tacrine. The phase IV clinical trials in China have demonstrated that HupA significantly improved memory deficits in elderly people with benign senescent forgetfulness, and patients with Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, with minimal peripheral cholinergic side effects and no unexpected toxicity. HupA can also be used as a protective agent against organophosphate intoxication.

  11. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 10. Input S R L-Kodensha Company, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 7. Fairlane Gear, Incorporated-General Fiberglass Fabricators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 17. Southwest Ordnance Supply-Taylor-Made Hose, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

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  15. Structural and energetic characterization of the emissive RNA alphabet based on the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle core

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit; Poater, Albert; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical characterization of fluorescent non-natural nucleobases, tzA, tzG, tzC, and tzU, derived from the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle. Consistent with the experimental evidence, our calculations show that the non-natural bases have minimal impact on the geometry and stability of the classical Watson-Crick base pairs, allowing them to accurately mimic natural bases in a RNA duplex, in terms of H-bonding. In contrast, our calculations indicate that H-bonded base pairs involving the Hoogsteen edge are destabilized relative to their natural counterparts. Analysis of the photophysical properties of the non-natural bases allowed us to correlate their absorption/emission peaks to the strong impact of the modification on the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO, which is stabilized by roughly 1.0-1.2 eV relative to the natural analogues, while the highest occupied molecular orbital, HOMO, is not substantially affected. As a result, the HOMO-LUMO gap is reduced from 5.3-5.5 eV in the natural bases to 4.0-4.4 eV in the modified ones, with a consequent bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra. © 2016 the Owner Societies.

  16. Theoretical Characterization of Sulfur-to-Selenium Substitution in an Emissive RNA Alphabet: Impact on H-bonding Potential and Photophysical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit; Poater, Albert; Besalu-Sala, Pau; Kalra, Kanav; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    of the classical Watson-Crick base pairs, thus potentially mimicking the natural bases in a RNA duplex in terms of H-bonding. In contrast, our calculations indicate that H-bonded base pairs involving the Hoogsteen edge of purines are destabilized as compared

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 85. Part 16 (Pilot Electric Co - Reyex Corporation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 9 (Hewlett Packard Company, Foster City, California - International Bus MCHS Corp, Louisville, Kentucky), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

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  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 9 (Good-All Electric - Hi Grade Food Products).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 16. (Prime Mover Company, The-Rodriguez General Contractors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

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  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 20 (Tru & Associates Inc-VTM Group Joint Venture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 1 (102 Construction Inc, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma - American Management Systems Inc, Linthicum, Maryland), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    20 z 00 0 0 0 U 0 Q 0 ge N iI co cm 0 I.- 1.- 00)o 0 -4 " I.- " .- Z. -4 P.- ZV F- CC a 2 $ toN U1 no 0j C o4 cI 0 F6 - C - P.- 0) 540 C) "o0 6-U M...0 40 0 0 C4 0. 0 0 0 -0 400 0 U I 4N0a a .0. Nl -.4-. .1 .4 -4-I -4 W4 -6 0.4-4 Ř U 0490 0. .OW co co) 4c Lo cco c) co) toA inL0) ACCA C I -N4C a4... f6 ION *600 0 co 0 C.) 00 - o - 46 IOMN a- x-2 Za a N o 0 -C-0 0- 1-- W41 30 10 64V 8- 4 0 0- 41 41) 0 0 0 1NIO Wr1- z 2 I- 10 20 I. 0 1- ION1 NO 4

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 13. (Marshall Electronics. Inc.-Monarch Crown Corp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

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  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 10 (Hi Plains Supply - International Cnslt Eng Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

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  5. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 11. Kodet Architectural Group-Mantech Field Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    8217’ C4J C >)> Cm (0 C’) C- ir40 0 -4-4N (4 0 0 .- .>’ .- . ~ - - C 4NL.4- N04.. (0 M’) C -00)0 N U C -(D tD C ,’ m0 0- r, O N N 0 V I- CNFL O4 .0 U 0...10 0646I 0- -I WN 0 Z-D0 I-C’ C-C’) 01 O 6-0 C’)’ C’) 0 ’-40 0l11 0 0 CD C’)U CC C ) TD N0l 06 N- 0.60 00 00000 on 00 0, C. C 000 00 00 000) _𔃺 -’l) U...W LJ "- C C :34 N m4 1 0 w 4 n-it un w N nN r, v 3- 4bD )n0wt400 040 cCO 0n 00 V cl 00a) C)O0LA m-4 I4 N 0413 4 VMPP,?-0V VN 4 (D W 04 4O(D0) 00 cc -4

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 9 (Smith S J Co Inc-Univar Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    22 3 i OQC02 0309 F49642-81-C0065 A C A 5 2 2 7030 000 51 ADP SOFTWARE 8 4 6 5 J 1001 5 B J I D SOFTWARE MODULE MARKETING INC WASHINGTON DC 034899...A U 1 L 553 SPECIAL MARKETS REPLACEMEN )22 C C Z 1 2 2 6130 000 A7 CONVERTERS ELECTRICAL NON RO 8 A 3 5 J 1026 5 A J 1 K 373 1 E OAJO9 1516 DAAJ09-83...C0527 B C A 5 2 2 8925 000 82 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 A 3 6 J O1B 1 B J IJ ..4 4 B 0013H 8340 OLA13H-83-C0705 B C A 5 2 2 8920 000 82 BAKERY

  7. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 8 (Piros Construction Inc-Smith Russ Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    0087A B C Z 1 2 2 8920 000 B2 BAKERY AND CEREAL PRODUCTS 6 6 4 5 A 09 7 B J 3 A 31 4 I 00137 55 13H-83-50087 C C A 1 2 2 8925 000 62 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY ...MEAT POULTRY AND FISH 6 2 3 5 C 09 1B J I A 4 A 0013H 2589 DLA13H-83-CC283 E C Z 1 2 2 8925 000 B2 SUGAR CONFECTIONERY AND NUTS 6 2 3 5 C 09 1B J A 4...6720 000 C9C CAMERAS STILL PICTURE 6 A 3 5 J 1015 5 B J I D 12, LOCATION TOTAL 2 161 REFINERS MARKETING CO TERMINAL ISLAND CALIFORNIA 717900 7060 05 2 C

  8. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 12 (McFadden Jimmy, Portugal - NCR Japan LTD, Japan), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    co0 Z1--.-0) ) Mm𔄁’ -4-4 0- HM. I 0O-4 H 0r- 01r- 01r- 01-, 0 000Cl0 C 1 -4 xo)0) -I qt4 od w -4 HO 00 0~ .0 00 Wix wOC L44 WJOU WM WOO IL H I0-4 H1...1 1000U -JO -JO -j 0CO4O .-. *O 2 2 0 0 0 Uf C 13 (N if wOO cW c.0OOL . O WO W’-- Lj4 L1.000 WeB $- wi - 3-0 - W0 U a 03 ILN (L 0.- CL- CL In0h...0 0 0 0 0 0 -400c -40 -40 m"- r.00 4N10 .4. 1 ge4 63 1I I 3 I I I 1- 3 60 000 0 00 0* W2 0 In 10 6 LUi I WIX >0 6 .- i.4 4 4 4 .4-4_ 4 ._4-IN -iN -IN

  9. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 11 (Lemmon Company, Sellersville Pennsylvania - McEwen Construction, Beale AFB, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

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  10. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths: Alphabetical Index by Name, (Aakhus Daniel Joseph - Zysk Carol Rose), October 1, 1979 thru September 30, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    0 w -’-wwI 0 x j- j 00-j4"Zw:3 w 0( 4 0o -J -J -oe-o 4z £0 wZ OO z£𔃾 wix 0wx 0LU ’-4 £0I-41-4000 n 4 0C L 00)1 0 Z0 - - - J z 441 3A cc’-j4A aA CL...4 0 I-4 0oZ.j". o 0 X 0 < oo0 0 w w < " I.- 5 i- I..l34 Z- w - 44. x w 0m -44 41 4 z .444.. wIx 0U) 0 _jZ00 Z00_ jw< e< c J- w 4 . .. z-Cc w w "x w...W >> 0 00 1.-)-) :1-- x I-- ww>3 n9N14 wwmOwmOwb bEbEbE E UbEbE -414 bE ULJ E LU uE wEb EU b Eb EU b Eb Eb Eb Eb 00 0 0 w w 0c ~)00 00 0 0 P4 U- A

  11. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 16 (South Dakota [State of], Brookings, South Dakota - Tekna, Mountain View, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    4 - %-) N6- NN 4 .4 C.4 0 .4N Ho. up r-( r- N4 Nn NO. N N- NN M 040 H >.A WIx 0 -Cl 4c. q*j r- W W4 en H~C t-4OHI C00 C4 (D V 00 000~0 o CO a ccN H𔃺...I- I-- ə IW C-4 /) I-I. z I.- 2 z 2 Z z 3 IS I We-i if < 00 1-1 0 #-4 1-0 I- 1-4 0- < IS I Web Uo IP- I-- If M" ISO a a a 0 0 a 1-i ,0W UZ IS Z 2w 2...C4 C4 C4 Cj C-4 e4 C4 C4 C,4 cm ൌ (4 cli 04 " cli cm CS1 C4 e4 cm C14 c4cljcqclI"NNe4rqNN CIA CS1 C4 eq C14 C14 C4 C4 N C4 CSI eq C4 1 131 wix

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 7, (McKee Roofing Co Inc-Pirelli Cable Corp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    TRUCTI13N, ALL OTHER NON-B 8 \\ 3 4 1 O1B T B .j 0 CONTRACTOR TOTAL 2 156 ME(CHANICSBURG TRUCKING SERVICE CO HERSHEY PA 03141*7 2175 39 ? C J4110 1801...cgB DRUGS BIOLOGICALS AND OFFICI 6 A 4 5 A 07 6 B I 2 I 4 F 00120 1996 DLA120-82-D0773 B C A 5 2 2 6505 000 C9B DRUGS BIOLOGICALS AND OFFICI 6 A 4 5 B...LOCATION TOTAL 12 1,794 1 A OEAO8 1 C OEAO8 E5 TEL & TEL CO PETERSON AFB COLORADO 014754 2175 06 1 D OEAO8 )2 DCA200-78-HO015 B C Z 5 2 2 S1t3 000 S1

  13. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 6 (Johnson Textile & Plastics Co-McKee Robert E Gen Contractor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    C B C A 1 2 2 6508 000 C9B MEDICATED COSMETICS AND TOIL 6 4 3 5 A 07 1 B J 1 B 141 4 G 00700 4089 DLA700-82-C C C A 1 2 2 7930 000 C9E CLEANING...TECH REP SERVICES /CONSTRUCT 7 7 3 J A 160 MCCLENDON AUTOMATION CO FENTON MISSOURI 587280 2770 26 5 H OCW31 0125 DACW31-T2 31 B C A 5 2 2 1560 CMG A2

  14. Structural and energetic characterization of the emissive RNA alphabet based on the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle core

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2016-06-01

    We present theoretical characterization of fluorescent non-natural nucleobases, tzA, tzG, tzC, and tzU, derived from the isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine heterocycle. Consistent with the experimental evidence, our calculations show that the non-natural bases have minimal impact on the geometry and stability of the classical Watson-Crick base pairs, allowing them to accurately mimic natural bases in a RNA duplex, in terms of H-bonding. In contrast, our calculations indicate that H-bonded base pairs involving the Hoogsteen edge are destabilized relative to their natural counterparts. Analysis of the photophysical properties of the non-natural bases allowed us to correlate their absorption/emission peaks to the strong impact of the modification on the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO, which is stabilized by roughly 1.0-1.2 eV relative to the natural analogues, while the highest occupied molecular orbital, HOMO, is not substantially affected. As a result, the HOMO-LUMO gap is reduced from 5.3-5.5 eV in the natural bases to 4.0-4.4 eV in the modified ones, with a consequent bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra. © 2016 the Owner Societies.

  15. Systematic exploration of a class of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs yields multiple new candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhami, K.; Malyshev, D. A.; Ordoukhanian, P.; Kubelka, Tomáš; Hocek, Michal; Romesberg, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 16 (2014), s. 10235-10244 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP206/12/G151 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : unnatural base pairs * DNA * dTPT3-dNaM Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/42/16/10235

  16. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 14. (Monarch Engineering-Ogie Trinidad, Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Q 0e - 0 0 at l’- 000000 0 l ON IZOCo 00 0 D 0 ) 0 -a 000000 lMON 10-000 w-3 w <- C- ac 0l’~- < 000000 ajI I 00 0- 3-4 0 coo l’ L2 x- 3I- C-0C 0.M0L0...mm CV (a 00 d -Iw’ aJI 00 am -4 -a 00 ml ini a OqW I tow Ci 09 0 1%1 P z IOOW I 00 0 w ILL 4 aj 0o : 0 4 -4 4 .4 ((wawOCI) N .4 W in V WCV) al a a N...C) -4 - - - -A Cl) ll 00 00 W 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 rojo ) w ro-O rll_ ro-O to-O 0 r-- M 0 " I _SOO :3 CD :Jtc, OO.DOOOOOOoOOOQOOCoOCo (-) c rl) (1) C

  17. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 1. IDSCR Inc. - Amjet Aerospace Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    4-4-4 -4 r». -H -nr» m -HCM CM m m c • m CM CM •HCM rococo cor» •HCM OCM CM CM CM •H-H •HCM CM CM OO CO AOCMCMCMO CO •-0 -oo MOO CO COOO r»r» 0...CM nn -H —1 OO 3>"J>-> mmm ocoo> 000 CMOO OH-H T-ji-jTT-oNjNMNtMrMrM»-»- mmmmmmmmmmmmmcMCM mo>o> o> o> r^ r~ !•» r» h» rococo —"OO...00000 00000 00000 OOQ 00Z 000 rococo «t<< CM CO »-»—I 000 <<< CO CM CMCMO -*r--eo 000 mmm OOOO 00 r-r-r-r~i~- ««< inmminin CO COCO

  18. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 3 (Bay Oil Company - Burns Lumber Co. Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    rococo 0<<< O CMIOH XOOH B IDHHH...s-aeoeoeaeae fa 0«0>«OC"> ZHHHH«4 HNIONO) HOOOO «mminin 00 OO 00 00 oo fOHHHH OOOOOO OOOOO ooooo HCO rococo OO OO 00 00 oo COCO CO...OOO CO CO CO 00 00 00 in in in co co to rococo co co co ««t- ooooo HHO CMCMO OOO co co in 00 00 00 r-r-H mino to to to coco« CO CO

  19. 31 CFR Appendix B to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Vessels That Are the Property of Blocked Persons or Specially Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../A State Org. of Iraqi Ports FLYING DRAGON CUBA Flight Dragon Shipping Ltd., Malta FOREL IRAQ Iraqi... SHIPPING CO. LTD. (SDN) SHABOOT IRAQ Iraq Fish 1,163 HNLK Rafidain Fisheries Co. Ltd. SHATT AL BASRAH IRAQ...

  20. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 11 (International Computer Corp - Kloze N S Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    N 0 mC. m.( m( m0 C) (0 (0 (0 0 Nf.0 r. cNNr4NO (0 en (0 MSP (0 *50 -W (0 -1 0 0 0 0 NC) 000 0 "-4 0 I(( (0 (1 1) P7 L) (0 in 4. -.4-4 m -& (D U (0... acCA -4N NN CcC4c xC4 NN N4 10L 0 ( Z-4 -I 4N . ".. (0 N 1-.U -4 .4 co -lOI m a) a) mne M 0. N r. I0 I0 I 0- 0. nc c n CI C% 004 0 00 0 04 " "N . .0

  1. Visible-Light-Mediated Excited State Relaxation in Semi-Synthetic Genetic Alphabet: d5SICS and dNaM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan

    2017-08-25

    The excited state dynamics of an unnatural base pair (UBP) d5SICS/dNaM were investigated by accurate ab-initio calculations. Time-dependent density functional and high-level multireference calculations (MS-CASPT2) were performed to elucidate the excitation of this UBP and its excited state relaxation mechanism. After excitation to the bright state S 2 (ππ*), it decays to the S 1 state and then undergoes efficient intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold. The presence of sulfur atom in d5SICS leads to strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a small energy gap that facilitates intersystem crossing from S 1 (n s π*) to T 2 (ππ*) followed by internal conversion to T 1 state. Similarly in dNaM, the deactivation pathway follows analogous trends. CASPT2 calculations suggest that the S 1 (ππ*) state is a dark state below the accessible S 2 (ππ*) bright state. During the ultrafast deactivation, it exhibits bond length inversion. From S 1 state, significant SOC leads the population transfer to T 3 due to a smaller energy gap. Henceforth, fast internal conversion occurs from T 3 to T 2 followed by T 1 . From time-dependent trajectory surface hopping dynamics, it is found that excited state relaxation occurs on a sub-picosecond timescale in d5SICS and dNaM. Our findings strongly suggest that there is enough energy available in triplet state of UBP to generate reactive oxygen species and induce phototoxicity with respect to cellular DNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 19. (Tube Manufacturing Co., Inc.-Voith-Turbo GMBH & Co. KG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    R RT PForm Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 PuOlic reporting ourden for this collection of information is estimated to average I hour per response... collection of information. Sena comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions...00 0 00Oc0 oc00000000c ODK IS1 aK N K L In K 01.0 11 K -e O 1 in0 qqI 4444444444444444444444444 * 0-4C’~i ) 0-4 C’) 0II II -4C Wr MI 00 00 00 00 0

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY 88. Part 3. (Bakers Constr. Co., Inc.-Burns Lumber Co., Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    4"- -4.4 -ONOOC’J0 NCv ) N 0NOONO(1-4 0 -40 0-4 -4N0.-40 V) I (00M 1 04 0 0 N wt 1- 0 CN1% - ,0 C)-4" Y 04CU NMafl00I1L C WP00 ) o00Ll~u(D 0’ (00 Io C...100f0 f Ř .4 . . . .. . P~- PIN . . .4.. . ... . �t 1 000 �t 1 000 �Oq I I0)00 � 1 000 𔃺I NO ." 4 N04 CN0 C4 NNNN"NNsN"N 0 N C4N NN NCV 4...4440 Nd 41 .. 30000010U 0 U) 0 04 0000 0 0 I 000604I In to 10 10 01A a .441A4 in- r)4 a9 CD a web 4030004 : 4 -4 -8 -I 0404m 41 04049.444 a44 a)& a

  4. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 6 (Colson Equipment Inc-Delta Engineering Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  5. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 18 (University of Virginia, Carsonville, Virginia - Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, Massachusetts), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    00 at >00 > 44 -4m 4Z 44 > 43 I U aa COI :: >-- 0 003 tUN H" 00C C44 0 0OQ- 0C D4 .4 O4 p- 0 0 0n M4 is3- t4 UD IW - 4-4- I- 4- -4 -- N CHOaU HR 4 "o...oI.II :-4 M0 40e - C)C)C)M NCO MC)V .Nl l l .-4- -4 4- -M4-4M-0)M--4 -4 4 mN. -V ) MV)r m) C1.) -4-4 C) l*4 an -4N " N) C . zaw ( ൈz00L r c 44a.444

  6. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 14 (Markel Corporation-Odkro Mountain Optech Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    C7 4c0 0(0 =>00 - D14-400 r8-0 C~il V w r- CIL .0 1(0-4q 1 (4 0O00000 0 F8 -0 000 040 0 . . . a0 C>0I Q -4C : to I -1 Il𔃾 ( )L L uL -4 L444 0 00 0 iI...C’I4 ON N N NN N N ’J N N N -4*4 -4--4 -4 N * C-414< :: (1C30 -- 1 (Al>- 0 (ncoll ( A 0 W on W W W A (1) U)(C/ ACCA n 01> > UK/-- 1() 3 C-40I >Z

  7. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 10 (Germer Equipment Co-Hamilton Hilton National Wembley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

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  8. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, By State or Country, and Place, FY 84. Part 10. (Southern Ambulance Builders - Tucci & Sons, Inc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    9- - 0 C) N’(Y C) 0 - 0) ) C~l00) 0 C) (MCDN Co) -’C’) N, () CmIf U)N c) U ) C) C) 1700D- -’ --- -U -N to) 00 WI . (Di 4- L) I .0 0atoc iD~la 0 0...Y00 E700 ITo ITO o ITOO ITO rTO IT I IO CL-I , - - - - - - .-- - - - - E . . . . . . .0>. M. 2y . * cmIf

  9. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 1 (A & A Chemical Toilet Rentals-Benatec Associate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    a 1114 C N 56565 AAAA A----CAN---A-- AMERICAN DRAPE 2 I LE400 00722 ILE400 0078 AMERICAN DRAPE 2 ELE400 0049 5 1 OCW33 0090 1110 *.p _AMERICAN DE *2O...E C E 1 2 2 Z299 000 C2 MAINT-REPAIR-ALTER/OTHER NON 8 A 3 4 J 01B I B J 1 0 147 ARMOUR & CAPE INC PENSACOLA FLORIDA 024751 2860 10 2 F C2467 r338...12467-03-00095 0 C Z 5 2 2 R211 000 C2 ARCHITECT/ENGINEER - GENERAL S A 3 6 J 018 2 B J 1 E 82 ARMOUR & CAPE INC ATLANTA GEORGIA 024751 0290 11 2 C c2467

  10. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 5 (CSR INC-Colson Business Systems Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    MOO00 -4 (9’) 0 -4 -e Cell C4 fLn4 0204* N I on 000 N in 4 N1 NN N O’m 52 N 4 0o o i im E : C00O*0 >-N co6000 N 0j. 0000 N mo0f 4 of ’-100 I MOUo It 1. 1...4 N cr N ri c.C’ (’N 4’ Ino 4 r-Fr- PF- NNl.444 F-040 M.4" -4Nq ɘ 4 (no ev) In M’tIn (0(0 4 CD, F-000000o F- 00 m’oo ci < - El4 4 I5 I I I I I I 4...I )n1 N ~ o a M t 0CC le id e I Uo 2 I.. I.. 2 0 N ) 0w Nf 4J C el4 404 -44 44 -4. Q C.) N< 4 4 C4 0 < N 0O𔃾 NI 02 0 >--- 0) > 0>_ 02z 0>- 02>- 02z

  11. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 14. (Nor Cal Aerospace-PHP Healthcare Corporation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    01111101000004 0101001011014 01 01-00101010010101010 41 it Ic - If 000000000000001 00 00 00 0000000- 00 000000000m0000000000000 cell IWN- 11 0 0 11 1 004 If I...3 If 411 W .1II 100 I0 0.10 < II CIS 0 I ’C- ) el4 of 0.4 ca 0I oc i 0 000 N3U MM I.0U mWL.WA A0 _CL.I 0 (.) 0- "I 0I 4CJ"Ŕ , 4"C4(40 4 NCJ""N0 I l 1

  12. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 8. (General Contractor, Inc.-H and H Industrial Instruments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    4C>Qa0 QQ aQD1> 4 0-4 - 4 - 4-o4 - 4 - 4->Q0 o00 > > > Cell . 0c4 IC1 l’(0< 40 I O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O (n3IU 1 m C𔃾 11.0 C3 xO O O O O...In it el4 យ C-4 il.J 4 44 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 X"""NI (D00)0) 000 (0 (04C) 1 U0I co-4 1I N4 4 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 r44 QNO 40 m NQ Is .1 II 0-4 11 0 0 0 0 00 0 0...C C II C0 1- 0 1- 11 to I MN 11 - 1-4 iil Wcs n z 2 i Z - I WNC 110010>C 20 C O>l 0 a 2 - 0- Oil El4 eJ 1140 1- 0 C’ I-i-i c Il linN - I it4 ". z - I

  13. Huperzine A as a neuroprotective and antiepileptic drug: a review of preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar, U; Gersner, R; Johnstone, J T; Schachter, S; Rotenberg, A

    2016-06-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor extracted from Huperzia Serrata, a firmoss, which has been used for various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for fever and inflammation. More recently, it has been used in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia with a presumed mechanism of action via central nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. HupA is marketed as a dietary supplement in the U.S. This article reviews newly proposed neuroprotective and anticonvulsant HupA properties based on animal studies. HupA exerts its effects mainly via α7nAChRs and α4β2nAChRs, thereby producing a potent anti-inflammatory response by decreasing IL-1β, TNF-α protein expression, and suppressing transcriptional activation of NF-κB signaling. Thus, it provides protection from excitotoxicity and neuronal death as well as increase in GABAergic transmission associated with anticonvulsant activity.

  14. Huperzine A inhibits CCL2 production in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice and in cultured astrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G X; Zhu, X Q; Chen, Y; Wu, G C; Wang, J

    2013-01-01

    The active role of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) during the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been clearly established. Recent studies from our laboratory reported that Huperzine A (HupA) can attenuate the disease process in EAE by the inhibition of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal injury in the spinal cord as well as encephalomyelitic T-cell proliferation. In this study, the effects of low dose HupA on CCL2, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta expression were evaluated in EAE. The effect of HupA on lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory molecule secretion was investigated in cultured-astrocytes in vitro. In MOG35-55-induced EAE mice, intraperitoneal injections of HupA (0.1 mg/kg•d−1) significantly suppressed the expression of CCL2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the spinal cord. HupA also repressed LPS-induced CCL2 production, but with little influence on pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary cultured astrocytes. The inhibition effect of HupA on CCL2 is PPARgamma-dependent and nicotine receptor-independent. Conditioned culture media from HupA-treated astrocyte decreased PBMC migration in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that HupA can ameliorate EAE by inhibiting CCL2 production in astrocyte, which may consequently decrease inflammatory cell infiltration in the spinal cord. HupA may have a potential therapeutic value for the treatment of MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. A novel endophytic Huperzine A-producing fungus, Shiraia sp. Slf14, isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D; Wang, J; Zeng, Q; Zhang, Z; Yan, R

    2010-10-01

    To characterize and identify a novel Huperzine A (HupA)-producing fungal strain Slf14 isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. in China. The isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus producing HupA specifically and consistently from the leaves of H. serrata were investigated. The fungus was identified as Shiraia sp. Slf14 by molecular and morphological methods. The HupA produced by this endophytic fungus was shown to be identical to authentic HupA analysed by thin layer chromatographic, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), LC-MS, (1) H NMR and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity in vitro. The amount of HupA produced by Shiraia sp. Slf14 was quantified to be 327.8 μg l(-1) by HPLC, which was far higher than that of the reported endophytic fungi, Acremonium sp., Blastomyces sp. and Botrytis sp. The production of HupA by endophyte Shiraia sp. Slf14 is an enigmatic observation. It would be interesting to further study the HupA production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in H. serrata and in axenic cultures. Although the current accumulation of HupA by the endophyte is not very high, it could provide a promising alterative approach for large-scale production of HupA. However, further strain improvement and the fermentation process optimization are required to result in the consistent and dependable production. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Intrathecal Huperzine A Increases Thermal Escape Latency and Decreases Flinching Behavior in the Formalin Test in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Paula; Schachter, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata and has been used for improving memory, cognitive and behavioral function in patients with Alzheimer's disease in China. It has NMDA antagonist and anticholinesterase activity and has shown anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects in preliminary studies when administered intraperitoneally to mice. To better characterize the antinociceptive effects of HupA at the spinal level, Holtzman rats were implanted ...

  17. Huperzine A alleviates synaptic deficits and modulates amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic pathways in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-02-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, HupA was shown to be active in modulating the nonamyloidogenic metabolism of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in APP-transfected human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293swe). However, in vivo research concerning the mechanism of HupA in APP transgenic mice has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study indicates that the loss of dendritic spine density and synaptotagmin levels in the brain of APPswe/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice was significantly ameliorated by chronic HupA treatment and provides evidence that this neuroprotection was associated with reduced amyloid plaque burden and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Our findings further demonstrate that the amelioration effect of HupA on Aβ deposits may be mediated, at least in part, by regulation of the compromised expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and excessive membrane trafficking of β-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) in these transgenic mice. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation may also be partially involved in the effect of HupA on APP processing. In conclusion, our work for the first time demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of HupA on synaptic deficits in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice and further clarifies the potential pharmacological targets for this protective effect, in which modulation of nonamyloidogenic and amyloidogenic APP processing pathways may be both involved. These findings may provide adequate evidence for the clinical and experimental benefits gained from HupA treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase-independent protective effects of huperzine A against iron overload-induced oxidative damage and aberrant iron metabolism signaling in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling-Xue; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tang, Xi-Can; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis is one of the primary causes of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United Sates. Here, we investigated the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced injury in neurons. Rat cortical neurons were treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and cell viability was assessed with MTT assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were performed to assess mitochondrial function. The labile iron pool (LIP) level, cytosolic-aconitase (c-aconitase) activity and iron uptake protein expression were measured to determine iron metabolism changes. The modified Ellman's method was used to evaluate AChE activity. HupA significantly attenuated the iron overload-induced decrease in neuronal cell viability. This neuroprotective effect of HupA occurred concurrently with a decrease in ROS and an increase in ATP. Moreover, HupA treatment significantly blocked the upregulation of the LIP level and other aberrant iron metabolism changes induced by iron overload. Additionally, another specific AChE inhibitor, donepezil (Don), at a concentration that caused AChE inhibition equivalent to that of HupA negatively, influenced the aberrant changes in ROS, ATP or LIP that were induced by excessive iron. We provide the first demonstration of the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced neuronal damage. This beneficial role of HupA may be attributed to its attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of LIP, and these effects are not associated with its AChE-inhibiting effect.

  19. Huperzine A ameliorates damage induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats through antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xizhong; Gao, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine and isolated from Huperzia serrata, has been shown to possess diverse biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of HupA in myocardial ischemic damage using a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. HupA significantly diminished the infarct size and inhibited the activities of myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). A significantly reduced activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), of the non-enzymatic scavenger enzyme, glutathione (GSH), as well as of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were found in the HupA-treated groups. Furthermore, decreased protein levels of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased levels of Bcl-2 were observed in the infarcted hearts of the rats treated with various concentrations of HupA. In addition, treatment with HupA markedly inhibited the expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). These findings suggest that the cardioprotective potential of HupA is associated with its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties in acute myocardial infarction in rats.

  20. Isolation and characterization of endophytic huperzine A-producing fungi from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Zeng, Qing Gui; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Wang, Ling Yun; Zhu, Du

    2011-09-01

    Huperzia serrata is a producer of huperzine A (HupA), a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). Over 120 endophytic fungi were recovered from this plant and screened for Hup-A and nine were found. These nine represented seven different fungal genera with the most significant producer being Shiraia sp. A total of 127 endophytic fungi isolates obtained from the root, stem, and leaf segments of H. serrata were grouped into 19 genera based on their morphological traits and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), indicating endophytic fungi in H. serrata are diverse and abundant. Aspergillus, Podospora, Penicillium, Colletotrichum, and Acremonium were the frequent genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Overall, 39 endophytic fungi isolates showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in vitro. Nine endophytic fungi isolates from seven distinct genera were capable of producing HupA verified by thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the HupA-producing fungi, the yield of HupA produced by the Shiraia sp. Slf14 was 327.8 μg/l in potato dextrose broth, and the fungal HupA was further validated by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The present study demonstrated that H. serrata was a fascinating fungal reservoir for producing HupA and other ChEIs.

  1. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula; Schachter, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2010-02-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata and has been used for improving memory, cognitive and behavioral function in patients with Alzheimer's disease in China. It has NMDA antagonist and anticholinesterase activity and has shown anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects in preliminary studies when administered intraperitoneally to mice. To better characterize the antinociceptive effects of HupA at the spinal level, Holtzman rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters to measure thermal escape latency using Hargreaves thermal escape testing system and flinching behavior using the formalin test. Intrathecal (IT) administration of HupA showed a dose-dependent increase in thermal escape latency with an ED50 of 0.57 microg. Atropine reversed the increase in thermal escape latency produced by 10 microg HupA, indicating an antinociceptive mechanism through muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The formalin test showed that HupA decreased flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Atropine also reversed the decrease in flinching behavior caused by 10 microg HupA. A dose-dependent increase of side effects including scratching, biting, and chewing tails was observed, although antinociceptive effects were observed in doses that did not produce any adverse effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Huperzine A, but not tacrine, stimulates S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Paula; Nardin, Patrícia; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Abib, Renata; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2013-04-09

    The loss of cholinergic function in the central nervous system contributes significantly to the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and dementias. Huperzine A (HupA) is a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and has been shown to significantly reduce cognitive impairment in animal models of dementia. Based on the importance of astrocytes in physiological and pathological brain activities, we investigated the effect of HupA and tacrine on S100B secretion in primary astrocyte cultures. S100B is an astrocyte-derived protein that has been proposed to be a marker of brain injury. Primary astrocyte cultures were exposed to HupA, tacrine, cholinergic agonists, and S100B secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1 and 24h. HupA, but not tacrine, at 100μM significantly increased S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures. Nicotine (at 100 and 1000μM) was able to stimulate S100B secretion in astrocyte cultures. Our data reinforce the idea that AChE inhibitors, particularly HupA, do not act exclusively on the acetylcholine balance. This effect of HupA could contribute to improve the cognitive deficit observed in patients, which are attributed to cholinergic dysfunction. In addition, for the first time, to our knowledge, these data indicate that S100B secretion can be modulated by nicotinic receptors, in addition to glutamate, dopamine and serotonin receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient strategy for maintaining and enhancing the huperzine A production of Shiraia sp. Slf14 through inducer elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Riming; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Ya; Yang, Huilin; Zeng, Qinggui; Zhu, Du

    2014-07-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a naturally occurring lycopodium alkaloid, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and is a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. However, isolating HupA from Huperziaceae plants is inefficient; thus, extracting this compound from endophytic fungi may be more controllable and sustainable. However, the large-scale production of this chemical from endophytes is limited by the innate instability of endophytic fungi. In this study, we maintained the stability and viability of the HupA-producing endophytic fungus Shiraia sp. Slf14 and enhanced the HupA titers during fermentation by adding Huperzia serrata extracts (HSE), L-lysine, and acetic acid into the culture as inducers. Adding trace amounts of HupA clearly improved the HupA production of Shiraia sp. Slf14, reaching a maximum content of approximately 40 μg g(-1). Moreover, the addition of HSE and L-lysine promoted HupA production in the flask fermentation. The aforementioned bioprocessing strategy may be potentially applied to other endophytic fungal culture systems for the efficient production of plant secondary metabolites.

  4. How does huperzine A enter and leave the binding gorge of acetylcholinesterase? Steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yechun; Shen, Jianhua; Luo, Xiaomin; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang

    2003-09-17

    The entering and leaving processes of Huperzine A (HupA) binding with the long active-site gorge of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) have been investigated by using steered molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the force required along the pathway shows that it is easier for HupA to bind to the active site of AChE than to disassociate from it, which for the first time interprets at the atomic level the previous experimental result that unbinding process of HupA is much slower than its binding process to AChE. The direct hydrogen bonds, water bridges, and hydrophobic interactions were analyzed during two steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. Break of the direct hydrogen bond needs a great pulling force. The steric hindrance of bottleneck might be the most important factor to produce the maximal rupture force for HupA to leave the binding site but it has a little effect on the binding process of HupA with AChE. Residue Asp72 forms a lot of water bridges with HupA leaving and entering the AChE binding gorge, acting as a clamp to take out HupA from or put HupA into the active site. The flip of the peptide bond between Gly117 and Gly118 has been detected during both the conventional MD and SMD simulations. The simulation results indicate that this flip phenomenon could be an intrinsic property of AChE and the Gly117-Gly118 peptide bond in both HupA bound and unbound AChE structures tends to adopt the native enzyme structure. At last, in a vacuum the rupture force is increased up to 1500 pN while in water solution the greatest rupture force is about 800 pN, which means water molecules in the binding gorge act as lubricant to facilitate HupA entering or leaving the binding gorge.

  5. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo metabolic pathway and cytochrome P450 inhibition/induction profile of Huperzine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Ping; Li, Xue-Ning; Yuan, Fei; Chen, Wei-Li; Yang, Meng-Jie; Xu, Hong-Rong

    2016-11-11

    Huperzine A (HupA), one of the reversible and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitors derived from Chinese herb Huperzia Serrata, possesses affirmative action of ameliorating cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease. Up to now, the effects of HupA on human cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the metabolic pathway of HupA in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate the CYPs inhibition/induction profile of HupA in vitro. The catalytic activity of CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4) was measured by the quantification of specific enzyme substrates using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods. The in vivo metabolic pathway evaluation was performed in an open, single-dose pharmacokinetic study of HupA in fourteen elderly subjects, with urine collecting at certain intervals. In human liver microsomes, HupA (10 ng/mL) was not metabolized within 90 min, and it showed negligible inhibition against these CYP isoforms within 0.2-100 ng/mL. In human liver hepatocytes, the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were not significantly altered when incubated at 2 or 20 ng/mL of HupA. After oral administration of 0.1 mg HupA, the total proportion of HupA excreted through urine was relatively high, accounting to 35± 9% at the limited time period of 48 h. These results suggest that HupA is substantially excreted by kidney unchanged rather than metabolized by human liver, and is unlikely to cause clinically relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) when co-administrated with drugs that are metabolized by CYP isoenzyme system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The protection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor on β-amyloid-induced the injury of neurite outgrowth via regulating axon guidance related genes expression in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Wang, Deng-Shun; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in AD correlate with progressive synaptic dysfunction and loss. The Rho family of small GTPases, including Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, has a central role in cellular motility and cytokinesis. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor has been found to protect cells against a broad range of reagents-induced injuries. Present studies examined if the effect of HupA on neurite outgrowth in Aβ-treated neuronal cells executed via regulating Rho-GTPase mediated axon guidance relative gene expression. Affymetrix cDNA microarray assay followed by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blotting analysis were used to elucidate and analyze the signaling pathway involved in Aβ and HupA's effects. The effects of Aβ and HupA on the neurite outgrowth were further confirmed via immunofluorescence staining. Aβ up-regulated the mRNA expressions of NFAT5, LIMK1, EPHA1, NTN4 and RAC2 markedly in SH-SY5Y cells. Co-incubation of Aβ and HupA reversed or decreased the changes of NFAT5, NTN4, RAC2, CDC42 and SEMA4F. HupA treated alone increased NFAT5, LIMK1, NTN4 significantly. Following qRT-PCR validation showed that the correlation of the gene expression ratio between microarray and qRT-PCR is significant. Western blot result showed that the change of CDC42 protein is consistent with the mRNA level while RAC2 is not. The morphological results confirmed that HupA improved, or partly reversed, the Aβ-induced damage of neurite outgrowth. The protective effect of HupA from Aβ induced morphological injury might be correlative to, at least partially, regulating the network of neurite outgrowth related genes.

  7. Huperzine A for treatment of cognitive impairment in major depressive disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, F K Helen; H Ng, Chee; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-04-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treating cognitive impairment in animal models and in human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Huperzine A (HupA), a Traditional Chinese Medicine derived from a genus of clubmosses known as Huperzineserrata, is a powerful AChE inhibitor that has been used as an adjunctive treatment for MDD, but no meta-analysis on HupA augmentation for MDD has yet been reported. Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTS) about HupA augmentation in the treatment of MDD to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Two evaluators independently searched nine English-language and Chinese-language databases, selected relevant studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria, extracted data about outcome and safety, and conducted quality assessments and data synthesis. Three low-quality RCTs (pooled n=238) from China were identified that compared monotherapy antidepressant treatment for depression versus combined treatment with antidepressants and HupA. Participants in the studies ranged from 16 to 60 years of age. The average duration of adjunctive antidepressant and HupA treatment in the studies was only 6.7 weeks. All three studies were open label and non-blinded, so their overall quality was judged as poor. Meta-analysis of the pooled sample found no significant difference in the improvement in depressive symptoms between the two groups (weighted mean difference: -1.90 (95%CI: -4.23, 0.44), p=0.11). However, the adjunctive HupA group did have significantly greater improvement than the antidepressant only group in cognitive functioning (as assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and in quality of life. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse drug reactions between groups. The data available on the effectiveness and safety of adjunctive treatment using HupA in patients with MDD who are receiving

  8. Indentification of huperzine A-producing endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Hui; Fan, San-Wei; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Huang, Bei-Bei; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-03-01

    This present study was designed to investigate the production of huperzine A (HupA), an acetylcholine inhibitor, which was produced by an endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata. Screening of 94 endophytic fungal isolates obtained from plant H. serrata was carried out for the production of HupA. Their morphological characteristics were studied and rDNA sequence analysis was carried out. The cultures were grown in liquid culture medium and the extracted metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatograph for the presence of HupA. The DPPH scavenging ratio and inhibition ratio of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) of the same were determined. 3 out of 94 strains i.e. S29, L44 and S94 showed significant AchE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. Strain L44 which exhibited maximum yield of HupA (37.63 μg/g on dry weight basis) was identified as Trichoderma species by ITS sequence analysis. In conclusion, endophytic fungi from H. serrata can be used as a new resource of HupA.

  9. Huperzine A: Is it an Effective Disease-Modifying Drug for Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA) is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta). It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has "non-cholinergic" effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death.

  10. Huperzine A: Is it an Effective Disease-Modifying Drug for Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA) is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta). It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has “non-cholinergic” effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death. PMID:25191267

  11. Huperzine A: is it an effective disease-modifying drug for Alzheimer’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Ming eQian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Huperzine A (HupA is a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE derived from the Chinese folk medicine Huperzia serrata (Qian Ceng Ta. It is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and is available as a nutraceutical in the US. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that HupA has multifaceted pharmacological effects. In addition to the symptomatic, cognitive-enhancing effect via inhibition of AChE, a number of recent studies have reported that this drug has non-cholinergic effects on AD. Most important among these is the protective effect of HupA on neurons against amyloid beta-induced oxidative injury and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as via the up-regulation of nerve growth factor and antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The most recent discovery that HupA may reduce brain iron accumulation lends further support to the argument that HupA could serve as a potential disease-modifying agent for AD and also other neurodegenerative disorders by significantly slowing down the course of neuronal death.

  12. Crystalline TiO{sub 2} grafted with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) via surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yuancong; Tu Qiufen; Wang Jin; Huang Qiongjian [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials, Education Ministry, School of Material Science and Technology of Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Huang Nan, E-mail: zhaoyc7320@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials, Education Ministry, School of Material Science and Technology of Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-12-15

    Crystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the structure was confirmed by XRD. An organic layer of 11-hydroxyundecylphosphonic acid (HUPA) was prepared on the TiO{sub 2} films by self-assembling, and the HUPA on TiO{sub 2} films was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Simultaneously, hydroxyl groups were introduced in the phosphonic acid molecules to provide a functionality for further chemical modification. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), a biomimetic monomer, was chemically grafted on the HUPA surfaces at room temperature by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization. The surface characters of TiO{sub 2} films modified by poly-MPC were confirmed by FTIR, XPS and SEM analysis. Platelet adhesion experiment revealed that poly-MPC modified surface was effective to inhibit platelet adhesion in vitro.

  13. Crystalline TiO2 grafted with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) via surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuancong; Tu Qiufen; Wang Jin; Huang Qiongjian; Huang Nan

    2010-01-01

    Crystalline TiO 2 films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the structure was confirmed by XRD. An organic layer of 11-hydroxyundecylphosphonic acid (HUPA) was prepared on the TiO 2 films by self-assembling, and the HUPA on TiO 2 films was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Simultaneously, hydroxyl groups were introduced in the phosphonic acid molecules to provide a functionality for further chemical modification. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), a biomimetic monomer, was chemically grafted on the HUPA surfaces at room temperature by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization. The surface characters of TiO 2 films modified by poly-MPC were confirmed by FTIR, XPS and SEM analysis. Platelet adhesion experiment revealed that poly-MPC modified surface was effective to inhibit platelet adhesion in vitro.

  14. Crystalline TiO 2 grafted with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) via surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuancong; Tu, Qiufen; Wang, Jin; Huang, Qiongjian; Huang, Nan

    2010-12-01

    Crystalline TiO 2 films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the structure was confirmed by XRD. An organic layer of 11-hydroxyundecylphosphonic acid (HUPA) was prepared on the TiO 2 films by self-assembling, and the HUPA on TiO 2 films was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Simultaneously, hydroxyl groups were introduced in the phosphonic acid molecules to provide a functionality for further chemical modification. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), a biomimetic monomer, was chemically grafted on the HUPA surfaces at room temperature by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization. The surface characters of TiO 2 films modified by poly-MPC were confirmed by FTIR, XPS and SEM analysis. Platelet adhesion experiment revealed that poly-MPC modified surface was effective to inhibit platelet adhesion in vitro.

  15. Huperzine A production by Paecilomyces tenuis YS-13, an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingqian; Yang, Minhe

    2015-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a naturally occurring alkaloid in the plant family Huperziaceae, has drawn great interest for its potential application in Alzheimer disease therapy. Our primary objective was to identify alkaloid- and HupA-producing fungi from the Chinese folk herb, Huperzia serrata. We established a rapid and efficient model for screening HupA-producing endophytic fungal strains. The presence of HupA in Paecilomyces tenuis YS-13 was analysed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The fermentation yield of HupA was 21.0 μg/L, and the IC50 of the crude extract of YS-13 fermentation broth was 1.27 ± 0.04 mg/mL. This is the first report of P. tenuis as a HupA-producing endophyte isolated from Huperziaceae.

  16. The protection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor on β-amyloid-induced injury of neurite outgrowth via regulating axon guidance related genes expression in neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Wang, Deng-Shun; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in AD correlate with progressive synaptic dysfunction and loss. The Rho family of small GTPases, including Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, has a central role in cellular motility and cytokinesis. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor has been found to protect cells against a broad range of reagents-induced injuries. Present studies examined if the effect of HupA on neurite outgrowth in Aβ-treated neuronal cells executed via regulating Rho-GTPase mediated axon guidance relative gene expression. Affymetrix cDNA microarray assay followed by real-time RT-PCR and Western Blotting analysis were used to elucidate and analyze the signaling pathway involved in Aβ and HupA’s effects. The effects of Aβ and HupA on the neurite outgrowth were further confirmed via immunofluorescence staining. Aβ up-regulated the mRNA expressions of NFAT5, LIMK1, EPHA1, NTN4 and RAC2 markedly in SH-SY5Y cells. Co-incubation of Aβ and HupA reversed or decreased the changes of NFAT5, NTN4, RAC2, CDC42 and SEMA4F. HupA treated alone increased NFAT5, LIMK1, NTN4 significantly. Following qRT-PCR validation showed that the correlation of the gene expression ratio between microarray and qRT-PCR is significant. Western blot result showed that the change of CDC42 protein is consistent with the mRNA level while RAC2 is not. The morphological results confirmed that HupA improved, or partly reversed, the Aβ-induced damage of neurite outgrowth. The protective effect of HupA from Aβ induced morphological injury might be correlative to, at least partially, regulating the network of neurite outgrowth related genes. PMID:23119107

  17. Modification and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of Huperzine A in Huperzia crispata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijun; Shi, Yunfeng; Huang, Jianan; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua; Hu, Weixin

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes a rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the quantification of huperzine A (HupA) in Huperzia crispata (Huperziaceae). The sample extraction and preparation involved a simple, time-saving, single-solvent extraction, with each sample being analyzed within 12 min. The mobile phase was ammonium acetate (0.1 M, pH 6.0)--methanol (64 + 36, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was at 308 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 0.049 to 7.84 microg (R2 = 0.9997), with intraday and interday precision RSD of less than 2%. The extraction recovery rate was over 98.49%. Quantification of HupA was performed using this modified method, and the content of HupA was 1.86 times higher in the whole plant of H. crispata (218.17 +/- 1.55 microg/g) than in that of H. serrata (117.03 +/- 2.97 microg/g). In the whole plant of H. crispata, HupA mainly accumulated in the actively growing shoot tips, the apical bud, and the 10 youngest leaves, reaching 455.23 +/- 2.97 microg/g. The content of HupA in the samples from sunshine-sheltered sites was 3.45 times higher than in that from sunshine-abundant sites. The satisfactory results indicate that this modified method can be applied in the quality control of large-scale Huperziaceae plant extracts and that changes should be made in the cultivation of H. crispata so as to maximize the production of HupA.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio vulnificus Required for Heme Utilization: Regulation of Expression and Determination of the Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Christine M.; Byrne, Burke L.

    1998-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic, marine pathogen that has been associated with septicemia and serious wound infections in patients with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. For V. vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. V. vulnificus is able to use host iron sources such as hemoglobin and heme. We previously constructed a fur mutant of V. vulnificus which constitutively expresses at least two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins, of 72 and 77 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 77-kDa protein purified from the V. vulnificus fur mutant had 67% homology with the first 15 amino acids of the mature protein of the Vibrio cholerae heme receptor, HutA. In this report, we describe the cloning, DNA sequence, mutagenesis, and analysis of transcriptional regulation of the structural gene for HupA, the heme receptor of V. vulnificus. DNA sequencing of hupA demonstrated a single open reading frame of 712 amino acids that was 50% identical and 66% similar to the sequence of V. cholerae HutA and similar to those of other TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Primer extension analysis localized one promoter for the V. vulnificus hupA gene. Analysis of the promoter region of V. vulnificus hupA showed a sequence homologous to the consensus Fur box. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcript was strongly regulated by iron. An internal deletion in the V. vulnificus hupA gene, done by using marker exchange, resulted in the loss of expression of the 77-kDa protein and the loss of the ability to use hemin or hemoglobin as a source of iron. The hupA deletion mutant of V. vulnificus will be helpful in future studies of the role of heme iron in V. vulnificus pathogenesis. PMID:9632577

  19. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei

    2018-01-01

    Background Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Purpose To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion–solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box–Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse

  20. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingqing; Wang, Aiping; Hua, Hongchen; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yiyun; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%). HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity in the 16HBE cell line compared with HupA solution. Qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake experiments indicated that accumulation of Lf-TMC NPs was higher than nontargeted analogs in 16HBE and SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo imaging results showed that Lf-TMC NPs exhibited a higher fluorescence intensity in the brain and a longer residence time than nontargeted NPs. After intranasal administration, Lf-TMC NPs facilitated the distribution of HupA in the brain, and the values of the drug targeting index in the mouse olfactory bulb, cerebrum (with hippocampus

  1. Alterations in the Timing of Huperzine A Cerebral Pharmacodynamics in the Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar, Ugur; Gersner, Roman; Johnstone, Joshua T; Kapur, Kush; Collins, Stephen; Schachter, Steven; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2018-01-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats. Anesthetized adult rats were exposed to FPI or sham injury. Ninety minutes post-TBI, rats were injected with HupA or saline (0.6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). TBI resulted in reduced cortical inhibition 90 min after the injury (N = 18) compared to sham (N = 13) controls (p = 0.03). HupA enhanced cortical inhibition after both sham injury (N = 6; p = 0.002) and TBI (N = 6; p = 0.02). The median time to maximum HupA inhibition in sham and TBI groups were 46.4 and 76.5 min, respectively (p = 0.03). This was consistent with a quadratic trend comparison that projects HupA-mediated cortical inhibition to last longer in injured rats (p = 0.007). We show that 1) cortical GABA-mediated inhibition, as measured by ppTMS, decreases acutely post-TBI, 2) HupA restores lost post-TBI GABA-mediated inhibition, and 3) HupA-mediated enhancement of cortical inhibition is delayed post-TBI. The plausible reasons of the latter include 1) low HupA volume of distribution rendering HupA confined in the intravascular compartment, therefore vulnerable to reduced post-TBI cerebral perfusion, and 2) GABAR dysfunction and increased AChE activity post-TBI.

  2. Processos logográficos, alfabéticos e lexicais na leitura silenciosa por surdos e ouvintes Silent reading by deaf and hearing readers: logographic, alphabetical and lexical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Capovilla

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo empregou o Teste de Competência de Leitura de Palavras (TCLP para analisar estratégias ideovisuais, perilexicais e lexicais de leitura por 805 escolares surdos de 6-45 anos, da 1ª série do ensino fundamental à 1ª série do médio. Identificou aumento sistemático na competência de leitura de 1ª a 5ª séries, além de aumentos assistemáticos até a 1ª série do ensino médio, e comparou padrões de erros nos subtestes. Resultados revelaram dissociações duplas entre leitores surdos e ouvintes quanto ao padrão de erros nos subtestes: enquanto ouvintes se deixam enganar mais pela semelhança fonológica, surdos se deixam enganar mais pela visual. Enquanto ouvintes privilegiam a forma ortográfica em detrimento da correção semântica, surdos fazem o oposto. Devido à dificuldade de surdos em fazer conferência perilexical, sua leitura mostrou-se dependente de mecanismos visuais diretos de reconhecimento e acesso ao significado. O TCLP revelou-se instrumento válido para avaliar a leitura de surdos.The study used Word Reading Competence Test to analyze ideovisual, perilexical and lexical reading strategies by 805 6-45 year-old deaf students from 1st to 9th grade (1st grade elementary school to 1st grade high school. It identified a systematic increase in reading competence from 1st to 5th grade, and non-systematic increases until 9th grade. Results revealed double dissociation between deaf and hearing readers regarding error patterns across subtests: Hearing readers tended to be fooled more by phonological similarity than by visual similarity, whereas the opposite was found with deaf readers. Also, the hearing readers relied more on orthographic form than on semantic adequacy, whereas deaf readers did the opposite. Therefore, deaf reading was shown to depend essentially upon visual direct word recognition and semantic access mechanisms due to poor efficacy of perilexical checking mechanisms. Word Reading Competence Test was shown to be a valid instrument for assessing reading in deaf students.

  3. Does Learning the Alphabet in Kindergarten Give Children a Head Start in the First Year of School? A Comparison of Children's Reading Progress in Two First Grade Classes in State and Montessori Schools in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elben, Judy; Nicholson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether the age at which children start to learn to read affects their later progress. The study was conducted in Zürich, Switzerland, and compared a first grade class in a local school with two first grade classes in a Montessori school. It was found that although the Montessori children had an…

  4. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: bibliography of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-01-01

    The bibliographic citations in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has three arrangements: alphabetically by author, alphabetically by publication, and numerically by reference number

  5. Integrated system for production of neutronics and photonics calculational constants. Neutron-induced interactions: bibliography of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, M.H.; Cullen, D.E.; Howerton, R.J.; Perkins, S.T.

    1976-07-04

    The bibliographic citations in the Experimental Cross Section Information Library (ECSIL) as of July 4, 1976 are tabulated. The tabulation has three arrangements: alphabetically by author, alphabetically by publication, and numerically by reference number.

  6. pubmed.mineR: An R package with text-mining algorithms to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... using text-mining algorithms for biomedical research pur- poses. ... studies are described to illustrate some potential uses of ... This is the most applied task. ... other alphabets (for example, Greek alphabets) and hyphens.

  7. AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CLIMATIC MAPS OF ANGOLA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Map of political divisions of Africa; Map of Angola; Sources with abstracts listed alphabetically by author; Alphabetical author index ; Subject heading index with period of record; Subject heading index with map scales.

  8. Bilingual Education: Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Emphasis. Indian Legends and Felt Board Cut-Out Characters. Readings and Activities for Pre-School and Early Elementary School Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth; And Others

    Designed for use in preschool and early elementary school classrooms, this collection of eight American Indian legends provides patterns for making feltboard cutouts of their characters and props to be used in story telling activities. Seven of the legends originate with the Hupa, Karuk, or Yurok Indians of northwestern California and one is from…

  9. In vivo blockade of acetylcholinesterase increases intraovarian acetylcholine and enhances follicular development and fertility in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Javier; Blohberger, Jan; Tiszavari, Michelle; Mayerhofer, Artur; Lara, Hernan E

    2016-07-21

    Growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles are regulated by systemic and local factors, which may include acetylcholine (ACh). Granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and luteal cells produce ACh and in cultured GCs it exerts trophic actions via muscarinic receptors. However, such actions were not studied in vivo. After having established that rat ovarian GCs and luteal cells express the ACh-metabolizing enzyme ACh esterase (AChE), we examined the consequences of local application of an AChE inhibitor, huperzine A (HupA), by osmotic minipump delivery into the ovarian bursa of hemiovariectomized rats. Saline was used in the control group. Local delivery of HupA for 4 weeks increased ovarian ACh content. Estrus cyclicity was not changed indicating a locally restricted range of HupA action. The number of primordial and primary follicles was unaffected, but small secondary follicles significantly increased in the HupA group. Furthermore, a significant increase in the number of corpora lutea suggested increased ovulatory events. In support, as shown upon mating, HupA-treated females had significantly increased implantation sites and more pups. Thus the data are in support of a trophic role of ACh in follicular development and ovulation and point to an important role of ACh in female fertility.

  10. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yuan Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

  11. Adjunctive huperzine A for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Li, Xian-Bin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Sun, Feng; D'Arcy, Carl; Meng, Xiangfei; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of huperzine A (HupA), an isolate of Huperzine serrata, in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, WanFang, Chinese Biomedical, and China Journal Net databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English or Chinese of HupA augmentation of antipsychotic drug therapy versus placebo or ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Twelve RCTs (n = 1117) lasting 11.7 ± 6.0 weeks met inclusion criteria. All had been conducted in China. HupA outperformed comparators on the following outcome measures: the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised including memory quotient (weighted mean difference (WMD: 10.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.65, 15.53; p HupA is an effective choice for improving cognitive function for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. More well-designed RCTs are needed to further confirm HupA's efficacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Huperzine A Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Cao, Dan-Feng; Li, Xi; Yin, Ji-Ye; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Ying; Mao, Chen-Xue; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA) on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:24857910

  13. [Effect of Huperzine A on neural lesion of acute organophosphate poisoning in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Jian; Xie, Guangyun; Sun, Jinxiu

    2013-05-01

    Effects of neurophathologic changes and expression of Glu and 60 nNOS were observed in acute isocarbophos and phoxim poisoning in mice. KM male mice were randomly divided into three groups, which were control, non-treated and Huperzine A (HupA)-treated groups. The control group was given tween-80. Nontreated group was given isocarbophos (14.7 mg/kg) or phoxim (1702 mg/kg). HupA-treated group was given HupA 2h before phoxim or isocarbophos. Twenty-four hours after exposure, the whole brain was removed and adjacent coronal sections was obtained. One part of sections were stained with toluidine blue. The part of sections were used to assessed the expression of Glu and nNOS in the cortex and hippocampal of brain by immunohistochemistry. Compared to control group, non-treated group was observed nissal body nembers reduced and dyeing light. The animals of HupA protective group were observed nissal body nembers reduced, but the lesional degree was lighter obviously than non-treated group. The statistically reduced of the expression of Glu (PHupA-treated groups. Whereas for phoxim treatment, no changes were observed. HupA have protective effect against glutamatergic systems disorder caused by Isocarbophos poisoning. Administration of HupA have no effects of the neurotransmitter changes induces by acute poisoning of phoxim. It is different for the toxic effect mechanism of the two organophosphate.

  14. Teaching and Learning with Computers! A Method for American Indian Bilingual Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    Computer instruction can offer particular benefits to the Indian child. Computer use emphasizes the visual facets of learning, teaches language based skills needed for higher education and careers, and provides types of instruction proven effective with Indian children, such as private self-testing and cooperative learning. The Hupa, Yurok, Karuk,…

  15. Cooperative Learning with a Computer in a Native Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    In a cooperative task, American Indian elementary students produced bilingual natural history dictionaries using a Macintosh computer. Students in grades 3 through 8 attended weekly, multi-graded bilingual classes in Hupa/English or Yurok/English, held at two public school field sites for training elementary teaching-credential candidates. Teams…

  16. It Really Works: Cultural Communication Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    This paper describes the cultural communication proficiency method of indigenous language instruction, developed at Humboldt State University's Center for Indian Community Development (California), and demonstrates the method with five Hupa lesson plans. The method is based on three principles: that Native American students learn by doing, learn…

  17. Teaching Reading with Puppets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…

  18. The Center for Community Development Annual Report, FY 1984-85. Volume II, Addendum 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    A variety of information is included in this 1984-85 annual report of Humboldt State University's Center for Community Development (California), which has been instrumental in establishing a wide range of community services and has worked extensively to preserve the language and culture of four northwestern California tribes--Hupa, Karuk, Tolowa,…

  19. Effect of Huperzine A on Aβ-induced p65 of astrocyte in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lushuang; Jiang, Cen; Wang, Zhang; Yi, Xiaohong; Gong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Yunhui; Fu, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Its pathology often accompanies inflammatory action, and astrocytes play important roles in such procedure. Rela(p65) is one of significant message factors in NF-κB pathway which has been reported high expression in astrocyte treated by Aβ. HupA, an alkaloid isolated from Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, has been widely used to treat AD and observations reflected that it improves memory and cognitive capacity of AD patients. To reveal its molecular mechanisms on p65, we cultured astrocytes, built Aβ-induced AD model, treated astrocytes with HupA at different concentrations, assayed cell viability with MTT, and detected p65 expression by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Our results revealed that treatment with 10 μM Aβ1-42 for 24 h induced a significant increase of NF-κB in astrocytes; HupA significantly down-regulated p65 expression induced by Aβ in astrocytes. This study infers that HupA can regulate NF-κB pathway to treat AD.

  20. A Fractional Step Theta-Method for Viscoelastic Fluid Flow Using a UPG Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    2δ2ω̃ + 2δ2λ ) + HΓ +Hg + δ 2HupA + δ2HupB. (5.250) Here the terms HΓ,Hg, HupA , and HupB in (5.250) are defined by 43 Hg := λ 4 ∥∥∥∥dtσ(n+1) − σ(n+ 12)t...n+θ− 12))− θd(u(n))− θ̃d(u(n−θ))∥∥∥2 , (5.251) 44 HupA = λM2d́ 4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+ 12)t ∥∥∥∥2 + λM2d́4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+ 12−θ)t ∥∥∥∥2 + λM2d́4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+θ− 12)t ∥∥∥∥2...the proof of the a priori error estimate we need to consider the bounds on each of the HΓ,Hg, HupA , and HupB terms in expression (5.254) using

  1. The protective effect of huperzine A against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Yang, J; Jiang, Q

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury is regarded as a serious concern in clinical practices. Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese folk medicine huperzia serrate, which has possessed diverse pharmacological actions. A mouse model of HI/R was caused by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein, and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 6 hours under anesthesia. The sham group experienced the identical procedure without hepatic ischemia. The HupA group received an injection into the tail vein 5 minutes prior to HI/R at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg. The vehicle group was injected with physiological saline instead of HupA. The liver function was assessed by determinations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the activities of hepatic inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 were also measured. Furthermore, the apoptotic damage was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity in hepatic tissues. Treatment with HupA in mice at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg remarkably reduced serum ALT and AST activities in HupA-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, HupA treatment could enhance the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT, and GSH but decrease MDA tissue content. The activities of inflammatory cytokines including NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were all decreased in ischemic mice treated with HupA. Colorimetric test results illustrated that a marked reduction of caspase-3 activity was found in the HupA-treated group compared with the vehicle group. Our present data suggest that HupA has a protective role against HI/R injury of mice and antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic

  2. Global transcriptome analysis of Huperzia serrata and identification of critical genes involved in the biosynthesis of huperzine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengquan; You, Wenjing; Wu, Shiwen; Fan, Zhen; Xu, Baofu; Zhu, Mulan; Li, Xuan; Xiao, Youli

    2017-03-22

    Huperzia serrata (H. serrata) is an economically important traditional Chinese herb with the notably medicinal value. As a representative member of the Lycopodiaceae family, the H. serrata produces various types of effectively bioactive lycopodium alkaloids, especially the huperzine A (HupA) which is a promising drug for Alzheimer's disease. Despite their medicinal importance, the public genomic and transcriptomic resources are very limited and the biosynthesis of HupA is largely unknown. Previous studies on comparison of 454-ESTs from H. serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus predicted putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, such as lysine decarboxylase like (LDC-like) protein and some CYP450s. However, these gene annotations were not carried out with further biochemical characterizations. To understand the biosynthesis of HupA and its regulation in H. serrata, a global transcriptome analysis on H. Serrata tissues was performed. In this study, we used the Illumina Highseq4000 platform to generate a substantial RNA sequencing dataset of H. serrata. A total of 40.1 Gb clean data was generated from four different tissues: root, stem, leaf, and sporangia and assembled into 181,141 unigenes. The total length, average length, N50 and GC content of unigenes were 219,520,611 bp, 1,211 bp, 2,488 bp and 42.51%, respectively. Among them, 105,516 unigenes (58.25%) were annotated by seven public databases (NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, Interpro, GO), and 54 GO terms and 3,391 transcription factors (TFs) were functionally classified, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that 72,230 unigenes were classified into 21 functional pathways. Three types of candidate enzymes, LDC, CAO and PKS, responsible for the biosynthesis of precursors of HupA were all identified in the transcripts. Four hundred and fifty-seven CYP450 genes in H. serrata were also analyzed and compared with tissue-specific gene expression. Moreover, two key classes of CYP450 genes BBE

  3. Sex Differences in Emergent Literacy and Reading Behaviour in Junior Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasley, Shanna; Evans, Mary Ann; Nowak, Sarah; Willoughby, David

    2018-01-01

    In a sample of 128 Canadian junior kindergarten children (66 boys), we examined sex differences in emergent literacy and behaviour when listening to and interacting with books of four types: alphabet books with simple text and illustrations, traditional alphabet books with complex text and illustrations, alphabet eBooks, and illustrated…

  4. Über die Datenakzessivität in Printwörterbüchern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Alphabets des neuhochdeutschen Schriftsystems ein. Jedes Alphabet lässt sich unter zwei Aspekten betrachten, nämlich dem Verschriftungs- und dem Ord- nungsaspekt. Anders ausgedrückt heißt das: Jedes Alphabet ist bifunktional: Es dient der Verschriftung einer gesprochenen Sprache und hat damit einen Bezug.

  5. Bivalent ligands derived from Huperzine A as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviv, H; Wong, D M; Silman, I; Sussman, J L

    2007-01-01

    The naturally occurring alkaloid Huperzine A (HupA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor that has been used for centuries as a Chinese folk medicine in the context of its source plant Huperzia Serrata. The potency and relative safety of HupA rendered it a promising drug for the ameliorative treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) vis-à-vis the "cholinergic hypothesis" that attributes the cognitive decrements associated with AD to acetylcholine deficiency in the brain. However, recent evidence supports a neuroprotective role for HupA, suggesting that it could act as more than a mere palliative. Biochemical and crystallographic studies of AChE revealed two potential binding sites in the active-site gorge of AChE, one of which, the "peripheral anionic site" at the mouth of the gorge, was implicated in promoting aggregation of the beta amyloid (Abeta) peptide responsible for the neurodegenerative process in AD. This feature of AChE facilitated the development of dual-site binding HupA-based bivalent ligands, in hopes of concomitantly increasing AChE inhibition potency by utilizing the "chelate effect", and protecting neurons from Abeta toxicity. Crystal structures of AChE allowed detailed modeling and docking studies that were instrumental in enhancing the understanding of underlying principles of bivalent inhibitor-enzyme dynamics. This monograph reviews two categories of HupA-based bivalent ligands, in which HupA and HupA fragments serve as building blocks, with a focus on the recently solved crystallographic structures of Torpedo californica AChE in complex with such bifunctional agents. The advantages and drawbacks of such structured-based drug design, as well as species differences, are highlighted and discussed.

  6. Huperzine A attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury may occur during liver transplantation and remains a serious concern in clinical practice. Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Huperzia serrata, has been demonstrated to possess anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic properties. In the present study, a rat model of HI/R was established by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. HupA was injected into the tail vein 5 min prior to the induction of HI/R at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg. The histopathological assessment of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in the serum samples. The tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax in hepatic tissues was detected via western blot analysis. Treatment of Wistar rats with HupA at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg markedly attenuated HI/R injury as observed histologically. In addition, the significant reductions of serum ALT and AST were observed in HupA‑treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, HupA treatment enhanced the activity of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT and GSH, but decreased the MDA tissue content. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of Bcl‑2 expression but decreased Bax and caspase‑3 tissue expression at the protein level in the HupA‑treated group. The present data suggest that HupA attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways.

  7. Identification of the heme acquisition system in Vibrio vulnificus M2799.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Yasunobe, Megumi; Murata, Masahiro; Yamahata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Miyaki, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Tanabe, Tomotaka; Funahashi, Tatsuya; Tsujibo, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, the causative agent of serious, often fatal, infections in humans, requires iron for its pathogenesis. As such, it obtains iron via both vulnibactin and heme-mediated iron-uptake systems. In this study, we identified the heme acquisition system in V. vulnificus M2799. The nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding heme receptors HupA and HvtA and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system proteins HupB, HupC, and HupD were determined, and then used in the construction of deletion mutants developed from a Δics strain, which could not synthesize vulnibactin. Growth experiments using these mutants indicated that HupA and HvtA are major and minor heme receptors, respectively. The expressions of two proteins were analyzed by the quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, complementation analyses confirmed that the HupBCD proteins are the only ABC transport system shared by both the HupA and HvtA receptors. This is the first genetic evidence that the HupBCD proteins are essential for heme acquisition by V. vulnificus. Further investigation showed that hupA, hvtA, and hupBCD are regulated by Fur. The qRT-PCR analysis of the heme receptor genes revealed that HupR, a LysR-family positive transcriptional activator, upregulates the expression of hupA, but not hvtA. In addition, ptrB was co-transcribed with hvtA, and PtrB had no influence on growth in low-iron CM9 medium supplemented with hemin, hemoglobin, or cytochrome C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetics of Huperzine A Dissociation from Acetylcholinesterase via Multiple Unbinding Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, Jakub; Jakubowski, Rafal; Nowak, Wieslaw; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The dissociation of huperzine A (hupA) from Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) was investigated by 4-microsecond unbiased and biased all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent. We performed our study using memetic sampling (MS) for the determination of reaction pathways (RPs), metadynamics to calculate free energy, and maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) to recover kinetic rates from unbiased MD simulations. Our simulations suggest that the dissociation of hupA occurs mainly via two RPs: a front-door along the axis of the active-site gorge (pwf) and through a new transient side-door (pws), i.e., formed by the Omega-loop (residues 67--94 of TcAChE). Analysis of the inhibitor unbinding along the RPs suggests that pws is opened transiently after hupA and the Omega-loop reach a low free-energy transition state characterized by the orientation of the pyridone group of the inhibitor directed toward the Omega-loop plane. Unlike pws, pwf does not require large structural changes of TcAChE to be accessible. The estimated free energies and rates agree well with available experimental data. The dissociation rates along the unbinding pathways are similar, suggesting that the dissociation of hupA along pws is likely to be relevant. This indicates that perturbations to hupA-TcAChE interactions could potentially induce pathway hopping. In summary, out results characterize the slow-onset inhibition of TcAChE by hupA, which may provide the structural and energetic basis for the rational design of the next-generation slow-onset inhibitors with optimized pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Analysis of limiting information characteristics of quantum-cryptography protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, D V; Grishanin, Boris A; Zadkov, Viktor N

    2005-01-01

    The problem of increasing the critical error rate of quantum-cryptography protocols by varying a set of letters in a quantum alphabet for space of a fixed dimensionality is studied. Quantum alphabets forming regular polyhedra on the Bloch sphere and the continual alphabet equally including all the quantum states are considered. It is shown that, in the absence of basis reconciliation, a protocol with the tetrahedral alphabet has the highest critical error rate among the protocols considered, while after the basis reconciliation, a protocol with the continual alphabet possesses the highest critical error rate. (quantum optics and quantum computation)

  10. A method for generating skewed random numbers using two overlapping uniform distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a method for generating skewed random numbers using a combination of uniform random numbers. The method provides a simple and accurate way of generating skewed random numbers from the specified first three moments without an a priori specification of the probability density function. We describe the procedure for generating skewed random numbers from unifon-n random numbers, and show that it accurately produces random numbers with the desired first three moments over a range of skewness values. We also show that in the limit of zero skewness, the distribution of random numbers is an accurate approximation to the Gaussian probability density function. Future work win use this method to provide skewed random numbers for a Langevin equation model for diffusion in skewed turbulence

  11. Huperzine A Alleviates Oxidative Glutamate Toxicity in Hippocampal HT22 Cells via Activating BDNF/TrkB-Dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative glutamate toxicity is involved in diverse neurological disorders including epilepsy and ischemic stroke. Our present work aimed to assess protective effects of huperzine A (HupA) against oxidative glutamate toxicity in a mouse-derived hippocampal HT22 cells and explore its potential mechanisms. Cell survival and cell injury were analyzed by MTT method and LDH release assay, respectively. The production of ROS was measured by detection kits. Protein expressions of BDNF, phosphor-TrkB (p-TrkB), TrkB, phosphor-Akt (p-Akt), Akt, phosphor-mTOR (p-mTOR), mTOR, phosphor-p70s6 (p-p70s6) kinase, p70s6 kinase, Bcl-2, Bax, and β-actin were assayed via Western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the contents of nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). Our findings illustrated 10 μM HupA for 24 h significantly protected HT22 from cellular damage and suppressed the generation of ROS. Additionally, after treating with LY294002 or wortmannin [the selective inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)], HupA dramatically prevented the down-regulations of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-p70s6 kinase in HT22 cells under oxidative toxicity. Furthermore, it was observed that the protein levels of BDNF and p-TrkB were evidently enhanced after co-treatment with HupA and glutamate in HT22 cells. The elevations of p-Akt and p-mTOR were abrogated under toxic conditions after blockade of TrkB by TrkB IgG. Cellular apoptosis was significantly suppressed (decreased caspase-3 activity and enhanced Bcl-2 protein level) after HupA treatment. It was concluded that HupA attenuated oxidative glutamate toxicity in murine hippocampal HT22 cells via activating BDNF/TrkB-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  12. Intranasal delivery of Huperzine A to the brain using lactoferrin-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan surface-modified PLGA nanoparticles for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng QQ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qingqing Meng,1,* Aiping Wang,1,2,* Hongchen Hua,1 Ying Jiang,1 Yiyun Wang,1 Hongjie Mu,1 Zimei Wu,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Yantai University, Yantai, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-Acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Shandong Luye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Yantai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Purpose: To develop Huperzine A (HupA-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC (HupA Lf-TMC NPs for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment.Methods: HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion–solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box–Behnken design. The particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, adhesion and in vitro release behavior were investigated. The cellular uptake was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the NPs. In vivo imaging system was used to investigate brain targeting effect of NPs after intranasal administration. The biodistribution of Hup-A NPs after intranasal administration was determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Optimized HupA Lf-TMC NPs had a particle size of 153.2±13.7 nm, polydispersity index of 0.229±0.078, zeta potential of +35.6±5.2 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 73.8%±5.7%, and sustained release in vitro over a 48 h period. Adsorption of mucin onto Lf-TMC NPs was 86.9%±1.8%, which was significantly higher than that onto PLGA NPs (32.1%±2.5%. HupA Lf-TMC NPs showed lower toxicity

  13. Validation of a Microscale Extraction and High Throughput UHPLC-QTOF-MS Analysis Method for Huperzine A in Huperzia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Piljac-Žegarac, Jasenka; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report on an improved method for the microscale extraction of huperzine A (HupA), an acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting alkaloid, from as little as 3 mg of tissue homogenate from the clubmoss Huperzia squarrosa (G. Forst.) Trevis with 99.95 % recovery. We also validated a novel UHPLC-QTOF-MS method for the high-throughput analysis of H. squarrosa extracts in only 6 min, which, in combination with the very low limit of detection (20 pg on column) and the wide linear range for quantification (20 to 10,000 pg on column), allow for a highly efficient screening of extracts containing varying amounts of HupA. Utilization of this methodology has the potential to conserve valuable plant resources. PMID:22275140

  14. The protection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor on β-amyloid-induced injury of neurite outgrowth via regulating axon guidance related genes expression in neuronal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Wang, Deng-Shun; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in AD correlate with progressive synaptic dysfunction and loss. The Rho family of small GTPases, including Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, has a central role in cellular motility and cytokinesis. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor has been found to protect cells against a broad range of reagents-induced injuries. Present studies examined if the effect of HupA on neurite outgrowth in Aβ-treated neuronal cells executed via regulating Rho-GTPase mediated axon guidance relative gene expressio...

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, and functional analysis of the copper amine oxidase gene in the endophytic fungus Shiraia sp. Slf14 from Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huilin; Peng, Silu; Zhang, Zhibin; Yan, Riming; Wang, Ya; Zhan, Jixun; Zhu, Du

    2016-12-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a drug used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the biosynthesis of this medicinally important compound is not well understood. The HupA biosynthetic pathway is thought to be initiated by the decarboxylation of lysine to form cadaverine, which is then converted to 5-aminopentanal by copper amine oxidase (CAO). In this study, we cloned and expressed an SsCAO gene from a HupA-producing endophytic fungus, Shiraia sp. Slf14. Analysis of the deduced protein amino acid sequence showed that it contained the Asp catalytic base, conserved motif Asn-Tyr-Asp/Glu, and three copper-binding histidines. The cDNA of SsCAO was amplified and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), from which a 76 kDa protein was obtained. The activity of this enzyme was tested, which provided more information about the SsCAO gene in the endophytic fungus. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that this SsCAO could accept cadaverine as a substrate to produce 5-aminopentanal, the precursor of HupA. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the SsCAO from Shiraia sp. Slf14 was closely related to Stemphylium lycopersici CAO. This is the first report on the cloning and expression of a CAO gene from HupA-producing endophytic fungi. Functional characterization of this enzyme provides new insights into the biosynthesis of the HupA an anti-Alzheimer's drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Host-Nonspecific Iron Acquisition Systems and Virulence in the Zoonotic Serovar of Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Roig, Francisco J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Hor, Lien-I

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic serovar of Vibrio vulnificus (known as biotype 2 serovar E) is the etiological agent of human and fish vibriosis. The aim of the present work was to discover the role of the vulnibactin- and hemin-dependent iron acquisition systems in the pathogenicity of this zoonotic serovar under the hypothesis that both are host-nonspecific virulence factors. To this end, we selected three genes for three outer membrane receptors (vuuA, a receptor for ferric vulnibactin, and hupA and hutR, two hemin receptors), obtained single and multiple mutants as well as complemented strains, and tested them in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays, using eels and mice as animal models. The overall results confirm that hupA and vuuA, but not hutR, are host-nonspecific virulence genes and suggest that a third undescribed host-specific plasmid-encoded system could also be used by the zoonotic serovar in fish. hupA and vuuA were expressed in the internal organs of the animals in the first 24 h of infection, suggesting that they may be needed to achieve the population size required to trigger fatal septicemia. vuuA and hupA were sequenced in strains representative of the genetic diversity of this species, and their phylogenies were reconstructed by multilocus sequence analysis of selected housekeeping and virulence genes as a reference. Given the overall results, we suggest that both genes might form part of the core genes essential not only for disease development but also for the survival of this species in its natural reservoir, the aquatic environment. PMID:24478087

  17. Identification of Salmonella typhimurium Genes Required for Colonization of the Chicken Alimentary Tract and for Virulence in Newly Hatched Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arthur K.; Lovell, Margaret A.; Hulme, Scott D.; Zhang-Barber, Li; Barrow, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    From a collection of 2,800 Tn5-TC1 transposon mutants of Salmonella typhimurium F98, 18 that showed reduced intestinal colonization of 3-week-old chicks were identified. The sites of transposon insertion were determined for most of the mutants and included insertions in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes rfaK, rfaY, rfbK, and rfbB and the genes dksA, clpB, hupA, and sipC. In addition, identification was made of an insertion into a novel gene that encodes a protein showing similarity to the IIC component of the mannose class of phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems, which we putatively called ptsC. Transduction of most of the transposon mutations to a fresh S. typhimurium F98 genetic background and construction of defined mutations in the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC genes of S. typhimurium F98 supported the role in colonization of all but the pts locus. The virulence of the rfbK, dksA, hupA, sipC, and ptsC defined mutants and clpB and rfaY transductants in 1-day-old chicks was tested. All but the ptsC and rfaY mutants were attenuated for virulence. A number of other phenotypes associated with some of the mutations are described. PMID:9573095

  18. Solid solutions of hydrogen uranyl phosphate and hydrogen uranyl arsenate. A family of luminescent, lamellar hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorhout, P.K.; Rosenthal, G.L.; Ellis, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen uranyl phosphate, HUO 2 PO 4 x 4H 2 O (HUP), and hydrogen uranyl arsenate, HUO 2 AsO 4 x 4H 2 O (HUAs), form solid solutions of composition HUO 2 (PO 4 ) 1-x (AsO 4 )x (HUPAs), representing a family of lamellar, luminescent solids that can serve as hosts for intercalation chemistry. The solids are prepared by aqueous precipitation reactions from uranyl nitrate and mixtures of phosphoric and arsenic acids; thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the phases are tetrahydrates, like HUP and HUAs. Powder x-ray diffraction data reveal the HUPAs solids to be single phases whose lattice constants increase with X, in rough accord with Vegard's law Spectral shifts observed for the HUPAs samples. Emission from the solids is efficient (quantum yields of ∼ 0.2) and long-lived (lifetimes of ∼ 150 μs), although the measured values are uniformly smaller than those of HUP and HUAs; unimolecular radiative and nonradiative rate constants for excited-state decay of ∼ 1500 and 5000 s -1 , respectively, have been calculated for the compounds. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Keyboards for inputting Japanese language -A study based on US patents

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used Japanese alphabets are Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana. The Kanji alphabet includes pictographs or ideographic characters that were adopted from the Chinese alphabet. Hiragana is used to spell words of Japanese origin, while Katakana is used to spell words of western or other foreign origin. Two methods are commonly used to input Japanese to the computer. One, the 'kana input method' that uses a keyboard having 46 Japanese iroha (or kana) letter keys. The other method is '...

  20. Publications, 1972--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, H.S.

    1977-03-01

    This is a compilation of documents that communicate the results of scientific and technical work done at Savannah River. The bibliographic listing is arranged alphabetically by the first-mentioned author of each document. The subject listing is arranged alphabetically by key word out of context (KWOC) indexing of the titles. The author listing includes in alphabetical order all authors, coauthors, editors, and compilers with identifying code numbers, and the titles of all documents on which their names appear

  1. Department of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Home About The Attorney General Budget & Performance History Privacy Program Agencies Organizational Chart Alphabetical Listing Resources Business Forms Publications Information for Victims in Large Cases ...

  2. Elder Abuse FAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Home About The Attorney General Budget & Performance History Privacy Program Agencies Organizational Chart Alphabetical Listing Resources Grants Business Forms Publications Information for Victims in Large Cases ...

  3. Abstracts to be Delivered at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia, Alphabetized According to the Surname of the First Author. Full-text Abstracts Can be Accessed at www.pulsus.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the titles of the abstracts to be presented at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada (April 3 to 5, Victoria, British Columbia. The full-text abstracts are available online.

  4. Análisis de la aplicación de un sistema de actividad ad hoc para la promoción de habilidades metacognitivas de alfabetización académica Analysis Of Results Of Application Of System Of Activity Ad Hoc For The Promotion Of Abilities Metacognition Of Academic Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Colombo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro proyecto de investigación aborda una de las problemáticas de la enseñanza universitaria: la promoción de habilidades metacognitivas de alfabetización académica (PHMAA. El marco teórico adoptado corresponde a la Psicología Histórico-Cultural. Es una investigación cualitativa, según el modelo de investigación "estudio evolutivo del trabajo"que se realizó en contextos naturales de interacción áulica universitaria con un diseño longitudinal que abordó el estudio de los mismos grupos de alumnos en un lapso cuatrimestral para la misma cohorte 2006. La unidad de análisis escogida fue el "sistema de actividad áulico universitario". Se trabajó con dos muestras: una para el sistema de actividad artificial ad hoc y otra para el sistema de actividad tradicional, las que fueron analizadas y comparadas. Se utilizaron artefactos mediadores dentro del sistema ad hoc para la PHMAA. En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados del análisis y la comparación de evaluaciones escritas de los alumnos de ambos grupos.In our research project we examine one of the main issues on university level teaching: the promotion of metacognitive skills in academic literacy process (PHMAA in Spanish. The theoretical framework used is Historical - Cultural Psychology. It is a qualitative research, along the lines of investigation "evolutionary study of work" that took place in contexts of natural interaction classroom university with a design that addressed the longitudinal study of the same groups of students within four months for the same cohort 2006. The unit of analysis is chosen the "system activity classroom university." We worked with two samples: one for the system of artificial ad hoc activity and one for the traditional system, which were analyzed and compared. Mediators devices were used within the ad hoc system for PHMAA. In this article outlines the results of the analysis and comparison of written assessments of students in both groups.

  5. Controlled iontophoretic transport of huperzine A across skin in vitro and in vivo: effect of delivery conditions and comparison of pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Dhaval R; Patel, Pratikkumar; Merino, Virginia; Patravale, Vandana B; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2013-11-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate constant current anodal iontophoresis of Huperzine A (HupA) in vitro and in vivo and hence to evaluate the feasibility of using electrically assisted delivery to administer therapeutic amounts of the drug across the skin for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary experiments were performed using porcine and human skin in vitro. Stability studies demonstrated that HupA was not degraded upon exposure to epidermis or dermis for 12 h and that it was also stable in the presence of an electric current (0.5 mA · cm(-2)). Passive permeation of HupA (2 mM) was minimal (1.1 ± 0.1 μg · cm(-2)); iontophoresis at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 mA · cm(-2) produced 106-, 134-, and 184-fold increases in its transport across the skin. Surprisingly, despite the use of a salt bridge to isolate the formulation compartment from the anodal chamber, which contained 133 mM NaCl, iontophoresis of HupA was shown to increase linearly with its concentration (1, 2, and 4 mM in 25 mM MES, pH 5.0) (r(2) = 0.99). This was attributed to the low ratio of drug to Cl¯ (in the skin and in the receiver compartment) which competed strongly to carry current, its depletion, and to possible competition from the zwitterionic MES. Co-iontophoresis of acetaminophen confirmed that electromigration was the dominant electrotransport mechanism. Total delivery across human and porcine skin was found to be statistically equivalent (243.2 ± 33.1 and 235.6 ± 13.7 μg · cm(-2), respectively). Although the transport efficiency was ∼ 1%, the iontophoretic delivery efficiency (i.e., the fraction of the drug load delivered) was extremely high, in the range of 46-81% depending on the current density. Cumulative permeation of HupA from a Carbopol gel formulation after iontophoresis for 6 h at 0.5 mA · cm(-2) was less than that from solution (135.3 ± 25.2 and 202.9 ± 5.2 μg · cm(-2), respectively) but sufficient for therapeutic delivery. Pharmacokinetic parameters were

  6. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  7. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  8. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... discriminatory barriers to procurements of supplies and services produced by industrial enterprises of the other....003 is amended in paragraph (10), the definition of ``qualifying country'' by adding in alphabetical... place; 0 b. In paragraph (a), the definition of ``qualifying country'', by adding, in alphabetical order...

  9. The benefits of being economics professor A (and not Z)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; van Praag, B.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Alphabetic name ordering on multi-authored academic papers, which is the convention in the economics discipline and various other disciplines, is to the advantage of people whose last name initials are placed early in the alphabet. As it turns out, Professor A, who has been a first author more often

  10. The benefits of being economics professor A (rather than Z)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; van Praag, B.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Alphabetical name ordering on multi-authored academic papers, which is the convention in economics and various other disciplines, is to the advantage of people whose last name initials are placed early in the alphabet. Professor A, who has been a first author more often than Professor Z, will have

  11. Learning Eigenvectors for Free

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Koolen-Wijkstra (Wouter); W.T. Kotlowski (Wojciech); M.K. Warmuth

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe extend the classical problem of predicting a sequence of outcomes from a finite alphabet to the matrix domain. In this extension, the alphabet of n outcomes is replaced by the set of all dyads, i.e. outer products uu^T where u is a vector in R^n of unit length. Whereas in the

  12. Meanwhile, some Math

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Brian Rotman’s book Becoming Beside Ourselves: The alphabet, Ghosts, and Distributed Human Being (2008), ends befittingly with a number of hypothetical situations. As the book revolves around the question of what to do with the archaic, old-fashioned, and now useless system of alphabetization, fr...

  13. Going on Safari: The Design and Development of an Early Years Literacy iPad Application to Support Letter-Sound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... The description of protein 3D structures can be performed through a library of 3D fragments, named a structural alphabet. Our structural alphabet is composed of 16 small protein fragments of 5 C in length, called protein blocks (PBs). It allows an efficient approximation of the 3D protein structures and a ...

  15. New Dimensions in Movement and Fitness through Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Blair

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a number of ways to integrate academic content with physical activities. Among the activities are: (1) Paint the Alphabet, where students use different body parts (arms, legs, and head) as large paint brushes to paint the entire alphabet on an imaginary canvas; (2) Sequence Race, where students are placed into…

  16. 78 FR 14914 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number. This regulation involves collections... Jasmeet K. Seehra, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), by email to [email protected] , or... under Germany, in alphabetical order, one German entity; 0 b. By adding under Russia, in alphabetical...

  17. A Preliminary Exploration of Uppercase Letter-Name Knowledge among Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Claire W.; Erickson, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    There are several factors known to impact the alphabet knowledge of young children without disabilities. The impact of these factors on the alphabet knowledge of students with significant cognitive disabilities is unknown. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the impact of three factors that might influence uppercase…

  18. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  19. Acetylcholinesterase complexed with bivalent ligands related to huperzine a: experimental evidence for species-dependent protein-ligand complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dawn M; Greenblatt, Harry M; Dvir, Hay; Carlier, Paul R; Han, Yi-Fan; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Silman, Israel; Sussman, Joel L

    2003-01-15

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors improve the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer patients. (-)-Huperzine A [(-)-HupA], an alkaloid isolated from the club moss, Huperzia serrata, is one such inhibitor, but the search for more potent and selective drugs continues. Recently, alkylene-linked dimers of 5-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolinone (hupyridone, 1a), a fragment of HupA, were shown to serve as more potent inhibitors of AChE than (-)-HupA and monomeric 1a. We soaked two such dimers, (S,S)-(-)-bis(10)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2a] and (S,S)-(-)-bis(12)-hupyridone [(S,S)-(-)-2b] containing, respectively, 10 and 12 methylenes in the spacer, into trigonal TcAChE crystals, and solved the X-ray structures of the resulting complexes using the difference Fourier technique, both to 2.15 A resolution. The structures revealed one HupA-like 1a unit bound to the "anionic" subsite of the active-site, near the bottom of the active-site gorge, adjacent to Trp84, as seen for the TcAChE/(-)-HupA complex, and the second 1a unit near Trp279 in the "peripheral" anionic site at the top of the gorge, both bivalent molecules thus spanning the active-site gorge. The results confirm that the increased affinity of the dimeric HupA analogues for AChE is conferred by binding to the two "anionic" sites of the enzyme. Inhibition data show that (-)-2a binds to TcAChE approximately 6-7- and > 170-fold more tightly than (-)-2b and (-)-HupA, respectively. In contrast, previous data for rat AChE show that (-)-2b binds approximately 3- and approximately 2-fold more tightly than (-)-2a and (-)-HupA, respectively. Structural comparison of TcAChE with rat AChE, as represented by the closely related mouse AChE structure (1maa.pdb), reveals a narrower gorge for rat AChE, a perpendicular alignment of the Tyr337 ring to the gorge axis, and its conformational rigidity, as a result of hydrogen bonding between its hydroxyl group and that of Tyr341, relative to TcAChE Phe330. These structural differences in the

  20. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  1. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  2. [Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of lysine decarboxylase gene of endophytic fungus Shiraia sp. Slf14 from Huperzia serrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Silu; Yang, Huilin; Zhu, Du; Zhang, Zhibin; Yan, Riming; Wang, Ya

    2016-04-14

    Huperzine A (HupA) was approved as a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The HupA biosynthetic pathway was started from lysine decarboxylase (LDC), which catalyzes lysine to cadaverine. In this study, we cloned and expressed an LDC gene from a HupA-producing endophytic fungus, and tested LDC activities. An endophytic fungus Shiraia sp. Slf14 from Huperzia serrata was used. LDC gene was obtained by RT-PCR, and cloned into pET-22b(+) and pET-32a(+) vectors to construct recombinant plasmids pET- 22b-LDC and pET-32a-LDC. These two recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21, cultured for 8 h at 24 °C, 200 r/min with 1×10–3 mol/L IPTG into medium to express the LDC proteins, respectively. LDC proteins were purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. Catalytic activities were measured by Thin Layer Chromatography. At last, the physicochemical properties and structures of these two LDCs were obtained by bioinformatics software. LDC and Trx-LDC were expressed in E. coli BL21 successfully. SDS-PAGE analysis shows that the molecular weight of LDC and Trx-LDC were 24.4 kDa and 42.7 kDa respectively, which are consistent with bioinformatics analysis. In addition, TLC analysis reveals that both LDC and Trx-LDC had catalytic abilities. This work can provide fundamental data for enriching LDC molecular information and reveal the HupA biosynthetic pathway in endophytic fungi.

  3. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  4. Bibliography of the seasonal thermal energy storage library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Casper, G.; Kawin, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    The Main Listing is arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first author. Each citation includes the author's name, title, publisher, publication date, and where applicable, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) number or other document number. The number preceding each citation is the identification number for that document in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Library. Occasionally, one or two alphabetic characters are added to the identification number. These alphabetic characters indicate that the document is contained in a collection of papers, such as the proceedings of a conference. An Author Index and an Identification Number Index are included. (WHK)

  5. Fuel buyers guide: company data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Four major listings relating to nuclear fuel services are provided. 1. A fuel buyer's guide listing companies under alphabetical order of country and giving addresses and an indication of the services offered. 2. A fuel buyers guide classifying companies in alphabetical order of the services offered. 3. A fuel and front end facility listing subdivided into companies involved in: uranium ore processing; uranium refining and conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; heavy water production; zirconium metal production; and zirconium tube production. 4. A fuel and front end facilities listing giving operators' addresses under alphabetical order of country. (UK)

  6. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments: FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.C.

    1975-10-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; an alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; an alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and a tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope, with the totals for loaned isotopes shown at the end of the table. (auth)

  7. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog. Holdings from August 1973 to December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog of holdings from August 1973 to December 1974 has been published in a single volume. The full catalog lists alphabetically by title the complete entry for each book owned by the individual EPA libraries. The indexes to the Book Catalog are in two parts. Part 1, the Author Index, lists each author in alphabetical order. The Subject Index (Part 2) lists, in alphabetical order, the subject headings assigned to the books in the catalog

  8. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments: FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.

    1984-12-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  9. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments - FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: (1) alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers, showing the stable isotopes purchased during the fiscal year; (2) alphabetical list of isotopes, cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into domestic and foreign categories; (3) alphabetical list of states and countries, cross-referenced to customer numbers and indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users; and (4) tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for domestic, foreign, and project categories for each isotope

  10. Navajo-English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Leon; Morgan, William

    A brief summary of the sound system of the Navajo language introduces this Navajo-English dictionary. Diacritical markings and an English definition are given for each Navajo word. Words are listed alphabetically by Navajo sound. (VM)

  11. Guide to Understanding Your Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these numbers and alphabet soups, and a better comprehension of what they quantify and signify, here is ... constitute another sleep disorder. And yes, someone is listening to–though not measuring in decibels–your snoring, ...

  12. A Critical Analysis of the Lemmatisation of Nouns and Verbs in isiZulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of isiZulu. The advantages versus disadvantages of lemmatising verbal and nominal stems, verbal .... imisebenzikazi (1) (imisebenzi+kazi) 'big jobs'. Affixes ...... of related items, new routes to the data, less dependency on alphabetical order,.

  13. Terrestrial ecology in South Africa - project abstracts for 1980-1981

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Huntley, BJ

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts are provided for research projects conducted during 1980-1981 in South African terrestrial ecosystems. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically according to author name and a keyword index is provided....

  14. Dictionary of nuclear power. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2011-10-01

    The updated dictionary on nuclear power contains definitions and explanations on nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, nuclear power, radiation effects and radiation protection in alphabetic order. Attachments on units, their conversion and physical constants are included.

  15. The Concept of "Simultaneous Feedback": Towards a New Meth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodology for compiling dictionaries, overcomes the major problem of ..... ary), WCN for short, is "a general and alphabetically ordered, pocket-sized uni- ..... The Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary (Sinclair 1987), known as.

  16. Listing of awardee names. Active and inactive awards as of March 28, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document is a computerized listing issued quarterly from the Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS), including an alphabetical listing of all acquisition and financial assistance awards (excluding purchase orders) with the Department of Energy

  17. National Cemetery Administration Memorial Inventory, August 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This is the most recent list all monuments cataloged by the History Program, as required. The objects are provided alphabetically by cemetery name; other formats are...

  18. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under this section, briefly state the materials used, the selection of study ... In such a list the authors' names are presented in alphabetical order and then ... the preferred currency to use is Birr, with exchange rates indicated in US Dollar.

  19. African Journals Online: Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ... Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize ... reviews, case reports, research methods papers, short communications, along ... research work, interesting case reports, etc. among medical professionals.

  20. 77 FR 27774 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... alphabetical order] FDIC Ref. No. Bank name City State Date closed 10439 Security Bank, North Lauderdale. FL 5... visit the Corporation Web site at www.fdic.gov/bank/individual/failed/banklist.html or contact the...

  1. 76 FR 64088 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Liquidation [In alphabetical order] FDIC Ref. No. Bank name City State Date closed 10400 Sun Security Bank... visit the Corporation Web site at http://www.fdic.gov/bank/individual/failed/banklist.html or contact...

  2. 75 FR 36656 - Update to Notice of Financial Institutions for Which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... [In alphabetical order] FDIC Ref. No. Bank name City State Date closed 10250 Nevada Security Bank... visit the Corporation Web site at http://www.fdic.gov/bank/individual/failed/banklist.html or contact...

  3. Chaves para classificação de galhas de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera em Myrtaceae na Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro Keys to separation of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera galls on Myrtaceae at Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys to Cecidomyiidae galls occuring on Myrtaceae by genus of the host plant, in alphabetical order, are presented. Data on gall makers, predators and inquilinous species are given, as well as illustrations of the galls.

  4. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  5. Radiation protection. Terms and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An alphabetical list in German is given of all terms and definitions important to radiation protection under consideration of all Austrian laws concerning this subject scope as also pertinent standards of ISO, DIN and OENORM.

  6. 47 CFR 97.507 - Preparing an examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coordinating VEC. (d) A telegraphy examination must consist of a message sent in the international Morse code... telegraphy examination. Each 5 letters of the alphabet must be counted as 1 word. Each numeral, punctuation...

  7. 47 CFR 13.207 - Preparing an examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consist of a plain language text or code group message sent in the international Morse code at no less... examination. Each five letters of the alphabet must be counted as one word or one code group. Each numeral...

  8. Bibliography of fusion product physics in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Sigmar, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    Almost 700 citations have been compiled as the first step in reviewing the recent research on tokamak fusion product effects in tokamaks. The publications are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author and by subject category

  9. RF model of the distribution system as a communication channel, phase 2. Volume 4: Sofware source program and illustrations ASCII database listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustay, R. C.; Gajjar, J. T.; Rankin, R. W.; Wentz, R. C.; Wooding, R.

    1982-01-01

    Listings of source programs and some illustrative examples of various ASCII data base files are presented. The listings are grouped into the following categories: main programs, subroutine programs, illustrative ASCII data base files. Within each category files are listed alphabetically.

  10. Radiochemistry and radiochemical separations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography for years 1993-1996 with 159 references was compiled on radiochemistry and radiochemical separations based on the INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged in alphabetical order of first authors. (N.T.)

  11. Analysis by absorption and scattering of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, Ernoe

    1987-01-01

    This recent review of the bibliography contains 115 references arranged in alphabetical order of the first author's name. Each reference contains the INIS Atomindex Reference Number (RN), also the availability of the document on INIS microfiche. (R.P.)

  12. Environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1999-01-01

    A current bibliography with 146 references has been compiled on environmental radiochemistry and radioactivity for years 1993-1997 based on INIS Atomindex. The references are arranged alphabetically by first authors' names. (N.T.)

  13. Webster's word power essential students' companion general knowledge of the English language

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Helps the student with facts and resource on English grammar, specialist subjects from art to physics, with sections on world facts, Latin and Greek words; Chemical elements; Greek alphabet; the scientific classification of animal; help on essay writing and composition.

  14. 77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS), proprietary market surveys, and the National... the introductory text, alphabetically add the following commodities and footnote 1 to the table to...

  15. An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussheim, Joan Yares

    1980-01-01

    A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)

  16. Best Books 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 45 children's books and 29 young adult books selected by School Library Journal's Book Review staff and Young Adult Review committee, respectively. Arrangement is alphabetical by author with the grade level indicated for children's books. (EJS)

  17. List of publications of workers of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babecki, J.; Bednarz, W.; Kuszaj, K.; Ptak, K.; Zrodlewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography contains 3500 publications of 294 workers of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow published during the first 25 years of its activity. The publications are presented in alphabetic order. Personal author index is enclosed. (A.S.)

  18. 69 70 THE PHONOLOGICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    2007-05-10

    May 10, 2007 ... This is based on the information ... system. Pinyin adopts the Latin alphabet to transcribe Chinese sounds, and ... Sound System of the Chinese Language ... Chinese can be classified into 7 types; bilabials (b p m) dentilabial.

  19. A method for computing the inter-residue interaction potentials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-06-16

    Jun 16, 2007 ... overview of the methods used to reduce the amino acid alphabet; second, we .... The MDS is a widely used method in social sciences and psychometry ... structures) statistical potential functions is the method of choice for ...

  20. Systems Theory and Communication. Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, William G., Jr.

    This annotated bibliography presents annotations of 31 books and journal articles dealing with systems theory and its relation to organizational communication, marketing, information theory, and cybernetics. Materials were published between 1963 and 1992 and are listed alphabetically by author. (RS)

  1. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  2. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. This is Revision 16, dated September 2015.

  3. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tables might be used to accomplish concise presentation of results. ... full details of authors surname and initials should be in an alphabetical order (the Harvard style/APA). 11. ... The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.

  4. NCDC Surface Weather Records Inventory - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alphabetic listing by state of all the aviation, synoptic, supplementary airways, and similar observations on file at NCDC from the beginning of the record through...

  5. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting

  6. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The reference lists and indexes are generated from a computer-searchable bibliographic data base; an indexing program collects and alphabetizes authors' names and keywords and correlates them with reference numbers

  7. Modelling arithmetic operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabanov-kushnarenk, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of modelling finite alphabetic operators using formal intelligence theory, is explored, with the setting up of models of a 3-digit adder and a multidigit subtractor, as examples. 2 references.

  8. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  9. Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zu Zhu

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1 Tetrahydropalmatine (THP and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+-THP and (--THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (--THP and (--stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3 Huperzine A (Hup-A is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4 Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel outer membrane protein receptor required for hemin utilization in Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shreya

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, the cause of septicemia and serious wound infection in humans and fishes, require iron for its pathogenesis. Hemin uptake through the outer membrane receptor, HupA, is one of its many mechanisms by which it acquires iron. We report here the identification of an additional TonB-dependent hemin receptor HvtA, that is needed in conjunction with the HupA protein for optimal hemin utilization. The HvtA protein is significantly homologous to other outer membrane hemin receptors and its expression in trans restored the uptake of hemin and hemoglobin, the latter to a weaker extent, in a mutant strain that was defective in both receptors. Quantitative RT-PCR suggested that transcription of the hvtA gene was iron regulated. The operon containing the hvtA gene is homologous to the operon in V. cholerae containing the hemin receptor gene hutR suggesting a vertical transmission of the hvtA cluster from V. cholerae to V. vulnificus. PMID:22015545

  11. Simultaneous Administration of ADSCs-Based Therapy and Gene Therapy Using Ad-huPA Reduces Experimental Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Ríos, Alejandra; García-Benavides, Leonel; García-Bañuelos, Jesus; Salazar-Montes, Adriana; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    hADSCs transplantation in cirrhosis models improves liver function and reduces fibrosis. In addition, Ad-huPA gene therapy diminished fibrosis and increased hepatocyte regeneration. In this study, we evaluate the combination of these therapies in an advanced liver fibrosis experimental model. hADSCs were expanded and characterized before transplantation. Ad-huPA was simultaneously administrated via the ileac vein. Animals were immunosuppressed by CsA 24 h before treatment and until sacrifice at 10 days post-treatment. huPA liver expression and hADSCs biodistribution were evaluated, as well as the percentage of fibrotic tissue, hepatic mRNA levels of Col-αI, TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, PAI-I, MMP2 and serum levels of ALT, AST and albumin. hADSCs homed mainly in liver, whereas huPA expression was similar in Ad-huPA and hADSCs/Ad-huPA groups. hADSCs, Ad-huPA and hADSCs/Ad-huPA treatment improves albumin levels, reduces liver fibrosis and diminishes Collagen α1, CTGF and α-SMA mRNA liver levels. ALT and AST serum levels showed a significant decrease exclusively in the hADSCs group. These results showed that combinatorial effect of cell and gene-therapy does not improve the antifibrogenic effects of individual treatments, whereas hADSCs transplantation seems to reduce liver fibrosis in a greater proportion.

  12. Mineralogy of the rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper contains mineralogic properties of the rare earth elements (REE). Notes are given on total REE abundances, distribution patterns, and modes of occurrence. References are confined as far as possible to papers containing usable REE data. The minerals are grouped alphabetically within each major cationic group. The paper includes an alphabetic table of mineral names, chemical formulas, crystal system and section number. It functions as a handy entrance to the mineralogic and bibliographic paper. (G.J.P.)

  13. A dictionary of altitudes in the United States (second edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1891-01-01

    I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a second edition of a Dictionary of Altitudes, the first edition having been published in 1884. The present work is considerably enlarged, mainly by the addition of determinations of altitudes by railroads. Besides the additions of matter, the principal change from the earlier edition consists in the substitution of a single alphabetic arrangement throughout the work for an alphabetic arrangement by States.

  14. Author Index, From > 1988-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1988-1992, 824 papers were published in >. The papers were contributed by 1497 authors. The author index of the papers is annexed. The author index is divided into contained two parts: the first part is chinese author index, and the second part is foreign author index. The former is arranged according to the chinese phonetic alphabet. The latter is arranged according to the English alphabet

  15. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  16. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  17. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages.

  18. The Local Genius Typography as a Source of Idea for Latin-based Typeface Design in Visual Communication Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Haswanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During its long history, slowly but sure, Indonesia had accepted the influence of the written language from various nation and civilization. Approximately in the 15th century AD, European brought their language system, Latin, to Indonesia, which had been developed until present time. The usage of Latin alphabet for daily communication in Indonesia has created a disadvantage for the local/ethnic language, especially since the Latin provided an easier writing and speaking system. Latin uses alphabet system in which one sound represents one letter: A, B, C, etc. In contrast, the ethnic language uses syllable system in which one sound could consist of more than one letter (a, ba, ta, ka, nga, kha, etc. The growing of the nation of Indonesia with its various ethnic groups created the need for unification language, a language with a universal system. Furthermore, the alphabet system is easier to be used for various written and spoken language in the world. The richness of ethnic alphabet from Indonesia could become infinite ideas in developing computer typefaces. A typographer could design Latin alphabet with the characteristic of ethnic alphabets by capturing the traditional elements from the letters. These findings could enrich the field of visual communication nowadays. 

  19. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  20. Topological Structures on DMC Spaces †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajai Nasser

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Two channels are said to be equivalent if they are degraded from each other. The space of equivalent channels with input alphabet X and output alphabet Y can be naturally endowed with the quotient of the Euclidean topology by the equivalence relation. A topology on the space of equivalent channels with fixed input alphabet X and arbitrary but finite output alphabet is said to be natural if and only if it induces the quotient topology on the subspaces of equivalent channels sharing the same output alphabet. We show that every natural topology is σ -compact, separable and path-connected. The finest natural topology, which we call the strong topology, is shown to be compactly generated, sequential and T 4 . On the other hand, the strong topology is not first-countable anywhere, hence it is not metrizable. We introduce a metric distance on the space of equivalent channels which compares the noise levels between channels. The induced metric topology, which we call the noisiness topology, is shown to be natural. We also study topologies that are inherited from the space of meta-probability measures by identifying channels with their Blackwell measures.

  1. The Teacher’s Work in Classroom: teaching to read and to write

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Oliveira Micotti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the alphabetization as pertaining to school work is a sufficiently complex situation. Education has been criticized, frequently; it is attributed to the student’s low performances in reading and writing. The teacher’s formation is also questioned by not being adjusted to the educational reality of the country. On the practice, we observe the shock of new pedagogical proposals - principally of the cycling curricular structure and the constructivism - with the practical ones that have been predominated for long time in the education system. The pedagogical proposals interpretations aren’t uniforms in teaching work; they vary with the schools and the classrooms. Many times, the constructivism is confused with old methods. As current education is affected by proposals of complex pedagogical changes, the understanding of what occurs with the alphabetization can be facilitated by the distinction between the practices entailed to the diverse theoretical conceptions. The study of the alphabetization didactics can help to the development of this process for allowing identifying the transpositions of the diverse theoretical conceptions to the school work. In this article, we present a general vision of the methodological boardings and the didactics practices that corresponds to them. For this, we revisit the alphabetization methods, the pedagogical proposal elaborated by Paulo Freire for the adults’ alphabetization.

  2. The Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences: A Program Exemplifying Diversity and Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morria, V. R.; Demoz, B.; Joseph, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Howard University Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS) is the first advanced degree program in the atmospheric sciences instituted at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU) or at a Minority-Serving Institution (MSI). MSI in this context refers to academic institutions whose histories are grounded in serving minority students from their inception, rather than institutions whose student body demographics have evolved along with the "browning of America" and now meet recent Federal criteria for "minority-serving". HUPAS began in 1996 when initiatives within the Howard University Graduate School overlapped with the motivations of investigators within a NASA-funded University research center for starting a sustainable interdisciplinary program. After twenty years, the results have been the production of greater institutional depth and breadth of research in the geosciences and significant production of minority scientists contributing to the atmospheric sciences enterprise in various sectors. This presentation will highlight the development of the Howard University graduate program in atmospheric sciences, its impact on the national statistics for the production of underrepresented minority (URM) advanced degree holders in the atmospheric sciences, and some of the program's contributions to the diversity in geosciences and the National pipeline of talent from underrepresented groups. Over the past decade, Howard University is leading producer of African American and Hispanic female doctorates in atmospheric sciences - producing nearly half of all degree holders in the Nation. Specific examples of successful partnerships between this program and federal funding agencies such as NASA and NOAA which have been critical in the development process will also be highlighted. Finally, some of the student recruitment and retention strategies that have enabled the success of this program and statistics of student graduation will also be shared and

  3. One of the Two Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated HU Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor Is Developmentally Regulated and Specifically Involved in Spore Maturation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Paola; Larsson, Jessica; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Smith, Colin P.; Flärdh, Klas

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces genomes encode two homologs of the nucleoid-associated HU proteins. One of them, here designated HupA, is of a conventional type similar to E. coli HUα and HUβ, while the other, HupS, is a two-domain protein. In addition to the N-terminal part that is similar to that of HU proteins, it has a C-terminal domain that is similar to the alanine- and lysine-rich C termini of eukaryotic linker histones. Such two-domain HU proteins are found only among Actinobacteria. In this phylum some organisms have only a single HU protein of the type with a C-terminal histone H1-like domain (e.g., Hlp in Mycobacterium smegmatis), while others have only a single conventional HU. Yet others, including the streptomycetes, produce both types of HU proteins. We show here that the two HU genes in Streptomyces coelicolor are differentially regulated and that hupS is specifically expressed during sporulation, while hupA is expressed in vegetative hyphae. The developmental upregulation of hupS occurred in sporogenic aerial hyphal compartments and was dependent on the developmental regulators whiA, whiG, and whiI. HupS was found to be nucleoid associated in spores, and a hupS deletion mutant had an average nucleoid size in spores larger than that in the parent strain. The mutant spores were also defective in heat resistance and spore pigmentation, although they possessed apparently normal spore walls and displayed no increased sensitivity to detergents. Overall, the results show that HupS is specifically involved in sporulation and may affect nucleoid architecture and protection in spores of S. coelicolor. PMID:19717607

  4. Huperzine A protects neural stem cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells and microglia co-culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Lin, Jizong; Wang, Kewan; Wei, Meidan; Chen, Qingzhuang; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore whether Huperzine A (HupA) could protect neural stem cells against amyloid beta-peptide Aβ induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglia co-culture system. Methods: Rat NSCs and microglial cells were isolated, cultured and identified with immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). Co-culture systems of NSCs and microglial cells were employed using Transwell Permeable Supports. The effects of Aβ1-42 on NSCs were studied in 4 groups using co-culture systems: NSCs, Aβ+NSCs, co-culture and Aβ+co-culture groups. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the differences of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NSCs between the groups. LQ test was performed to assess the amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α secreted, and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to assess apoptosis of NSCs and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in each group. Results: IFA results showed that isolated rat NSCs were nestin-positive and microglial cells were CD11b/c-positive. Among all the groups, the Aβ+co-culture group has the lowest BrdU expression level, the lowest MAP2-positive, ChAT-positive cell counts and the highest NSC apoptosis rate. Smaller amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α were being secreted by microglial cells in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group compared with those in the Aβ+ co-culture group. Also the Bcl-2: Bax ratio was much higher in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group than in the Aβ+co-culture group. Conclusions: HupA inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia’s inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42. PMID:26261518

  5. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  6. 1991 worldwide petroleum phone/fax/telex directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book puts more than 34,000 worldwide locations just a phone call or fax or telex message away. The directory lists companies and their subsidiaries in locations from Alaska to Zaire, whether their operations are in exploration, production, refining, transportation, petrochemicals, etc., offshore or on land. The listings are organized by country, with the companies listed in alphabetical order. So if you happen to know the country you wish to reach, you simply choose the company listed under it. And if you happen to know only the company name, two company indices will help you find the specific location you want. The Company Index Hierarchical lists all subsidiaries, branches, divisions, etc., under their corporate names. The Company Index - Alphabetical lists all entries alphabetically. Country codes for telephone, fax or telex are provided

  7. Stable isotope customer list and summary of shipments:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.

    1988-03-01

    This compilation is published as an aid to those concerned with the separation and sale of stable isotopes. The information is divided into four sections: alphabetical lists of domestic and foreign customers;alphabetical lists of isotopes and services;alphabetical lists of states and countries;tabulation of the shipments, quantities, and dollars for each isotope and dollars for services divided into domestic, foreign, and DOE project categories. During FY 1987 sales of stable isotope products and services were made to 272 differnt customers, of whom 159 were domestic and 113 were foreign, representing 18 different foreign countries. The total revenue was $3,785,609 of which 12.3% was from sales to DOE project customers, 60.4% was from sales to other domestic customers, and 27.3% was from sales to foreign customers. this represented sales of 189 different stable isotopes plus associated services and was a 16.5% increase over FY 1986

  8. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    of their last names, implying that all contributed equally, and by contribution, where authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution to the paper. We perform a game theoretic analysis of the impact of author ordering schemes, uncovering two considerable advantages of alphabetical ordering......The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order......: it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...

  9. FEATURES OF LINGUISTIC’S TERMS IN THE BOOK OF Ş. BEKTÖRE NAMED “TATARCA SARF, NAHV” / Ş. BEKTÖRENİÑ «TATARCA SARF, NAHV»1 ADLI KİTABINDA QULLANILĞAN LİNGVİSTİK TERMİNLERNİÑ H��SUSİYETLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Emine ĞANİYEVA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Characteristics Of Linguistic Terms Used In Ş. Bektöre’s Book Of “Tatarca Sarf Nahv”The first quarter of previous century became an important era for Crimean Tatar language and literature. The amendments in language policies, such as displacing Arabic alphabet by Latin alphabet and later replacing it by Cyrillic alphabet, resulted in some problems. Among the problems, there were spelling, terminology, schools and preparing lecture books. About these issues, the scientists such as B. Çoban-zade, Ş. Bektore, Y.A. Bayburtlı, A. Odabaş prepared important studies. In this article, we focus on the work of Şevkiy Bektore,“Tatarca Sarf Nahv”, who is a poet, author and educationalist, and the characteristics of linguistic terms used in this work.

  10. Open conformal systems and perturbations of transfer operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this book is on open conformal dynamical systems corresponding to the escape of a point through an open Euclidean ball. The ultimate goal is to understand the asymptotic behavior of the escape rate as the radius of the ball tends to zero. In the case of hyperbolic conformal systems this has been addressed by various authors. The conformal maps considered in this book are far more general, and the analysis correspondingly more involved. The asymptotic existence of escape rates is proved and they are calculated in the context of (finite or infinite) countable alphabets, uniformly contracting conformal graph-directed Markov systems, and in particular, conformal countable alphabet iterated function systems. These results have direct applications to interval maps, meromorphic maps and rational functions. Towards this goal the authors develop, on a purely symbolic level, a theory of singular perturbations of Perron--Frobenius (transfer) operators associated with countable alphabet subshifts of finite t...

  11. Selective attention and the "Asynchrony Theory" in native Hebrew-speaking adult dyslexics: Behavioral and ERPs measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Shay

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine whether adult dyslexic readers demonstrate the "Asynchrony Theory" (Breznitz [Reading Fluency: Synchronization of Processes, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006]) when selective attention is studied. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral parameters were collected from nonimpaired readers group and dyslexic readers group performing alphabetic and nonalphabetic tasks. The dyslexic readers group was found to demonstrate asynchrony between the auditory and the visual modalities when it came to processing alphabetic stimuli. These findings were found both for behavioral and ERPs parameters. Unlike the dyslexic readers, the nonimpaired readers showed synchronized speed of processing in the auditory and the visual modalities while processing alphabetic stimuli. The current study suggests that established reading is dependent on a synchronization between the auditory and the visual modalities even when it comes to selective attention.

  12. National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A; Kramer, K A

    1979-01-01

    The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

  13. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  14. Interior Design 1992 Buyers Guide issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    The Interior Design Magazine Buyers Guide is compiled with you, the designer, in mind. So it's packed with the most comprehensive collection of sources available anyplace--arranged for fast, easy access. First, the Keyword Index presents all the Buyers Guide product categories alphabetically (see the first tab divider). Refer to the page number indicated in the Product Index (second tab divider) to view various manufacturers of products under each category heading. Addresses, phone and fax numbers, regional and international showroom/representatives are located in the A-Z Index (third tab divider) in alphabetical order. Consult the table of contents for trade associations, lighting consultants, marts, and other useful sections.

  15. Ins-Robust Primitive Words

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh

    2017-01-01

    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  16. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 5. Generic Subjects H-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order. This volume presents generic subjects arranged alphabetically from H to R

  17. Recent bibliography on analytical and sampling problems of a PWR primary coolant Suppl. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illy, H.

    1987-11-01

    The present supplement reviews the subsequent literature following 5 bibliographies from 1980 to 1986 each, up till September 1987. It also includes some references overlooked in the first five volumes. The serial numbers are continued from the first five bibliographies. Cross-referencing was not intended. This bibliographical supplement of 161 references is arranged in alphabetical order; within each topic the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. Works are in English unless otherwise marked. (author)

  18. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 6. Generic Subjects R-Z, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order. This volume contains the generic subjects with an alphabetical listing from R to Z

  19. Bibliography of publications on Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II (ERB-II). 1955-July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D B [comp.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography is divided into 15 broad areas, or categories, of interest. The same publication is listed in more than one category if its content applies to several areas of interest. Under each category, the publications are listed (1) by calendar year of publication and (2) then alphabetically by last name of the first author given. Publications that have no evident author (or compiler or editor) are listed alphabetically by title at the end of the listing for the calendar year in which they were published. Only open literature (that which can be obtained through libraries and other sources available to the public) are listed.

  20. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 4. Generic Subjects A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by subject name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order. This volume contains generic reports arranged alphabetically from A to G