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Sample records for huntsville alabama commemorates

  1. A reliable solar-heating system--Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Final report on solar-heating demonstration project in Huntsville, Alabama, is rich in technical data, planning considerations, test and maintenance data, and other information. It can be useful reference for those planning similar systems.

  2. Monkey Baker at U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-01-01

    On May 28, 1958, Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by U.S. Army team in Huntsville, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, a South American squirrel monkey and Able, an American-born rhesus monkey. Baker, pictured here and commonly known as 'Miss Baker', was later given a home at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center until her death on November 29, 1984. Able died in 1958. (Photo - Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  3. Cooperative Education: Entrepreneurial Development by Colleges and Universities. A Case Study of Oakwood College, Huntsville, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Frank

    The entrepreneurial development and experiential education environments of Oakwood College, Huntsville, Alabama, are described. The college-owned industries of the dairy, farm, garment and linen service, bakery, food manufacturing, convenience store, and snack bar are discussed in terms of markets and marketing, permissions and protections,…

  4. Comparison of Simulations of Preliminary Breakdown to Observations from the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. E.; Liang, C.; Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Preliminary breakdown pulses in electric field change records are thought to be produced by sudden extensions of the lightning channel. We present detailed time domain electrodynamic simulations of extension of an existing lightning leader channel due to heating processes and compare the results to observations of a natural cloud-to-ground lightning discharge made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) at a variety of locations near the discharge. Varying the geometry and parameters of the simulations in an attempt to reproduce the data allows us to constrain the directionality and physical properties of the channel. We simulate a variety of leader step phenomena, including uniform heating over the entire step, connection with a space leader, and dart leader propagation onto a preconditioned channel. Results support the notion of impulsive channel extension as the mechanism for preliminary breakdown and shed light on the mechanics of the process.

  5. A GIS approach to urban heat island research: The case of Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chor Pong

    1994-01-01

    The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.

  6. Occurrence and distribution of selected metals in streams near Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, E.R.; Knight, Alfred L.

    1973-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and zinc are widely distributed around Huntsville, Ala. However, concentrations of these metals in streamflow in the vicinity of the Huntsville municipal water intake during June, August, and September 1971 did not exceed the limits recommended for a public drinking water supply. The occurrence of these metals in general is related to man's activities. Information gained during this study suggests that cadmium and the other metals are associated with and transported with suspended sediment, bed material, and airborne dust particles. Lead and zinc were the most abundant of the selected metals in streamflow, bed material, and rainwater samples. The highest concentration of cadmium was detected downstream from an industrial park in the Flint River basin; rainwater samples also contained a relatively high level of cadmium.

  7. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM system 1A, Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of the solar energy system, Sims Prototype System 1A, is described. The system was designed by IBM to provide 50 to 60 percent of the space heating and domestic hot water preheating load to a 2,000 square foot floor space single family residence in the Huntsville area. The load design temperature inside the building was to be maintained at 70 degrees fahrenheit with auxiliary energy for heating supplied by an electric heat pump assisted by an electric resistance strip heater. In general the disappointing operation of this system is attributed to the manner in which it was used. The system was designed for residential application and used to satisfy the demands of an office environment. The differences were: (1) inside temperature was not maintained at 70 F as expected; and (2) hot water usage was much lower than expected. The conclusion is that the solar energy system must be designed for the type of application in which it is used. Misapplication usually will have an adverse affect on system performance.

  8. Characterization and applications of VLF/LF source locations from lightning using the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Christian, Hugh J.; Stewart, Mike; Burchfield, Jeff; Podgorny, Scott; Corredor, David; Hall, John; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Franklin, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    Arrays that detect and locate the four-dimensional spacetime positions of radiation sources from lightning have largely utilized sensors sensitive to the very high frequency (VHF) regime with ˜ 15 km baselines or very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) regime with ˜ 100 km baselines. This paper details initial results from the newly developed Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA), consisting of Marx meters (electric field change meters) sensitive to a frequency band ˜ 1 Hz to 400 kHz. The arrival time of HAMMA waveforms due to radiation sources from lightning are used to determine the spacetime position of these sources. The locations are compared with two well-documented and operational arrays, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NLDN locations of return strokes is 305 and 266 m in x and y, respectively, while the standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NALMA sources is 237, 226, and 688 m in x, y and z, respectively. We further show that NLDN intracloud locations differ in horizontal distance from the corresponding HAMMA locations by a median value of 479 m. In addition, we use HAMMA source locations to map several lightning flashes in the VLF/LF and show HAMMA sources largely map out the same electrical extent as VHF sources and provide unique insights to the properties of the discharges occurring. Finally, we show that VLF/LF sources can determine the leader polarity in several example flashes but not necessarily whether a flash comes to ground. Copyright 2013 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved.

  9. Constraining lightning channel growth dynamics by comparison of time domain electromagnetic simulations to Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. E.; Bitzer, P. M.; Burchfield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Major unknowns in lightning research include the mechanism and dynamics of lightning channel extension. Such processes are most simple during the initial growth of the channel, when the channel is relatively short and has not yet branched extensively throughout the cloud. During this initial growth phase, impulsive electromagnetic emissions (preliminary breakdown pulses) can be well-described as produced by current pulses generated as the channel extends, but the overall growth rate, channel geometry, and degree of branching are not known. We approach such issues by examining electric field change measurements made with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA) during the first few milliseconds of growth of a lightning discharge. We compare HAMMA observations of electromagnetic emissions and overall field change to models of lightning channel growth and development and attempt to constrain channel growth rate, degree of branching, channel physical properties, and uniformity of thunderstorm electric field. Preliminary comparisons suggest that the lightning channel branches relatively early in the discharge, though more complete and detailed analysis will be presented.

  10. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

  12. Urban Expansion Dynamic and its Impact on Water Infiltration and Stream-flow in Huntsville City, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaw, M. F.; Gabre, T.; Kebede, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, C.

    2010-12-01

    A rapid change of land use from prime agricultural and forest covered land into housing units, manufacturing, retail and office space development is observed especially in the East-West, and North areas of the Huntsville city. This permanent land use change entails a change in surface moisture, hydrodynamics pattern and flush-runoff behavior of the surrounding streams and rivers on the receiving side of the stream network. This by itself leads to change in hydrologic runoff and infiltration properties leading to a completely new set of micro-hydrologic pattern. In this study we are going to assess the impact of the land use change on the future water infiltration and stremflow change of land surface using Landsat TM images from 1980 to year 2006 and map the increase of the proportion of impervious surfaces as a result of the above activities, and meteorological data over the past 100 years. Different image enhancing and classification technologies based on statistical, Adaptive Neural Network, and Fuzzy Logic Models will be used. Different handling approaches at the pixel level will be implemented. The result will be compiled into a collection of maps and discussed by correlating with the ground truth in the investigation area. As a result of this investigation the economic, ecologic, and institutional impacts over the coming three and decades will be modeled.

  13. Bridging the Gap Between Research and Operations in the National Weather Service: The Huntsville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, C.; Carroll, B.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Goodman, S.; Bradshaw, T.; Gordon, J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Weather Service Office (WFO) in Huntsville, Alabama (HUN) is slated to begin full-time operations in early 2003. With the opening of the Huntsville WFO, a unique opportunity has arisen for close and productive collaboration with scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). As a part of the collaboration effort, NASA has developed the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The mission of the SPoRT center is to incorporate NASA earth science technology and research into the NWS operational environment. Emphasis will be on improving mesoscale and short-term forecasting in the first 24 hours of the forecast period. As part of the collaboration effort, the NWS and NASA will develop an implementation and evaluation plan to streamline the integration of the latest technologies and techniques into the operational forecasting environment. The desire of WFO HUN, NASA, and UAH is to provide a model for future collaborative activities between research and operational communities across the country.

  14. NCPC Commemorative Works Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — The CWC is a complete list of Washington DC's commemorative works on federal land. Each record includes a work's title, location, a short description of its purpose,...

  15. Commemorating the Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Stevie; Williams, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The festivals of Mexico are renowned for their colorful decorations, energetic music, exuberant parades, and cultural significance. "Los Dias de los Muertos," the Days of the Dead, is no exception. Often misunderstood by those who live elsewhere, this festival commemorating the dead is one of Mexico's most important holidays. As Americans prepare…

  16. Commemorating the Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Stevie; Williams, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The festivals of Mexico are renowned for their colorful decorations, energetic music, exuberant parades, and cultural significance. "Los Dias de los Muertos," the Days of the Dead, is no exception. Often misunderstood by those who live elsewhere, this festival commemorating the dead is one of Mexico's most important holidays. As Americans prepare…

  17. Alabama SEP Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-06-30

    audit and home energy rating tool; emphasis on community based coordination and partnerships; marketing and outreach to increase homeowner participation; training for market actors; access to financing options including rebates, incentives, and loan products; and an in depth process evaluation to support continual program improvement and analysis. In Alabama, Nexus Energy Center operated energy efficiency retrofit programs in Huntsville and Birmingham. In the Huntsville community the AlabamaWISE program was available in five Alabama counties: Cullman, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, and Morgan. In Birmingham, the program was available to residents in Jefferson and Shelby Counties. In both communities, the program was similar in terms of program design but tailored marketing and partnerships to address the unique local conditions and population of each community. ADECA and the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) provided overall project management services and common resources to the local program administrator Nexus Energy Center, including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection and reporting, and compliance. The fundamental components of the AlabamaWISE program included a vertical contractor-based business model; comprehensive energy assessments; third-party quality assurance; rebates for installation of energy saving measures; accessible, low-interest financing; targeted and inbound marketing; Energy Performance Score (EPS) tool to engage and educate homeowners; training for auditors, contractors, and real estate professionals; and online resources for education and program enrollment. Program participants were eligible to receive rebates or financing toward the assessments and upgrades to their home provided they reached at least 20 percent deemed or modeled energy savings. The design of each program focused on addressing several known barriers including: limited homeowner knowledge on the benefits of energy

  18. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  19. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...

  20. Proceedings of Technology Showcase Held in Huntsville, Alabama on 7-9 August 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-09

    Barbara J. Rogers Miles E. Holloman, and Stanley P. Patterson U. S. Army Missile Command Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 Abstract The Hydrogen Fluoride...Function," ER-177446, Loral Defense Systems Division - Akron, August 1988. 4. McIngvale, Kilpatrick, and Carper , "A Wide Field-of- View, Small Target, TV

  1. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  2. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  3. Alabama SEP Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-06-30

    audit and home energy rating tool; emphasis on community based coordination and partnerships; marketing and outreach to increase homeowner participation; training for market actors; access to financing options including rebates, incentives, and loan products; and an in depth process evaluation to support continual program improvement and analysis. In Alabama, Nexus Energy Center operated energy efficiency retrofit programs in Huntsville and Birmingham. In the Huntsville community the AlabamaWISE program was available in five Alabama counties: Cullman, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, and Morgan. In Birmingham, the program was available to residents in Jefferson and Shelby Counties. In both communities, the program was similar in terms of program design but tailored marketing and partnerships to address the unique local conditions and population of each community. ADECA and the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) provided overall project management services and common resources to the local program administrator Nexus Energy Center, including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection and reporting, and compliance. The fundamental components of the AlabamaWISE program included a vertical contractor-based business model; comprehensive energy assessments; third-party quality assurance; rebates for installation of energy saving measures; accessible, low-interest financing; targeted and inbound marketing; Energy Performance Score (EPS) tool to engage and educate homeowners; training for auditors, contractors, and real estate professionals; and online resources for education and program enrollment. Program participants were eligible to receive rebates or financing toward the assessments and upgrades to their home provided they reached at least 20 percent deemed or modeled energy savings. The design of each program focused on addressing several known barriers including: limited homeowner knowledge on the benefits of energy

  4. CRIMEAN WAR OTTTOMAN COMMEMORATIVE AND MILITARY MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Hakan Tekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medals are symbols to honor people and also to increase their loyalty to the state. States have revealed forces through medals in a symbolic sense. Although the Ottoman Empire met with the tradition of medal in the period of Sultan Mehmed II, medals became important with Sultan Mahmud I. Commemorative and military medals were pressed by the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Crimean War. The Ottomans used medals as a reflection of not only awards for those showing usefulness in the war but also as a souvenir to commemorate this important battle. Even allied forces and defeated Russia had made medals for Crimean War. In our study, information will be given about Crimean War commemorative and military medals in Ottoman era of the Crimean War. Mecidi Crimean War badges were not included in the study due to the scope of the research.

  5. Annual National Small Business Conference (7th) Held in Huntsville, Alabama on May 25-26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    Disadvantaged Business Utilization WINNER OF NDIA SMALL BUSINESS SUCCESS STORY CONTEST · Mr. Gregg Owens, Vice President, Laser Shot, Inc. MERGERS...Business Utilization 11:15 am - 12:00 pm WINNER OF NDIA SMALL BUSINESS SUCCESS STORY CONTEST u Mr. Gregg Owens, Vice President, Lasher Shot, Inc. 12:00...uah.edu 8 Steps for Creating Small Business Success Stories Background Laser Shot provides firearms training simulation solutions to military and law

  6. Applied Optics Golden Anniversary commemorative reviews: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mait, Joseph N; Mendez, Eugenio; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Poon, T-C

    2013-01-01

    Applied Optics presents three special issues to end its retrospective of Applied Optics' 50 years. The special issues are interference, interferometry, and phase; imaging, optical processing, and telecommunications; and polarization and scattering. The issues, which contain 19 commemorative reviews from some of the journal's luminaries, are summarized.

  7. Academic Standards in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  8. News Note: Herschel-Darwin commemoration dinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coning, Chris

    2016-08-01

    On the evening of 15 June 1836 Charles Darwin had dinner with John Herschel in Cape Town. The year 2016 makes it 180 years since this event took place. Auke Slotegraaf and Chris de Coning decided that the event should be commemorated. A total of 15 people attended the dinner, which was held on 15 June at a restaurant in the house occupied by the astronomer Fearon Fallows in 1821. It was a very informal evening and there were three speakers.

  9. Commemoration of the Saints in the Proskomidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Charkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a very strong presence of the saints in the Orthodox Divine Liturgy, One of two main places of their presence (besides the anaphora is proskomidia. This part of the Liturgy had been absent in this main Christian service for first centuries. The first signs of appearance of the proskomidia in the Liturgy had a place in VIII–IX centuries, but in XII–XIII centuries only it became a separate part of this service. It was finally formed in XVI-XVII. The article gives a wide vies on the historical development of the proskomidia and the place of the saints in it. It treats also on the development and meaning of the different number of prosphoras used in the Liturgy, as well as the problem of commemoration of the angels and the Holy Cross in proskomidia. The author describes also the character of the commemoration of the saints in proskomidia and the main differences that are present on Greek and Slavonic proskomidias. He also explains the nuances of different types of the sanctity of the saints that are present in proskomidia the Orthodox Church.

  10. Alabama ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and rare plants in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set...

  11. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Commemoration in conflict. Comparing the generation of solidarity at the 1916 Easter Rising Commemorations in Belfast Northern Ireland and the 1948 ‘Nakba’ Commemorations in Ramallah, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its focus the generation of solidarity through the commemoration of key and defining moments in modern Irish and Palestinian history, namely; the 1916 Easter Rising and the 1948 Palestinian Nakba. The paper explores the means by which annual commemorative rituals that take place in areas experiencing conflict, or a period of transition away from conflict, are constructed in such a way as to strengthen social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant. Reflecting on data gathered through semi-structured interviews with key respondents and ethnographic observations made over a three year period, (2010- 2013, the article reveals a more cohesive approach to commemoration in areas where the level of on-going conflict remains particularly high (Palestine and more fragmented and disjointed ritual activity when the commemoration takes place against the backdrop of relative peace and stability (Northern Ireland. In accounting for the difference in approach to constructing commemorative events against a conflicted or transitional background, the conclusion is reached whereby it is suggested that the relatively peaceful political climate, characterised through a reduction in violence with a once hostile ‘other’, permits for the emergence of heterogeneity, with rival factions permitted space to promote alternative interpretations of the past and different visions for the future through the highly public median of the commemorative ritual. Far from being events that generate a sense of social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant, commemorative rituals which take place in a hostile environment can be arenas of dissent; opportunities for marginalised factions to challenge the often state-sponsored hegemonic narrative, thus revealing the limits to the solidarity thesis.

  14. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mobile; Pike. Contiguous Counties: Alabama:...

  15. Libraries in Alabama: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alabama.html Libraries in Alabama To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Birmingham American Sports Medicine Institute Sports Medicine LIBRARY 833 St. Vincent's Drive Suite 205 Birmingham, AL ...

  16. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  17. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These safety zones will... Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. The comment period for this NPRM... that the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration and the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 may...

  18. Remembering May 4, 1970: Integrating the Commemorative Field at Kent State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Christina R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on collective memory suggests that commemorations of difficult pasts take either a multivocal or a fragmented form. I suggest these forms exist as ideal types for the initial commemoration, but the commemorative field, as a whole, remains dynamic over time, effectively shifting between forms. This study traces the creation,…

  19. Marble tabula in Belgrade: Commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ancient Balkans tradition of building commemoration plates dedicated to perished ones. This actually represents twofold belief, one being that a deceased should rest on his/hers own soil and an attempt to mark a place of someone's death. All were performed with an aim to prolong memory and reminiscence of the deceased. In 19th century Serbia and especially so at the beginning of the 20th century it became popular to build such commemoration plates dedicated to soldiers who have died abroad. In the second half of the 20th century, there are sporadic commemoration plates near roads, not as a designation for an unknown grave but to mark down a place where someone has died, most often in a car accident. At the crossroads of the century, however, this custom was very frequent. Belgrade has also seen many of these commemoration plates. The studying of ways and shapes of this custom is the main subject of this paper. The author tries to follow all changes ranging from those induced by the state to those very rare private commemoration plates placed on certain buildings, including those left to decay, or those maintained regularly, on street lights, near cressets at grave yards, flowers, granite plates etc. The paper also discusses possible causes, frequencies and changes related to this custom.

  20. China commemorates T.R. Malthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1998-06-01

    In May 1998, the Population Research Institution of the People's University of China and the Adult Education College of Shenzhen University sponsored a National Symposium on Western Population Theory to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the publication of the "Essay on the Principle of Population" by Thomas Robert Malthus. Participants expressed the view that Malthus was the founder of modern demography and that his advocacy of measures to check population growth were in accord with the objectives of family planning efforts throughout the world. Participants also noted that Malthus's views, along with those of Chinese demographer Ma Yinchu, had been distorted in an anti-rightist campaign in 1957. The result of this mistaken criticism is that people still incorrectly think that Malthus advocated war to ease population pressure. In order to increase understanding of what Malthus actually said, the symposium proposed that more of his work and commentary upon his work be translated into Chinese. The symposium participants also suggested that a research group be created by the China Population Association to boost the publication of books on Western population theory.

  1. Commemoration practices of the Dirty War in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz Tovar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of an ethnographic research, that during the last three years has been dedicated to record and analyse the practices of commemoration of the "dirty war" (guerra sucia in Mexico. This involves articulating the memories of both violence and resistance. Strategies used by Mexican government during the dirty war, expressed a policy of fear —criminalization of protest, murder, forced disappearance and torture—; at the same time, resistance strategies form civil society such as marches, protests, tributes and commemorative days are presented.

  2. Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT) Huntsville-01 (HSV-01) Spacecraft Lessons Learned Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT) project is a path finding effort to produce reliable satellite busses for different applications at an unprecedented speed and low cost. The project is designed to be a generational project and the first satellite produced is the Huntsville -01 (HSV-01) spacecraft. The subject of this report is the lessons learned gained during the development, testing, and up to the delivery of the FASTSAT HSV -01 spacecraft. The purpose of this report is to capture the major findings that will greatly benefit the future FASTSAT satellites and perhaps other projects interested in pushing the boundaries for cost and schedule. The FASTSAT HSV -01 primary objectives, success criteria, and team partners are summarized to give a frame of reference to the lessons learned.

  3. The 'Stolpersteine' and the Commemoration of Life, Death, and Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars

    as what Agamben defines as naked life. In Part Three the dissertation discusses to what extent the Stolpersteine succeed in commemorating the humanity of the victims in the midst of the inhumanity in which they found themselves. The analyses show that the Stolpersteine on crucial points challenge...

  4. The centenary commemorations of the Great War in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wouters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the start of the centenary commemoration of the First World War (wwi in 2014 drew closer, Belgium saw the rise of a bigger ‘commemorative competition’. The different governments launched their own commemorative programmes, parallel to (and sometimes against each other. In the slipstream of this, a huge commercial and business competition erupted in a struggle for funding and visitors. There was also an unprecedented funding of new academic wwi-research. This contribution first makes some remarks on this research, and then looks briefly at the commemorative and memorial policies. On the one hand, current wwi policies confirm (and reinforce the differences in similar policies related to the Second World War. The narratives, as well as the moral or didactic categories, are clearly distinct. On the other hand however, there are some similarities to be found in the policy frameworks created after 1995. Some characteristics of such policy mechanisms are a more pro-active role (national authorities adopt in the construction of memories, a strong interconnectedness between public and private interests and an underlying driving meta-narrative of a national duty to remember connected to the target of an emotional and active investment of each individual citizen.

  5. The centenary commemorations of the Great War in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Wouters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the start of the centenary commemoration of the First World War (wwi in 2014 drew closer, Belgium saw the rise of a bigger ‘commemorative competition’. The different governments launched their own commemorative programmes, parallel to (and sometimes against each other. In the slipstream of this, a huge commercial and business competition erupted in a struggle for funding and visitors. There was also an unprecedented funding of new academic wwi-research. This contribution first makes some remarks on this research, and then looks briefly at the commemorative and memorial policies. On the one hand, current wwi policies confirm (and reinforce the differences in similar policies related to the Second World War. The narratives, as well as the moral or didactic categories, are clearly distinct. On the other hand however, there are some similarities to be found in the policy frameworks created after 1995. Some characteristics of such policy mechanisms are a more pro-active role (national authorities adopt in the construction of memories, a strong interconnectedness between public and private interests and an underlying driving meta-narrative of a national duty to remember connected to the target of an emotional and active investment of each individual citizen. 

  6. The Hispanic Heritage of North America: Commemorating 500 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, Florida will commemorate Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage. Yet Ponce de Leon's arrival was, in several important ways, not just the beginning of Spain's presence in Florida, but in North America as a whole. Today, the historical Spanish influence on America is palpable--in culture, language, politics, and more. This year marks…

  7. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    sedimient, total DDTR, and heavy metals . Influent and effluent of the return water treatment system should be analyzed daily for these same parameters. Daily...DEGRADATION BY FUNGI 1-15 4.7 DEGRADATION BY ALGAE 1-15 4.8 DEGRADATION BY A SOIL AMOEBA 1-16 4.9 DEGRADATION AS CATALYZED BY METALS 1-16 5.0 DDT TOXICITY 1-17...Buttonbush samples from HSB had a DDTR concentration of 0.065 ppm compared to 0.005 ppm at TRM 359 upstream. Duckweed from the most contaminated stretch

  8. Proceedings of the MICOM Logistics Research and Development Workshop (2nd) Held in Huntsville, Alabama on 27-28 August 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Format con- trols how the content is displayed. Format includes typography . layout, and color. Organization specifies the order in which topics are...Allen & Hamilton, Inc. - James E. Henderson 205-895-8260 Boston Digital Corp. - Juan M. Wells 704-567-1016 CAS, Inc. - Scott C. Brand 205-722-5463

  9. Archeological Test Excavations at the Proposed Dry Boat Storage Facility and Archeological Survey of the Neal Road Extension Corridor, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-19

    greens) yes CE Elder Sambucus sp. berries (beverage), flowers yes CE Great Bulrush Scirpus sp root (rich in starch and sugar) yes CE Groundnut Apios sp...none yes E Water Lily Nymphaea sp. roots yes BEF Water Plantain Alisima sp. none yes DE References: A. Davenport and Haynes 1981; B. Elliot 1976; C. Hall

  10. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Ajacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-04

    78 19 179 FDA monitors fish in Tonnessee River and raderal task force implements study to selected fish markets. DOT levels in some determine exsent of...sinks, underground streams, and caverns". This condition is caused uy the dissolving-away of calcium carbonate and other minerals from the rock by the...earth’s surface elevation over large areas which lead to the development of aimless internal drainage patterns to the underground aquifers rather

  11. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 3. Appendices IV-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    SEDIMENTS 1-14 4.5 DEGRADATION BY SPECIFIC MICROBIAL POPULATIONS 1-15 4.6 DEGRADATION BY FUNGI 1-15 4.7 DEGRADATION BY ALGAE 1-15 4.8 DEGRADATION BY A...AQUATIC VERTEBRATES 1-46 5.4 BIRDS 1-56 5.5 MAMMALS 1-59 5.6 ALGAE AND FUNGI 1-59 6.0 EPA AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR DDT 1-59 7.0 FDA REGULATIONS...sp. 11,561,323 10,690,680 Oscillatoria sp. 546,683 135,503 Spirulina sp. 17,133 20,248 Euglenophyta Euglena sp. 74,760 404,950 Phacus sp. 3,115 3,115

  12. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek, and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Volume 2. Appendices I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    absorbed by the loaches at the end of the 24-hour period and 50 to 60 percent was absorbed withinthe first two hours of exposure. Korn and Earnest (1974...subrubrum Eastern Box Turtle Terpene c. carTlina Map Turtle Graptenys geographca Ouachita Map Turtle terns psueo raphica ouachitensis Midland Painted

  13. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Signatures and Paths Associated with Tornadoes Over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedloved, Gary J.; Carcione, Brian C.; Darden, Christopher B.; Crowe, Christina C.

    2012-01-01

    A historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by 40 tornadoes, including 6 that reached EF-4 to EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Many of these tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures in 6 tornadoes in North Alabama on April 27, 2011. Several of these debris signatures were disseminated in real-time to the NWS Huntsville and local media to confirm storm spotter reports, confidence to enhance wording within warnings, and accurately pinpoint the locations of tornadoes for residents downstream of the storm. Also, the debris signature locations were used in post-event storm surveys to help locate areas of damage in regions where damage went unreported, or to help separate tornado tracks that were in close proximity to each other. Furthermore, the relative locations of the debris and damage paths for long track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys.

  14. One Door to the Corps: The U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville Historical Update, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    followed by supercritical water oxidation, chemical neutralization followed by SCWO and gas-phase chemical reduction, and electrochemical oxidation...Land Program Strategic Arms Limitation Talks/ Treaty I Super Critical Water Oxidation Senior Executive Service Transatlantic Programs Center...the High British Thermal Unit (BTU) Pipeline Coal Gasification Program. By August 1980, Huntsville had assumed the role of contracting officer for

  15. Undergraduate space science program at Alabama A&M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, R.; Tan, A.; Lyatsky, W.

    A new undergraduate Physics Program with Space Science as the major concentration area has been initiated at Alabama A&M University (AAMU) in 2001. This program is funded by NASAÆs OSS and OEOP Offices under the NRA 00-OSS-02 Minority University Education and Research Partnership Initiative in Space Science-2000. The partner institutions are NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A primary objective of this Program is to train undergraduate and graduate minority (principally African-American) students in the extremely underrepresented areas of Space Science and to prepare them for eventual teaching and/or research careers in this increasingly important field. The best way to achieve this is to recruit students early from high school, and not wait until they have already selected their specialty in college. Also, a student with a BS degree in Physics with specialization in Space Science will have a decisive advantage in pursuing graduate studies in Space Science than the others. The BS degree requires a student to take 30 credit hours of Physics courses and an additional 18 hours in the chosen area of concentration. Several basic traditional courses in Lower Atmosphere, Aeronomy, the Solar System and Orbital Mechanics have been developed. Additional courses in Plasma Physics, Solar Physics and Astronomy will be taught by NASA-MSFC scientists and UAH faculty. A parallel objective is to expose the student to research experience early in their ca- reers. Each student is required to complete a one semester Undergraduate Research Opportunity Project (UROP) on a relevant topic from Space Science. The students will be guided in research by AAMU and UAH faculty and MSFC scientists. Each student will be required to write a term paper and make an oral presentation before a committee of advisors. This experience will enhance the Space

  16. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, James F. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services; Johnson, Herbie N. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  17. The Victory of the image: identification risks of commemorative practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovashina Oksana Vladimirovna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers commemorative practices of the Victory in World War II and analyses their possible consequences. Intensive commemoration of the Victory supposed creation of a large number of monuments and memorials with a certain image of the winner nation, strong and undefeated, the creator and peacemaker. First of all, monuments were supposed to elate the sense of pride for the Motherland but not the sense of grief. Surveys show that Russians today also consider this image as an etalon. The images of the Victory that go beyond the scope of such representation cause repel. Thus, today Victory does not represent itself a demonstration of the communicative or cultural memory, but is stated as the foundation of the civil identity.

  18. The New North African Syndrome: A Fanonian Commemoration

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    What better way to celebrate, commemorate, critically reflect on, and think through Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth fifty years after its publication with a new North African syndrome: Revolution—or at least a series of revolts that continue to rock regimes across North Africa and the region.  Fanon begins The Wretched writing of decolonization as a program of complete disorder, an overturning of order—often against the odds—willed from the bottom up. Witho...

  19. The first reactor [40th anniversary commemorative edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-12-01

    This updated and revised story of the first reactor, or 'pile,' commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction created by mankind. Enrico Fermi and his team of scientists initiated the reaction on December 2, 1941, underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Firsthand accounts of the participants as well as postwar recollections by Enrico and Laura Fermi are included.

  20. Special Operations Commemoration: Monuments, Memory & Memorialization Practices of Elite Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Although controversial at the time the precedent set for repatriation remains U.S. policy today.27 For example, Private Thomas Enright , Private Merle...organization. The first ceremony was held in 1987 and was presided over by the Deputy Director Robert M. Gates. The Memorial Ceremony has evolved over...memorial ceremonies timelessly capture the essence of any memorialization or commemorative practice. At the inaugural Memorial Ceremony in 1987 Robert

  1. The first reactor [40th anniversary commemorative edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-12-01

    This updated and revised story of the first reactor, or 'pile,' commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction created by mankind. Enrico Fermi and his team of scientists initiated the reaction on December 2, 1941, underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Firsthand accounts of the participants as well as postwar recollections by Enrico and Laura Fermi are included.

  2. Commemorative tattoos as markers for anniversary reactions and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Charlwood, Cheryl

    2014-05-01

    Anniversary reactions include physical and/or psychiatric responses to the anniversary of the death of a person who was significant to the decedent. In the most extreme cases this may result in suicide. Two cases of suicide are reported to demonstrate the association with specific commemorative tattoos. Case 1: A 19-year-old man was found hanging by the neck by an electric flex in a shed. A commemorative tattoo had the name of his brother who had committed suicide by hanging in the same shed 9 years and 2 days previously. Case 2: A 47-year-old woman was found hanging by the neck by a rope attached to a metal beam in a shed at her home address. A commemorative tattoo had the name of her daughter who had committed suicide by hanging in the same shed 1 year and 5 days previously. Tattooing may record significant life events and so may be useful in a forensic context in helping to identify an unknown decedent. In cases of apparent suicide, correlating the details of a tattoo at autopsy with the available history or the date of death may also provide useful information that helps to clarify reasons for the event, as well as providing data on the incidence of significant anniversary reactions involving lethal self harm.

  3. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  4. A History of the Huntsville Division U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1988-1992 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    solicitations, none of these schools re- sponded. There were several possible reasons for this lack of interest, including lack of familiarity with ac...area of each installation. However, if the de- sign district would not be able to assume the work, for whatever reason , Huntsville Division could...ash.7 A Cryofracture/Incineration Demonstration Plant ( CIDP ) has aroused intermittent interest as an alterna- tive to the reverse assembly

  5. Alabama ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Alabama. The...

  6. Alabama ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for designated critical habitats, state parks, wildlife refuges, and wildlife management areas in Alabama. Vector...

  7. Alabama's many endangered aquatic species are unprotected

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the vulnerability of watercress darter and other fish species in Alabama after a significant fish kill in Roebuck Spring pond in 2008.

  8. 76 FR 36176 - Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal ACTION: Notice... Commemorative Medal. Introductory pricing will be $56.95, and regular pricing, which will go into...

  9. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These... Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes. (a) Locations. The following are... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  10. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  11. Alabama ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Alabama and Perdido Key beach mice in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent the rare...

  12. Commemorating the future in post-war Chernivtsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunchak, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War and the post-war period, the city of Chernivtsi was transformed from a multiethnic and borderland urban microcosm into a culturally uniform Soviet socialist city. As the Soviets finally took power in this onetime capital of a Hapsburg province in 1944, they not only sponsored further large-scale population transfers but also "repopulated" its history, creating a new urban myth of cultural uniformity. This article examines the connection between war commemoration in Chernivtsi in the era of post-war, state-sponsored anti-Semitism and the formation of collective memory and identities of the city's post-war population. The images of homogeneously Ukrainian Chernivtsi and Bukovina were created through the art of monumental propaganda, promoting public remembrance of certain events and personalities while making sure that others were doomed to oblivion. Selective commemoration of the wartime events was an important tool of drawing the borders of Ukrainian national identity, making it exclusivist and ethnic-based. Through an investigation of the origins of the post-war collective memory in the region, this article addresses the problem of perceived discontinuity between all things Soviet and post-Soviet in Ukraine. It demonstrates that it is, on the contrary, the continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet eras that defines today's dominant culture and state ideology in Ukraine and particularly in its borderlands.

  13. A State of Emergency in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Edward Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Alabama Department of Corrections August 2009 Monthly Statistical Report and Fiscal Year 2008 Annual Report, recent articles to explain the serious public safety issue of prison overcrowding within the state of Alabama, lack of funding and correctional staff, and increasing violence among inmates. It is imperative that the stakeholders take a restorative justice approach to offenders who commit nonviolent crimes or otherwise be prepared to release substantial numbers of violent inmates due to federal court intervention, expanding parole, and other types of early release programs. Violent offenders will pose a greater threat to the community. Correctional workers continue to be exposed daily to the risk of injury or death caused by severe prison overcrowding. The state could experience additional financial hardship to rebuild a destroyed correctional facility in an event of a riot. The excessive use of incarceration for nonviolent offenders is one of the most important issues facing the state of Alabama this decade.

  14. Eastern hemlock found in Macon County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; Brian Via; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Richard Martin; Richard Shelby; Sandie McCall

    2016-01-01

    Alabama is currently the southern limit of the range of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere]. In 2012, several well preserved stumps were excavated from a farm located in Notasulga, Alabama (32 º 33” 6’ N; 85º 40” 22’ W). Even though they were buried in a saturated soil for approximately 1,500 years, the stumps were remarkably well preserved. The low-...

  15. STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array (SA) mockup at MSFC, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A close-up shot shows an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU)-suited astronaut inspecting a solar array (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC managed the design and development of the telescope. The weightlessness simulator was used to practice SA contingency procedures that might be used in space. Astronauts also practiced SA servicing missions in the simulator which they will perform on the telescope in space. The solar arrays which supply electrical power to the space telescope were developed and contributed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ESA's two prime contractors were British Aerospace in England and AEG in West Germany. The two wing-like solar arrays contain 48,000 solar cells. They convert the sun's energy to electricity during that portion of an orbit when they are exposed to sunlight. The power is stored in six batteries to support the telescope during

  16. The New North African Syndrome: A Fanonian Commemoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Gibson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available What better way to celebrate, commemorate, critically reflect on, and think through Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth fifty years after its publication with a new North African syndrome: Revolution—or at least a series of revolts that continue to rock regimes across North Africa and the region.  Fanon begins The Wretched writing of decolonization as a program of complete disorder, an overturning of order—often against the odds—willed from the bottom up. Without time or space for a transition, there is instead an absolute replacement of one “species” of humanity by another. In periods of revolution, like the one we are experiencing today, such absolutes appear quite normal. Indeed, radical change becomes the “new normal” and the idea that revolutionary change is impossible is simply the rantings and ravings of the conservatives and reactionaries of the ancient regime. Too long buried under the weight of the tomes of academic discourse, Fanon has been resuscitated by the new dawn of North African revolutions. To celebrate Fanon, the revolutionary, all of a sudden seems contemporary and pertinent, while the musings of the critics who consigned him to postcolonial oblivion seem out of touch. But rather than continuing the painstaking work of exhuming Fanon from the postcolonial burial site, let us turn a commemoration of Fanon into an event. Indeed, why assume that a commemoration of Fanon after fifty years is not critical? Moreover why begin a contemporary engagement with Fanon assuming a priori the limits of his thought? Indeed, where to begin is a philosophic question. It is a question of “intention” as Edward Said puts it in one of his most radical and Vicoian works. Beginnings are revolutionary, implying return and repetition and, following Said, “a sort of historical dialectic that changes its character and meaning.” Vico, Said argues “said that the word human comes from root to bury” suggesting that

  17. COMMEMORATING A HISTORICAL DAY: JANUARY 24th IN THE ROMANIAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative journalism has become a key element in shaping the national identity, as well as in keeping and preserving the collective memory of a community or nation. This article analyzes, by means of the framing theory, the way that written press reflected over a 3 years period, between 2009 and 2011, the process of commemorating the Romanian Principalities Union Day. The research focused on January 24th due to its great importance to the Romanian’s history, both from a political and an identity perspective. The analysis showed that 19 frames were used in relation to this commemoration, almost half of the articles employing political related frames and proving that media didn’t focus on the historical data or commemorative rituals, but rather on the political confrontations and debates.

  18. COMMEMORATING A HISTORICAL DAY: JANUARY 24th IN THE ROMANIAN NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative journalism has become a key element in shaping the national identity, as well as in keeping and preserving the collective memory of a community or nation. This article analyzes, by means of the framing theory, the way that written press reflected over a 3 years period, between 2009 and 2011, the process of commemorating the Romanian Principalities Union Day. The research focused on January 24th due to its great importance to the Romanian’s history, both from a political and an identity perspective. The analysis showed that 19 frames were used in relation to this commemoration, almost half of the articles employing political related frames and proving that media didn’t focus on the historical data or commemorative rituals, but rather on the political confrontations and debates.

  19. Symposium in Commemoration of the 30~(th) Anniversary of CAFIU Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Symposium commemorating the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) with the theme of "international exchanges, connecting the world" was held in Beijing on the 30thof September.

  20. RCP Local School Projects in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports generated by the Regional Curriculum Project (funded under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act), the document describes 4 specific projects implemented through the Alabama State Superintendent's Office beginning in 1966. All 4 projects were designed to improve instructional leadership by defining the role(s) of the…

  1. 76 FR 30008 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... amendments to its program under SMCRA (30 U.S.C. 1201 et seq.). Alabama's revised mining regulations are... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. One of the purposes of SMCRA is to ``establish...

  2. The Sound of Genocide: Music, Memory, and Commemoration in Postwar Bosnia

    OpenAIRE

    Pitic, Badema

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a repertoire of Western classical, neo-traditional, and religious music created in the past twenty years to commemorate the Srebrenica genocide, a massacre that occurred in July 1995 at the end of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Drawing on more than seven months of fieldwork in Bosnia and the United States, I explore this commemorative repertoire as a demonstration of the interdependence of official and personal narratives of the genocide. Approaching works of comm...

  3. Commemorative Symposium on the Hall Effect and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Westgate, C

    1980-01-01

    In 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in­ vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex­ panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes t...

  4. The 'Stolpersteine' and the Commemoration of Life, Death, and Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars

    where the ideas of both Agamben, Michel Foucault, and Carlo Ginzburg are interpreted in opposition to Jan Assmann’s theory of cultural memory. Thus, the dissertation argues for the principle of reality maintaining a fundamental insistence on the difference between commemorating myth and fact, Pesach...... respectively. Hence, due to the anti-constitutionalism of National Socialism where the Führer is Law, the state of exception develops into what Agamben—on the shoulders of Foucault—has identified as a biopolitics. Such a politics has stripped the citizen of his juridical and ethical clothes and thus left him...... the integrity of the homes of current residents. The Stolpersteine wish to restore the victims’s dignity via the use of legal, ethical, and religious categories; hence, through the Stolpersteine the factual past seems to be normalized using the same principles from the state of law which the Third Reich...

  5. Generosity or genocide? Identity implications of silence in American Thanksgiving commemorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtiş, Tuğçe; Adams, Glenn; Bird, Michael Yellow

    2010-02-01

    This paper investigates the identity implications of silence about genocide in commemorations of American Thanksgiving. In Study 1 we assessed the co-occurrence of national glorification themes with different forms of silence in commemoration products by conducting a content analysis of presidential Thanksgiving proclamations. In Study 2 we examined the extent to which different commemoration products are infused with particular beliefs and desires by measuring participants' reactions to different Thanksgiving commemorations-a literal-silence condition that did not mention Indigenous Peoples, an interpretive-silence condition that mentioned Indigenous Peoples but did not explicitly mention genocidal conquest, and an anti-silence condition that did mention genocidal conquest-as a function of national glorification. In Study 3 we manipulated exposure to different Thanksgiving commemorations (with associated forms of silence) and assessed the impact on national glorification and identity-relevant action. Results provide evidence for the hypothesised, bi-directional relationship between national glorification and silence about genocide in commemorations of American Thanksgiving.

  6. 76 FR 27139 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...): Alabama: Baldwin, Mobile Georgia: Floyd, Polk Mississippi: Clarke, Greene, Wayne, Tennessee: Franklin... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  7. The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands: a meaningful, ritual place for commemoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Laurie M. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online in 2005. This monument has been dedicated to preserve the memory of "all the men, women and children who were persecuted as Jews during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, and did not survive the Shoah". In 2010 the Jewish Monument Community was linked to this virtual monument, this website Community offers the possibility to contribute additional information about individual victims remembered in the Digital Monument. The results of this research show that in comparison with commemoration at a traditional material monument, in particular the individual features of this new concept regarding commemoration are valued. Each individual victim may be commemorated and remembered in a very personal manner by telling who the victim was, and how he or she lived on the eve of deportation. The conclusion is that cyberspace may offer a significant and relevant place for, in this case, commemoration practices. Both Digital Monument and Community offer a meaningful place of commemoration of Dutch victims of the Shoah.

  8. National Identity and Commemorative Space: Connections to the Nation through Time and Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Sumartojo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical monuments and memorials often mobilise national history to serve contemporary political ends through the people and events they memorialise. They can also be powerful agents of erasure or forgetting, as some histories are privileged over others. This article addresses how national identity works through and on public commemorative structures and how aspects of such structures and their landscapes might reflect back on to national identity. This includes the role that aesthetic forms and designed spaces play in the representation and performance of such identities through the use of space. This paper makes three overlapping arguments about the relationship between national identity, commemoration and public space. The first is that spatial context shapes discursive meaning. Second, ways of understanding time in national commemorative places are used to connect individuals to the nation and to co-nationals in the past, present and future; even so, site histories can complicate these narratives. Third, official and vernacular uses of commemorative sites activatelandscapes in ways that both reinforce and undermine each other. These arguments are underpinned by examples from Australian and British commemorative sites, with a focus on how they are employed by their users to define or promulgate national identity.

  9. Danes commemorating Darwin: apes and evolution at the 1909 anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-10-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: on the one hand, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as 'radical', 'evangelical' and 'safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism prominent among naturalists played only a secondary role in the public arena. This article demonstrates the value of using newspapers as historical sources when looking for public images of Darwin, popular receptions of Darwinism and representations of science in general.

  10. 77 FR 60904 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Alabama Portion of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... October 7, 2009, SIP revision regarding reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably... the mobile source contribution to ambient PM 2.5 levels for the Alabama portion of the Chattanooga... insignificance determination for mobile direct PM 2.5 and NO X emissions for transportation conformity...

  11. A Study of School Size among Alabama's Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Cain, Patrick M., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of Alabama's public high schools, selected school quality and financial indicators, and their students' performance on standardized exams. When the socioeconomic level of the student bodies is held constant, the size of high schools in Alabama has relatively little…

  12. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  13. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  14. A Lightning Channel Retrieval Algorithm for the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new multi-station VHF time-of-arrival (TOA) antenna network is, at the time of this writing, coming on-line in Northern Alabama. The network, called the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), employs GPS timing and detects VHF radiation from discrete segments (effectively point emitters) that comprise the channel of lightning strokes within cloud and ground flashes. The network will support on-going ground validation activities of the low Earth orbiting Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellite developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. It will also provide for many interesting and detailed studies of the distribution and evolution of thunderstorms and lightning in the Tennessee Valley, and will offer many interesting comparisons with other meteorological/geophysical wets associated with lightning and thunderstorms. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, it is essential that the LMA channel mapping accuracy (in both space and time) be fully characterized and optimized. In this study, a new revised channel mapping retrieval algorithm is introduced. The algorithm is an extension of earlier work provided in Koshak and Solakiewicz (1996) in the analysis of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system. As in the 1996 study, direct algebraic solutions are obtained by inverting a simple linear system of equations, thereby making computer searches through a multi-dimensional parameter domain of a Chi-Squared function unnecessary. However, the new algorithm is developed completely in spherical Earth-centered coordinates (longitude, latitude, altitude), rather than in the (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates employed in the 1996 study. Hence, no mathematical transformations from (x, y, z) into spherical coordinates are required (such transformations involve more numerical error propagation, more computer program coding, and slightly more CPU computing time). The new algorithm also has a more realistic

  15. 2012 Alabama Lunabotics Systems Engineering Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Justin; Ricks, Kenneth; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Excavation will hold a key role for future lunar missions. NASA has stated that "advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations." [1]. The Lunabotics Mining Competition is an event hosted by NASA that is meant to encourage "the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload." [2]. Teams entering the competition must "design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 10 minutes." [2]. While excavation will play an important part in lunar missions, there will still be many other tasks that would benefit from robotic assistance. An excavator might not be as well suited for these tasks as other types of robots might be. For example a lightweight rover would do well with reconnaissance, and a mobile gripper arm would be fit for manipulation, while an excavator would be comparatively clumsy and slow in both cases. Even within the realm of excavation it would be beneficial to have different types of excavators for different tasks, as there are on Earth. The Alabama Lunabotics Team at the University of Alabama has made it their goal to not only design and build a robot that could compete in the Lunabotics Mining Competition, but would also be a multipurpose tool for future NASA missions. The 2010-2011 resulting robot was named the Modular Omnidirectional Lunar Excavator (MOLE). Using the Systems Engineering process and building off of two years of Lunabotics experience, the 20ll-2012 Alabama Lunabotics team (Team NASACAR) has improved the MOLE 1.0 design and optimized it for the 2012 Lunabotics Competition rules [I]. A CAD model of MOLE 2.0 can be seen below in Fig. 1.

  16. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  17. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  18. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chrstopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Darden, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic debris

  19. 75 FR 23264 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the..., EPA is tentatively approving this revision to the State of Alabama's Public Water System...

  20. 77 FR 44238 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the... State of Alabama's Public Water System Supervision Program. DATES: Any interested person may request...

  1. 77 FR 124 - Biological Processors of Alabama; Decatur, Morgan County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... AGENCY Biological Processors of Alabama; Decatur, Morgan County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Biological Processors of Alabama Superfund Site located in Decatur, Morgan County, Alabama. DATES: The Agency... name Biological Processors of Alabama Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  2. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a share

  3. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a

  4. Change and contestation of meaning in the commemoration of Croatian Statehood Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Trako Poljak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines issues surrounding the existing lack of more active engagement of Croatian citizens in the commemoration of some of the most important national holidays, in particular the Statehood Day. The paper is divided into two parts: the changes in the commemoration of the Statehood Day by the political leadership over the past 25 years (macro-perspective, and the reasons for the lack of engagement of Croatian citizens in its celebration today (micro-perspective. We will first go back to the year 1990 when Croatian political elite and the citizens en masse and passionately celebrated the first Statehood Day, and compare this to the quite meagre commemorations that we have witnessed over the past years. We will then present the results of qualitative empirical research conducted in 2013 using the method of in-depth semi-structured interviews, in which Croatian citizens themselves discuss their personal involvement in the commemoration of national holidays, and the reasons why they have not engaged more actively in the Statehood Day celebration. Some of the issues that arise over the past years cannot be explained by natural multivocality of symbols, or the “cooling down” of “hot nationalism” of the 1990s. Main issues primarily arise from the lack of continuity and contestation of meaning of this national holiday, at both the level of the political leadership and the level of “ordinary” citizens.

  5. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a share

  6. Revisiting Discourses of Language, Identity and Community in a Transnational Context through a Commemorative Book Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Vally

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present and discuss a commemorative book project to mark the fortieth anniversary of the Greek School of Lausanne. I examine the continuities and discontinuities of the notions of language, identity and community as these were represented through the voices of former Greek state officials, teachers and pupils. I take a long…

  7. Participation in national celebrations and commemorations: The role of socialization and nationalism in the Dutch context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Marcel; Meuleman, Roza

    2016-01-01

    National celebrations and commemorations are believed to increase national cohesion. It is unknown however who participates in these activities. In this contribution, we address to what extent socialization by the parents and school, and integration into religious intermediary groups affect participation in national celebrations and commemorations. With the strong reference to the relevance of the nation in national days, we also hypothesize about the association between nationalist attitudes and national day participation. We chose the Netherlands as test case, with its institutionalized national days to remember war victims, to celebrate freedom and to celebrate the Monarchy. Relying on a national survey (LISS; N = 4559), our findings show that the transmission of parental behaviours is crucial for taking part in national celebrations and commemorative events. Schooling and integration in religious groups only affect specific forms of national celebrations and commemorations. In line with US based research on flagging the Stars and Stripes, we find that national day participation in this European country is affected by patriotic attitudes rather than by chauvinistic attitudes.

  8. Address at the Symposium in Commemoration of the 30~(th) Anniversary of CAFIU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Distinguished guests,Ladies and gentlemen,It is a great pleasure to attend this meeting today to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Chinese Association for International Understanding, which has maintained long-time sound cooperation with my organization, the

  9. In Praise of Irrationality: Self, "East" and "West" in Greek Teachers' Speeches on National Day Commemorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative study of school discourse on national day commemorations, focus is on the "social creativity strategies" through which group members can improve their social identity. Discourse analysis was carried out on thirty-nine teachers' speeches delivered in Greek schools between 1998 and 2004. The speakers scorn rationality…

  10. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  11. Topographic data of selected areas along the Alabama River near Montgomery, Alabama, collected using mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic data at selected areas within the Alabama River flood plain near Montgomery, Alabama, were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. These data were collected for inclusion in a flood inundation model developed by the National Weather Service in Birmingham, Alabama. Data are presented as ArcGIS point shapefiles with the extension .shp.

  12. Alabama ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal distribution...

  13. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana J. Ehret

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon. Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  14. Alabama ESI: ESI (Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Alabama, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  15. Alabama ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, archaeological and historic sites, beaches, boat ramps, state borders, bridges, and marinas for Alabama....

  16. VASCULAR FLORA OF FORT MCCLELLAN CALHOUN COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fort McClellan is a military base located in the mountains of northeast Alabama (see Fig.1). Municipalities and communities surrounding Main Post include the City of...

  17. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  18. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in the...

  19. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for...

  20. Official and Vernacular Public History: Historical Anniversaries and Commemorations in Newcastle, NSW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Eklund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The city of Newcastle commemorated two bicentenaries within the space of seven years. In 2004, the city marked 200 years since the permanent establishment of the settlement on 30 March 1804. But 2004 was not the city’s first bicentennial. In 1997, Newcastle celebrated the 1797 journey of Lieutenant John Shortland, who named and sketched the Hunter River and brought back samples of coal to Sydney. These anniversaries, and earlier ones such as Newcastle’s centennial in 1897 and its sesqui-centennial in 1947, were crucial moments of history making in the public sphere. History was evoked to celebrate progress, encourage civic loyalty and, more recently, to emphasise the city’s transition into a post-industrial era. This article will explore the way in which commemorative dates in Newcastle’s history were interpreted, utilised and presented to the general public. It will examine how history, heritage, politics and policy come together to use the past in a public way. Utilising US historian John Bodnar’s terms, the shift in the themes and tenor of public history in Newcastle over this period has been from an ‘official’ to a more ‘vernacular’ style. Official public history emphasised unitary notions of progress while vernacular styles presented more diverse and occasionally more critical versions of public history. By the time of the 2004 commemorative events there was more scope for active popular participation. Newcastle public history was being nourished by community groups often with conflicting notions of public history, generating a multivalent, multilayered sense of the past, though older themes persisted with remarkable durability. In a city where ‘history’ has such an ambivalent position, large-scale historical commemorations make for intriguing analysis. After a review of the principal themes in the Newcastle commemorations of 1897, 1947, and 1997, I consider the 2004 ‘Newcastle 200’ programme. In particular, I will

  1. Bronze Casting Sculptures in Commemoration of the 30th Anniversary of China-US Diplomatic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2010-01-01

    @@ The activity of peace and friendship sculptures to commemorate the 30th anniversary of China-US diplomatic relations,co-organized by the Beijing Returned Overseas Chinese Federation,Consolidated Society of Chinese University Alumni Associations(CSCUAA),the Association of Chinese Professionals in Atlanta(ACP),US-China Sculpture Friendship Center,was to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between China and the United States,to last peace and friendship between our two countries by means of arts,to advocate the values of our Chinese nation that peace is valuable and to express the sincere hopes and best wishes of our Chinese people for constructing the harmonic world.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  3. E3 Success Story - Transforming and Promoting Sustainable Manufacturing in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama E3 is expanding to other manufacturing sectors and expanding its scope. Alabama E3 now includes a workforce training and education component and is also developing a new innovation engineering green module that focuses on improving sustainability

  4. Geocoding and social marketing in Alabama's cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Julianna W; White, Arica; Lubenow, Anne E; Palmer, Sally

    2005-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama's Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute's cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute's profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  5. Synthetic Pattern of Fish Diversity in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, X.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of Alabama has a rich fish fauna. Analyzing the current distributional patterns of fish diversity by synthesizing information and integrating different spatial and temporal scales is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of diversity and making strategies for fish conservation. Basing the study on long-term intensive samples (9,244 collections of fish species at 3,716 field stations across Alabama from 1845 to 1994, I analyzed the general pattern of fish diversity in Alabama at the county level. The results indicate that more than half the area of Alabama has high fish diversity, including fish species endemic to the USA. Most of the counties with the highest fish diversity are in southwestern Alabama. Nonnative fish species occurred mainly in the southernmost counties, such as Mobile and Baldwin. Twelve counties have the rare species which has only one occurence location in each country, with Lauderdale County having the most (10 rare species; the counties with the rare species are generally distributed at the four corner areas of the state boundaries, particularly on the northern and southern boundaries. A high positive correlation exists between species diversity and endemic species, but there is no significant correlation between species diversity and diversification. Both Power-law and logarithmic relationships exist between class of species diversity and its frequency; counties with higher fish diversity tend to have low human-population densities, and are located at or nearby the Alluvial-deltaic Plain and Gulf Coast floodplain.

  6. 76 FR 72495 - Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of Preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0318] Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of... that the State of Alabama's Metal Coil Securement Act is preempted by Federal law. FMCSA requests comments on what effect, if any, Alabama's metal coil load securement certification requirements may...

  7. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  8. 78 FR 35015 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Power Act, 16 U.S.C .791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Ms. Amy J. Stewart, PE, Team Leader, Alabama Power... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...: Alabama Power Company. e. Name of Project: Coosa River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Coosa...

  9. Opening the Schoolhouse Doors: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Alabama adopted the Alabama Accountability Act, an education reform measure that includes two new school choice programs that extend a lifeline to Alabama students trapped in failing public schools. One program offers a tax credit to help offset the cost of tuition for families who move their children from public schools designated as…

  10. 77 FR 36274 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...Notice is hereby given that the State of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, and Stage 2 Disinfection/Disinfection Byproducts Rule. EPA has determined that Alabama's rules are no less stringent than the......

  11. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  12. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hayworth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  13. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  14. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  15. Perception of Alabama Science and Career Technology Teachers Concerning Teaching the Alabama Aquaculture Course of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, David John

    The purpose of this study was to improve teachers' ability to effectively use aquaculture as a tool to teach math and science. The study population included Alabama science and career tech teachers that were certified to teach the Alabama aquaculture course of study. The teachers were electronically surveyed regarding their perceptions of the importance of the aquascience elective and aquaculture science course content standards, their knowledge of those topics and how they perceived the quality of available teaching materials. While all of the content standards were rated above average in importance, aquaculture career awareness and safety concerns were rated the highest by teachers. Teachers were most knowledgeable about career opportunities, categorization of aquaculture species, and the adaptations of aquatic organisms. The average materials ratings were below average for all content standards. The highest rated materials were for career opportunities, categorization of species and safety topics. Using Borich's (1980) model of mean weighted discrepancy scores, the control of diseases and pests in the aquatic environment and concepts associated with health management of aquacrops were identified as top priorities for in-service teacher training. Aquaculture industry infrastructure and the effects of the fishing industry were also identified as priority training topics. Teachers were self-divided into 3 categories those that taught science (SCI), career tech (CTE) and those that taught both (BOTH). They were further divided by their level of experience. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant effect between teacher types but there was no significant interaction effect between (a) teacher type and experience level or (b) the two levels of experience. A follow-up analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the science teachers thought significantly less of the available materials than either the CTE or BOTH groups.

  16. Agribusiness Education. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1990, No. 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This course of study provides a framework for the content of a program in agribusiness education as part of the Alabama vocational education program. The course of study was designed to assist educators in developing and maintaining high quality vocational programs and to ensure uniformity of vocational programs. Following a description of the…

  17. Training Teachers to Use Technology: The Alabama Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Anna C.; Johnson, Eddie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for teacher training in media use and describes a plan developed in Alabama consisting of a three-course sequence in technology for teacher education that can be incorporated into a master's degree program. Required primary computer skills and primary instructional design skills are listed. (Contains three references.) (LRW)

  18. Cardboard Houses with Wings: The Architecture of Alabama's Rural Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The Rural Studio, an outreach program of Auburn University, designs innovative houses for poor people living in Alabama's Hale County by using "junk" such as car windshields, carpet tiles, baled cardboard, and old license plates. The article theorizes this particular architecture in terms of Critical Regionalism, developed by…

  19. Assessment of Loblolly Pine Decline in Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otrosina; Emily A. Carter; Jim R. Steinman; John P. Jones; Lori G. Eckhardt; Ann M. Weber; Charles H. Walkinshaw

    2002-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been prevalent on upland sites of central Alabama since the 1960's. The purpose of this study was to compare Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) standards and protocols with root health evaluations relative to crown, stem, and site measurements. Thirty-nine 1/6 acre plots were established on loblolly decline...

  20. Determining soil erosion from roads in coastal plain of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFero Grace; W.J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports soil losses and observed sediment deposition for 16 randomly selected forest road sections in the National Forests of Alabama. Visible sediment deposition zones were tracked along the stormwater flow path to the most remote location as a means of quantifying soil loss from road sections. Volumes of sediment in deposition zones were determined by...

  1. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  2. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  3. Forty Years of Diplomatic Relations Between China and Malaysia Commemorated in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yan

    2014-01-01

    <正>On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Malaysia,the CPAFFC hosted a series of commemorative events on May 30 and 31 in collaboration with Beijing Foreign Studies University(B F S U),t h e M a l a y s i aChina Friendship Association(PPMC)and the Malaysian Embassy in Beijing.Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak and his wife Rosmah Mansor,then on a visit to China,attended all events accompanied by Chinese Ambassador to Malaysia Huang Huikang.

  4. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  5. Discourses of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the Portuguese Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Michele de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a discourse analytical approach to elements of the 40th commemoration of the Portuguese Revolution, focusing specifically on the absence of themes and participants by groups who were most directly involved in the Revolution, either as actors (the “Captains of Abril”, the retornados (Portuguese nationals “returning” to Portugal in the aftermath of the 1974 coup and retornados-emigrantes (those who left Africa during this period but went on to live outside Portugal.   The analyses center primarily on the speech by Portuguese President Cavaco Silva, given as the official opening of the 40th anniversary of the military coup of 25 April 1974, which brought the authoritarian regime of 48 years to an end.  This examination, combined with other speeches of Cavaco Silva, newspaper reports, analyses of the integration of retornados, and a commemorative TV miniseries on the Revolution, provide the evidence for the argument that important voices of the Revolution were muted or silenced in the official commemoration of 2014. Finally, the relevance of actor-centered perspectives on commemoration is laid out for educators.

  6. Discourses of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the Portuguese Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a discourse analytical approach to elements of the 40th commemoration of the Portuguese Revolution, focusing specifically on the absence of themes and participants by groups who were most directly involved in the Revolution, either as actors (the "Captains of Abril"), the "retornados" (Portuguese nationals…

  7. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee.

  8. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The...

  9. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  10. Coptic Commemorative Protests and Discourses of Egyptian Nationalism: A Visual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Abdelsatar ElGendi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the identity constructions of the Coptic Christian minority of Egypt during conflict and in particular through the theme of commemoration of martyrdom. In the aftermath of the attacks against them on October 9, 2011, (what is known as the "Maspero Massacre" Coptic social movements resorted to performative protests to celebrate their "martyrs". This paper analyses the visual representations of two such protests and examines how different themes and symbols from different traditions were used: Coptic Christian, Pharaonic and as well as nationalist Egyptian traditions. This paper argues that through these performances members of the community aimed to reconstruct and reassert their identity in public space as well produce oppositional nationalist discourses that interplay with social conflicts. Through examining videos and photos of these performances, this paper conducts an intertextual analysis of the visual aspects of the protests in order to reveal their political meaning as well as their contradictions.

  11. ‘A veritable Dickens shrine’: Commemorating Charles Dickens at the Dickens House Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Malcolmson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1925, the Dickens Fellowship founded the ‘Dickens House Museum’ at Number 48 Doughty Street, London. The site held a particular significance for Fellowship members as it was the last remaining London home of the author and the location was valued for its personal association with Dickens, establishing a sense of ‘familial intimacy’ with the author. The museum was conceived both as a place of access to Dickens and as a receptacle for the display of objects associated with him. Promotional material utilized a language of feeling, in which the museum’s founders stated their intention that the Museum would become ‘a veritable Dickens shrine, inspiring sentiment and inculcating a spirit of veneration for the great writer’. The items displayed were designed to produce an emotional response in the museum’s visitors and to serve as an act of commemoration to Dickens. This paper will explore both the extraordinary devotion which Dickens inspired and the forms by which he was memorialised and commemorated. It will evaluate the items chosen for display, from a replica of the Dingley Dell kitchen from 'The Pickwick Papers' (1836–37, to the various ‘Dickens relics’ which were collected, and the responses which they produced in early visitors. It will demonstrate that through their activities, writings, and establishment of the Dickens Museum, the Dickens Fellowship presented a particular version of Dickens’s legacy to the public: a nuanced and sentimental portrait of the author which remains in the popular imagination today.

  12. 78 FR 14403 - Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of Preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination... Alabama's Metal Coil Securement Act (the Act) is preempted by Federal law. Federal law provides for... Coil Securement Act The Act, adopted in 2009, prohibits a motor carrier from transporting metal...

  13. Experiencing Educational Leadership Preparation Program Redesign in Alabama: One University's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Frances; Reames, Ellen H.

    2013-01-01

    Calls for changing educational leadership preparation have led many state policy makers to initiate program redesign efforts; the governor of Alabama constituted a working group to examine the situation and develop recommendations. This article details the school leadership preparation program redesign process in Alabama from the perspective of…

  14. 75 FR 57412 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... ``volatile organic compounds'' (VOCs) found at Alabama Administrative Code section 335-3-1-.02(gggg... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing...

  15. A Snapshot in Time: 1,244 School Counselors Speak out about the Alabama State Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Dahir, Carol A.; Stone, Carolyn B.

    2008-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Education (ALSDE) introduced the revised Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance State Model for Alabama Public Schools (State Plan) in 2003. Based on sweeping national changes in school counseling and the first publication of the ASCA National Model[R] (American School Counselor Association, 2003, 2005), the ALSDE was…

  16. Modifications to Settlement with Alabama Power Company Will Reduce Harmful Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice today lodged in U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Alabama a proposed modification of a prior 2006 consent decree with Alabama Power Company that will secure further reductions of ha

  17. 77 FR 59100 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: General and Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Transportation Conformity & New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Fine Particulate Matter... transportation conformity regulations. EPA is approving portions of Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP revision because... transportation conformity regulations into the SIP. Alabama's May 2, 2011, SIP revision includes changes to...

  18. Servant Leadership in Alabama's Regional Public Universities: The President's Role in Fostering Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jimmy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between two variables, "servant leadership" and "job satisfaction," among management, executive staff, and faculty at Alabama's five regional universities: Jacksonville State University, Troy University, the University of Montevallo, the University of North Alabama,…

  19. 77 FR 61774 - Alabama; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ....033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Alabama; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Alabama (FEMA-4082-DR), dated September 21,...

  20. Servant Leadership in Alabama's Regional Public Universities: The President's Role in Fostering Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jimmy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between two variables, "servant leadership" and "job satisfaction," among management, executive staff, and faculty at Alabama's five regional universities: Jacksonville State University, Troy University, the University of Montevallo, the University of North Alabama, and the University of…

  1. The State of Education in Alabama's K-12 Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Alabama's rural school districts with its city, suburban, and town districts. Descriptive statistics were used for this population study, with effect sizes calculated using Cohen's d. Findings indicated Alabama's rural school districts serve slightly less affluent student populations, with a lower…

  2. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [iron [416 to 2,320 mg/L (milligrams per liter)], manganese (8.36 to 33.5 mg/L), aluminum (0.870 to 428 mg/L), and sulfate (2,990 to 13,700 mg/L) in acidic mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD at or near the sites of the three largest mine springs is geochemically feasible based on alkalinity addition rates and increased pH determined by cubitainer experiments and geochemical mixing experiments using the computer model PHREEQCI. Alkalinity values for seven cubitainer experiments conducted to simulate anoxic treatment options exceeded the targeted value for

  3. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  4. Radiation emergency response in Illinois, Alabama, and Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.K.; Chester, R.O.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state radiation emergency response and to locate any areas of emergency planning in need of improvement. This report briefly presents a summary of laws and defining documents governing radiation emergency response, describes the existing and projected need for such response, and presents the authors' analyses of the evolution of state response plans and their application to radiation incidents. Three states' programs are discussed in detail: Illinois, Alabama, and Texas. These states were selected because they have quite different emergency-response programs. Therefore, these state programs provide a wide variety of approaches to state radiation emergency response.

  5. Impact of Hurricane Ivan on pharmacies in Baldwin County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Wolkin, Amy; Sanchez, Carlos; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Young, Stacy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Oberst, Kathleen; Batts, Dahna; Thomas, Charles C; Rubin, Carol

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Hurricane Ivan, which made landfall east of Mobile, Alabama, on September 16, 2004, on pharmacies in the affected areas. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Baldwin County, Alabama. Pharmacy community rapid-needs-assessment survey. 41 hospital and community (chain and independent) pharmacies. Posthurricane pharmacy hours of operations, prescription volumes, infrastructure damage, and prehurricane disaster planning. During the week of the hurricane, both chain and independent community pharmacies within the evacuation zone worked significantly fewer hours (46% and 49%, respectively) and dispensed significantly fewer prescriptions (37% and 52%) compared with the same week of the prior year. Overall, 40% of pharmacies depleted their supplies of certain medications (e.g., anxiolytics, antihypertensives). A total of 60% of the chain and independent pharmacies outside the evacuation zone closed because of loss of electricity, but pharmacies with a generator were significantly less likely to report having turned away patients. The proportion of pharmacies that had a disaster plan but turned away patients or rationed or ran out of medications was similar to that of pharmacies without a disaster plan. Although Hurricane Ivan primarily affected the operation of pharmacies within the evacuation zone, pharmacies in the surrounding area were also affected because of loss of power. Emergency management officials should evaluate the efficacy of specific guidelines outlined in disaster plans and identify ways to deliver essential medications to people in disaster-affected areas.

  6. Distribution patterns of invasive alien species in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS cause environmental and economical problems. How to effectively manage all IAS at a large area is a challenge.Hypotheses about IAS (such as the “human activity” hypothesis, the “biotic acceptance” and the “biotic resistance” have been proposedfrom numerous studies. Here the state of Alabama in USA, widely occupied by IAS, is used as a case study for characterizing the emergentpatterns of IAS. The results indicate that most IAS are located in metropolitan areas and in the Black Belt area which is a historical intensiveland use area. There are positive relationships between the richness of IAS and the change of human population, the species richness and thenumber of endangered species, as well as the total road length and farmland area across Alabama. This study partially supports the abovethree hypotheses and provides a general pattern of local IAS. Based on possible processes related with IAS, some implications forstrategically managing local IAS are discussed.

  7. 2016 Alabama PV soft cost and workforce development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern US has the largest potential for growth in the solar industry. However, currently they languish behind the rest of the US. There are several bright spots including the large number of utility scale installations in North Carolina and the recent successes in South Carolina under Act 236. In order to better understand the impacts of state legislation on the growth of the solar industry in the SE US, the Savannah River National Laboratory has undertaken a study to look at the growth in each state in order to develop recommendations to help reduce the cost of solar and to spur the industry. This is the second report in the series. The first focused on developing cost metrics for South Carolina under Act 236. This report focuses on Alabama, the 49th ranked state for solar business, which has very similar population and median income to South Carolina. For this survey, the ten known in-state installers were contacted. Responses were received from seven, representing 70% of the installers, a majority of which provide both residential and commercial installations. Interestingly, none of the respondents serve the utility scale sector. Overall, costs for Alabama are on track with the rest of the country with a reported average cost of $3.29/W-DC for residential systems and $2.44/W-DC for commercial systems. 60% of this cost is attributed to hardware only. Of the remaining costs, installation contributed to the largest percentage of soft costs followed by overhead, marketing and sales, and permitting, respectively. This also closely mirrors results seen in South Carolina. Job growth in the industry is expected to proceed well. An expected 34-42 additional full time equivalent jobs were expected to be added in Alabama within the six month window following the survey period. During the three years following the survey, this number was expected to double with 89-97 additional jobs being added to the market. In both cases, a vast majority of these jobs were for

  8. Vito Volterra and his commemoration for the centenary of Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a memoir of 1931 written by Vito Volterra on the Italian physicists of the nineteenth century and the researches these scientists made after the discoveries of Michael Faraday on electromagnetism. Here, the memoir entitled "I fisici italiani e le ricerche di Faraday" is translated from Italian. It was written to commemorate the centenary of Faraday's discovery of the electromagnetic induction. Besides being a remarkable article on the history of science, it was also, in a certain extent, a political paper. In fact, in 1931, the same year of the publication of this article, Mussolini imposed a mandatory oath of loyalty to Italian academies. Volterra was one of the very few professors who refused to take this oath of loyalty. Because of the political situation in Italy, Volterra wanted to end his paper sending a message to the scientists of the world, telling that the feeling of admiration and gratitude that in Italy the scientists had towards "the great thinker and British experimentalist" w...

  9. El Alabama en la Zona Algodonera de Armero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Llanos Vicente

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available El gusano cortador de la hoja del algodonero, comúnmente llamado Alabama por todos los plantadores de algodón de la región de Armero, ha merecido y seguirá mereciendo una especial atención, ya que constituye la plaga más importante de cuantas diezman los cultivos de algodón. Si bien es cierto que otros insectos como el gusano rosado colombiano de las cápsulas del algodonero (SacadodespyralisDyar (7; nuevo género y nueva especie, según W m. Schaus, y el pulgón (AphisgossypiiGlov. causan daños de consideración, ninguno de ellos ha mostrado, en esta zona, la enorme voracidad y por lo tanto la fuerza destructora del insecto que tratamos. El Alabama fue la causa de casi todos los fracasos que tuvieron los primeros cultivadores en algunas regiones del interior del país. En ese entonces no había facilidad para su control, como la hay ahora, y era muy común ver un cultivo devastado en pocos días por la plaga en mención, sin que hubiera manera de destruirla. El hecho indiscutible de haberse iniciado el cultivo del algodón en la región de Armero sobre bases técnicas, de haber recibido el apoyo irrestricto y entusiasta de los,gobiernos departamental y nacional, de crear entidades y centros de investigación al servicio de la economía del país, y de poseer vías accesibles a,los mercados de importancia, son las razones inmediatas del éxito rotundo y progresivo de la industria algodonera en esta zona. A pesar de todo esto, el Alabama se presentó desde el primer momento y ha continuado haciendo sus daños de cosecha en cosecha, obligando a,los cultivadores a equiparse con máquinas espolvoreadoras de diversos tipos y a usar los insecticidas aconsejados por la técnica que les dieron resultados positivos; yel insecto, que antes constituía un problema para el cultivo, pasó a ser solo objeto de una inversión en el presupuesto del cultivador.

  10. Sustainability analysis of groundwater resources in a coastal aquifer, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rich, Kendall; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2008-03-01

    Fort Morgan Peninsula is an attached portion of a dynamic barrier complex in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a large tourist area that brings in a significant amount of revenue for Alabama. Many of the hotels and tourist attractions depend on the groundwater as their water supply. The over-withdrawal of groundwater and saltwater intrustion will have a negative impact on the ecology, tourism and economy if groundwater resources are not properly monitored and managed. In this study a calibrated groundwater flow model was used to analyze the sustainability of groundwater resources at Fort Morgan Peninsula. Detailed flow budgets were prepared to check the various components of inflow and outflow under different water use and climatic conditions. The results indicated the locations where groundwater was over-pumped and subjected to saltwater intrusion, or will be subjected to saltwater intrusion under a range of projected water use and climatic conditions.

  11. Emergent spatial pattern of herpetofauna in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing spatial pattern of regional biodiversity and its relationships with environmental factors is important for biodiversity conservation at large scales. The emergent spatial pattern of herpetofauna in Alabama is examined by combining thousands of historical records from 132 species of 24 families and environmental conditions. Our results indicate that species richness of herpetofauna increases with the increase of latitude, while it decreases with the increase of elevation. A negative spatial association exists between amphibians and reptiles on the scale of 10 km2, but 40% of habitats are still shared by amphibians and reptiles at this scale. The highest species richness of herpetofauna is in the Mobile and Baldwin Counties. Power-law relation exists between the county size and the average species richness. Total stream length, and road density are highly correlated with species richness at the county level. With the increase of annual precipitation, species richness decreases. Species richness is higher in the area with the annual average temperature around 17-18 °C. Herpetofaunal diversity in the Coosa/Tallapoosa River, the Alabama River, and the Tombigbee River basins is relatively higher than in the Perdido River and the Escatawpa River basins. The highest species richness exists at the Gulf Coastal Plain, but its species density is the lowest. The highest species richness of herpetofauna exists in the Longleaf-Slash Pine and Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine forests, while lower in Oak- Hickory forest. The emergent spatial pattern may provide important implications for herpetofauna conservation in the face of global climate change and large-scale habitat destruction. The spatial pattern and the possible underlying ecological processes have to be considered for the large scale land zoning and planning.

  12. TRAPPING PROTOCOLS, SAMPLING, AND VIABILITY ANALYSES FOR THE ALABAMA BEACH MICE (PEROMYSCUS POLIONOTUS AMMOBATES): FINAL REPORT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We performed a comprehensive critique of trapping protocols, data analysis, and population viability analyses conducted to date for the Alabama beach mouse...

  13. Strandings of Marine Mammals in Alabama from 16 Dec 1978 - 31 Dec 2015 (NODC Accession 0117461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information about marine mammal strandings documented in Alabama waters between 1978 and 2015. Data include identity, size, condition, sex, and...

  14. Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit...

  15. Middle Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Wolcox Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  16. EAARL Coastal Topography--Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane), was produced from...

  17. The Impact of the Proposed Eddie Frost Commerce Park on the Alabama Cavefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alabama cavefish, Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni, is one on of the most endangered species of fish in the world due to its low population size, restriction to a single...

  18. 77 FR 11937 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Alabama; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100-150 kilometers, or about...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, ] Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia... Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Colorado State University, Cooperative Institute for Research...

  19. EAARL Topography--Three Mile Creek and Mobile-Tensaw Delta, Alabama, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta region and Three Mile Creek in Alabama was produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  20. Middle Claiborne Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  1. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  2. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alabama based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alabama census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Environmental Quality Assessment of the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama, New York, 1988-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a 3-year monitoring program at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama, New York to identify any contaminant...

  5. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 223 polygon shapefiles...

  6. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Individual Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  7. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polyline: Combined Dates) is a line shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  8. EAARL Topography--Three Mile Creek and Mobile-Tensaw Delta, Alabama, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mobile-Tensaw Delta region and Three Mile Creek in Alabama was produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  9. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill.

  10. Status and Distribution of the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in Southern Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A two year study was undertaken to determine the status and distribution of the gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus in 24 counties in southern Alabama. Habitat...

  11. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Individual Dates) is a dataset consisting of 223 polygon shapefiles...

  12. Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Shorelines Extracted from 1984-2015 Landsat Imagery: Dauphin Island, Alabama (Polygon: Combined Dates) is a polygon shapefile representing shorelines generated from...

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography--Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane), was produced from...

  14. Lower Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains 414 rows and 394...

  15. Midway Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Midway Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains...

  16. Wilbur and Orville Wright: A Bibliography Commemorating the One-Hundredth Anniversary of the First Powered Flight, December 17, 1903. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrom, Arthur G. (Compiler); Goldblatt, Roberta W.; Minkus, Carl; Berube, Karen L.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of material about Wilbur and Orville Wright and the first powered flight, commemorates the one hundredth anniversary of the event. This publication represents an updated version of the classic, "Wilbur and Orville Wright: A Bibliography Commemorating the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Wilbur Wright, April 16, 1867" which was originally published in 1968. Aspects of the Wright brothers' lives covered include: their published writings, biographical references, airplanes used and flight records, airplane components, patents, court records, Wright companies and schools, the Wright-Smithsonian controversy, monuments and museums, memorials, medals and honors, memorabilia, art, poetry, music, motion pictures and juvenile publications. An index is included.

  17. Alabama – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    There is no state law in Alabama prohibiting any form of employment discrimination. Rather, Alabama defers to federal law for providing its citizens with protections against discrimination based upon age, race, religion, sex, national origin, and disabilities. Only a few unsuccessful attempts have been made to enact legislation to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination, and none to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. Neither the state nor any locality in...

  18. The history of neurosurgery at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Paul M; Markert, James M; Diethelm, Arnold G; Hadley, Mark N

    2014-10-01

    : The Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Alabama at Birmingham was formally founded in 1954 under the leadership of James Garber Galbraith. The following 60 years would see neurosurgery at the forefront of the development of a nationally recognized medical center in the heart of Birmingham, Alabama. The Department of Neurosurgery now employs 14 faculty members, performs more than 4500 neurosurgical procedures annually, is active in clinical and laboratory research, and boasts a contemporary, comprehensive residency training program.

  19. A review of the contributions of Albert Einstein to earth sciences--in commemoration of the World Year of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Hochberg, David; Rull, Fernando

    2006-02-01

    The World Year of Physics (2005) is an international celebration to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." The United Nations has officially declared 2005 as the International Year of Physics. However, the impact of Einstein's ideas was not restricted to physics. Among numerous other disciplines, Einstein also made significant and specific contributions to Earth Sciences. His geosciences-related letters, comments, and scientific articles are dispersed, not easily accessible, and are poorly known. The present review attempts to integrate them as a tribute to Einstein in commemoration of this centenary. These contributions can be classified into three basic areas: geodynamics, geological (planetary) catastrophism, and fluvial geomorphology. Regarding geodynamics, Einstein essentially supported Hapgood's very controversial theory called Earth Crust Displacement. With respect to geological (planetary) catastrophism, it is shown how the ideas of Einstein about Velikovsky's proposals evolved from 1946 to 1955. Finally, in relation to fluvial geodynamics, the review incorporates the elegant work in which Einstein explains the formation of meandering rivers. A general analysis of his contributions is also carried out from today's perspective. Given the interdisciplinarity and implications of Einstein's achievements to multiple fields of knowledge, we propose that the year 2005 serve, rather than to confine his universal figure within a specific scientific area, to broaden it for a better appreciation of this brilliant scientist in all of his dimensions.

  20. The slippery paths of commemoration and Heritage tourism: the Netherlands, Ghana, and the rediscovery of Atlantic slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflects upon the commemoration of the Atlantic slave trade and American slavery. Author describes how the slave trade and slavery was recently "rediscovered", as a part of Dutch history, and he compares this to the attention to this history in other European countries once engaging in slavery. He argues that despite the fact that the history of the slave trade and slavery is worthy of attention in itself, contemporary political and social factors mainly influence attention to the slave trade and slavery, noting that in countries with larger Afro-Caribbean minority groups the attention to this past is greater than in other once slave-trading countries. He further deplores the lack of academic accuracy on the slave trade and slavery in slavery commemorations and in the connected search for African roots among descendants of slaves, and illustrates this by focusing on the role of Ghana, and the slave fortress Elmina there, as this fortress also has become a much visited tourist site by Afro-Americans. According to him, this made for some that Ghana represents the whole of Africa, while African slaves in the Caribbean, also in the Dutch colonies, came from various parts of Africa. Author attributes this selectivity in part to the relatively large Ghanaian community in the Netherlands.

  1. Gasoline prices and traffic crashes in Alabama, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; McClure, Timothy E; Brown, David B

    2012-09-01

    The price of gasoline has been found to be negatively associated with traffic crashes in a limited number of studies. However, most of the studies have focused either on fatal crashes only or on all crashes but measured over a very short time period. In this study, we examine gasoline price effects on all traffic crashes by demographic groups in the state of Alabama from 1999 to 2009. Using negative binomial regression techniques to examine monthly data from 1999 to 2009 in the state of Alabama, we estimate the effects of changes in gasoline price on changes in automobile crashes. We also examine how these effects differ by age group (16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-64, and 65+), gender (male and female), and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). The results show that gasoline prices have both short-term and long-term effects on reducing total traffic crashes and crashes of each age, gender, and race/ethnicity group (except Hispanic due to data limitations). The short-term and long-term effects are not statistically different for each individual demographic group. Gasoline prices have a stronger effect in reducing crashes involving drivers aged 16 to 20 than crashes involving drivers aged 31 to 64 and 65+ in the short term; the effects, however, are not statistically different across other demographic groups. Although gasoline price increases are not favored, our findings show that gasoline price increases (or decreases) are associated with reductions (or increases) in the incidence of traffic crashes. If gasoline prices had remained at the 1999 level of $1.41 from 1999 to 2009, applying the estimated elasticities would result in a predicted increase in total crashes of 169,492 (or 11.3%) from the actual number of crashes. If decision makers wish to reduce traffic crashes, increasing gasoline taxes is a possible option-however, doing so would increase travel costs and lead to equity concerns. These findings may help to shape transportation

  2. Speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instruction on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Respected leaders, distinguished guests, venerable seniors and comrades, Today, the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instructions on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine was inaugurated by the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine, and it is also an important occasion to review the past and look forward to the future.

  3. Connecting the World in the Spirit of Zheng He--Boeing 777-200LR Worldliner Commemorates 600th Anniversary of Zheng He's Voyages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The Boeing [NYSE:BA] 777-200LR Worldliner, the world's longest range commercial airplane, was officially named "Zheng He" at Beijing's Capital International Airport during a ceremony to commemorate the seven incredible voyages by the great Chinese navigator and explorer Zheng He.……

  4. Connecting the World in the Spirit of Zheng He--Boeing 777-200LR Worldliner Commemorates 600th Anniversary of Zheng He's Voyages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Boeing [NYSE:BA] 777-200LR Worldliner, the world's longest range commercial airplane, was officially named "Zheng He" at Beijing's Capital International Airport during a ceremony to commemorate the seven incredible voyages by the great Chinese navigator and explorer Zheng He.

  5. Philosophy of Education in Cultural Perspective. Essays Commemorating the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Celebration of the Far Western Philosophy of Education Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, James John, Ed.

    The manuscript contains 48 essays commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Far Western Philosophy of Education Society. Topics included are cultural awareness; the teaching of values; philosophy and teacher education; humanistic education; existentialism and education; the nature of man; and the educational philosophies of Abraham J. Heschel,…

  6. Mortality from a tornado outbreak, Alabama, April 27, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Schnall, Amy H; Mertzlufft, Caitlin E; Noe, Rebecca S; Wolkin, Amy F; Spears, Jeanne; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Vagi, Sara J

    2013-08-01

    We describe the demographics of the decedents from the tornado outbreak in Alabama on April 27, 2011; examine the circumstances of death surrounding these fatalities; and identify measures to prevent future tornado-related fatalities. We collected information about the decedents from death certificates, disaster-related mortality surveillance, and interview data collected by American Red Cross volunteers from the decedent's families. We describe demographic characteristics, circumstances and causes of death, and sheltering behaviors before death. Of the 247 fatalities, females and older adults were at highest risk for tornado-related deaths. Most deaths were directly related to the tornadoes, on scene, and trauma-related. The majority of the deceased were indoors in single-family homes. Word of mouth was the most common warning mechanism. This tornado event was the third deadliest in recent US history. Our findings support the need for local community shelters, enhanced messaging to inform the public of shelter locations, and encouragement of word-of-mouth warnings and personal and family preparedness planning, with a special focus on assisting vulnerable individuals in taking shelter.

  7. Error Analyses of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.; Christian, H. J.; Hall, J. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Krider, E. P.; Bateman, M. G.; Boccippio, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Two approaches are used to characterize how accurately the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is able to locate lightning VHF sources in space and in time. The first method uses a Monte Carlo computer simulation to estimate source retrieval errors. The simulation applies a VHF source retrieval algorithm that was recently developed at the NASA-MSFC and that is similar, but not identical to, the standard New Mexico Tech retrieval algorithm. The second method uses a purely theoretical technique (i.e., chi-squared Curvature Matrix theory) to estimate retrieval errors. Both methods assume that the LMA system has an overall rms timing error of 50ns, but all other possible errors (e.g., multiple sources per retrieval attempt) are neglected. The detailed spatial distributions of retrieval errors are provided. Given that the two methods are completely independent of one another, it is shown that they provide remarkably similar results, except that the chi-squared theory produces larger altitude error estimates than the (more realistic) Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Plan Your Excellence: Library Directors' Input on Use and Revision of "Standards for Public Library Service in Alabama."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Annabel K.; Smith, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Directors of Alabama's 180 public libraries and 21 library systems were surveyed to determine their use and opinions of the "1988 Standards for Public Library Service in Alabama." Replies included feedback on standards directors considered most or least helpful and suggestions for additional standards. Analysis of the responses is…

  9. Plan Your Excellence: System Directors' Input on Use and Revision of "Standards for Public Library Service in Alabama."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Annabel K.

    In November 1994, directors of Alabama's 21 public library systems were surveyed to determine their experiences with, and opinions of, the 1988 "Standards for Public Library Service in Alabama." Replies were received from nine (34%) of the directors. Directors were provided with a list of 15 ways in which they might have used the system…

  10. 75 FR 34735 - Adequacy Status of the Alabama Portion (Jackson County) of the Chattanooga, Tennessee Tri-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Alabama Portion (Jackson County) of the Chattanooga, Tennessee Tri-State... the tri-state Chattanooga, Tennessee nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as the ``Jackson County... County, Alabama as part of the tri-state Chattanooga 1997 PM 2.5 nonattainment area. The tri-state...

  11. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  12. Human Intestinal Parasite Burden and Poor Sanitation in Rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan L; McAtee, Shannon; Bryan, Patricia E; Jeun, Rebecca; Ward, Tabitha; Kraus, Jacob; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Flowers, Catherine C; Mejia, Rojelio

    2017-09-05

    Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays . We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus, four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis, and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica. Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/µL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus. Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.

  13. The Power of the Speeches of Porto’s Employers in Anniversary Commemorative Sessions: Verbal Rituals, Argumentation and Enunciative Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aurélia Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a basis a corpus of news with the anniversary speeches of the Associação Industrial Portuense published in the news magazine A Indústria do Norte (1949-1970, we will analyse how, in those speeches, an image of the speaker is structured. For this purpose, we will consider the enunciative organisation of the commemorative speech for the anniversary; the speech acts sequence and the discursive strategies of intensification and mitigation at the service of persuasion. We will verify that the representatives of the employers put at steak a covening argumentative instrument of a doxa shared by a speech community. This strategy of argumentation is revealing and has to do with a specific position-taking of a representative speaker from Porto’s employers.

  14. Magnitude and frequency of floods for urban streams in Alabama, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, T.S.; Lee, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Methods of estimating flood magnitudes for exceedance probabilities of 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent have been developed for urban streams in Alabama that are not significantly affected by dams, flood detention structures, hurricane storm surge, or substantial tidal fluctuations. Regression relations were developed using generalized least-squares regression techniques to estimate flood magnitude and frequency on ungaged streams as a function of the basin drainage area and percentage of basin developed. These methods are based on flood-frequency characteristics for 20 streamgaging stations in Alabama and 3 streamgaging stations in adjacent States having 10 or more years of record through September 2007.

  15. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  16. #VOCÊNACAPA: fashion and female reprasentation in the commemorative edition of Elle Brazil magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Martinelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a representação feminina relacionada a estéticas contra-hegemônicas na edição comemorativa da revista ELLE Brasil publicada em maio de 2015. O objetivo é pensar de que forma a diversidade está conquistando espaço na indústria da moda e nos meios de comunicação que a representam. Tomando como ponto de partida o conceito de representação social em Hall e Moscovici, discutimos aqui o significado desse conteúdo, que se distingue do padrão de beleza normativo da mulher branca, loira, ocidental e extremamente magra, considerando a forma concreta que o significado simbólico dessas representações assumem na revista. Palavras-chave: jornalismo de moda; gênero; representação   Resumen Este artículo analiza la representación femenina relacionada a estéticas contra-hegemónicas en la edición conmemorativa de la revista ELLE Brasil de mayo de 2015. El objetivo es pensar cómo la diversidad está conquistando espacios en la industria de la moda y los medios de comunicación que abordan el tema. A partir del concepto de representación social de Hall y Moscovici, discutimos el significado de ese contenido que se distingue del patrón de belleza normativo de la mujer blanca, rubia, occidental y flaca, considerando las formas prácticas que el significado simbólico de esas representaciones asumen en la revista. Palabras-clave: periodismo de moda, género, representación   Abstract This article analyzes female representations related to counter-hegemonic aesthetics in the commemorative edition of Elle Brazil magazine published in may 2015. We aim to discuss how diversity is gaining ground in the fashion industry and in the specialized media that addresses this issue. Taking the concept of social representation as presented in Hall and Moscovici, we discuss the meanings of this content that differ from the normative standard of beauty represented by white, blond, Western and thin women, considering the

  17. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  18. The True Story of Oral Communication Education in Alabama: A Case of Academic Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Written communication and oral communication are inextricably linked as essential life skills and as desirable educational outcomes. However, there is a clear disconnect between what Alabama colleges expect of their graduates and what they are providing them in terms of oral communication education. The steps taken to develop the general studies…

  19. Space Grant Undergraduate Remote Sensing Research in Urban Growth near Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, M. J.; Keen, J.; Wilcox, P.; Sheehan, A.; Dial, S.

    2010-12-01

    During late 2009, four Tennessee Space Grant undergraduate researchers began a remote sensing investigation of urban growth southeast of Mobile Bay, Alabama. They selected the study area in consultation with the Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Science Office, and they share the study area with a multi-institution NASA-funded project exploring the application of remotely sensed data and related models to conservation and restoration along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. In the first phase of the Space Grant investigation, four undergraduate researchers used a November 7, 2009 Landsat scene to map developed land near Mobile, Alabama. They used supervised and unsupervised classification to map developed land in two areas: 10 miles southeast of Mobile along U.S. Route 98 between Daphne and Fairhope, Alabama, and 25 miles southeast of Mobile near Foley, Alabama. Visual comparison of their map with the circa 2001 National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) revealed urban growth in both areas. In the year ahead, Space Grant undergraduates will explore ways to improve their map by incorporating ancillary vector data and images. They will also collect reference data on the ground, and then they will use ground-based reference data and air photos to assess map accuracy. As an ultimate goal, the Space Grant undergraduates seek to compare their results with those of the larger multi-institution project. The Space Grant investigation will lead to a better understanding of the potential for undergraduate interaction with a large NASA-funded remote sensing applications project.

  20. Something for Everyone: The Marketing and Promotion of Alabama Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Recruiters and marketers within the Alabama Community College System are tasked with increasing enrollment at their institutions. The methods of accomplishing this goal include traditional strategies as well as new and emerging ones. Unlike personnel at other institutions of higher learning, however, community college recruiters and marketers have…

  1. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  2. Planning the Recreational-Educational Complex of the Alabama Space and Rocket Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.; Kartis, Alexia M.

    1983-01-01

    Planning for the Alabama Space and Rocket Center's new recreational-educational complex included (1) goal establishment, (2) needs assessment (including accessibility for the disabled), (3) environmental impact analysis, (4) formulation of objectives and priorities, and (5) strategy development to meet objectives, as well as preparation of a…

  3. Coosa River Storage Annex, Talladega, Alabama. Environmental Investigation Report. Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    jointtail Crataegus harbisoni hawthorn Croomnia pauciflora croomia Croton alabamensis Alabama croton Cuscuta Izarperi lovevine, dodder Cypripediunz...kentuckiense Kentucky lady’s-slipper Delphinium exalt atumnz tall larkspur Echinacca laevigata purple coneflower Helianthus eggertii glade sunflower Hexastylis...flava southern rein orchid Platanth era integra yellow fringeless orchid Platanth era peramoena purple fringeless orchid Polyninnia laevigata Tennessee

  4. 76 FR 61481 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Mobile, AL; Troy University, Troy, AL; Appalachian State University, Boone, NC; various private..., and Choctawhatchee River basins of Alabama and Florida; and to localized portions of the Mobile River... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service...

  5. Access and Finance Issues: The University of Alabama's Education Policy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the 1920s, the Education Policy Center (EPC) is the oldest center or institute at The University of Alabama. Our work centers on four interrelated areas: (a) access and finance of public higher education, (b) college completion, (c) Pell Grants, and (d) rural community colleges. As place-based institutions with service delivery…

  6. Increasing Learning and Reducing Costs through Technology: The University of Alabama Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Long known as a college-football powerhouse, the University of Alabama (UA) is now considered a model for institutions seeking to maintain or boost their academic quality even as enrollments increase and budgets are squeezed. According to Carol Twigg, president of the National Center for Academic Transformation (NCAT), which has been a significant…

  7. The True Story of Oral Communication Education in Alabama: A Case of Academic Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Written communication and oral communication are inextricably linked as essential life skills and as desirable educational outcomes. However, there is a clear disconnect between what Alabama colleges expect of their graduates and what they are providing them in terms of oral communication education. The steps taken to develop the general studies…

  8. Fisheries Resource Utilization of an Estuarine Borrow Pit in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    coastal habitats have been altered by sand excavation for commercial and beach nourishment purposes, producing artificial holes and depressions. These...inshore coastal habitats have been altered extensively by sand excavation for commercial aggregate and beach nourishment purposes producing artificial...These values were consistent with those reported by Vittor and Associates (1982). A separate study conducted by the Alabama Coastal Area Board (ACAB

  9. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (conyza canadensis) control with dicamba in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread horseweed resistance to glyphosate has resulted in the use of dicamba as an alternative treatment. Horseweed populations in Cherokee and DeKalb counties in northern Alabama were not well controlled following glyphosate and dicamba treatments. This research evaluates horseweed populations ...

  10. Manpower Status of Selected Health Professions for the State of Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Albert E.

    The purpose of this study is to provide information on the number and racial composition of students and workers in selected health care professions in the State of Alabama, and to analyze these data. Professions covered include dentistry, dental hygiene, nursing, medicine, medical technology, and occupational therapy. A description of how data…

  11. 75 FR 10865 - Shoreline Management Initiative, Reservoirs in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Environmental Policy Act. In 1999, TVA adopted its current Shoreline Management Policy (SMP) to implement the preferred alternative in the November 1998 environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Shoreline Management... Shoreline Management Initiative, Reservoirs in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina...

  12. 78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... organizations, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated.... Gregory Waselkov, Director, University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies, 6052 USA Drive...:113) called the ``delightful West Bend neighborhood'' in the late 1800s. Cultural materials from site...

  13. 75 FR 45108 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-63-000; Docket No. PR10-64-000; Docket No. PR10-66- 000] Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC Yankee Gas Services Company Kinder Morgan Tejas Pipeline LLC...

  14. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... listed under ADDRESSES. Covered Area The GCP coverage area extends along the Gulf of Mexico for about 17 miles, encompassing approximately 2,400 acres of open beach and associated nearshore coastal dune environments on the Fort Morgan Peninsula, Baldwin County, Alabama. The coverage area begins at Little Lagoon...

  15. Online versus Traditional Classroom Instruction: An Examination of Developmental English Courses at an Alabama Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B. Matthew; Saxon, D. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted at a community college in northeast Alabama to determine how the format of developmental English courses impacted student withdrawal rates and final grades. The two course formats examined were online/hybrid and face-to-face courses. Data were obtained from a 4-semester time frame: fall 2012, spring 2013, summer 2013, and…

  16. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the...

  17. The health and economic consequences of cigarette smoking in Alabama, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosson, Gabriel H; McCallum, Debra M; Beeson, Diane H

    2014-01-01

    While CDC reports on the health and economic burden of smoking in the United States, state-specific data are not readily available. We estimated the health and economic consequences of cigarette smoking in Alabama to provide the state legislature with the state-specific data that reveal the direct impact of smoking on their constituents. We estimated that in 2009, almost 7,900 adult deaths (18% of all adult deaths) and approximately 121,000 years of potential life lost among Alabama adults aged 35 years and older were attributable to cigarette smoking. Productivity losses due to premature death and smoking-attributable illness were estimated at $2.84 billion and $941 million, respectively. Our findings support a strong need for tobacco control and prevention programs to decrease the health and economic burden of smoking in Alabama. These results are being used by the State Health Officer to illustrate the real costs of smoking in Alabama and to advocate for improved tobacco control policies.

  18. Impacts of mechanical tree felling on development of water tupelo regeneration in the Mobile Delta, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; John D. Hodges; T. Conner Fristoe

    2000-01-01

    Two water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) stands in the Mobile Delta of Alabama were selected to test the hypothesis that mechanized felling does not reduce establishment and growth of natural water tupelo regeneration relative to traditional tree felling with chainsaws. To test the hypothesis, we established six 2 acre treatment plots in each of two...

  19. Alabama DOE/EPSCoR traineeship program. Final report, September 28, 1991--September 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruitt, K.M.; April, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report covers programmatic accomplishments of the Alabama DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Program for the period September 28, 1991 to September 29, 1995. The Alabama DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Program is an integral part of this state`s efforts to address barriers that inhibit the full development and substantial growth of energy-related research at the six major research institutions and at Alabama`s Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). To overcome these barriers it was determined that the following actions were needed: Area 1: Strengthening the Research Faculty Base Area 2: Increasing the Number of Outstanding Graduate Students Area 3: Improving the Research Environment Area 4: Developing the Human Resources Base Area 5. Improving the Energy-related Infrastructure, Collaborations and Communications. Although the DOE/EPSCoR Traineeship Grant complements each of the areas listed above, its primary emphasis is the enhancement of opportunities for graduate students. The extent to which this program has met this challenge during the three year funding period constitutes the substance of this report.

  20. 77 FR 46664 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Alabama: General and Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... cardiovascular disease (i.e., lung disease, decreased lung function, asthma attacks and certain cardiovascular..., children, and individuals with heart and lung diseases. For more details regarding health effects and PM 2....5 SMC into the Alabama SIP as EPA believes the use of the SMC is a valid exercise of the Agency's...

  1. Nutritional Status of New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama Head Start Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jack L.

    Three purposes guided compilation of this final report on the nutritional status of New Orleans, Mississippi, and Alabama Head Start children: (1) to evaluate the causes of anemia through detailed studies of urban New Orleans preschool children and their mothers, (2) to study the effect of dietary supplementation of school feeding programs upon…

  2. Increasing Learning and Reducing Costs through Technology: The University of Alabama Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Long known as a college-football powerhouse, the University of Alabama (UA) is now considered a model for institutions seeking to maintain or boost their academic quality even as enrollments increase and budgets are squeezed. According to Carol Twigg, president of the National Center for Academic Transformation (NCAT), which has been a significant…

  3. 33 CFR 165.836 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 165.836 Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Mobile, Alabama, Captain of the Port. (a) Definitions. The... Mobile or a designated representative to enter the security zone described in paragraph (c) of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Escorted...

  4. The Alabama Counseling Association: A Legacy of Community and Professional Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eddie, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Alabama Counseling Association (ALCA) has an ongoing plan for professional growth and development reflective of the multiple counseling professions and the diversity of its members. Based on the development and history of the organization, this research project was designed to assess ALCA's progress toward achieving its stated outcome goals. A…

  5. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  6. Diet Quality Is Low among Female Food Pantry Clients in Eastern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Patricia; Zizza, Claire; Jacoby, Jocelynn; Tayie, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine diet quality, food security, and obesity among female food pantry clients. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A food pantry in Lee County, Alabama. Participants: Fifty-five female food pantry clients between 19 and 50 years of age. Main Outcome Measure(s): Diet quality using United States (US) Department of Agriculture…

  7. Summer of Champions. The Coach's Playbook. 1980 Alabama Summer Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This handbook provides ideas and guidelines for the management and development of a children's summer reading program that uses the resources provided by the Alabama Public Library Service. Chapters offer suggestions in the areas of program planning, reading requirements and records, publicity, program activities, and program evaluation. Samples…

  8. Alabama's Illiteracy Campaign for Black Adults, 1915-1930: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenson, James E.; Neufeldt, Harvey G.

    1985-01-01

    From 1910 to 1930, illiteracy rates among Alabama's Black population decreased. Yet it is doubtful that the State's literacy campaign was a major contributor to the decline in Black illiteracy; the campaign was closely tied to the White supremacy movement, and most of the funds were directed toward White education. (GC)

  9. 75 FR 57390 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ...- 1-.02(gggg). Specifically, the revision adds two compounds (propylene carbonate and dimethyl... modifies the definition of VOCs found at AAC section 335-3-1-.02(gggg). Specifically, the revision adds two... approving revisions to the Alabama SIP submitted on March 3, 2010. This action amends Rule 335-3-1-.02(gggg...

  10. 75 FR 65467 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Enterprise Intrastate L.P; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Enterprise Intrastate L.P; Notice of Baseline Filings October 18, 2010. Take notice that on October 15, 2010, the applicants listed above...

  11. Diet Quality Is Low among Female Food Pantry Clients in Eastern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Patricia; Zizza, Claire; Jacoby, Jocelynn; Tayie, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine diet quality, food security, and obesity among female food pantry clients. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A food pantry in Lee County, Alabama. Participants: Fifty-five female food pantry clients between 19 and 50 years of age. Main Outcome Measure(s): Diet quality using United States (US) Department of Agriculture…

  12. Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for People Experiencing Collective Traumatic Crisis During the Genocide Commemoration Period in Rwanda: Impact and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gishoma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Rwanda, the annual commemorations of the genocide are associated with an increase in the level of collective traumatic crises whereby many people participating in commemoration activities present various symptoms, including emotional distress and re-experiencing traumatic events of the 1994 genocide. These sudden crises normally last between 30 and 120 minutes and can affect hundreds of people at big commemoration events. They are accompanied by a degree of urgency that disturbs the whole assembly. This article briefly presents an overview of these crises and highlights the results of a study on the effects of a supportive-expression group intervention in the post-crisis period for people who experienced these collective traumatic crises. The study compares the therapeutic progress made by a group of people who participated in a supportive-expression group therapy program as compared to those who did not receive the intervention. The study suggests that the supportive group intervention can improve the overall psychological wellbeing of people who experienced collective traumatic crisis even though it was ineffective for some symptoms.

  13. Evaluation of enhanced recovery operations in Smackover fields of southwest Alabama. Draft topical report on Subtasks 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains detailed geologic and engineering information on enhanced-recovery techniques used in unitized Smackover fields in Alabama. The report also makes recommendations on the applicability of these enhanced-recovery techniques to fields that are not now undergoing enhanced recovery. Eleven Smackover fields in Alabama have been unitized. Three fields were unitized specifically to allow the drilling of a strategically placed well to recover uncontacted oil. Two fields in Alabama are undergoing waterflood projects. Five fields are undergoing gas-injection programs to increase the ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons. Silas and Choctaw Ridge fields were unitized but no enhanced-recovery operations have been implemented.

  14. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater underlying areas of high-density row-crop production in Alabama, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries, sampled a network of 15 wells for up to 167 pesticides and pesticide degradates from 2009 through 2013 in three areas of high-density row-crop agriculture in Alabama. Eighteen herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 9 degradates were detected in water from the sampled wells. The highest concentration of a detected pesticide was 4.49 micrograms per liter of bentazon in Baldwin County, Alabama, which was well below the lifetime health advisory level of 200 micrograms per liter. None of the measured pesticide concentrations exceeded a human-health benchmark. Insecticides were not detected.

  15. Alabama Ground Operations during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Bain, Lamont; Rogers, Ryan; Kozlowski, Danielle; Sherrer, Adam; Saari, Matt; Bigelbach, Brandon; Scott, Mariana; Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Chris; Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Phillips, Dustin; Phillips, Chris; Peterson, Harold; Bailey, Jeff; Frederickson, Terryn; Hall, John; Bart, Nicole; Becker, Melissa; Pinkney, Kurtis; Rowe, Scott; Starzec, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign investigates the impact of deep, midlatitude convective clouds, including their dynamical, physical and lighting processes, on upper tropospheric composition and chemistry. DC3 science operations took place from 14 May to 30 June 2012. The DC3 field campaign utilized instrumented aircraft and ground ]based observations. The NCAR Gulfstream ]V (GV) observed a variety of gas ]phase species, radiation and cloud particle characteristics in the high ]altitude outflow of storms while the NASA DC ]8 characterized the convective inflow. Groundbased radar networks were used to document the kinematic and microphysical characteristics of storms. In order to study the impact of lightning on convective outflow composition, VHF ]based lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) provided detailed three ]dimensional measurements of flashes. Mobile soundings were utilized to characterize the meteorological environment of the convection. Radar, sounding and lightning observations were also used in real ]time to provide forecasting and mission guidance to the aircraft operations. Combined aircraft and ground ]based observations were conducted at three locations, 1) northeastern Colorado, 2) Oklahoma/Texas and 3) northern Alabama, to study different modes of deep convection in a variety of meteorological and chemical environments. The objective of this paper is to summarize the Alabama ground operations and provide a preliminary assessment of the ground ]based observations collected over northern Alabama during DC3. The multi ] Doppler, dual ]polarization radar network consisted of the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR), the UAHuntsville Mobile Alabama X ]band (MAX) radar and the Hytop (KHTX) Weather Surveillance Radar 88 Doppler (WSR ]88D). Lightning frequency and structure were observed in near real ]time by the NASA MSFC Northern Alabama LMA (NALMA). Pre ]storm and inflow proximity

  16. 77 FR 23619 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Removal of State Low-Reid Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...-Reid Vapor Pressure Requirement for the Birmingham Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Implementation Plan (SIP), submitted by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), on January 10...

  17. 77 FR 13055 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Alabama: Removal of State Low-Reid Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...-Reid Vapor Pressure Requirement for the Birmingham Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Environmental Management (ADEM), on January 10, 2012. The proposed revision modifies Alabama's SIP to move...

  18. Hurricane Katrina Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama after Hurricane Katrina made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  19. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) for Alabama, 1996-2005-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0038518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1996-era and 2005-era classifications for Alabama, a subset of zone 46, and can be used to analyze change. This imagery was collected as...

  20. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline.

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in Weeks Bay, Alabama (June 1990 - May 2000) (NODC Accession 0116469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: This dataset contains ten years of physical, chemical, and biological data collected during shipboard surveys in Weeks Bay, Alabama, between June 1990 and...

  2. The Impact Of Integration, Affirmative Action, And Diversity On Minority Student Recruitment At The University Of Alabama: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Festervand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the University of Alabama's positions, actions, policies, and accomplishments over the past forty years with respect to minority representation among its students and faculty. The impact and progression of these initiatives by the University of Alabama demonstrates strides have been made. The paper also examines the University's recruiting efforts to attract more minority faculty and students. The transition from integration to affirmative action to diversity in higher education also are examined.

  3. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  4. Official Memories, Silent Memories in Ocros (Ayacucho, Perú. Reflections from a Commemoration of a Sendero Luminoso Massacre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Robin Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gathering of testimonials by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in the aftermath of the armed conflict opposing the Sendero Luminoso guerrilla and the Peruvian state has led to original socio-cultural dynamics around the local histories of the war. This article will focus on a carnival performance carried out in the Andean district of Ocros (Prov. of Huamanga, staging the massacres committed by the Sendero Luminoso and the struggle of the peasant militias. Beyond the commemoration of this episode, what are the issues and the objectives that underlie the performance? What view is given and what is left in silence, unsaid, by the actors in this type of unavoidably fragmentary ‘writing’ of the history of violence? Analyzing both the choreographic and the narrative production concerning the war, we will address the strategic uses they give rise to. Finally, we will focus on the way in which different memories compete and articulate to one another, so as to determine the mechanisms of legitimation and the competitive logics at playin these public projections of recent history.

  5. Automatic interface measurement and analysis. [shoreline length of Alabama using LANDSAT imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for detecting and measuring the interface between two categories in classified scanner data is described together with two application demonstrations. Measurements were found to be accurate to 1.5% root mean square error on features of known length while comparison of measurements made using the technique on LANDSAT data to opisometer measurements on 1:24,000 scale maps shows excellent agreement. Application of the technique to two frames of LANDSAT data classified using a two channel, two class classifier resulted in a computation of 64 km annual decrease in shoreline length. The tidal shoreline of a portion of Alabama was measured using LANDSAT data. Based on the measurement of this portion, the total tidal shoreline length of Alabama is estimated to be 1313 kilometers.

  6. The Evolution of the Coastal Economy: The Role of Working Waterfronts in the Alabama Gulf Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqi Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the evolution of the coastal economy in Alabama and examines the driving forces of the sustainable economy in a historical context. The input-output model was applied to assess the direct and secondary effects of output and employment in the coastal region. Results suggest that state industries are heavily dependent on waterfront-related activities in this area, which have fueled much of their rapid development in the past few decades. Tourism, ship building and repairing and transportation are the three dominating sources contributing to the coastal economy. There are a few general problems of working waterfronts in the coastal Alabama area, but there are also some unique problems (e.g., Hurricane Katrina, Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Policies for future sustainable development are proposed.

  7. Summary of selected water-quality data for the Warrior coal field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooty, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected water quality data collected from 1976 to 1984 at 75 surface water sites and 28 test wells in the Warrior coal field in northwestern Alabama. The minimum, maximum, mean or median, standard deviation, and number of determinations are given for each site for discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, hardness, dissolved and suspended solids, sulfate, and total and dissolved iron and manganese. Twelve quadrangles are included in the report showing the location of each site. (USGS)

  8. Separate Tables: Segregation, Gentrification, and the Commons in Birmingham, Alabama's Alternative Food and Agriculture Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Zachary Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Birmingham, Alabama has a long history of racial conflict and segregation. This dissertation investigates that how that history has shaped space in the region and the consequences of that spatial production on the current alternative food and agriculture movement. Specifically, I analyze three processes that produce Birmingham's racialized space - capital accumulation, racialization, and commoning. I first look at how Birmingham's segregated space shapes the initiatives of the alternative ...

  9. The New York-Alabama Magnetic Lineament :its reflection character and relationship to the Grenville front

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Debbie L.

    1995-01-01

    The source of the New York - Alabama Magnetic Lineament (NY AML) is revealed on newly reprocessed seismic reflection data, and the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone (GFTZ) is imaged beneath it in eastern Tennessee. Industry data, correlated to lower crustal depths, image a wedge-shaped block beneath the shelf strata of the Cumberland Plateau and Valley and Ridge provinces of eastern Tennessee. Two dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling corroborate the interpretation that t...

  10. Serosurveillance of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in Amphibians and Reptiles from Alabama, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sean P.; HASSAN, HASSAN K.; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant h...

  11. Barrier island habitat map and vegetation survey—Dauphin Island, Alabama, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongqing

    2017-08-04

    Barrier islands are dynamic environments due to their position at the land-sea interface. Storms, waves, tides, currents, and relative sea-level rise are powerful forces that shape barrier island geomorphology and habitats (for example, beach, dune, marsh, and forest). Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deep Water Horizon oil spill in 2010 are two major events that have affected habitats and natural resources on Dauphin Island, Alabama. The latter event prompted a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the State of Alabama funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to investigate viable, sustainable restoration options that protect and restore the natural resources of Dauphin Island, Alabama.In order to understand the feasibility and sustainability of various restoration scenarios, it is important to understand current conditions on Dauphin Island. To further this understanding, a detailed 19-class habitat map for Dauphin Island was produced from 1-foot aerial infrared photography collected on December 4, 2015, and lidar data collected in January 2015. We also conducted a ground survey of habitat types, vegetation community structure, and elevations in November and December 2015. These products provide baseline data regarding the ecological and general geomorphological attributes of the area, which can be compared with observations from other dates for tracking changes over time.

  12. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  13. Comemorar a infância, celebrar qual criança? Festejos comemorativos nas primeiras décadas republicanas Commemorate the childhood, what child to celebrate? Commemorative feasts in the first republican decades in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Greive Veiga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute aspectos dos múltiplos processos de formação da identidade do brasileiro a partir do estudo da institucionalização das comemorações da criança em Belo Horizonte. Partindo da constatação de que entre o fim do século XIX e o início do XX diferentes saberes dos campos antropológico, médico, jurídico, pedagógico e psicológico são estabelecidos com o intuito de produzir essa identidade, o trabalho focaliza três eventos realizados na cidade: o dia da criança relativo à data nacional de 12 de outubro, instituída em 1924 e fortemente identificado como uma festa escolar; as festas de Natal para as crianças pobres, nas quais a filantropia mobilizou diferentes setores da sociedade; e os concursos de robustez e beleza infantil, iniciados em Belo Horizonte a partir de 1935, com a intenção de comemorar a infância associada aos ideais eugênicos. Argumenta-se que tais eventos contribuíram para a legitimação e propagação dos saberes científicos que elegeram a criança como objeto central de estudo e intervenção. Mais do que celebrar a infância, buscou-se comemorar as ciências, com o objetivo de perseguir o ideal de uma nação civilizada e una, embora marcada por profundas clivagens sócio-raciais, e projetar a criança como utopia de um mundo adulto a ser estabelecido. O trabalho mostra nas conclusões que, hoje, traços de realização desses eventos ainda se mantêm, revelando a permanência de um ideal racial europeizado que marca pela exclusão a vivência de parte das crianças brasileiras.The article discusses aspects of the various processes of formation of the identity of the Brazilian people, starting from the study of the institutionalization of the commemorations of childhood in Belo Horizonte. Starting from the fact that between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century several statements originated in the anthropological, medical, juridical, pedagogic and psychological

  14. The funeral and commemoration rite among the Tuvans of Bayan-Ölgii and Khövsgöl aimags, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Ayyzhy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a reconstruction of the funeral and commemoration rite of Tuvans in Mongolia. The rite includes a series of acts, rites, customs and taboos that are enacted immediately after the death of a person and until he or she is buried and the funeral feast is held. There has been a wealth of studies of rites associated with funerals and commemoration among the Tuvans of their titular region, but never among Tuvans living in Mongolia. Our reconstruction is based on the data collected by the author during expeditions to Mongolia, namely to the village of Tsagaan Nuur, the Eastern taiga are of Khövsgöl aimag and to the village of Tsengel, Bayan-Ölgii aimag in 1996-2015. The Tuvans of Tsengel are known for strictly preserving the guarding rituals. To prevent the soul from returning, the dead body is never carried out of the yurt through the door, but through one of its walls, with men wearing their clothes inside out. After the ritual is over, all those present walk around the grave three times, throwing millet on the grave as a farewell gesture – and then return without looking back. The 7th and 49th day commemoration feasts do not feature Shamans, with a marked preference for lamas (a Buddhist influence. In Tsagaan Nuur, the rite has specific local features. A death is reported euphemistically, but the common Tuvan idiom ‘went to fetch some red salt’ is unknown here. Coffins are prepared by a certain body of people. If the death happened in the taiga, then no coffin was needed and no special place sought. The burial area was ‘sanctified’ by burning juniper, and the body was carried by a man on his back (using a special kind of bedding. Prior to the burial, everyone took leave of the dead person, millet was thrown around, and the dirge sung. After the burial, the grave would become taboo, and those who participated in the funeral would have undergo ‘cleansing’ and join the ‘last feast’. Commemoration on the 7th day

  15. Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

    2013-12-01

    A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE

  16. Jointly Building a More Secure Asia through the Power of People——Some Highlight of Commemoration of the International Day of Peace 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    <正>To observe the International Day of Peace 2014,in accordance with its theme set by the United Nations,i.e.,"Right of Peoples to Peace",the CPAPD together with the UN System in China and the Shanxi Provincial People’s Government jointly held the Commemoration of the International Day of Peace2014,with the theme of"A more secure Asia aspired by people"in Xi’an City,west China during 23-24September 2014.Chinese CPC and state leaders,

  17. Jean Augustin Bussiere, “Bethune from France”——In Commemoration of the 70th Anniversary of Victory over Fascism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    "We will never forget the important contribution made by numerous French friends to the cause of China’s development:Jean Augustin Bussiere,a French doctor,risked his life to transport much needed medicine on his bike to base area of anti-Japanese aggression in China,"said President Xi Jinping at the meeting commemorating the 50th anniversary of the establishment of ChinaFrance diplomatic relations in Paris on March 27,2014."Comrade Norman Bethune,a member of the Com-

  18. Evaluation of Skills Needed in College Education by Colleges of Agriculture Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land Grant Universities in Alabama and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekeri, Andrew A.; Baba, Pauline A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine college skills Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land-Grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee rated as essential to acquire in their college education. The data are from a survey of colleges of agriculture alumni who graduated from six land-grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee. IBM SPSS Statistical…

  19. Evaluation of Skills Needed in College Education by Colleges of Agriculture Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land Grant Universities in Alabama and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekeri, Andrew A.; Baba, Pauline A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine college skills Alumni from 1862 and 1890 Land-Grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee rated as essential to acquire in their college education. The data are from a survey of colleges of agriculture alumni who graduated from six land-grant universities in Alabama and Tennessee. IBM SPSS Statistical…

  20. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  1. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  2. Those who require ‘[…] the burning of incense in synagogues are the Rabbinic Jews’: Burning incense in synagogues in commemoration of the temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Shemesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the burning of incense in synagogues subsequent to the destruction of the temple, in commemoration of the incense formerly used in the temple rites. We hear about the implementation of this custom in Samaritan and Rabbinic synagogues only several centuries after the destruction of the Samaritan and Jewish Temples. The Samaritans still burn incense in their synagogues at certain times, but among Rabbinic Jews the custom came to an end, probably in the Middle Ages. Burning incense in the synagogue was a point of controversy between the Karaites and the Rabbinic Jews. The Karaites argued that acts involving burning incense and lighting candles are only appropriate for the Temple and their status is like that of sacrifices or offerings that are limited to this complex. It may have been that the rabbinic custom discontinued as a result of the strict Karaite objections to this custom for concern of idolatry. In fact, burning incense in commemoration of the Temple indeed ceased, but this practice remained in evidence until the 19th century for purposes of conveying respect or on festive occasions.

  3. “New Wine in an Old Bottle”? – Anniversary Journalism and the Public Commemoration of the End of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sanko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available April 30th, 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Vietnam. This article discusses the role of Vietnamese journalism in the coverage of this commemorative date as well as the history and events it is linked with. It addresses the question of how coming to terms with the past plays out in the journalistic field of an increasingly globally connected and economically continuously growing Vietnam. By means of qualitative content analysis and expert interviews with Vietnamese media professionals the paper characterizes the nature of anniversary journalism on this particular event and elaborates on its meaning for the construction of cultural memory in Vietnam. In that context, it also touches upon transnational relations with and controversies of remembrance in Vietnamese diasporic communities. The study found that anniversary journalism in Vietnam goes beyond the mere coverage of a single commemorated day along state ideological lines and constitutes part of a larger context of cultural memory in Vietnam and the diaspora. It is itself subject to change over time and of tensions between state, economic, professional and personal interests in a vastly changing, but still state-controlled media environment. Such tensions can result in ambiguities, vagueness and the coexistence of a variety of narratives in the reporting. Despite slight liberation tendencies, however, anniversary journalism on the contentious meaning of April 30th does not represent a transnational forum for negotiating the past in Vietnam and its diaspora.

  4. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  5. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollowell William W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.

  6. The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array: Recent severe storm observations and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; Koshak, W.; Bailey, J.; Hall, J.; McCaul, E.; Buechler, D.; Darden, C.; Burks, J.; Bradshaw, T.; Gatlin, P.

    2005-07-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array became operational in November 2001 as a principal component of a severe weather test bed to infuse new science and technology into the short-term forecasting of severe and hazardous weather, principally within nearby National Weather Service forecast offices. Since the installation of the LMA, it has measured the total lightning activity of a large number of severe weather events, including three supercell tornado outbreaks, two supercell hailstorm events, and numerous microburst-producing storms and ordinary non-severe thunderstorms. The key components of evolving storm morphology examined are the time rate-of-change (temporal trending) of storm convective and precipitation characteristics that can be diagnosed in real-time using NEXRAD WSR-88D Doppler radar (echo growth and decay, precipitation structures and velocity features, outflow boundaries), LMA (total lightning flash rate and its trend) and National Lightning Detection Network (cloud-to-ground lightning, its polarity and trends). For example, in a transitional season supercell tornado outbreak, peak total flash rates for typical supercells in Tennessee reached 70-100 min -1 and increases in the total flash rate occurred during storm intensification as much as 20-25 min prior to at least some of the tornadoes. The most intense total flash rate measured during this outbreak (over 800 flashes min -1) occurred in a storm in Alabama. In the case of a severe summertime pulse thunderstorm in North Alabama, the peak total flash rate reached 300 min -1, with a strong increase in total lightning evident some 9 min before damaging winds were observed at the surface. In this paper, we provide a sampling of LMA observations and products during severe weather events to illustrate the capability of the system, and discuss the prospects for improving the short-term forecasting of convective weather using total lightning data.

  7. Channel Dredging and Geomorphic Response at and Adjacent to Mobile Pass, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Dauphin Island. Spatial and Temporal Trends Sapp et al. (1975) and Hardin et al. (1976) first documented regional changes in shoreline position for...N.C. Kraus, K.J. Gingerich, and D.L. Kriebel ed. New York, NY: American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 1985-1999. Hardin, J.D., C.D. Sapp , J.L...Change Rates: 1970 – 1993. Final Report for the Coastal Programs Office. Montgomery, AL: Alabama Department of Economic and community Affairs. Sapp , C.D

  8. Delineation of geological problems for use in urban planning. [in Alabama using remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. H.; Bloss, P.; Fambrough, R.; Stow, S. H.; Hooks, W. G.; Freehafer, D.; Sutley, D.

    1976-01-01

    Activities of the University of Alabama in support of state and local planning commissions are reported. Demonstrations were given of the various types of remotely sensed images available from U-2, Skylab, and LANDSAT; and their uses and limitations were discussed. Techniques to be used in determining flood prone areas were provided for environmental studies. A rapid, inexpensive method for study was developed by which imagery is copied on 35 mm film and projected on existing topographic maps for measuring delta volume and growth.

  9. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  10. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.

  11. Benthic foraminiferal census data from Mobile Bay, Alabama--counts of surface samples and box cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Kathryn A.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to understand recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. For this study a series of surface sediment and box core samples was collected. The surface benthic foraminiferal data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference for changing paleoenvironmental parameters recorded in the box cores. The 14 sampling locations were chosen in the bay to cover the wide diversity of fluvial and marine-influenced environments on both sides of the shipping channel.

  12. Commemoration Meeting on 20th Anniversary of CAIM and CJIM and 2001 CAIM Working Conference Held in Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@On Oct. 20-22, 2001, a commemorating meeting for the 20th anniversary on the founding of Chinese Association of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine (CAIM) and the start publication of Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (CJIM) was held in Xi'’an, 436 participants from various provinces and districts, as well as Taiwan province attended the meeting. Rapid development and outstanding achievements were summarized by Prof. Wei BEI-hai, Vice-President of CAIM. Since 1981, CAIM has held 12 international and 380 national academic conferences, 62,000 member-times participated the meetings, the CAIM member increased from 13,000 to 52,000 in 20 years. There are 57 integrated hospitals, over 30 integrated institutes, 10 integrated journals, 35 specialty committees nationwide. Some well-known scholars delivered special lectures, such as Prof. XU Xiao-jie of Peking University (“Chemistry and Chinese Medicine”), Prof. HOU Can from Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences (“Unified Medicine of Post-Gene Era”), Prof. Yang Sze Piao of Taiwan Association of Integrated Medicine (“Education of New Generation Chinese Medical Practitioner of Taiwan”) and other 5 scholars'’ lectures. Deputy Director of Editorial Board CHEN Dong-yan reported that CJIM ( Chinese edition) has published 21 volumes, particularly the citation frequency listed 1st among 2 804 scientific journals in China 1999, indicating the quality of this journal is high. Prof. WANG Wen-jian of Shanghai has been elected as Vice President of CAIM, and Prof. ZHAO Jian-xiong elected as member of director board of CAIM. Prof. SHE Jin, on behalf of State Administration of TCM (SATCM), delivered a speech entitled “4 Famous Veteran TCM Practitioners in Beijing and Integrated Medicine” to congratulate the convening of the meeting. Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, President of CAIM Prof. CHEN Ke-ji chaired the meeting, he said, “Past 20 years was the

  13. Origin of modern quartzarenite beach sands in a temperate climate, Florida and Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Joseph L.; McBride, Earle F.

    2007-10-01

    Quartzarenite coastal sands extending from eastern Louisiana eastward to Apalachee Bay, Florida, are anomalous: their position 7° north of the Tropic of Cancer contrasts with most other known modern quartzarenites, most of which are in a tropical setting. To determine the origin of these quartzarenite beach sands, we compared the mineralogy of samples taken from Alabama and Florida beaches, rivers that supply sand to the coast, and well cuttings representative of sandstone bedrock exposed in the Alabama coastal plain. To help assess the abundance of recycled quartz, and accepting the conventional wisdom that rounded sand-size quartz grains are recycled, we quantified the roundness of quartz grains in thin sections of river, beach, and well samples. We also determined the abundance of recycled grains with authigenic quartz using cathodoluminescence. River sands on Precambrian and Paleozoic bedrock in the study area have subarkose and sublitharenite compositions. However, as far as 200 km inland from the coast, river sands have attained quartzarenite composition and all rivers are presently delivering sand with at least 97% quartz to the coast. Rivers develop quartzarenite sand composition where they traverse poorly consolidated Tertiary sandstones, all of which we sampled are composed of > 95% quartz. Published experimental work indicates that abrasional rounding of sand-size quartz by rivers is insignificant and rounding in beaches is extremely slow. Hence, the abundance of quartz grains with some degree of rounding (96% for beaches; > 75% for rivers) further attests to the abundance of recycled quartz.

  14. The physical characteristics of the sediments on and surrounding Dauphin Island, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alisha M.; Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.

    2017-06-20

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected 303 surface sediment samples from Dauphin Island, Alabama, and the surrounding water bodies in August 2015. These sediments were processed to determine physical characteristics such as organic content, bulk density, and grain-size. The environments where the sediments were collected include high and low salt marshes, washover deposits, dunes, beaches, sheltered bays, and open water. Sampling by the USGS was part of a larger study to assess the feasibility and sustainability of proposed restoration efforts for Dauphin Island, Alabama, and assess the island’s resilience to rising sea level and storm events. The data presented in this publication can be used by modelers to attempt validation of hindcast models and create predictive forecast models for both baseline conditions and storms. This study was funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, via the Gulf Environmental Benefit Fund.This report serves as an archive for sedimentological data derived from surface sediments. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets, JPEG files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  15. Radioisotopic data of sediment collected in Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the extent of natural and (or) anthropogenic impacts on the sedimentary records of Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama during the last 150 years. These bays are unique in that anthropogenic activities are generally widespread and span both the eastern and western shorelines. However, there is a clear distinction in the types of human development and infrastructure between the western and eastern shorelines. These activities and the differences in land-use and -change influence the overall supply and remobilization of sediment to and within the bay. These factors could subsequently threaten the health and integrity of these environments and their ability to mitigate against long-term processes associated with climate change. In an attempt to characterize long-term accretion rates within the Mobile Bay Estuarine System (MBES), seven box cores were collected and analyzed for excess lead-210 (210Pbxs, the difference between total and supported 210Pb) and cesium-137 (137Cs) activities. The MBES receives sediment and water from the Alabama and Tombigbee River watersheds, which converge into the Mobile-Tensaw River (MTR) system just prior to discharging into Mobile Bay. Riverine discharge from the MTR system to the bay is second only to the Mississippi River discharge to the Gulf of Mexico for the conterminous United States.

  16. Lightning Behavior and its Dependence on Storm Kinematic and Precipitation Processes in Northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elsie V.; Petersen, W. A,

    2009-01-01

    Numerous case studies and recent modeling studies have found that various metrics of updraft intensity appear to be reasonably well correlated to lightning production in thunderstorms, particularly severe thunderstorms. Indeed, the relationship between updraft and lightning flash rate is hypothesized to be the physical connection between a lightning "jump" signature and manifestations of severe weather such as tornadic activity. This study further examines this connection using a combination of dual Doppler wind retrievals made with the UAH ARMOR dual polarimetric and KHTX WSR 88D Doppler radar pair, together with northern Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data. The dual Doppler data were used to construct three dimensional wind fields and the retrieved vertical velocity fields were subsequently compared to collocated total lightning flash rates observed by the LMA. Particular attention was paid to the timing of updraft pulses relative to changes in the flash rate, with the goal of assessing impacts on warning decision lead time. Results from the analysis of severe and non severe thunderstorms in Northern Alabama will be presented including the EF 4 tornado producing supercell on 6 February 2008.

  17. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carried out contraflow operations several times in past hurricane evacuations. The timing for the deployment of equipment and personnel and the initiation and termination of actual contraflow affects the effectiveness, safety, and cost of the operation. Researchers from the University of Alabama were tasked with the design of a decision support system for contraflow evacuation planning. The conceived decision support system consists of three main modules: the demand module, the network optimization module, and the incident and characterization module. This paper focuses on the design of the traffic incident generation and characterization module of the planned decision support system.

  18. Geohydrology and susceptibility of major aquifers to surface contamination in Alabama; area 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, Michael; Pritchett, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Environmental Management, is conducting a series of geohydrologic studies to delineate the major aquifers (those which provide water for public supplies) in Alabama, their recharge areas, and areas susceptible to contamination. This report summarizes these factors for two major aquifers in Area 4--Calhoun, Jefferson, St. Clair, Shelby, and Talladega Counties. The major aquifers in the study area are in Cambrian and Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. Highest yields from aquifers are associated with solution openings in carbonate rocks. Springs in the area provide substantial amounts of water for municipal supply. Coldwater Spring provides 17 million gal of water/day to the city of Anniston, the largest groundwater user in the area. All recharge areas for the aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land surface. Two conditions exist in the study area that may cause the aquifers to be highly susceptible to contamination on a local scale: fracturing of rock materials due to faulting and the production of a porous cherty soil through weathering. Where sinkholes are present, there may be a direct connection between the land surface and the aquifer. Areas with sinkholes are considered to be extremely susceptible to contamination. (USGS)

  19. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  20. The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila: important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombin, Andrei; Reed, Laura K

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18-26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

  1. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  2. Sea-floor features on Mississippi and Alabama outer Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezak, R.; Sager, W.W.; Laswell, J.S.; Gittings, S.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Approximately 400 mi{sup 2} were surveyed on the Alabama outer continental shelf during October 1987 and March 1988 using an Edo-Western 4 kHz High Resolution Subbottom Profiler, an EG and G Model 260 Seafloor Mapping System and Starfix Navigation. The mapping is part of a larger project, The Mississippi-Alabama Marine Ecosystems Study, funded by the US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico Regional Office. Bathymetric maps and side-scan mosaics are being prepared from the raw data. Sea-floor features recognized on the side-scan and subbottom records include: (1) low topographic features - possibly bed-rock outcrops, and an enigmatic feature the authors are calling footprints, (2) moderate topographic features - low reefs or bed-rock outcrops, (3) major topographic features - pinnacles and large reefal masses, (4) pox - patches of closely spaced strong reflections with no relief, (5) ridges - closely spaced outcrops along clearly defined features such as shorelines and scarps (possibly truncated dunes or beach ridges), (6) patch reefs, closely spaced, which look like pox but have relief, (7) wave fields - closely spaced sand or gravel waves, and (8) wrecks - sunken rigs or platforms. Except for the wave fields, they believe that the remaining sea-floor features are relict and related to the post-Pleistocene rise of sea level.

  3. Development of Ecogeomorphological (EGM Stream Design and Assessment Tools for the Piedmont of Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Helms

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves for reference streams in the Alabama piedmont. Twenty-one reference stream reaches were identified in the Tallapoosa drainage of Alabama, ranging from 0.2 to 242 km2 drainage area. Geomorphic surveys were conducted in each stream to measure riffle cross-sections and longitudinal profiles and related to drainage area to develop regional curves. Fish, crayfish, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from each surveyed reach and related to drainage area and geomorphic data to provide associated biological community endpoints. Bankfull channel cross-section area, width, mean depth, and estimated discharge were strongly correlated to watershed drainage area, similar to efforts in other areas of the Piedmont ecoregion. Multiple measures of fish assemblages and crayfish size were strongly predicted by drainage area and geomorphic dimensions. Macroinvertebrates showed no taxonomic and limited functional relationships with drainage area and geomorphic dimension. These tools, which integrate geomorphological and ecological conditions, can result in improved stream evaluations and designs increasing the effectiveness of stream restoration projects.

  4. Low-flow frequency and flow-duration characteristics of selected streams in Alabama through March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Lee, Kathyrn G.

    2017-08-28

    Low-flow statistics are needed by water-resource engineers, planners, and managers to protect and manage the water resources of Alabama. The accuracy of these statistics is influenced by such factors as length of record and specific hydrologic conditions measured in those records. As such, it is generally recommended that flow statistics be updated about every 10 years to provide improved and representative low-flow characteristics. The previous investigation of low-flow characteristics for Alabama included data through September 1990. Since that time, Alabama has experienced several historic droughts highlighting the need to update the low-flow characteristics at U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations. Consequently, this investigation was undertaken in cooperation with a number of State and local agencies to update low-flow frequency and flow-duration statistics at 210 continuous-record streamgaging stations in Alabama and 67 stations from basins that are shared with surrounding States. The flow characteristics were computed on the basis of available data through March 2014.

  5. Unethical Leadership in Higher Education and the Precarious Journey to Recovery: A Case Study of the Alabama Community College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events of the Alabama Community College System are examined as an historical organizational case study. Critical events are noted along with associated professional literature related to those events and actions. While the study attempts to explain the organizational culture that allowed the rise of unethical leadership, the primary focus…

  6. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  7. Student and Faculty Opinions on the Impact of Web-Enhanced Courses on the Educational Experience at Alabama Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Audrey Bandy

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the perceptions of Alabama community college students and faculty toward Web-enhanced courses and the impact of these courses on the educational experience as defined by Chickering and Gamson's "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education," an empirically based model. Secondarily, the…

  8. Phytophthora species recovered from irrigation reservoirs in Mississippi and Alabama nurseries and pathogenicity of three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a survey of containment ponds for Phytophthora spp. at one nursery each in Alabama and Mississippi, eight species and one taxon were recovered with P. gonapodyides dominant in cooler months and P. hydropathica in warmer months, accounting for 39.6% and 46.6% overall recovery, respectively. Amo...

  9. Using Lidar and color infrared imagery to successfully measure stand characteristics on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stephens; Luben Dimov; Callie Schweitzer; Wubishet Tadesse

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy was assessed by...

  10. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  11. Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers…

  12. An Exploration of the Associations among Hearing Loss, Physical Health, and Visual Memory in Adults from West Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Hyams, Adriana; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason; Panasiuk, Brianna; Ondocsin, Sarah; James, Mary Margaret; Scogin, Forrest

    Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the associations among hearing loss, physical health, and visual memory in adults living in rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city in west Central Alabama. Method: Two hundred ninety-seven adults (182 women, 115 men) from rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city of west…

  13. 76 FR 48941 - Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Geneva, Coffee, and Covington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama & Florida Railway Co., Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--in Geneva, Coffee..., Coffee and Covington Counties, Ala. The line constitutes A&F's entire rail system and traverses...

  14. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... 20, 2010, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), Alabama Rivers Alliance, Clinch Coalition... integrity or fragmentation), and the potential contribution of identified demographic risks to extinction... in medium to large flowing rivers from the Mississippi River drainage to the Suwannee River, Florida...

  15. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cnstntsforchemcaly ativtedC 2CCOH+ A overall ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,CCH’O thra dcmoito fMMIwt aalbe ytmat1a experimetal data 46C00-HOO E..41 2 LcA TTll...James Smith Dr. Rodney Tabacyznski Department of Chemical Engineering Director, Power Train Research Lab University of Alabama in Huntsville Ford Motor ...Chemical Engineering Director, Power Train Research Lab University of Alabama in Huntsville Ford Motor Research Laboratory Huntsville AL 35899 3623

  16. Does Identification With Rwanda Increase Reconciliation Sentiments Between Genocide Survivors and Non-Victims? The Mediating Roles of Perceived Intergroup Similarity and Self-Esteem During Commemorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Kanazayire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey (N = 247 investigated the influence of identification with the Rwandan nation on reconciliation sentiments between members of the survivor and of the non-victim groups of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Results showed that, whereas the two groups did not differ in their level of identification with the nation, members of the non-victim group were more willing to reconcile than members of the survivor group. Perceived intergroup similarity mediated the effect of national identification on reconciliation sentiment for both groups, but this effect was stronger among non-victims. Finally, self-esteem during commemorations also mediated this effect, but only among non-victims. We discuss the importance of people’s motivation to reconcile with out-group members in post-genocidal contexts in light of the common in-group identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000 as well as the needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation (Nadler & Schnabel, 2008.

  17. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  18. A place of memory – monument – counter-monument. Artistic strategies of commemoration in Krakow's district of Podgórze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Krakow's district of Podgórze has witnessed the erection of several works in public space that are concerned with the memory of the place. A monumental piece erected by Witold Cęckiewicz in the 1960s in the former Płaszów Concentration Camp has been joined by contemporary works. It is especially the Ghetto Heroes Square and its direct vicinity that have been addressed by artists and designers who, through their works, i.e. Mateusz Okoński's Purification, Łukasz Skąpski's 10 cubic metres of Krakow's wintertime air, and a structure in the form of multiple chairs by Lewicki and Łatak's studio entered into a dialogue with the paradigm of counter-monumentality and postmemory. For common viewers and casual passers-by, as well as for residents of the district, these works are hardly evocative of recent history, or the events they are meant to commemorate. Do these works, with their consciously taken position on the verge of the visible, that is, on the verge of what can be considered art, fulfil their commemorative role? Can the excess of the invisible change at some point into the visible? These questions offer a starting point not only for the discussion of the above-mentioned works in the context of analogous creations in contemporary art of the last two decades, but also for a wider discussion of monumental and counter-monumental art after the Shoah.

  19. Danes commemorating Darwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: On the one hand...... activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as ‘radical', ‘evangelical' and ‘safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political...... and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism...

  20. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p public's health.

  1. The Impact of US Biofuels Policy on Agricultural Production and Nitrogen Loads in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Affuso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Independence Security Act aims to increase the production of renewable fuels in order to improve the energy efficiency of the United States of America. This legislation set the biofuel production goal at 136.3 million m3 by 2022, with approximately 79 million m3 derived from advanced biofuels or renewable fuels other than corn ethanol. A bioeconomic model was used to assess the potential impact of the biofuel mandate in terms of nitrogen loss associated with corn production in northern Alabama considering the El Nino Southern Oscillation phases. From simulations conducted at the watershed level, the expansion in biofuel production would increase the production of corn by 122.89% with associated increase in nitrogen loss of 20%. Furthermore, nitrogen loss would be more severe in climatic transition towards La Nina.

  2. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On June 9, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Beechcraft BE90 King Air (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) (152 meters (m)) and approximately 1,200 ft (366 m) offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  3. Prevention of child injuries during tornadoes: cases from the 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M; Baker, Mark D; Monroe, Kathy W

    2012-12-01

    Tornadoes and violent weather pose a hazard to children, yet little is known about the use of personal protective devices during storms. An outbreak of tornadoes on April 27, 2011, resulted in the deaths of 23 children in Alabama. Records from 60 patients seen in a pediatric emergency department for tornado-related injuries were reviewed to identify the use of injury prevention devices. Three children directly exposed to a violent tornado (Enhanced Fujita Scale 4) were using safety equipment, specifically, a helmet and infant car seats. These 3 children sustained only minor injuries. Personal protective devices may have played a role in preventing child injuries from tornadoes. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature on helmet and infant car seat use as child protective devices during tornadoes.

  4. Greater use of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning: a case study in Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C. (Alabama Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States). Coll. of Administrative Science); Stanford, R. (Alabama Dept. of Economic and Community Affairs, Montgomery, AL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    As the world reacts to environmental concerns relating to fossil energy usage, emphasis is again placed on greater use of renewable fuels such as wood residues. Realistically, however, decisions to utilize such fuels are based on economic factors, rather than desires to improve US energy independence and/or protect the environment. Because Alabama has a large forest products industry, state authorities have long sought to assist potential users of wood residue fuels to better use biomass fuels instead of the usual alternative: natural gas. State agency experience in promoting commercial and industrial use of wood residue fuels has shown that inadequate financial planning has often resulted in rejection of viable projects or acceptance of non-optimum projects. This paper discusses the reasons for this situation and suggests remedies for its improvement. (author)

  5. Medical connections: use of the internet and traditional sources of health information by rural Alabama households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laura M; Dunkelberger, John D; Wheat, John R

    2005-01-01

    Rural household adoption of the PC and Internet for accessing medical and healthcare information was investigated using survey data collected from 305 households randomly selected from non-metropolitan, rural counties across Alabama. The diffusion-adoption model for new technologies was employed to create five adoption stages relevant to this technology and its applications to communication of information in the health field. Descriptive household characteristics of age, education, income, and children revealed differences between adoption stages, with age and education having major impacts. Use of traditional sources of health information and the Internet were compared in relation to age and availability of medical services. Older, less educated households lagged behind in use of the Internet for health information. Medical professionals, doctors and pharmacists, were the most utilized information source by rural households; but those households connected to the Internet used on-line sources, even e-mail to communicate with their doctors.

  6. Analysis of seafloor change around Dauphin Island, Alabama, 1987–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-09-26

    Dauphin Island is a 26 km-long barrier island located southwest of Mobile Bay, Alabama, in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1). The island contains sandy beaches, dunes, maritime forests, freshwater ponds and intertidal wetlands, providing habitat for many endangered and threatened species. Dauphin Island also provides protection for and maintains estuarine conditions within Mississippi Sound, supporting oyster habitat and seagrasses. Wetland marshes along the Alabama mainland are protected by the island from wave-induced erosion during storms approaching from the Gulf of Mexico. Over the years, the island has been eroded by storms, most recently by Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Hurricane Katrina (2005) (Ivan/Katrina), which breached the island along its narrowest extent and caused damage to infrastructure (fig. 2). Along with storms producing significant episodic change, long-term beach erosion has exposed numerous pine tree stumps in the shoreface. The stumps are remnants of past maritime forests and reflect the consistent landward retreat of the island (Parker and others, 1997).Island change has prompted the State of Alabama to evaluate restoration alternatives to increase island resilience and sustainability by protecting and preserving the natural habitat, and by understanding the processes that influence shoreline change. Under a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), restoration alternatives are being developed that will allow the State to make decisions on engineering and ecological restoration designs based on scientific analysis of likely outcomes and tradeoffs between impacts to stakeholder interests. Science-based assessment of the coastal zone requires accurate and up-to-date baseline data to provide a valid image of present conditions and to support modeling of coastal processes. Bathymetric elevation measurements are essential to this requirement. In August 2015, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the U.S. Geological

  7. An Application of the Mesh Generation and Refinement Tool to Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wali; Alarcon, Vladimir J.; McAnally, William; Martin, James; Cartwright, John

    2009-08-01

    A grid generation tool, called the Mesh Generation and Refinement Tool (MGRT), has been developed using Qt4. Qt4 is a comprehensive C++ application framework which includes GUI and container class-libraries and tools for cross-platform development. MGRT is capable of using several types of algorithms for grid generation. This paper presents an application of the MGRT grid generation tool for creating an unstructured grid of Mobile Bay (Alabama, USA) that will be used for hydrodynamics modeling. The algorithm used in this particular application is the Advancing-Front/Local-Reconnection (AFLR) [1] [2]. This research shows results of grids created with MGRT and compares them to grids (for the same geographical container) created using other grid generation tools. The superior quality of the grids generated by MGRT is shown.

  8. Serosurveillance of eastern equine encephalitis virus in amphibians and reptiles from Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Hassan, Hassan K; Chapman, Taryn; White, Gregory; Guyer, Craig; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant hosts of Culex spp. mosquitoes at Tuskegee National Forest, that target ectothermic hosts. The cottonmouth, the most abundant ectotherm sampled, displayed a high prevalence of seropositivity, indicating its possible role as an amplification and/or over-wintering reservoir for EEEV.

  9. Coosa River Storage Annex, Talladega, Alabama Environmental Investigation, Final Management and Resources Utilization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    will attend a one-day "dry run " El Briefing at Aberdeen; these three individuals will then proceed to Montgomery, Alabama to attend the two-day joint...4 * 44A 4~4 M )*4 0 ON 0~ C, ON. H = ’? H LII N HN ( hiIt I&A H- If0 0 C3 H ~mI I.- MEH i Z I- z0 2c I- NC 00 Q -NZOQ 0WI1.- .a Ii Z -- aa W W W 0...IJ- I.- A .0 ILI WW 5- 1.- i 9 to ui- ’I H in 0SAiU 0L x ITCi(((~l(O.Wi0A0UUu 0 .(ACL co Lu -C (A w- A -’ It Lan run -r 401O N S 4).It _ - at ’N Nut

  10. Knowledge and management of sports concussions among coaches and certified athletic trainers in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftel, Kimberly G; Yust, Elizabeth M; Nichols, Michele H; King, William D; Davis, Drew

    2014-07-01

    To identify modifiable barriers in resources, knowledge, and management that may improve the care of young athletes with concussions in the state of Alabama. An electronic survey was distributed to 2668 middle and high school coaches of contact sports in Alabama, and a paper survey was completed by 79 certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in 2010. Questions focused on their resource availability, knowledge of concussions based on the 2008 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport (commonly known as the Zurich consensus statement), and management of concussions. A total of 402 (16% response rate) coaches and 55 ATCs (70% response rate) responded to the survey. This study highlights that ATC coverage often is limited to the high school level, football, and competitions. Both coaches and ATCs primarily use physicians to make return-to-play decisions, although coaches (43.7%) usually refer to primary care physicians, whereas ATCs (43.6%) refer to orthopedic or sports medicine physicians. The study also revealed that coaches and ATCs desire education and could expand concussion awareness by providing education to parents and athletes. No overall difference was seen in the knowledge and management of concussions between coaches and ATCs; however, ATCs were more likely to identify symptoms that are positive for concussions (P = 0.04). Both groups had difficulty recognizing subtle symptoms such as trouble sleeping, personality changes, and dizziness; they also were unaware that strenuous mental activities could delay concussion recovery, although ATCs scored significantly better than coaches (P Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (7.5% vs 56.4%) or neuropsychological testing (5.3% vs 14.5%). This study describes coaches' and ATCs' varying knowledge and management techniques and highlights areas in which targeted interventions and outreach could be useful. These areas include increased ATC availability, coach/ATC concussion

  11. Quantification of Modeled Streamflow under Climate Change over the Flint River Watershed in Northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Tadesse, W.; Lemke, D.; Subedi, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study is carried out to quantify the impacts of climate change and land use change on water availability over the Flint River watershed (FRW) located in the wheeler lake watershed in Northern Alabama. The FRW directly drains into the Tennessee River, which is a major source of water supply for the Southern States. The observed precipitation and temperature data are obtained from the Alabama Mesonet Stations which are also a part of National Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS) Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN). The GCM simulated climate data are obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 ensemble that consists of 234 downscaled climate projections from four emission scenarios and 37 GCMs. The hydrologic model SWAT is calibrated and validated for a period of 2004 to 2014, based on daily meteorological forcing and monthly streamflow data for the FRW. A total of 15 parameters that directly influences the surface/base flow and basin response are selected and calibrated. The anticipated change in future climate (2030s, 2050s, 2070s, 2090s) with respect to baseline period (2004-2014/2010s) for each emission scenario are introduced into baseline climate to perturb it to future climate pattern. Various climate scenarios based on future climate are forced into the calibrated SWAT model to quantify future water availability over the basin and compared with the baseline period. This is a part of the Geospatial Education and Research Center (GERC) project and the major research findings from this project will help decision makers in evaluating the combined impacts of climate change and land use change on water availability, and developing strategies to sustain available natural resources.

  12. Principal Component Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Reniform Nematode Populations in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seloame T. Nyaku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available U.S. cotton production is suffering from the yield loss caused by the reniform nematode (RN, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Management of this devastating pest is of utmost importance because, no upland cotton cultivar exhibits adequate resistance to RN. Nine populations of RN from distinct regions in Alabama and one population from Mississippi were studied and thirteen morphometric features were measured on 20 male and 20 female nematodes from each population. Highly correlated variables (positive in female and male RN morphometric parameters were observed for body length (L and distance of vulva from the lip region (V (r = 0.7 and tail length (TL and c′ (r = 0.8, respectively. The first and second principal components for the female and male populations showed distinct clustering into three groups. These results show pattern of sub-groups within the RN populations in Alabama. A one-way ANOVA on female and male RN populations showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 among the variables. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA of 18S rRNA sequences (421 showed lengths of 653 bp. Sites within the aligned sequences were conserved (53%, parsimony-informative (17%, singletons (28%, and indels (2%, respectively. Neighbor-Joining analysis showed intra and inter-nematodal variations within the populations as clone sequences from different nematodes irrespective of the sex of nematode isolate clustered together. Morphologically, the three groups (I, II and III could not be distinctly associated with the molecular data from the 18S rRNA sequences. The three groups may be identified as being non-geographically contiguous.

  13. 2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) Topobathy Lidar: Alabama Coast and Florida Gulf Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain topographic and bathymetric lidar data collected by the HawkEye system along the coast of Alabama and the gulf coast of Florida. The data were...

  14. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Cedar Point Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0140929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  15. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  16. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Lidar data...

  17. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Perdido Pass near Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  18. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Lidar data...

  19. Geodatabase of the datasets that represent the five vertical subunits of the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains spatial datasets that represent the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Included are:...

  20. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  1. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast...

  2. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including...

  3. An evaluation of mercury and DDT contamination in fish and sediments collected from the Tombigbee River near McIntosh, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 1988 and 1990 the Daphne, Alabama Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) conducted a contaminant study on the Tombigbee River near McIntosh,...

  4. 10cct02_ss_v1_1m - Side scan sonar mosaic of Petit Bois Pass, Alabama, Mississippi Barrier Islands, March 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama. These...

  5. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  6. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  7. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast...

  8. Transects_OpenOcean.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 Transects with Linear Regression Rate Calculations for the Open Ocean coast of Dauphin Island, Alabama.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama were generated for three analysis periods, using two different shoreline proxy datasets. Mean High Water line...

  9. 10cct02_ss_v1_1m - Side scan sonar mosaic of Petit Bois Pass, Alabama, Mississippi Barrier Islands, March 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama. These...

  10. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Meaher Park in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  11. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the four subunits of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South...

  12. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Mississippian aquifer, Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Mississippian aquifer in the States of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri,...

  13. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Cedar Point Fishing Pier, Cedar Point, Alabama from 04/04/2008 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide...

  14. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from a nearshore moored buoy near Bon Secour, Alabama from 02/19/2010 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the Alabama...

  15. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from a nearshore moored buoy near Dauphin Island, Alabama from 24 Feb 2003 to 31 Dec 2013 (NODC Accession 0114998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the the Alabama Department of Conservation, State Land Division,...

  16. Meteorological, biological and hydrographic data collected from Perdido Pass, Alabama from 11/7/2011 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Baldwin County to provide...

  17. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Meaher State Park, Alabama from 08/21/2003 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117375)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation, State Land Division, Coastal...

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Temporary Aircraft Relocation to Maxwell Air Force Base 187th Fighter Wing Montgomery Regional Airport Montgomery, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Alabama. Mims, Donald L. Montgomery County Administrator, Montgomery, Alabama. Mueller, Heinz. Environmental Review Coordinator, U.S. Environmental...Mr. Donald L. Mims Montgomery County Administrator PO Box 1667 Montgomery, AL 36102-1667 Environmental Assessment for Temporary Aircraft...Experimental Study.” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 82, 479-492. Frericks, R.R., B.L. Beeman , and A.H. Coulson. 1980. “Los Angeles Airport Noise and

  19. Water use in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, 2010, and water-use trends, 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2016-02-25

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin encompasses about 20,230 square miles in parts of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Increasing population growth and agricultural production from the 1970s to 2010 has prompted increases in water-resources development and substantially increased water demand in the basin. Since the 1980s, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are parties to litigation concerning water management in the ACF River Basin.

  20. Wilbur and Orville Wright: A Reissue of a Chronology Commemorating the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Orville Wright, August 19, 1871

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renstrom, Arthur George (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    During the year 2003, hundreds of events will mark the one-hundredth anniversary of the Wright brothers historic first flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The centennial year will witness exhibitions, lectures, television documentaries, films, air shows, flight recreations of Wright aircraft, the issuing of postage stamps and medals, the publication of dozens of new books and articles, and numerous other commemorative activities. One of these events, although not likely to make the evening news, is among the most important of all in terms of a lasting contribution to the observance of this ultimate aviation milestone: the reprinting of Arthur G. Renstrom WIlbur & Orville Wrght: A Chronology Commemorating the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Orville Wright, August 19, 1871. Since its appearance in 1975, Wilbur end Orville Wright: A Chronology has become indispensable to students and authors concerned with the life and work of the famous brothers. No doubt every book on the subject published in the last quarter century, including three of my own, was written with this treasure close at hand. This volume is far more than a simple compilation of dates and facts. Renstrom was a master reference librarian and bibliographer with a passion for aviation and the Wright brothers. He brought his considerable research skills to bear on the topic, and the result is a richly detailed, ever-informative, often entertaining walk through the lives and achievements of these two extraordinary individuals. Renstrom was not content to offer a date with a one-line tidbit. His entries are brimming with information. This is a highly readable reference work that, believe it or not, can be enjoyably read from cover to cover. The project was clearly a labor of love by a talented professional. During most of the last twenty years, I have been privileged to be the curator of the 1903 Wright Flyer at the Smithsonian Institution s National Air and Space Museum. The position brings a steady

  1. Alabama's Education Coalition Focuses on Supporting the State's Math, Science and Technology Initiative and on Building Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Alabama Math Science Technology Educational Coalition (AMSTEC) was formed as a non-profit after a 1998 NASA Linking Leaders program brought in education and corporate leaders to address systemic education reform in Alabama public schools. AMSTEC was instrumental in the creation of the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI), a K-12 program designed using data from national and international research and local teacher survey. In the face of dwindling government support in a state ranked last in education funding, AMSTEC believes that its best hope for improved STEM education lies in strengthening its community/industry partnerships and building upon the Department of Education's newly created AMSTI program. NASA's GLOBE program is the primary earth science education component being integrated into AMSTI. AMSTI is structured to provide teachers with (1) the materials, equipment, technology and supplies necessary to deliver high quality, inquiry-based instruction; (2) professional development linked directly to the educational resources with the intent of strengthening content knowledge, instructional strategies, and use of assessment tools; and (3) on-site support and mentoring throughout the year in the interest of achieving these goals. Roles for community partners to support these objectives far exceed that of mere funding - especially in the area of mentoring and professional development. Currently, AMSTEC consists of 100+ members including classroom teachers and district officers, education department representatives from higher educational institutions, policy makers and administrators, and government and industry representatives. AMSTEC remains partially tied to NASA fiscally and is administratively housed by the National Space Science and Technology Center's Earth System Science Center. AMSTEC's partnership emphasis is focused on increasing corporate and industry participation to support the implementation of AMSTI and its hub

  2. Program in Functional Genomics of Autoimmunity and Immunology of yhe University of Kentucky and the University of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan M Kaplan

    2012-10-12

    This grant will be used to augment the equipment infrastructure and core support at the University of Kentucky and the University of Alabama particularly in the areas of genomics/informatics, molecular analysis and cell separation. In addition, we will promote collaborative research interactions through scientific workshops and exchange of scientists, as well as joint exploration of the role of immune receptors as targets in autoimmunity and host defense, innate and adaptive immune responses, and mucosal immunity in host defense.

  3. Reducing Tick-Borne Disease in Alabama: Linking Health Risk Perception with Spatial Analysis Using the NASA Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S.; Renneboog, N.; Firsing, S.; Capilouto, E.; Harden, J.; Hyden, R.; Tipre, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) accounts for most vector-borne disease reports in the U.S., and although its existence in Alabama remains controversial, other tick-borne illnesses (TBI) such as Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) pose a health concern in the state. Phase One of the Marshall Space Flight Center-UAB DEVELOP study of TBI identified the presence of the chain of infection for LD (Ixodes scapularis ticks carrying Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria) and STARI (Amblyomma americanum ticks and an as-yet-unconfirmed agent) in Alabama. Both LD and STARI are associated with the development of erythema migrans rashes around an infected tick bite, and while treatable with oral antibiotics, a review of educational resources available to state residents revealed low levels of prevention information. To improve prevention, recognition, and treatment of TBI in Alabama, Phase Two builds a health communication campaign based on vector habitat mapping and risk perception assessment. NASA Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery identified likely tick habitats using remotely sensed measurements of vegetation vigor (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and soil moisture. Likely tick habitats, identified as those containing both high vegetation density and soil moisture, included Oak Mountain State Park, Bankhead National Forest, and Talladega National Forest. To target a high-risk group -- outdoor recreation program participants at Alabama universities -- the study developed a behavior survey instrument based on existing studies of LD risk factors and theoretical constructs from the Social Ecological Model and Health Belief Model. The survey instrument was amended to include geographic variables in the assessment of TBI knowledge, attitudes, and prevention behaviors, and the vector habitat model will be expanded to incorporate additional environmental variables and in situ data. Remotely sensed environmental data combined with

  4. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Factors Related to Lyme Disease in Alabama by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Capilouto, Emily G.; Firsing, Stephen L., III; Levy, Kyle; McAllister, Marilyn; Roa, Kathryn; Setia,Shveta; Xie, Lili; Burnett, Donna; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the epidemiology of Lyme Disease that accounts for more than 95% or vector borne diseases in the United States. The history, symptoms and the life cycle of the tick, the transmitting agent of Lyme Disease, a map that shows the cases reported to the CDC between1990 and 2006 and the number of cases in Alabama by year from 1986 to 2007. A NASA project is described, the goals of which are to (1) Demonstrate the presence of the chain of infection of Lyme disease in Alabama (2) Identify areas with environmental factors that support tick population using NASA Earth Observation Systems data in selected areas of Alabama and (3) Increase community awareness of Lyme disease and recommend primary and secondary prevention strategies. The remote sensing methods included: Analyzed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and DigitalGlobe Quickbird satellite imagery from summer months and Performed image analyses in ER Mapper 7.1. Views from the ASTER and Quickbird land cover are shown, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm was applied to all ASTER and Quickbird imagery. The use of the images to obtain the level of soil moisture is reviewed, and this analysis was used along with the NDVI, was used to identify the areas that support the tick population.

  5. Use of Satellite Data to Study the Impact of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change in Madison County Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ayala-Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of land/use land cover changes along the northern part of Madison County Alabama are essential for the developers, planners, policy makers and management of government, public and private organizations. Remote sensing was used to analyze and study land-use/land-cover use changes impact on the environment of Madison County Alabama. This study area was selected because it is one of the fastest growing areas in the state of Alabama. The study used data sets obtained from several sources. Remote sensing images, land-use/land-cover use maps, global positioning data. The remote sensing images were LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM images acquired during April 1987 and May 1997. The data was processed and analyzed using MAP-X/RS and ERDAS. Six classes or categories of land-use/land-cover were analyzed to determine changes and the relationship to suburban sprawl. Each method used was assessed and checked in field. Six land use/land cover classes are produced. The overall accuracy for the 1987 image is (78.92% and for the 1997 image is (85.44% Analysis of the images for 1987 and 1997 showed a (26 and 15% increase in the urbanization and industrial development respectively and a decrease in all other classes. The most significant decrease (25% was in the pastures class, however, less significant changes were observed for the water resources and forest. The results from this study could be beneficial to state/county planners, researchers and policy makers.

  6. Alabama Disasters: Leveraging NASA EOS to Explore the Environmental and Economic Impact of the April 27 Tornado Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdy, Claire; Luvall, Jeffrey; Cooksey, Kirstin; Brenton, James; Barrick, Bradley; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The disastrous tornado outbreak in Alabama on April 27, 2011 greatly impacted the economy of the state. On record, the tornado outbreak was the second deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. When considering the agricultural and value-added activities such as food and timber processing, farm inputs, manufacturing, transportation, and retail sales, the dollar value of Alabama agribusiness annually exceeds $40 billion (NASS, 2011). This research aims to examine how the timber and agriculture damage affected the state economy of Alabama and will be used to aid in long-term economic recovery. ASTER imagery was used along with ground-truthed NASS (National Agriculture Statistics Service) crop location records to verify the economic impact tornadoes had on the agricultural economy of the state. This swath damage can be calculated by correlating tornado path with NASS statistics on crop yield, precisely showing the fields affected and dollars lost to this disaster. Not only can this be executed manually using ENVI and ArcGIS, but also through the use of Python, a programming language that has the ability to automate the process, creating a product for initial damage assessment.

  7. Single-beam bathymetry data collected in 2015 nearshore Dauphin Island, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Flocks, James G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Fredericks, Joseph; Tuten, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dauphin Island, Alabama is a barrier island located in the Northern Gulf of Mexico that supports local residences, tourism, commercial infrastructure, and the historical Fort Gaines. During the past decade, Dauphin Island has been impacted by several major hurricanes (Ivan, 2004; Katrina, 2005; Isaac, 2012). Storms, along with sea level rise, present a continued threat to island stability. State and federal managers are taking a scientific, investigative approach to identify the best options available to formulate and implement a long-term plan to properly restore Dauphin Island and provide resilience against future storms and sea-level rise. Island morphology, including current bathymetry and shoreline data, is one of several aspects being investigated and funded through a grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation Gulf Environmental Benefit Fund. In 2015, the United States Geological Survey Saint Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (USGS SPCMSC), in cooperation with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the state of Alabama, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Dauphin Island. This data release provides 1,165-line kilometers (km) of processed single-beam bathymetry (SBB) data collected by the USGS SPCMSC in August 2015 (Field Activity Number [FAN] 2015-326-FA). Data were acquired aboard four separate survey vessels; the RV Sallenger (subFAN, 15BIM10), the RV Jabba Jaw (subFAN, 15BIM11), the RV Shark (subFAN, 15BIM12), and the RV Chum (subFAN, 15BIM13). The data are provided in three datums: 1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ITRF00), ellipsoid height (-47.04 meters [m] to -29.36 m);  2) the North American Datum of 1983, realization of CORS96 (NAD83 [CORS96]) horizontal, and the North American Vertical Datum 1988 (NAVD88) vertical (-0.24 m to -17.33 m); and 3) the NAD83 (CORS96) horizontal, and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) vertical (-0.12 m to -17.93 m). Additional files

  8. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  11. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  12. Building America Case Study: Southern Energy Homes, First DOE Zero Energy Ready Manufactured Home, Russellville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    Three side-by-side lab houses were built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes.The lab houses in Russellville, Alabama compared the performance of three homes built to varying levels of thermal integrity and HVAC equipment: a baseline HUD-code home equipped with an electric furnace and a split system air conditioner; an ENERGY STAR manufactured home with an enhanced thermal envelope and traditional split system heat pump; and a house designed to qualify for Zero Energy Ready Home designation with a ductless mini-split heat pump with transfer fan distribution system in place of the traditional duct system for distribution. Experiments were conducted in the lab houses to evaluate impact on energy and comfort of interior door position, window blind position and transfer fan operation. The report describes results of tracer gas and co-heating tests and presents calculation of the heat pump coefficient of performance for both the traditional heat pump and the ductless mini-split. A series of calibrated energy models was developed based on measured data and run in three locations in the Southeast to compare annual energy usage of the three homes.

  13. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Effect of environmental characteristics on Pythium and Mesocriconema spp. in golf course greens in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T W; Han, D Y; Bowen, K L

    2005-04-01

    The role the environment has on populations of Pythium and Mesocriconema spp. was investigated at 5 golf course locations in east central Alabama. Every 4 to 5 weeks soil samples were collected from 3 golf greens on each of the 5 golf courses. Environmental data, including air and soil temperature, pH and relative humidity, were also collected. Dilution plating and a combined sieving and sugar flotation procedure were conducted to determine the populations of Pythium and Mesocriconema spp. for each month. Isolates of Pythium from 4 months were also identified. Pythium spp. populations increased as soil temperature and ambient air temperature prior to sampling decreased (P < 0.05). Pythium spp. populations were highest in the winter and lowest in the spring. At some locations, populations of Mesocriconema spp. increased as soil acidity and populations of Pythium spp. decreased (P < 0.05) and as ambient air temperature prior to sampling increased (P < 0.05). Eight species of Pythium were isolated from 4 months, with Pythium rostratum being the most commonly isolated. Results suggest that Pythium and Mesocriconema spp. prefer different soil environments.

  15. Simulation of Flood Profiles for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional step-backwater model was used to simulate flooding conditions for Fivemile Creek at Tarrant, Alabama. The 100-year flood stage published in the current flood insurance study for Tarrant by the Federal Emergency Management Agency was significantly exceeded by the March 2000 and May 2003 floods in this area. A peak flow of 14,100 cubic feet per second was computed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the May 2003 flood in the vicinity of Lawson Road. Using this estimated peak flow, flood-plain surveys with associated roughness coefficients, and the surveyed high-water profile for the May 2003 flood, a flow model was calibrated to closely match this known event. The calibrated model was then used to simulate flooding for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence interval floods. The results indicate that for the 100-year recurrence interval, the flood profile is about 2.5 feet higher, on average, than the profile published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The absolute maximum and minimum difference is 6.80 feet and 0.67 foot, respectively. All water-surface elevations computed for the 100-year flood are higher than those published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, except for cross section H. The results of this study provide the community with flood-profile information that can be used for existing flood-plain mitigation, future development, and safety plans for the city.

  16. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.

  17. Closeout Report: Experimental High Energy Physics Group at the University of South Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Charles M; Godang, Romulus

    2013-06-25

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of South Alabama has been supported by this research grant (DE-FG02-96ER40970) since 1996. One researcher, Dr. Merrill Jenkins, has been supported on this grant during this time worked on fixed target experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, west of Chicago, Illinois. These experiments have been E-705, E-771, E-871 (HyperCP) and E-921 (CKM) before it was canceled for budgetary reasons. After the cancellation of CKM, Dr. Jenkins joined the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment as an associate member via the High Energy Physics Group at the Florida State University. A second, recently tenured faculty member, Dr. Romulus Godang joined the group in 2009 and has been supported by this grant since then. Dr. Godang is working on the BaBaR experiment at SLAC and has joined the Belle-II experiment located in Japan at KEK. According to the instructions sent to us by our grant monitor, we are to concentrate on the activities over the last three years in this closeout report.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Alabama. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  19. Geochemical characterization of shallow ground water in the Eutaw aquifer, Montgomery, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.L.; Journey, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water samples were collected from 30 wells located in, or directly down gradient from, recharge areas of the Eutaw aquifer in Montgomery, Alabama. The major ion content of the water evolves from calcium-sodium-chloride- dominated type in the recharge area to calcium-bicarbonate-dominated type in the confined portion of the aquifer. Ground water in the recharge area was undersaturated with respect to aluminosilicate and carbonate minerals. Ground water in the confined portion of the aquifer was at equilibrium levels for calcite and potassium feldspar. Dissolved oxygen and nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations decreased as ground water age increased; pH, iron, and sulfate concentrations increased as ground water age increased. Aluminum, copper, and zinc concentrations decreased as ground water age and pH increased. These relations indicate that nitrate, aluminum, copper, and zinc are removed from solution as water moves from recharge areas to the confined areas of the Eutaw aquifer. The natural evolution of ground water quality, which typically increases the pH and decreases the dissolved oxygen content, may be an important limiting factor to the migration of nitrogen based compounds and metals.

  20. Characterization of Dredged Oyster Shell Deposits at Mobile Bay, Alabama Using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C. Nwokebuihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for disposing materials dredged from ship channels is a common problem in bays and lagoons. This study is aimed at investigating the suitability of scour features produced by dredging oyster shell deposits in Mobile Bay, Alabama, to dispose excavated channel material. A study area approximately 740 by 280 m lying about 5 km east of Gaillard Island was surveyed using underwater electrical resistivity tomography (UWERT and continuous electrical resistivity profiling (CERP tools. The geophysical survey was conducted with the intent to map scour features created by oyster shell dredging activities in the bay between 1947 and 1982. The geoelectrical surveys show that oyster beds are characterized by high resistivity values greater than 1.1 ohm.m while infilled dredge cuts show lower resistivity, generally from 0.6 to 1.1 ohm.m. The difference in resistivity mainly reflects the lithology and the consolidation of the shallow sediments: consolidated silty clay and sandy sediments rich in oyster shell deposits (with less clay content overlying unconsolidated clayey materials infilling the scours. Results show that most of the infilled dredge cuts are mostly distributed in the north-south direction. Considering that the scours are generally up to 6 m deep across the survey location, it is estimated that about 0.8 million cubic meters of oyster shells and overlying strata were dredged from the survey location.

  1. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  2. Topological properties in the spatial distribution of amphibians in Alabama USA for the use of large scale conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale biodiversity conservation is urgently needed due to increasing habitat loss and fragmentation. Understanding topological perspectives of species' distribution patterns can provide useful information for linking conservation studies at larger scales. We studied topological properties of localities in Alabama where 60 species of 12 families of amphibians were present. Analysis included a clustering coefficient which measures the strength of a population group, the relationship between occurrence localities and species number, the fractal dimension of occurrence localities (which emphasizes spatial irregularity, and distance to nearest-neighbor. The results indicate that the clustering coefficients of most amphibian species were low, but were higher for species with few occurrence localities, such as Rana sylvatica and Limnaoedus ocularis. The general relationship between species number and occurrence localities was that the majority of species held few localities in their distribution, while the remaining species occupied a greater number of localities. The fractal dimension (FD for all amphibian localities was about 1.58, although FD was low for most individual species. We identified four relationships in the distribution of distance to nearest-neighbor: linear, logarithmic, power and polynomial. These topological properties may indicate intrinsic features about amphibians in Alabama and provide useful information for regional planning. Enhancing landscape linkages across a large area using undisturbed areas, such as 300-500 km in diameter may be a good approach to conservation practice in this region. Steps needed for biodiversity conservation planning in Alabama include creating or conserving small habitats across agricultural and urban land, and maintaining suitable spatial complexity and distance to nearest neighbors.

  3. Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the General Motors Harrison Division Plant, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1991-03-01

    General Motors (GM) is studying the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for air conditioning at their Harrison Division plant located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has assisted in this effort by conducting field tests to measure the hydraulic properties of the proposed ATES well field, which will be within the unconfined aquifer and adjacent to the GM plant. Results showed that in the vicinity of the test well, transmissivity was 2000 ft{sup 2}/d, effective aquifer thickness was 50 ft, effective porosity was 6.2%, hydraulic gradient was 0.005, and seepage velocity was 3.2 ft/d. A second test series at a newly constructed well was expanded to include measuring specific capacity and investigating the vertical distribution of flow within the aquifer. Specific objectives were to determine the injection capacity of the aquifer and to examine efficiency of the well design. Transmissivity was 2300 to 2600 ft{sup 2}/d, effective aquifer thickness was 58 ft, effective porosity was 6.0 to 8.0%, hydraulic gradient was 0.0047, and seepage velocity was 3.1 to 2.7 ft/d. Injection capacity, based on a step-injection test, was approximately 17 gpm/ft and was independent of flow rate within the experimental range 90 to 338 gpm. Maximum hydraulic conductivity occurred within the uppermost 20 ft of saturated sediments, which consisted of well-sorted sand. Below the sand, sorting was progressively poorer with depth, and hydraulic conductivity decreased smoothly. At the base of the aquifer, hydraulic conductivity was less than 10% of that of the uppermost 20 ft. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Aquifer characterization at the General Motors Harrison Division Plant, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, S.P.; Cronin, W.E.; Hall, S.H.

    1989-10-01

    The General Motors corporation is studying the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for cooling purposes at its Harrison Division plant Tuscaloosa, Alabama. To determine the characteristics of the aquifer underlying the plant, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) gathered information about the environment of the aquifer and conducted tests to determine the aquifer's transmissivity and flow. From these tests, calculated estimates of ground-water velocity and flow direction were made. Nine wells were drilled at the plant site. Apparently, a confining bed of clay locally divides the aquifer into two separate units, one confined and one unconfined. An initial attempt to determine the hydraulic gradient in the aquifer was complicated by the resulting discrepancies in water levels among wells as well as by offsite pumping of the same aquifer; however, an estimate of the direction and magnitude of the hydraulic gradient for the composite aquifer was made. Two other types of tests successfully provided data for ground-water flow velocity for ATES design. A constant-discharge and recovery test was conducted to determine transmissivity (hydraulic conductivity). A single-well tracer test was also conducted, and results of the two tests were used conjunctively to estimate ground-water flow velocity. Transmissivity was found to be approximately 2000 ft{sup 2}/day at two wells closet to the pumped well in the parking lot of the General Motors plant. The average hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be approximately 40 ft/day in the same vicinity. The calculated ground-water velocity is approximately 3.25 ft/day with an effective porosity of approximately 6%. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Evidence for mid-Holocene shift in depositional style in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David; Kelso, Kyle; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy of Mobile Bay, Alabama, was mapped using a combination of high-resolution seismic data and sediment cores to refine changes in the bay's evolution during this time. The base of the Holocene-era stratigraphy is an erosional surface formed during the last glacial maximum. Overlying Holocene deposits are primarily estuarine mud that has a finely laminated weak acoustic signature. One exception is a thin unit, R1, with varying reflection amplitude that can be traced throughout the southern part of the bay. The continuity of the unit throughout the southern part of the bay suggests a baywide change in sedimentation that was perhaps driven by rapid retreat of the bay-head delta in response to a sudden rise in sea level or an abrupt change in accommodation space due to basin geometry. Along the southern edge of the bay, the R1 unit increases in thickness and reflector amplitude towards Morgan Peninsula. The peninsula itself underwent a period of erosion and narrowing between 4,300 to 3,000 years before present, and the variation in reflector amplitude and the geometry of this part of the R1 unit appear to reflect a period of increased overwashing of the peninsula during this period. Average estuarine sedimentation rates decreased after the formation of the R1 unit, and the decrease coincides with a decline in the rate of sea-level rise. A similar change in depositional style at approximately the same time in neighboring Apalachicola Bay suggests a change that affected the northeastern Gulf of Mexico region and not just Mobile Bay.

  6. Historical bathymetry and bathymetric change in the Mississippi-Alabama coastal region, 1847-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Morton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Land loss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide wildlife protected areas and recreational land, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity (index map on poster). Principal physical conditions that drive morphological seafloor and coastal change in this area include decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storms, and human activities (Otvos, 1970; Byrnes and others, 1991; Morton and others, 2004; Morton, 2008). Seafloor responses to the same processes can also affect the entire coastal zone. Sediment eroded from the barrier islands is entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. Wave and current activity is partially controlled by the profile of the seafloor, and this interdependency along with natural and anthropogenic influences has significant effects on nearshore environments. When a coastal system is altered by human activity such as dredging, as is the case of the MS-AL coastal region, the natural state and processes are altered, and alongshore sediment transport can be disrupted. As a result of deeply dredged channels, adjacent island migration is blocked, nearshore environments downdrift in the littoral system become sediment starved, and sedimentation around the channels is modified. Sediment deposition and erosion are reflected through seafloor evolution. In a rapidly changing coastal environment, understanding historically where and why changes are occurring is essential. To better assess the comprehensive dynamics of the MS-AL coastal zone, a 160-year evaluation of the bathymetry and bathymetric change of the region was conducted.

  7. Estuarine influence on biogeochemical properties of the Alabama shelf during the fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwonkowski, B.; Greer, A. T.; Briseño-Avena, C.; Krause, J. W.; Soto, I. M.; Hernandez, F. J.; Deary, A. L.; Wiggert, J. D.; Joung, D.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; O'Brien, S. J.; Dykstra, S. L.; Lau, Y.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Lockridge, G.; Howden, S. D.; Shiller, A. M.; Graham, W. M.

    2017-05-01

    Estuarine-shelf exchange can drive strong gradients in physical and biogeochemical properties in the coastal zone and exert a significant influence on biological processes and patterns. Physical, biogeochemical, and plankton data from an across-shelf transect extending south of Mobile Bay, Alabama, in conjunction with regional time series data, were used to determine the relative importance of estuarine-shelf interactions on the physical-biological structuring of the shelf environment during fall conditions (i.e., well-mixed, low discharge). This period was also characterized by a relatively unique weather event associated with the remnants of Hurricane Patricia, which drove a meteorological flushing of estuarine water onto the shelf. Survey data indicated generally low N:P ratios across the shelf, with slightly elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) that extended approximately 30 km offshore. The ROFI had higher values of chlorophyll-a, diatom-specific production, marine snow, and primary productivity, with notable contributions from the larger size cells (>5 μm). Furthermore, stratification provided a niche opportunity for Trichodesmium sp. aggregates, a typically oligotrophic cyanobacteria, at the offshore edge of the ROFI. The lens of estuarine water may have limited the vertical extent to which this population was mixed, providing enhanced light availability relative to the well-mixed offshore conditions. Following the biogeochemical trend, the highest zooplankton abundances were also located within the estuarine outflow. While limited in spatial extent, the distinct geochemical and biological characteristics within the ROFI demonstrate the ecological impacts that estuarine-sourced waters can have during periods of generally low productivity in the Mississippi Bight.

  8. Associations between Perceptions of Drinking Water Service Delivery and Measured Drinking Water Quality in Rural Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Wedgworth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color, providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available, where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color. Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure—a risk factor for contamination—may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts.

  9. Associations between perceptions of drinking water service delivery and measured drinking water quality in rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgworth, Jessica C; Brown, Joe; Johnson, Pauline; Olson, Julie B; Elliott, Mark; Forehand, Rick; Stauber, Christine E

    2014-07-18

    Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure) and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color), providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets) and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available), where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color). Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC) were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure-a risk factor for contamination-may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts.

  10. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, W.H.; Williams, J.D.; McGregor, S.W.; Pierson, J.M.; Lydeard, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort

  11. Nutrient Mass Balance for the Mobile River Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Harvill, J. S.; McMahon, G.

    2001-12-01

    The source and fate of nutrients in the Mobile River drainage basin are important water-quality concerns in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Land cover in the basin is 74 percent forested, 16 percent agricultural, 2.5 percent developed, and 4 percent wetland. A nutrient mass balance calculated for 18 watersheds in the Mobile River Basin indicates that agricultural non-point nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban non-point nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in the streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from atmospheric deposition, crop fertilizer, biological nitrogen fixation, animal waste, and point sources were estimated for each of the 18 drainage basins. Total basin nitrogen inputs ranged from 27 to 93 percent from atmospheric deposition (56 percent mean), 4 to 45 percent from crop fertilizer (25 percent mean), rank test. The correlation analysis indicated that higher nitrogen concentrations in the streams are associated with urban areas and higher loads are associated with agriculture; high phosphorus output loads and concentrations are associated with agriculture. Higher nutrient loads in agricultural basins are partly an effect of basin size-- larger basins generate larger nutrient loads. Nutrient loads and concentrations showed no significant correlation to point-source inputs. Nitrogen loads were significantly (p0.5) higher in basins with greater cropland areas. Nitrogen concentrations also increased as residential, commercial, and total urban areas increased. Phosphorus loads were positively correlated with animal-waste inputs, pasture, and total agricultural land. Phosphorus concentrations were highest in basins with the greatest amounts of row-crop agriculture.

  12. Fluid Geochemistry of Blount Springs (Blount County, Alabama): Implications for the resident microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, T.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial assemblages (biofilms) were recently documented in a mineral spring at Blount Springs, Alabama. These biofilms are distinguished by color and diverse morphologies within the individual assemblages. Refractile grains in microscope images may be indicative of elemental sulfur. DNA was extracted from biofilm samples and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using bacterial and fungal primers. A study of the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism community analysis (TRFLP) is ongoing. δ 18O and δ D analysis of stream waters yield mean values of -5.7 ±1.0% (VSMOW) and -29.0 ±1.3% (VSMOW), (n=27) for oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, respectively. The measured isotope compositions of the stream waters plot along the Gulf Coast Meteoric Water Line (GCMWL) indicating local rainwater as the main water source for the springs. The concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), 3.0 ±0.1mM, (n=17) and δ 13CDIC values -4.8 ±1.9% (VPDB), (n=17) are compatible with microbial oxidation of organic matter and CO2 release into the stream. Sulfur isotopes of sulfide (H2S) and sulfate (SO4) and oxygen isotopes of sulfate will be analyzed in order to gain a better understanding of how microbial processes are modifying the sulfur cycle. Understanding the links between microbial activities and the stream water chemistry will lead to a better understanding of how the biosphere impacts the geochemical cycles and may provide clues to ancient environments.

  13. Faunal, geochemical and paleomagnetic change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Braggs, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.S.; Mueller, P.A.; Channell, J.E.T.; Dobson, J.P.; Bryan, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Near Braggs, Alabama the Upper Cretaceous Prairie Bluff Chalk underlies the Paleocene Pine barren Member of the Clayton Formation in a well-exposed, continuous K/T boundary section composed of interbedded sands, shales, and limestones of shallow marine origin. As determined from foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphies, and the Maastrichtian/Danian contact at Braggs lies below a marine hardground in a zone associated with slow sedimentation and a deepening paleoenvironment. The K/T boundary occurs within a well-defined reversed magnetozone which we correlate to the reversed interval between marine magnetic anomalies 29 and 30. This magnetozone is approx.3.2 m thick, suggesting a sedimentation rate of only 6.8 m/m.y. across the boundary. The boundary occurs in the lower part of the magnetozone, about 1 m above its base, unlike the Italian sections where the boundary occurs toward the top of the reversed magnetozone. Marine macrofossils occur abundantly throughout the sequence had have been analyzed on a bed by bed basis to document the pattern of extinction and paleoenvironmental change. To help calibrate the rate of faunal change and refine the bio- and magnetostratigraphies, the Rb-Sr systematics of glauconites from the section are being investigated and the change of /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr in seawater is being investigated by analysis of CaCO/sub 3/ from molluscan shells and foraminiferal tests. Initial Rb-Sr measurements of glauconites from a bed above the contact suggest an age of 60 Ma with an initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr compatible with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr measured in shell carbonate at this site. Values for shell carbonate range from .707713 to .707826 and appear to show a maximum near the boundary.

  14. The effects of premium changes on ALL Kids, Alabama's CHIP program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Michael A; Blackburn, Justin; Sen, Bisakha; Becker, David; Kilgore, Meredith L; Caldwell, Cathy; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Describe the trends in enrollment and renewal in the Alabama Children's Health Insurance Plan (CHIP), ALL Kids, since its creation in 1998, and to estimate the effect that an annual premium increase, along with coincident increases in service copays, had on the decision to renew participation. Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long enrollment and contracts with the state's Blue Cross and Blue Shield program for its network of providers and its provider fee structure. In October 2003 premiums for individual coverage were increased by $50 per year and copays by $1 to $3 per visit. This study is based upon a sample of 569,650 person-year observations of 230,255 children enrolled in the ALL Kids program between 1999 and 2009. The study models enrollment as a time series of cross section renewal decisions and specifies a series of linear probability regression models to estimate the effect of changes in the premium shift on the decision to renew. A second analysis includes interaction effects of the premiums shift with demographics, health status, income and previous enrollment to estimate differential response across subgroups. The increases in premiums and copays are estimated to have reduced program renewals by 6.1 to 8.3 percent depending upon how much time one allows for families to renew. Families with a child who has a chronic condition were more likely to renew coverage. However, those with chronic conditions, African-Americans and those with lower family incomes were more price-sensitive. An increase in annual premiums and visit copays had a modest impact on program reenrollment with effects comparable to those found in Florida, New Hampshire, Kansas and Arizona, but smaller than those in Kentucky and Georgia.

  15. 论抗日战争时期中国共产党对辛亥革命的纪念%Commemorative Activities Held by the CPC for the Revolution of 1911 during the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌

    2011-01-01

    Ever since its birth the Chinese Communist Party attached great importance to the commemoration of the Revolution of 1911. During the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the CPC held a series of commemorative activities in the form of commemoration meeting or symposium, publication of editorials or memorial articles, issuance of circulars and slogans, dances and evenings of entertainment, etc. By means of these activities, the CPC interpreted the spiritual heritage of the Revolution of 1911 in order to mobilize the nation to rise against Japanese aggression; coordinated relations with the Kuomintang to maintain the national anti-Japanese united front; analyzed the current situation and elaborated the revolutionary ideas of the CPC. Summing up the experience and lessons of the Party in commemoration of the Revolution of 1911 during the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression will be of help to decide how we should mark this event today.%中国共产党自诞生以来,就非常重视对辛亥革命的纪念。抗日战争时期,中共通过召开纪念大会或座谈会,发表社论或纪念文章,发布通告、标语口号,举行舞会、晚会等形式,开展了系列纪念辛亥革命的活动。中共借助辛亥革命纪念,解读辛亥革命精神遗产,进行抗战救国动员;协调国共关系,维护抗日民族统一战线;分析革命时局,阐释中共革命主张。总结抗日战争时期中共纪念辛亥革命的经验教训,对当今辛亥革命纪念具有借鉴意义。

  16. Responses to lost letters about a 2000 General Election amendment to abolish prohibition of interracial marriages in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F Stephen; Keeton, Kato B; Clark, L Nicholle

    2002-12-01

    A field study using 621 "lost" letters was conducted in the city of Mobile and in small towns in mostly rural Baldwin County, Alabama. Milgram's lost letter technique was validated against the actual votes cast during the November 7, 2000 General Election. The technique was successful as an unobtrusive measure useful for predicting patterns of voting behavior. Rates of return of lost letters "in favor of and opposed to legalizing interracial marriage" agreed with the actual election returns (chi-square "goodness of fit"). Community size seemed associated with return of lost letters.

  17. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and

  18. “Out of Germany”: Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, Jakub’s World (2005, and the Commemoration of the Holocaust in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Stephanie Szlezák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses survivor stories as formulations of Holocaust memory in the U.S. More specifically, it focuses on the former concentration camp at Flossenbürg in southern Germany. Compared to places like Dachau and Buchenwald in Germany or Auschwitz and Treblinka in Poland, Flossenbürg is often absent from or—if present at all—marginalized in the public and scholarly discourse of Holocaust memory. The heavily autobiographical novel Jakub’s World (2005 tells the story of Jakub Szabmacher, a Jewish boy who is taken from his home in Poland by the Nazis and is eventually interned at Flossenbürg. He survives many months of deprivation and hardship in the concentration camp until U.S. forces liberate it in April 1945; orphaned and homeless, he eventually relocates to the U.S., yet returns to the site of his suffering many times. Reading the book against the backdrop of ongoing debates about Holocaust memory in the U.S., this essay explores structural and plot elements in the book that complicate both a Jewish identity derived from victimhood and the notion of liberation as the moment of ultimate redemption. Both Jakub’s World and the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp Memorial as sites of memory actively partake in the commemoration of the Holocaust, offering narratives that not only complicate the notion of World War II as the “Good War” but also reveal the transnational dimension of memories of the Holocaust. Neither the stories and memories of survivors of the Holocaust at Flossenbürg, nor the visitors to the present-day memorial site, nor the characters central to the memoir can be framed, addressed, or understood in the context of national boundaries.

  19. The aquifer chill storage project at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa: Progress report for 1985 and 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.

    1989-05-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is predicted to be the most cost-effective technology for seasonal storage of low-grade thermal energy. Approximately 60% of the US is underlain with aquifers potentially suitable for underground energy storage. Under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, has managed numerical modeling, laboratory studies, evaluation of environmental and institutional issues, and field testing of ATES at several sites. This report describes the monitoring and evaluation (under the auspices of PNL) of an ATES chill system constructed and operated by the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The system is the first such system to be monitored in a comprehensive manner. Results support both the promise and problems likely to be encountered in such systems. Chill ATES has the potential to substantially reduce energy consumption and, especially, summer peak cooling electrical demand. However, the geohydrologic environment that the system will use must be a major element in system design and operation. 9 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Parasite distribution, prevalence, and assemblages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, in Southwestern Alabama, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Kate L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; O'Brien, Jack; Cebrian, Just

    2011-01-01

    The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, harbors a number of symbionts within its North American range. Here, we document the distribution and seasonality of 4 taxonomic groups that use P. pugio as a host in coastal Alabama. We conducted a regional survey of 4 symbionts of P. pugio over 3 seasons and compared assemblages across space and time. The most common parasite was the metacercarial stage of the microphallid trematode Microphallus turgidus, which remained consistently prevalent over the 3 seasons surveyed. We also monitored the prevalence of M. turgidus at 2 sites monthly. Prevalence fluctuated significantly among seasons at these sites, but spatial heterogeneity appears to have a stronger influence on regional parasite prevalence. Distributions of 3 of 4 symbionts overlapped in a single geographic area (Mon Louis Island, Alabama, U.S.A.); however, multispecies infections of individual hosts were normally distributed within host populations. Sites surrounding Mon Louis Island had substantially higher parasite prevalence, particularly in the summer months. This area had a high quantity of Spartina marsh habitat, which we found influenced parasite prevalence, suggesting a role for wetland habitat in structuring parasite communities for this host.

  1. The sensitivity of tree growth to air mass variability and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in coastal Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkbeil, Jason C; Rodgers, John C; Sheridan, Scott C

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the relationship between tree growth and air mass type variability, using the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) in a bottomland slash pine forest in coastal Alabama (USA). The use of an air mass approach in dendroclimatology is somewhat unconventional and has not been fully explored. However, we believe that it may be useful because the air mass approach represents a holistic and comprehensive measure of surface conditions. Cores from 36 slash pines (Pinus elliotti) were extracted and ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. The cores were then cross-dated and a standardized ring index series was established. Relationships were explored between the index series and several climate variables and teleconnections. The index series showed significant relationships with SSC air mass types and SSC air mass ratios, but insignificant results with teleconnections. Specifically the Dry Tropical air mass type was negatively correlated with tree growth while Moist Moderate was positively correlated. Concomitantly, Dry Tropical : Moist Moderate, Dry Tropical : Moist Tropical, and Dry Moderate : Moist Moderate air mass ratios also showed negative correlations. Positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) sea surface temperatures were also associated with significant moisture and air mass variability in the region, although the PDO did not have a significant relationship with tree growth. The significance between SSC air mass variability and tree growth in the humid subtropical climate of coastal Alabama has favorable implications for dendroclimatological research in drier environments where trees are more sensitive to climatic variables.

  2. North Alabama Total Lightning Climatology in Support of Lightning Safety Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, G. T.; Schultz, C. J.; Koshak, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) was installed in 2001 to observe total lightning (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) and study its relationship to convective activity. NALMA has served as ground-truth for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imager (TRMM-LIS) and will again for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Also, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has transitioned these data to National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to evaluate the impact in operations since 2003. This study focuses on seasonal and diurnal observations from NALMA's 14 year history. This is initially intended to improve lightning safety at Marshall Space Flight Center, but has other potential applications. Improvements will be made by creating a dataset to investigate temporal, spatial, and seasonal patterns in total lightning over the Tennessee Valley, compare these observations to background environmental parameters and the TRMM-LIS climatology, and investigate applying these data to specific points of interest. Unique characteristics, such as flash extent density and length of flashes can be investigated, which are unavailable from other lightning networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The NALMA and NLDN data can be combined such that end users can use total lightning to gain lead time on the initial cloud-to-ground flash of a storm and identify if lightning is extending far from the storm's core. This spatial extent can be analyzed to determine how often intra-cloud activity may impinge on a region of interest and how often a cloud-to-ground strike may occur in the region. The seasonal and diurnal lightning maps can aid with planning of various experiments or tests that often require some knowledge about future weather patterns months in advance. The main goal is to develop a protocol to enhance lightning safety everywhere once the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is on orbit

  3. Analysis of professors' perceptions towards institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Berkley Nathaniel, Jr.

    This study was conducted to analyze professors' perceptions on the institutional redevelopment of brownfield sites into usable greenspaces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016) refers to brownfields as sites, (either facility or land) under public law § 107-118 (H.R. 2869), which are contaminated with a substance that is classified as a hazard or a pollutant. Usable greenspaces, however, are open spaces or any open piece of land that is undeveloped, has no buildings or other built structures, and is accessible to the public (EPA, 2015). Open green spaces provide recreational areas for residents and help to enhance the beauty and environmental quality of neighborhoods (EPA, 2015). In addition, in a study conducted by Dadvand et al. (2015), exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health among elementary school children, and this exposure, according to Dadvand et al., could also influence cognitive development. Because of the institutional context provided in these articles and other research studies, a sequential mixed-methods study was conducted that investigated the perceptions of professors towards the redevelopment of brownfields near their campuses. This study provided demographics of forty-two college and university professors employed at two institutions in the state of Alabama, a southeastern region of the United States. Survey questions were structured to analyze qualitative data. The secondary method of analysis utilized descriptive statistics to measure the most important indicators that influences professors' perceptions. The collection of quantitative data was adapted from an instrument designed by Wernstedt, Crooks, & Hersh (2003). Findings from the study showed that professors are knowledgeable and aware of the sociological and economic challenges in low income communities where brownfields are geographically located. Pseudonyms are used for the three universities which were contacted. Findings also

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography-Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 8, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the

  5. The impacts of weather and pollution on human mortality in Birmingham, Alabama and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer, Karen E.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Greene, J. Scott; Ye, Hengchun

    2000-06-01

    Past studies have examined how both extreme weather and atmospheric pollutants influence human mortality. However, the differential and/or synergistic impacts of weather and pollution on mortality are poorly understood. This relationship is particularly notable in summer, when both extreme weather and high pollution episodes are frequent. The goal of this study is to describe the relationship between atmospheric conditions (as characterized by weather and air pollution) and mortality in the summer season for Birmingham, Alabama and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. To assess the health impacts of both weather and pollution (ozone and total suspended particulates, or TSP), we used a synoptic, or air mass-based, approach to take into account the entire weather situation, rather than individual weather elements. This method was used to identify offensive air masses, which are associated with elevated mortality, and then to investigate which individual or combination of atmospheric conditions poses the greatest threat to human health in terms of acute (daily) mortality.In both cities, offensive weather events have a greater impact on acute mortality than high concentrations of TSP or ozone. The highest mortality levels occur when the hottest, but not the most polluted, air mass is present in each city. In Philadelphia, neither TSP nor ozone appear to contribute an add on effect to weather-related mortality. Under non-offensive weather situations, pollution concentrations are associated with increased mortality in Philadelphia. Yet, regardless of pollution concentration, mortality levels are much lower for these air masses than for offensive events. Pollution appears to be more important for mortality in Birmingham. Although Birmingham's high-mortality (offensive) air mass is not the most polluted, offensive air mass days with high pollution concentrations nonetheless exhibit higher mean mortality than offensive air mass days with low pollution concentrations. Also different

  6. Engaging Students in Life and Literature: A Qualitative Study of Rural North Alabama Community College American Literature Instructors' Course Design and Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the course design decisions and pedagogical practices of American literature teachers at three rural community colleges of varying size in North Alabama. Fink's (2003) Integrated Course Design (ICD) model provided a framework for this study, and the researcher attempted to determine if and…

  7. The prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among households with children in Head Start programs in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured food security and hunger of households enrolled in Head Start in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama and assessed factors that could affect food security. Interviewers collected data from primary caregivers on demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and the six-item US f...

  8. Clear-Water Contraction Scour at Selected Bridge Sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain in Alabama, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Transportation, made observations of clear-water contraction scour at 25 bridge sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. These bridge sites consisted of 54 hydraulic structures, of which 37 have measurable scour holes. Observed scour depths ranged from 1.4 to 10.4 feet. Theoretical clear-water contraction-scour depths were computed for each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths by about 475 percent. Variables determined to be important in developing scour in laboratory studies along with several other hydraulic variables were investigated to understand their influence within the Alabama field data. The strongest explanatory variables for clear-water contraction scour were channel-contraction ratio and velocity index. Envelope curves were developed relating both of these explanatory variables to observed scour. These envelope curves provide useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in the Black Prairie Belt of Alabama.

  9. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene

    2012-01-01

    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  10. The Moundville Expeditions of Clarence Bloomfield Moors, edited and with an Introduction by Vernon James Knight Jr. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The University of Alabama Press has done a valuable service to the Americanist archaeological community by reprinting certain parts of Clarence B. Moore's Moundville's work. As part of their series "Classics in Southeastern Archaeology", this volume provides the historian of Americanist archaeology yet another glimpse into the Moore's classic work at Moundville.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from diseased channel catfish in West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 was isolated from diseased channel catfish in West Alabama during a 2009 disease outbreak. The full genome of A. hydrophila AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes involved in pathogenesis or immunogens f...

  12. Complete genome sequence of the highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-71 isolated from disease channel catfish from West Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 was cultured from infected channel catfish during the 2009 disease outbreak in West Alabama. The complete genome of this highly virulent Aeromonas hydrophila isolate AL09-71 is 5,023,861 bp in size. The genome has 4489 coding sequences, 11 cop...

  13. A Comparative Study of Proficiencies Utilized by Electrical Engineering Graduates of the University of Alabama and the Core Curricula in Electrical Engineering and Electrical Engineering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, William S.

    A survey of 531 electrical engineering graduates of the University of Alabama who had received bachelor's degrees in the years 1950 through 1974 showed that the educational needs of a majority of the respondents could have been adequately served by the mathematics levels present in the engineering technology program. In addition, certain subjects…

  14. Regard History as a Mirror and Create a New World of Peace,Development and Cooperation—In Commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of the Victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World’s Anti-Fascist War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The year 2005 marks the 60th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the world’s anti-fascist war. China and many other countries have held all kinds of activities to commemorate this event that has most deeply impacted human history. The Second World War, the crudest war that

  15. Looking Forward, Looking Back: Future Challenges for Narrative Research An event commemorating the tenth anniversary of the Centre for Narrative Research, University of East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Narrative Research was founded at the turn of the millenium. To commemorate its tenth anniversary, we organised an event which took place on November 10, 2010, at the Marx Memorial Library in London. The day had a very flexible format. We began with a few opening words from the three co-directors (Molly Andrews, Corinne Squire, and Maria Tamboukou and the Research Fellow (Cigdem Esin of CNR. This was followed by contributions from six leading narrative scholars (Jens Brockmeier, Michael Erben, Mark Freeman, Margareta Hydén, Margaretta Jolly, and Olivia Sagan to which Alexandra Georgakopoulou and Matti Hyvärinen then responded. Following lunch, the sixty participants were broken up into smaller groups, where they discussed issues raised in the morning session. The day concluded with a final discussion piece offered by Mike Rustin. The six presenters were faced with a formidable challenge. We invited them to write pieces of approximately 500 words on "the promise and challenges for future narrative research, including critiques of and hopes for our own scholarship." These were prepared in advance of the event, and sent to the discussants, who were asked not only to comment upon the set of issues raised, but also to provide a framework for looking at the problems as a whole set. Not only did the contributors and discussants come from a range of different backgrounds and geographical locations, but the range of intellectual interests represented by those who attended the day was very marked: poets, writers of fiction, policy makers, psychoanalysts, sociologists, psychologists, political scientists, social workers, and others. Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the day was the conversations which happened across boundaries, characterised by both a search for common ground as well as a recognition of the different intellectual standpoints represented by the people there. What follows are written versions of the prepared, spoken

  16. Investigation of the Tarnish Film on the Surface of Commemoration Silver Coin%银纪念币的腐蚀变色研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长江; 梁成浩; 王鹏; 王华

    2007-01-01

    In natural environment, tarnish was observed on the surface of a commemoration silver coin of China. In order to identify the nature of the tarnishing film, optical microscope(OM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electron microprobe analyses(EMPA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), and X-ray diffraction(XRD) were applied to examine the tarnishing areas. It was found that the tarnishing position is uniformly moderate brown and several dark brown spots are randomly distributed. Groups of corrosion holes are distributed over the forging stress zones formed in the struck process. As result of surface analyses using EMPA, sulfur and oxygen were detected besides silver with uniformity of sulfur. Furthermore,distributions of silver and oxygen were in correspondence with the morphology of dark brown spots. XPS and XRD showed that components of spots are Ag2S, Ag2O and Ag2SO3, with a predominance of the first one. It could be estimated that the tarnish of silver is a series of electrochemical process that requires the presence of sulfur and oxygen.%银纪念币在大气环境中表面发生变色,失去原有的金属光泽.采用OM,SEM,EMPA,XPS,XRD等现代物理测试技术对变色的银纪念币进行分析.结果表明,银纪念币的变色部位呈均匀的浅褐色,并随机分布着深褐色的斑点.变色银纪念币表面沿着划痕密集分布着蚀孔.表面分析显示,除Ag外,还有S和O元素.XPS,XRD分析发现,变色银纪念币表面存在Ag2S,Ag2SO3和Ag2O.实验室加速变色试验表明,在含S气体环境中,Ag被氧化生成Ag2S,导致银纪念币表面变色.从而验证银纪念币的变色是由电化学腐蚀引起的,S和O元素参与了腐蚀历程.

  17. Small Particles in Fluid Concepts and Objectives: Designing and Experiment for Microgravity (SHIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, W.; Trolinger, J. D.; Smith, D. D.; Sibille, L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This clearance is for a poster presentation on the Spaceflight Holographic Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus made at the Microgravity Science Materials Conference at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, Alabama June 25 - 26.

  18. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations has teamed with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  19. Aerophysics Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, operated by the University of Alabama in Huntsville, houses three two-stage light gas guns capable of launching a variety of projectiles and missile...

  20. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is teaming with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  1. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  2. Developing GIS-based eastern equine encephalitis vector-host models in Tuskegee, Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A site near Tuskegee, Alabama was examined for vector-host activities of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV. Land cover maps of the study site were created in ArcInfo 9.2® from QuickBird data encompassing visible and near-infrared (NIR band information (0.45 to 0.72 μm acquired July 15, 2008. Georeferenced mosquito and bird sampling sites, and their associated land cover attributes from the study site, were overlaid onto the satellite data. SAS 9.1.4® was used to explore univariate statistics and to generate regression models using the field and remote-sampled mosquito and bird data. Regression models indicated that Culex erracticus and Northern Cardinals were the most abundant mosquito and bird species, respectively. Spatial linear prediction models were then generated in Geostatistical Analyst Extension of ArcGIS 9.2®. Additionally, a model of the study site was generated, based on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, using ArcScene extension of ArcGIS 9.2®. Results For total mosquito count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 5.041 km, nugget of 6.325 km, lag size of 7.076 km, and range of 31.43 km, using 12 lags. For total adult Cx. erracticus count, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 5.764 km, nugget of 6.114 km, lag size of 7.472 km, and range of 32.62 km, using 12 lags. For the total bird count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 4.998 km, nugget of 5.413 km, lag size of 7.549 km and range of 35.27 km, using 12 lags. For the Northern Cardinal count data, a first-order trend ordinary kriging process was fitted to the semivariogram at a partial sill of 6.387 km, nugget of 5.935 km, lag size of 8.549 km and a range of 41.38 km, using 12 lags. Results of the DEM analyses indicated a statistically significant inverse

  3. Regression models for air pollution and daily mortality: analysis of data from Birmingham, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.L. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Statistics; Davis, J.M. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Sacks, J. [National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Speckman, P. [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Statistics; Styer, P.

    2000-11-01

    In recent years, a very large literature has built up on the human health effects of air pollution. Many studies have been based on time series analyses in which daily mortality counts, or some other measure such as hospital admissions, have been decomposed through regression analysis into contributions based on long-term trend and seasonality, meteorological effects, and air pollution. There has been a particular focus on particulate air pollution represented by PM{sub 10} (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 10 {mu}m or less), though in recent years more attention has been given to very small particles of diameter 2.5 {mu}m or less. Most of the existing data studies, however, are based on PM{sub 10} because of the wide availability of monitoring data for this variable. The persistence of the resulting effects across many different studies is widely cited as evidence that this is not mere statistical association, but indeed establishes a causal relationship. These studies have been cited by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as justification for a tightening on particulate matter standards in the 1997 revision of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), which is the basis for air pollution regulation in the United States. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a systematic approach to the regression analyses that are central to this kind of research. We argue that the results may depend on a number of ad hoc features of the analysis, including which meteorological variables to adjust for, and the manner in which different lagged values of particulate matter are combined into a single 'exposure measure'. We also examine the question of whether the effects are linear or nonlinear, with particular attention to the possibility of a 'threshold effect', i.e. that significant effects occur only above some threshold. These points are illustrated with a data set from Birmingham, Alabama, first cited by

  4. Impact of Alabama's immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kari; Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2014-03-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama's 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children's access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women's increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions.

  5. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  6. Interprofessional academic health center leadership development: the case of the University of Alabama at Birmingham's Healthcare Leadership Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Grant T; Duncan, W Jack; Knowles, Kathy L; Nelson, Kathleen; Rogers, David A; Kennedy, Karen N

    2014-05-01

    The study describes the genesis of the University of Alabama at Birmingham's Healthcare Leadership Academy (HLA), highlights the HLA's outcomes, discloses how the HLA has changed, and delineates future directions for academic health center (AHC) interprofessional leadership training. While interprofessional training is recognized as an important component of the professional education for health professionals, AHCs have not focused on interprofessional leadership training to prepare future AHC leaders. As professional bureaucracies, AHCs require leadership distributed across different professions; these leaders not only should be technical experts, but also skilled at interprofessional teamwork and collaborative governance. The HLA is examined using the case method, which is supplemented with a descriptive analysis of program evaluation data and outcomes. The HLA has created a networked community of AHC leaders; the HLA's interprofessional team projects foster innovative problem solving. Interprofessional leadership training expands individuals' networks and has multiple organizational benefits. © 2014.

  7. Arsenal Workers During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-01-01

    During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  8. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Defense Agency, Huntsville, AL; Chief, Materiel Fielding Team ( Automotive ), Materiel Fielding and Training Directorate, TACOM Life Cycle Management...Executive Office Ground Combat Systems, Detroit Arsenal, Michigan; Training With Industry Officer, EADS North America, Huntsville, Alabama; and Product...identify the ways and means to counter this imbalance or risk future erosion of our military effectiveness, diminished allied confidence, and unnecessarily

  9. Assessing the planning and implementation strategies for the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding transition in Alabama hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Morgan, Darius; Clements, Kay; Hart-Hester, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Health information management (HIM) professionals play a significant role in transitioning from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS. ICD-10-CM/PCS coding will impact many operational aspects of healthcare facilities, such as physicians' documentation in health records, coders' process for review of clinical information, the billing process, and the payers' reimbursement to the healthcare facilities. This article examines the level of readiness and planning for ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation among hospitals in Alabama, identifies training methods/approaches to be used by the hospitals, and discusses the challenges to the ICD-10-CM/PCS coding transition. A 16-question survey was distributed to 116 Alabama hospital HIM directors in December 2011 with follow-up through February 2012. Fifty-three percent of respondent hospitals began the planning process in 2011, and most facilities were halfway or less than halfway to completion of specific implementation tasks. Hospital coders will be or are being trained using in-house training, through seminars/webinars, or by consultants. The impact of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation can be minimized by training coders in advance, hiring new coders, and adjusting coders' productivity measures. Three major challenges to the transition were identified: the need to interact with physicians and other providers more often to obtain information needed to code in ICD-10-CM/PCS systems, education and training of coders and other ICD-10-CM/PCS users, and dependence on vendors for major technology upgrades for ICD-10-CM/PCS systems. Survey results provide beneficial information for HIM professionals and other users of coded data to assist in establishing sound practice standards for ICD-10-CM/PCS coding implementation. Adequate planning and preparation will be essential to the successful implementation of ICD-10-CM/PCS.

  10. Leadership lessons in global nursing and health from the Nightingale Letter Collection at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Doreen C; Davey, Kimberly S; Fordham, Pamela N

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the components of Florence Nightingale's visionary leadership for global health and nursing within the historical context of Great Britain's colonization of India. The descriptive study used the qualitative approach of narrative analysis to analyze selected letters in the Nightingale Letter Collection at the University of Alabama at Birmingham that Nightingale wrote to or about Dr. Thomas Gillham Hewlett, a physician and health officer in Bombay, India. The authors sought to increase understanding of Nightingale's visionary leadership for global nursing and health through a study of the form and content of the letters analyzed as temporally contextualized data, focusing on how the narratives are composed and what is conveyed. Several recurring themes central to Nightingale's leadership on global nursing and health emerge throughout these letters, including health and sanitation reform, collaborative partnerships, data-driven policy development, and advocacy for public health. These themes are illustrated through her letters to and testimony about Dr. Thomas Gillham Hewlett in her vivid descriptions of health education and promotion, data-driven policy documents, public health and sanitation advice, and collaboration with citizens, medicine, policy makers, and governments to improve the health and welfare of the people of India. The focus on leadership in nursing as a global construct highlights the lessons learned from University of Alabama at Birmingham's Nightingale Letter Collection that has relevance for the future of nursing and health care, particularly Nightingale's collaboration with policy leaders, her analysis of data to set policy agendas, and public health reform centered on improving the health and well-being of underserved populations.

  11. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Middle Bay Lighthouse Station in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  12. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Katrina Cut Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  13. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the six subunits of the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Arkansas,...

  14. Single-Beam Bathymetry Data Collected in 2015 nearshore Dauphin Island, Alabama, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This metadata file is specific to the International Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF00) xyz point data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dauphin Island, Alabama is a barrier island located in the Gulf of Mexico that supports local residence, tourism, commercial infrastructure, and the historical Fort...

  15. Transects_BackBarrier.shp - Digital Shoreline Analysis System version 4.3 Transects with Linear Regression Rate Calculations for the Back-Barrier (North-Facing) coast of Dauphin Island, Alabama.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama were generated for three analysis periods, using two different shoreline proxy datasets. Mean High Water line...

  16. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Dauphin Island Station near Dauphin Island, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  17. City of Huntsville Public Housing Areas STEM Initiative Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Pugh, Marcus; Budak, Satilmis; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Students in high-poverty and high-minority schools are entering the classroom without the knowledge and skills they need to succeed. In order to bridge the gaps in opportunity and achievement that separate low-income students and students of color from other young Americans, we have introduced elementary and middle school students to the basic concepts of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Within the project, we have provided students with excellent learning opportunities, engaging hands-on experiences, and outstanding advising and mentoring. We have assessed student development and impact before, during, and after the program.

  18. Synoptic water-level measurements of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida and parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer were measured throughout Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama in May-June 2010. These measurements were compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Floridan Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study and conducted as part of the USGS Groundwater Resources Program. Data were collected by personnel from the USGS Florida Water Science Center, Georgia Water Science Center, South Carolina Water Science Center and several state and county agencies in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama using standard techniques. Data collected by USGS personnel are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site-Inventory System (GWSI). Furnished records from cooperators are stored in NWIS/GWSI when possible, but are available from the source agency.

  19. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish....... All memorials, I argue, relate to a recent public discourse about the ‘war-fighting nation’ and the ‘warrior generation’. The national monument eschews references to war and violence to produce a national narrative focusing on ‘effort’ as the core collective value. One grassroots memorial subtly...... have been designed by the soldiers and their families, memorialize soldiers as professionals with a military belonging as well as persons with numerous social attachments. And they most directly address the war, violence, and suffering that the emergence of a ‘war-fighting nation’ and a ‘warrior...

  20. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text. Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired. This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Icelandic aid commemorated in Kipsala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti välisminister Girts Valdis Kristovskis ja Islandi välisminister Ossur Skarphedinsson avasid Riias Islandi väljaku, kuna 20 aastat tagasi oli Island esimene riik, kes tunnustas Baltimaade taasiseseisvumist

  2. Late Maastrichtian-Early Paleocene sea level and climate changes in the Antioch Church Core (Alabama, Gulf of Mexico margin, USA): A multi-proxy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Peter; Speijer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Antioch Church core from central Alabama, spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) boundary, was investigated by a multi-proxy approach to study paleoenvironmental and sea level hanges within the wellconstrained sequence stratigraphic setting of the Gulf of Mexico margin. The Antioch Church core comprises the Maastrichtian calcareous nannoplankton Zone CC25 and the Danian Zones NP1 to NP4 corresponding to the Maastrichtian planktonic foraminifera Zones CF3 and the Danian Zones P1a to P2....

  3. Ground-water hydraulics, regional flow, and ground-water development of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.; Johnston, Richard H.

    1988-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is one of the major sources of groundwater supplies in the United States. This productive aquifer system underlies all of Florida, southeast Georgia, and small parts of adjoining Alabama and South Carolina, for a total area of about 100,000 square miles. About 3 billion gallons of water per day were withdrawn from the aquifer system in 1980, and in many areas the Floridan is the sole source of freshwater.

  4. Efeito do ataque de Alabama argillacea no crescimento vegetativo e sua relação com a fenologia do algodoeiro Effect of Alabama argillacea attack on vegetative growth and its relationship with cotton phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo da Silva Quirino

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ataque do curuquerê (Alabama argillacea Hübner, 1818, no desenvolvimento vegetativo do algodoeiro e sua relação com a fenologia da planta. Foram utilizadas as cultivares CNPA 7H e CNPA Precoce 2, e semeadas em vasos de plástico com capacidade para 10 kg de solo, mantendo-se uma planta por vaso após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas lagartas de terceiro ínstar de A. argillacea, provenientes de criação massal mantida em laboratório. A infestação por estas lagartas teve início 40 dias após o plantio, mediante a identificação das folhas que caracterizavam os tratamentos. Foram avaliadas as variáveis diâmetro caulinar e altura de plantas, em 1996; e em 1997, foi acrescentada a variável área foliar. O ataque de A. argillacea afeta o diâmetro caulinar e a altura das plantas em ambas as cultivares e em qualquer fase de desenvolvimento do algodoeiro. Com relação à área foliar, os maiores decréscimos foram verificados nos tratamentos que tiveram as folhas dos ramos principais consumidas; o tratamento mais afetado foi aquele em que o ataque ocorreu após a floração.This work was carried out to study the effect of cotton leaf worm attack on vegetative growth and its relation with plant phenology. The CNPA 7H and CNPA Precoce 2 cultivars were planted in plastic pots with capacity for 10 kg of soil, and one plant per pot was maintained after pruning. A completely randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replications. Third-instar caterpillars of Alabama argillacea were used in the experiment, which were originated from a massal rearing creation kept in laboratory. Infestation with caterpillars started 40 days after the planting by identification of leaves that characterized the treatments. The variables analyzed were plant diameter and height in 1996, and

  5. Erosion monitoring along the Coosa River below Logan Martin Dam near Vincent, Alabama, using terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Lee, Kathryn G.

    2013-01-01

    Alabama Power operates a series of dams on the Coosa River in east central Alabama. These dams form six reservoirs that provide power generation, flood control, recreation, economic opportunity, and fish and wildlife habitats to the region. The Logan Martin Reservoir is located approximately 45 kilometers east of Birmingham and borders Saint Clair and Talladega Counties. Discharges below the reservoir are controlled by power generation at Logan Martin Dam, and there has been an ongoing concern about the stability of the streambanks downstream of the dam. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Alabama Power conducted a scientific investigation of the geomorphic conditions of a 115-meter length of streambank along the Coosa River by using tripod-mounted terrestrial light detection and ranging technology. Two surveys were conducted before and after the winter flood season of 2010 to determine the extent and magnitude of geomorphic change. A comparison of the terrestrial light detection and ranging datasets indicated that approximately 40 cubic meters of material had been eroded from the upstream section of the study area. The terrestrial light detection and ranging data included in this report consist of electronic point cloud files containing several million georeferenced data points, as well as a surface model measuring changes between scans.

  6. Selection of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. isolates to control Alabama argillacea (Huebner caterpillars Seleção de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. para o controle de lagartas de Alabama argillacea (Huebner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo César Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is considered to be one of the key pests in herbaceous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch cropping, with constant occurrence in all cotton-growing states of Brazil. In this study Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates were screened and evaluated for pathogenicity against Alabama argillaceae. Initially, a screening of ten isolates of each fungus in a concentracion of 10(8 conidia mL-1, was carried out on 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea. Further studies were conducted to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of six and seven isolates of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana, respectively, against 3rd instar larvae of A. argillacea and using the concentrations of 10(6, 10(7, 10(8, and 10(9 conidia mL-1. The experiments were carried out in Recife, PE, Brazil, at 27 ± 2ºC, RH 70 ± 5% and a photophase of 12 hours. Mortalities caused by M. anisopliae isolate at the different concentrations ranged from 4.5 to 91.2%, the highest mortality percentage being found for the isolate 1189 at 10(9 conidia mL-1. The isolate 645 of B. bassiana caused the highest mortality at the highest concentration, followed by isolates 634, 604, and IPA 198. The lowest lethal time for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, was achieved by the isolates 483 (4.1 days and 1189 (2.0 days, respectively. The isolates 1189, 1022 e 866 of M. anisopliae and 483, IPA198 and 604 of B. bassiana, at 10(8 e 10(9 conidia mL-1 are promissing for use the integrated control of A. argillacea larvae, but M. anisopliae seems more effective.O curuquerê-do-algodoeiro (Alabama argillacea é considerado uma das principais pragas do algodoeiro herbáceio no Brasil, com ocorrência comum em vários estágios de crescimento da cultura. Este trabalho avaliou a patogenicidade e selecionou isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana, para lagartas do curuquer

  7. Determining the origin of enigmatic bedrock structures using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology: Alabama and Poverty Hills, Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, G. A.; Reiners, P. W.; Ducea, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Alabama and Poverty Hills are enigmatic, topographic highs of crystalline basement surrounded by Neogene sediments in Owens Valley, California. The 150-km long Owens Valley, the westernmost graben of the Basin and Range Province, initiated at about 3 Ma, creating ~2-4 km of vertical relief from the Sierra Nevada and White/Inyos crests to the valley floor. Along the valley, the active right-lateral Owens Valley Fault Zone (OVFZ) accommodates a significant portion of Pacific-North American plate motion, creating an oblique dextral fault zone, with localized transpression along minor left-stepovers. The dominantly granitic Mesozoic rocks of the Alabama Hills are bounded by the OVFZ to the east, and the granitic and metavolcanic Mesozoic rocks of the Poverty Hills are located along an apparent 3-km left stepover of the OVFZ. The tectonic origin and geodynamic significance of both these structures are not known, but previously published hypotheses include: 1) transpressional uplifts as OVFZ-related flower structures; 2) down-dropped normal fault blocks; and 3) giant landslides from adjacent ranges. We measured apatite (U-Th)/He ages on 15 samples from the Alabama and Poverty Hills to understand the history of shallow crustal exhumation of these structures, and to potentially correlate them to rocks from adjacent ranges. Apatite He dating typically yields cooling ages corresponding to closure temperatures of ~55-65 °C, corresponding roughly to depths of ~2-3 km in the crust. The majority of apatite He ages from the Alabama Hills ranged from 58-70 Ma, but the far eastern, and lowest elevation sample showed ages of 51-55 Ma. The Poverty Hills shows younger ages of 40-65 Ma and no recognizable spatial pattern. Although the data do not conclusively rule out a transpressional uplift origin of the Poverty Hills, the rocks within them could not have been exhumed from depths greater than ~2-3 km in Owens Valley. Data from both structures are most consistent with down

  8. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  9. Long-term biomonitoring of a produced water discharge from the Cedar Cove degasification field, Alabama. January 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, P.E.; Harris, S.C.; Mettee, M.F.; McGregor, S.W.; Shepard, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Development of coalbed methane has become a major industry for the state of Alabama. In excess of 1,300 wells were producing methane by the end of July 1990. A byproduct of methane production is produced water containing elevated concentrations of chloride, sodium, iron and bicarbonate. These waters are currently permitted for discharge into streams or as a land application. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term impacts of produced waters to streams relative to water-quality changes and aquatic biological effects. Distinct water-quality changes in the receiving stream were documented and consisted primarily of increased dissolved solids, changes in the pH regime and changes in the carbonate buffering system. In contrast, no significant or consistent detrimental change in the structure or function of the stream biological community could be detected. Subtle changes in biological community structure and composition were noted and most likely due to effects associated with algal productivity in settling lagoons. These changes, however, were within the boundaries of variation typically observed for the communities. Based on the results of this and earlier studies, it was concluded that the national water-quality criterion for chloride was protective of stream life as examined in the study.

  10. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccinations and community pharmacies as vaccination settings: A qualitative study in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; White, Kara K; Hastings, Tessa J

    2017-06-01

    To determine parents' knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations in their adolescent children and to describe parents' perceptions of adolescent vaccinations in community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were completed with parents or guardians of children ages 11-17 years from Alabama's Lee and Macon counties. One-hour long, open-ended telephonic or in-person interviews were conducted until the saturation point was reached. Using ATLAS.ti software and thematic analysis, interview transcripts were coded to identify themes. Twenty-six parents were interviewed, most of whom were female (80.8%) and white (50%). A total of 12 themes were identified. First, two themes emerged regarding elements facilitating children's HPV vaccination, the most common being positive perception of the HPV vaccine. Second, elements hindering children's vaccination contained seven themes, the top one being lack of correct or complete information about the HPV vaccine. The last topic involved acceptance/rejection of community pharmacies as vaccination settings, and the most frequently cited theme was concern about pharmacists' clinical training. Physician-to-parent vaccine education is important, and assurances of adequate pharmacy immunization training will ease parents' fears and allow pharmacists to better serve adolescents, especially those who do not see physicians regularly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variability in the surface sediments of Mobile Bay, Alabama, recorded by geochemistry and foraminifera, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D.K.; Osterman, L.E.; Smith, C.G.; Frazier, J.; Richwine, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to document and quantify recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The study was part of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project, a regional project funded by the Coastal and Marine Geology Program to understand how natural forcings and anthropogenic modifications influence coastal ecosystems and their susceptibility to coastal hazards. Mobile Bay is a large drowned-river estuary that has been modified significantly by humans to accommodate the Port of Mobile. Examples include repeated dredging of a large shipping channel down the central axis of the bay and construction of a causeway across the head of the bay and at the foot of the bayhead delta. In addition to modifications, the bay is also known to have episodic periods of low oxygen (hypoxia) that result in significant mortality to fish and benthic organisms (May, 1973). For this study a series of surface sediment samples were collected. Surface benthic foraminiferal and bulk geochemical data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference to changing environmental parameters in the past (Osterman and Smith, in press) and into the future. This report archives data collected as part of the Mobile Bay Study that may be used in future environmental change studies.

  13. Characterization of a new myxozoan species (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae: Myxosporea) in largescale stonerollers (Campostoma oligolepis) from the Mobile River Basin (Alabama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, D D; Iwanowicz, L R; Howerth, E W; Schill, W B; Blazer, V S; Johnson, R L

    2013-02-01

    Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. was described from largescale stonerollers ( Campostoma oligolepis ) from the Mobile River Basin in Alabama. The parasite was described using critical identifying morphological features, and the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence. The spore body was ovoid, 10.03 ± 0.7 (7.5-11.0) μm long and 8.8 ± 1.5 (6.3-11.3) μm wide in frontal view. Spore thickness was 6.3 ± 2.7 (6.2-8.6) μm in sutural view. Polar capsules were pyriform, of equal size, and oriented in plane with the sutural ridge. Polar capsules were 2.45 ± 1.5 (range 2.1-4.3) μm in width and 4.6 ± 2.7 (range 4.5-6.9) μm in length. Based on the SSU rRNA gene sequence of Myxobolus stanlii sp. n. is most closely related to M. pseudodispar.

  14. Vector shorelines and associated shoreline change rates derived from Lidar and aerial imagery for Dauphin Island, Alabama: 1940-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel; Nelson, Paul R.; Long, Joseph W.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    In support of studies and assessments of barrier island evolution in the Gulf of Mexico, rates of shoreline change for Dauphin Island, Alabama, were calculated using two different shoreline proxy datasets with a total temporal span of 75 years.  Mean High Water line (MHW) shorelines were generated from 14 lidar datasets from 1998 to 2014, and Wet Dry Line (WDL) shorelines were digitized from ten sets of georeferenced aerial images from 1940 to 2015. Rates of change for the open-ocean (south-facing) and back-barrier (north-facing) coast were calculated for three groups of shorelines:  MHW (lidar), WDL (aerial) and MHW and WDL shorelines combined. Calculations were performed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.3, an ArcGIS extension developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Thieler and others, 2009).  Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan, 2009, Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0—An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1278, https://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/DSAS/version4/.

  15. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  16. Relative sea-level rise as indicated by gage data along the Mississippi and Alabama Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wilson, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Global warming, or the increasing of earth's temperatures, leads to rising sea level as polar ice caps and mountain glaciers melt and ocean water undergoes thermal expansion. Tidal records collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Mobile District, at Gulfport, Biloxi, and Pascagoula, Mississippi, and at Mobile, Alabama, indicate trends of water-surface elevations increasing with time (relative sea-level rise). The trends indicated by the COE data were compared to relative sea-level trends indicated by the National Ocean Survey gages in the Gulf of Mexico. The average global rate of sea level rise has been suggested to approach about 2 mm/yr (0.007 ft/yr). Some leading scientists have suggested rates of sea level rise that are greater than 2 mm/yr, when accounting for effects of greenhouse gas emissions. As the sea level rises and inundates the coastal plain, structures along the existing coast and structures located in the back bays of estuaries will be even more adversely affected by future flooding. Also, if the land surface adjacent to the water also sinks due to soil compaction and other geologic processes (collectively call subsidence), additional land will be inundated. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  17. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 MW 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, J.; Wolf, L.

    1999-01-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 MW 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2-6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of MW 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  18. The HIV Prison Paradox: Agency and HIV-Positive Women's Experiences in Jail and Prison in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L; Radhakrishnan, Bharathi; Pantalone, David W

    2017-08-01

    Incarcerated women face significant barriers to achieve continuous HIV care. We employed a descriptive, exploratory design using qualitative methods and the theoretical construct of agency to investigate participants' self-reported experiences accessing HIV services in jail, in prison, and post-release in two Alabama cities. During January 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive women. Two researchers completed independent coding, producing preliminary codes from transcripts using content analysis. Themes were developed iteratively, verified, and refined. They encompassed (a) special rules for HIV-positive women: isolation, segregation, insults, food rationing, and forced disclosure; (b) absence of counseling following initial HIV diagnosis; and (c) HIV treatment impediments: delays, interruption, and denial. Participants deployed agentic strategies of accommodation, resistance, and care-seeking to navigate the social world of prison and HIV services. Findings illuminate the "HIV prison paradox": the chief opportunities that remain unexploited to engage and re-engage justice-involved women in the HIV care continuum.

  19. Effects of climate change on probable maximum precipitation: A sensitivity study over the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Deeksha; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Mei, Rui; Kabela, Erik D.; Gangrade, Sudershan; Naz, Bibi S.; Preston, Benjamin L.; Singh, Nagendra; Anantharaj, Valentine G.

    2017-05-01

    Probable maximum precipitation (PMP), defined as the largest rainfall depth that could physically occur under a series of adverse atmospheric conditions, has been an important design criterion for critical infrastructures such as dams and nuclear power plants. To understand how PMP may respond to projected future climate forcings, we used a physics-based numerical weather simulation model to estimate PMP across various durations and areas over the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River Basin in the southeastern United States. Six sets of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model experiments driven by both reanalysis and global climate model projections, with a total of 120 storms, were conducted. The depth-area-duration relationship was derived for each set of WRF simulations and compared with the conventional PMP estimates. Our results showed that PMP driven by projected future climate forcings is higher than 1981-2010 baseline values by around 20% in the 2021-2050 near-future and 44% in the 2071-2100 far-future periods. The additional sensitivity simulations of background air temperature warming also showed an enhancement of PMP, suggesting that atmospheric warming could be one important factor controlling the increase in PMP. In light of the projected increase in precipitation extremes under a warming environment, the reasonableness and role of PMP deserve more in-depth examination.

  20. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  1. Possible cause for an improbable earthquake: The 1997 Mw 4.9 southern Alabama earthquake and hydrocarbon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Wolf, Lorraine

    1999-04-01

    Circumstantial and physical evidence indicates that the 1997 Mw 4.9 earthquake in southern Alabama may have been related to hydrocarbon recovery. Epicenters of this earthquake and its aftershocks were located within a few kilometers of active oil and gas extraction wells and two pressurized injection wells. Main shock and aftershock focal depths (2 6 km) are within a few kilometers of the injection and withdrawal depths. Strain accumulation at geologic rates sufficient to cause rupture at these shallow focal depths is not likely. A paucity of prior seismicity is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of an earthquake of Mw 4.9 and a magnitude-frequency relationship usually assumed for natural earthquakes. The normal-fault main-shock mechanism is consistent with reactivation of preexisting faults in the regional tectonic stress field. If the earthquake were purely tectonic, however, the question arises as to why it occurred on only the small fraction of a large, regional fault system coinciding with active hydrocarbon recovery. No obvious temporal correlation is apparent between the earthquakes and recovery activities. Although thus far little can be said quantitatively about the physical processes that may have caused the 1997 sequence, a plausible explanation involves the poroelastic response of the crust to extraction of hydrocarbons.

  2. A spatial resolution threshold of land cover in estimating terrestrial carbon sequestration in four counties in Georgia and Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.Q.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in carbon density (i.e., carbon stock per unit area) and land cover greatly affect carbon sequestration. Previous studies have shown that land cover change detection strongly depends on spatial scale. However, the influence of the spatial resolution of land cover change information on the estimated terrestrial carbon sequestration is not known. Here, we quantified and evaluated the impact of land cover change databases at various spatial resolutions (250 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, and 4 km) on the magnitude and spatial patterns of regional carbon sequestration in four counties in Georgia and Alabama using the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). Results indicated a threshold of 1 km in the land cover change databases and in the estimated regional terrestrial carbon sequestration. Beyond this threshold, significant biases occurred in the estimation of terrestrial carbon sequestration, its interannual variability, and spatial patterns. In addition, the overriding impact of interannual climate variability on the temporal change of regional carbon sequestration was unrealistically overshadowed by the impact of land cover change beyond the threshold. The implications of these findings directly challenge current continental- to global-scale carbon modeling efforts relying on information at coarse spatial resolution without incorporating fine-scale land cover dynamics.

  3. Tipos de resistência a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae envolvidos em genótipos de algodoeiro: II. Antibiose Evaluation of cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: II. Antibiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVEMAR FERREIRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência do tipo de resistência antibiose em genótipos de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em relação a Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818, em experimentos de laboratório (27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 14 horas. Folhas dos genótipos T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21 e CNPA 9211-31 foram fornecidas às larvas, diariamente, verificando-se a duração de cada fase do inseto, avaliando-se a massa de larvas aos 3 e aos 8 dias de idade, a massa de pupas e as porcentagens de mortalidade larval, pré-pupal e pupal. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, cada uma com dez larvas/genótipo. Em comparação com STO 285 N, todos os genótipos provocaram períodos mais longos de larva a adulto em A. argillacea; entretanto, os menores valores de massa de larvas com 3 dias e de massa média de pupas, e os maiores valores de duração do período larval e de mortalidade de larva a adulto foram verificados em CNPA 9211-31 e CNPA 9211-21, evidenciando que antibiose é um dos tipos de resistência presentes em ambos os genótipos.Cotton genotypes resistance to Alabama argillacea (Huebner, 1818 due to antibiosis has been evaluated in laboratory trials (at 27 ± 2oC, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14 hours photoperiod. Six different genetic materials (T 1122-13-1, STO 285 N, JPM 157, T 953-13-4-2, CNPA 9211-21, and CNPA 9211-31 have been tested in a completely randomized experimental design, with ten replications, each one with ten larvae/genotype. Larvae have been supplied with leaves daily. The following variables have been scored: time length of several insect stages (from larvae to adult, average mass of larvae and pupae as well as average larval, pre-pupal and pupal mortality rates. All genotypes have revealed longer overall average time length of stage duration from larvae to adult, as compared to STO 285 N; however, CNPA 9211-31 and CNPA 9211-21 have

  4. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  5. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    An historical analysis of images and documents shows that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are undergoing rapid land loss and translocation. The barrier island chain formed and grew at a time when there was a surplus of sand in the alongshore sediment transport system, a condition that no longer prevails. The islands, except Cat, display alternating wide and marrow segments. Wide segments generally were products of low rates of inlet migration and spit elongation that resulted in well-defined ridges and swales formed by wave refraction along the inlet margins. In contrast, rapid rates of inlet migration and spit elongation under conditions of surplus sand produced low, narrow, straight barrier segments. Since the mid 1800s, average rates of land loss for all the MS islands accelerated systematically while maintaining consistency from island to island. In contrast, Dauphin Island, off the Alabama coast, gained land during the early 20th century and then began to lose land at rates comparable to those of the MS barriers. There is an inverse relationship between island size and percentage of land reduction for each barrier such that Horn Island lost 24% and Ship Island lost 64% of its area since the mid 1800s. Ship Island is particularly vulnerable to storm-driven land losses because topographic and bathymetric boundary conditions focus wave energy onto the island. The three predominant morphodynamic processes associated with land loss are: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition, (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of the Gulf and Soundside shores, and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. The western three fourths of Dauphin Island are migrating landward as a result of storms that erode the Gulf shore, overwash the island, and deposit sand in Mississippi Sound. Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Islands have migrated westward as a result of predominant

  6. Environmental setting and water-quality issues of the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Kidd, Robert E.; Journey, Celeste; Zappia, Humbert; Atkins, J. Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is one of over 50 river basins and aquifer systems being investigated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This basin is the sixth largest river basin in the United States, and fourth largest in terms of streamflow, encompassing parts of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Almost two-thirds of the 44,000-square-mile basin is located in Alabama. Extensive water resources of the Mobile River Basin are influenced by an array of natural and cultural factors. These factors impart unique and variable qualities to the streams, rivers, and aquifers providing abundant habitat to sustain the diverse aquatic life in the basin. Data from Federal, State, and local agencies provide a description of the environmental setting of the Mobile River Basin. Environmental data include natural factors such as physiography, geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecoregions, and aquatic ecology, and human factors such as reservoirs, land use and population change, water use, and water-quality issues. Characterization of the environmental setting is useful for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water in the Mobile River Basin and the possible implications of that environmental setting for water quality. The Mobile River Basin encompasses parts of five physiographic provinces. Fifty-six percent of the basin lies within the East Gulf section of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province. The remaining northeastern part of the basin lies, from west to east, within the Cumberland Plateau section of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, the Piedmont Physiographic Province, and the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province. Based on the 1991 land-use data, about 70 percent of the basin is forested, while agriculture, including livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine), row crops (cotton, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and

  7. Streamflow, water-quality, and biological conditions in the Big Black Creek basin, St. Clair County, Alabama, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Clark, Amy E.; Stricklin, Victor E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997 synoptic streamflow, water-quality, and biological investi- gations in the Big Black Creek Basin were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Moody, St. Clair County, and the Birmingham Water Works Board. Data obtained during these synoptic investigations provide a one-time look at the streamflow and water-quality conditions in the Big Black Creek Basin during a stable, base-flow period when streamflow originated only from ground-water discharge. These data were used to assess the degree of water-quality degradation in the Big Black Creek Basin from land-use activities in the basin, including leakage of leachate from the Acmar Regional Land- fill. Biological data from the benthic invertebrate community investigation provided an assessment of the cumulative effects of stream conditions on organisms in the basin. The synoptic measurement of streamflow at 28 sites was made during a period of baseflow on August 27, 1997. Two stream reaches above the landfill lost water to the ground-water system, but those below the landfill had significantly higher ground-water gains. If significant leakage of leachate from the landfill had occurred during the measurement period, the distribution of ground-water discharge suggests that leachate would travel relatively short distances before resurfacing as ground-water discharge to the stream. Benthic invertebrate communities were sampled at four sites in the Big Black Creek Basin during July 16-17, 1997. Based on Alabama Department of Environmental Management criteria and on comparison with a nearby unimparied reference site, the benthic invertebrate communities at the sites sampled were considered unimpaired or only slightly impaired during the sample period. This would imply that landfill and coal-mining activities did not have a detrimental effect on the benthic invertebrate communities at the time of the study. Synoptic water-column samples were collected at nine sites on Big Black Creek and

  8. Relation between flow and temporal variations of nitrate and pesticides in two karst springs in northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two karst springs in the Mississippian Carbonate Aquifer of northern Alabama were sampled between March 1999 and March 2001 to characterize the variability in concentration of nitrate, pesticides, selected pesticide degradates, water temperature, and inorganic constituents. Water temperature and inorganic ion data for McGeehee Spring indicate that this spring represents a shallow flow system with a relatively short average ground-water residence time. Water issuing from the larger of the two springs, Meridianville Spring, maintained a constant temperature, and inorganic ion data indicate that this water represents a deeper flow system having a longer average ground-water residence time than McGeehee Spring. Although water-quality data indicate differing short-term responses to rainfall at the two springs, the seasonal variation of nitrate and pesticide concentrations generally is similar for the two springs. With the exception of pesticides detected at low concentrations, the coefficient of variation for most constituent concentrations was less than that of flow at both springs, with greater variability in concentration at McGeehee Spring. Degradates of the herbicides atrazine and fluometuron were detected at concentrations comparable to or greater than the parent pesticides. Decreases in concentration of the principal degradate of fluometuron from about July to November indicate that the degradation rate may decrease as fluometuron (demethylfluometuron) moves deeper into the soil after application. Data collected during the study show that from about November to March when recharge rates increase, nitrate and residual pesticides in the soil, unsaturated zone, and storage within the aquifer are transported to the spring discharges. Because of the increase in recharge, fluometuron loads discharged from the springs during the winter were comparable to loads discharged at the springs during the growing season. ?? 2008 American Water Resources Association.

  9. Heavy metal levels in ribbon snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) and anuran larvae from the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J; Abalos, M; Rice, T M

    2007-11-01

    The Mobile-Tensaw River Delta (MTD) drains more than 75% of the state of Alabama and leads into Mobile Bay and the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Although it is a relatively healthy watershed, the MTD is potentially impacted by inputs of contaminants such as heavy metals. The levels of lead, copper, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole body samples of Eastern Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) collected from the MTD. Lead, copper, and cadmium levels were also measured in anuran larvae (Rana catesbeiana, R. clamitans, and Hyla cinerea). These organisms were chosen because they are abundant in the MTD and are underrepresented in environmental contaminant biomonitoring studies. Ribbon snakes had significantly lower levels of lead, copper, and cadmium compared to whole body levels in anuran larvae, indicating that these metals were not biomagnifying through upper trophic levels. Copper and mercury levels were significantly correlated with age/growth indices in ribbon snakes. Although detectable levels of all metals were found in anuran larvae and ribbon snakes, these levels appear to be less than body burdens that would be associated with toxic effects. Populations of ribbon snakes in our particular collection sites within the MTD appear to be at minimal risk of exposure to toxic levels of metals. However, the MTD contains low- and high-impact areas, and other populations within this watershed could be at higher risk of exposure to heavy metals. We found the Eastern Ribbon Snake to be an excellent snake model for contaminant biomonitoring because of its abundance, reasonable size, and ease of collection.

  10. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds by GC-MS in Rural Alabama during the 2013 SOAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, A.; Olson, K. F.; De Gouw, J. A.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a large class of chemicals that are emitted into the atmosphere by both human and natural biological activity. VOCs are comprised of both precursor compounds that drive oxidation chemistry and oxidation products. Extensive measurements of VOCs can help determine the relationships between precursor and secondary compounds, and the relative effects of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on climate and air quality. The Southeastern US is a region of particular research interest, as it is strongly affected by both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs. As part of the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol intensive study (SOAS), an in-situ gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was deployed at a forested site in rural Alabama. This site was dominated by biogenic emissions, but was also subject to anthropogenic influence. The GC-MS measured a large number of primary and secondary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in the C2 to C11 range, with a time resolution of 30 minutes. Measured compounds of particular interest include isoprene, speciated monoterpenes, methylvinylketone (MVK), methacrolein, C2 to C11 alkanes, lightweight unsaturated hydrocarbons including ethene, propene, and acetylene, C6 to C9 aromatics, C1 to C7 oxygenated VOCS (alcohols, ketones, aldehydes), halogenated VOCs, acetonitrile, and several sulfur-containing compounds. A summary of these measurements will be presented. This summary will include characterization of various anthropogenic and biogenic sources sampled at the site, relationships of the most important VOCs to basic meteorological conditions, and diurnal profiles that illustrate shifts in photochemistry and emissions. These GCMS measurements will provide key information for constraints in models and to aid in the interpretation of data from other instruments.

  11. Timing and duration of biotic extinction and recovery at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Texas and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Andrew; Hart, Malcolm; Hampton, Matt; Leng, Melanie; Smart, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary successions in Texas and Alabama provide a sedimentary record of events relatively close to the Chicxulub impact site. Recent work in both areas has shown that there was a single 'impact' event that is coincident with extinctions of planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil, although the dinoflagellate cyst community was little affected. The benthic foraminifera in the Texas successions are, remarkably, little affected with many taxa being found in both the Corsicana Mudstone Formation (uppermost Maastrichtian) and the Kincaid Mudstone Formation (lowermost Paleocene). In the sediments just above the erosive surface that marks the 'impact' event (and the K/Pg boundary) there are large benthic foraminifera, including nodosariids <1.5 mm in length and lenticulinids <1.5 mm in diameter. This assemblage is rather unusual, and we have been unable to determine any modern, or fossil, equivalent. As Lenticulina rotulata Lamarck occurs throughout the succession, this taxon has been used for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) of a range of different size fractions. The results show both a variation in oxygen and carbon isotope values with size as well as a distinct cyclicity which, almost certainly, reflects astronomical tuning. It is possible, therefore, to use this cyclicity to determine the possible duration of zones P0 and Pα (80-100 kyrs), and the timing of biotic recovery following the 'impact' event. The size of the stable isotope excursions (close to the base of zone P1a) is indicative of the Dan-C2 and the Lower 29n hyperthermal events, allowing direct correlation with the two other locations where these have been described: most notably in the Gubbio succession where there is also a good record of the magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy.

  12. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in skinless, boneless retail broiler meat from 2005 through 2011 in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Aretha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 755 skinless, boneless retail broiler meat samples (breast, tenderloins and thighs collected from food stores in Alabama, USA, from 2005 through 2011 was examined. Campylobacter spp. were isolated using enrichment and plate media. Isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Data were analyzed by nominal variables (brand, plant, product, season, state and store that may affect the prevalence of these bacteria. Results The average prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat for these years was 41%, with no statistical differences in the prevalence by year (P > 0.05. Seasons did not affect the prevalence of C. jejuni but statistically affected the prevalence of C. coli (P P P C. coli and C. jejuni had an average prevalence of 28% and 66%, respectively. The prevalence of C. coli varied by brand, plant, season, state, store and year, while the prevalence of C. jejuni varied by brand, product, state and store. Tenderloins had a lower prevalence of Campylobacter spp. than breasts and thighs (P P > 0.05 were observed in the prevalence of C. jejuni by season, the lowest prevalence of C. coli was recorded from October through March. A large diversity of PFGE profiles was found for C. jejuni, with some profiles from the same processing plants reappearing throughout the years. Conclusions The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. did not change during the seven years of the study; however, it did change when analyzed by brand, product and state. Seasons did not affect the prevalence of C. jejuni, but they did affect the prevalence of C. coli. Larger PFGE databases are needed to assess the temporal reoccurrence of PFGE profiles to help predict the risk associated with each profile.

  14. Effect of Native American ancestry on iron-related phenotypes of Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Ellen H

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In age-matched cohorts of screening study participants recruited from primary care clinics, mean serum transferrin saturation values were significantly lower and mean serum ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in Native Americans than in whites. Twenty-eight percent of 80 Alabama white hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity previously reported having Native American ancestry, but the possible effect of this ancestry on hemochromatosis phenotypes was unknown. Methods We compiled observations in these 80 probands and used univariate and multivariate methods to analyze associations of age, sex, Native American ancestry (as a dichotomous variable, report of ethanol consumption (as a dichotomous variable, percentage transferrin saturation and loge serum ferritin concentration at diagnosis, quantities of iron removed by phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy. Results In a univariate analysis in which probands were grouped by sex, there were no significant differences in reports of ethanol consumption, transferrin saturation, loge serum ferritin concentration, quantities of iron removed to achieve iron depletion, and quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy in probands who reported Native American ancestry than in those who did not. In multivariate analyses, transferrin saturation (as a dependent variable was not significantly associated with any of the available variables, including reports of Native American ancestry and ethanol consumption. The independent variable quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy was significantly associated with loge serum ferritin used as a dependent variable (p e serum ferritin was the only independent variable significantly associated with quantities of excess iron removed by phlebotomy used as a dependent variable (p Conclusion We conclude that the iron-related phenotypes of hemochromatosis probands with HFE

  15. Regulation of eutrophication susceptibility in oligohaline regions of a northern Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehrter, John C. [Dauphin Island Sea Lab, University of Alabama, 101 Bienville Boulevard, Dauphin Island, AL 36528 (United States)], E-mail: lehrter.john@epa.gov

    2008-08-15

    The factors regulating the eutrophication susceptibility of seven oligohaline regions in the sub-estuaries of Mobile Bay, Alabama were examined in a comparative analysis. The oligohaline regions differed primarily by the dominant land-use of their upstream watersheds, with two of the regions being primarily urban, two being primarily agricultural, and three being primarily forested. A stepwise model selection procedure was used to determine a suite of multiple regression models describing eutrophication response, in terms of a chlorophyll a (chla) on a sampling event basis, in relation to estuarine mixing time scales, nutrient concentrations, light availability, and watershed delivery of freshwater and nutrients. The models indicated a strong positive relationship between chla and mixing time scales (i.e., residence time or freshwater flushing time). Mixing time scales longer than five days allowed maximum chla (64 {mu}g l{sup -1}), while lowest chla (<1 {mu}g l{sup -1}) occurred when mixing time scales were less than two days. Of the watershed inputs, chla exhibited opposing relationships with the components of freshwater load, having a negative relationship with discharge and a positive relationship with incoming freshwater nitrogen concentrations. Estuarine phosphorus concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation were also found to be good descriptors of chla. The comparative approach employed here allowed for the development of empirical models that were used to determine the nutrient concentration reductions required to achieve a trophic state of <20 {mu}g l{sup -1} chla. The average reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus needed to achieve this trophic state ranged from 0 to 32%.

  16. Lightning characteristics relative to radar, altitude and temperature for a multicell, MCS and supercell over northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, Retha M.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2017-07-01

    Cloud electrification leads to the production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which has an effect on ozone concentrations. Currently large uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of lightning to the global and local NOx budget, even on a per flash basis. Most lightning NOx (LNOx) models distribute the LNOx at reflectivities (Z) ≥ 20 dBZ in the horizontal, while vertically, a Gaussian distribution function with a peak at - 15 °C is used for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and a bimodal distribution function with peaks at - 15 °C and - 45 °C is used for inter- and intra-cloud (IC) flashes. This research aims to improve our basic understanding of lightning location relative to radar Z as a function of storm and flash type. Using data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) and the Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor data suite, the results from analyzing a multicell storm, mesoscale convective system and supercell storm showed that 29.7%, 15.9% and 6.9% of all flashes initiated in regions where Z lightning initiation distribution for IC flashes was also not observed for any of the three storms. In addition, it is shown that when incorporating the propagation of the flash, the percentage of NALMA lightning sources located in regions where Z < 20 dBZ increases. Finally, when comparing flash types, the results show that Hybrid flashes have consistently larger sizes than IC and CG flashes, while IC and Hybrid flashes tend to have more sources located at Z < 20 dBZ than CG flashes.

  17. Treating Lennox–Gastaut syndrome in epileptic pediatric patients with third-generation rufinamide

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Jessica Gresham1, Lea S Eiland2,3, Allison M Chung2,41Auburn University, Harrison School of Pharmacy (AUHSOP), 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, AUHSOP, 3University of Alabama, School of Medicine, Huntsville Regional Medical Campus, 4University of South Alabama School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Mobile, Alabama, USAAbstract: Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare but debilitating pediatric epileptic encephalopathy characterized by multiple intractable seizure types. Trea...

  18. The 2014 Surgeon General's report: commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General and updating the evidence on the health consequences of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J; Shopland, Donald R; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-02-15

    The question of whether cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer was central to the expansion of epidemiology into the study of chronic diseases in the 1950s. The culmination of this era was the 1964 report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, a landmark document that included an objective synthesis of the evidence of the health consequences of smoking according to causal criteria. The report concluded that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer in men and sufficient in scope that "remedial action" was warranted at the societal level. The 2014 Surgeon General's report commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1964 report. The evidence on the health consequences of smoking has been updated many times in Surgeon General's reports since 1964. These have summarized our increasingly greater understanding of the broad spectrum of the deleterious health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke across most major organ systems. In turn, this evidence has been translated into tobacco control strategies implemented to protect the public's health. The Surgeon General report process is an enduring example of evidence-based public health in practice. Substantial progress has been made, but cigarette smoking remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time.

  19. A partnership approach to providing on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees: a pilot study from Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Lichtenstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV in the United States is concentrated in the South, an impoverished region with marked health disparities and high rates of incarceration, particularly among African Americans. In the Deep South state of Alabama, a policy directive to reduce prison overcrowding has diverted large numbers of convicted felons to community supervision. Probation and parole offices have yet to provide the HIV education and testing services that are offered in state prisons. This study sought to implement on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees through an intersectoral programme involving law enforcement, university and HIV agency employees. The three main objectives were to (1 involve probation/parole officers in planning, execution and assessment of the programme, (2 provide HIV education to the officers and (3 offer voluntary pretest HIV counselling and testing to probationers and parolees. Methods: The partnered programme was conducted between October and December 2015. Offenders who were recently sentenced to probation (“new offenders”, received HIV education during orientation. Offenders already under supervision prior to the programme (“current offenders” learned about the on-site services during scheduled office visits. Outcomes were measured through officer assessments, informal feedback and uptake of HIV services among offenders. Results: A total of 86 new and 249 current offenders reported during the programme (N=335. Almost one-third (31.4% of new offenders sought HIV testing, while only 3.2% of current offenders were screened for HIV. Refusals among current offenders invoked monogamy, time pressures, being tested in prison, fear of positive test results and concerns about being labelled as gay or unfaithful to women partners. Officers rated the programme as worthwhile and feasible to implement at other offices. Conclusions: The partnership approach ensured support from law enforcement and intersectoral cooperation

  20. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, July 13, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Westphal, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On July 13, 2013, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, aboard a Cessna 172 flying at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The images provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTtool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segements can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, name, date, and time each of the 1242 photographs taken along with links to each photograph. The photography is organized into segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. (Also see the Photos and Maps page). In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then

  1. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, August 8, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Westphal, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 8, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Cessna 172 at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The images provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. Exiftool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segements can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, name, date, and time each of the 1241 photographs taken along with links to each photograph. The photography is organized into segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. (Also see the Photos and Maps page). In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking

  2. 改革开放以来抗日战争胜利纪念活动述论%The Survey of Commemoration of the Victory of the Anti-Japanese War since Reform and Opening up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 白杨洋

    2016-01-01

    The Government Administration Council made September 3rd the anniversary of the victory of the Anti-Japa-nese War after the founding of People’ s Republic of China. Since China’ s reform and opening up, the state and society have been holding all kinds of commemoration on the anniversary of the victory of the Anti-Japanese war, especially every ten an-niversaries. The activities mainly include convening memorial meeting or symposium, publishing editorial or commemorative articles, developing cultural and recreational activities and so on. The social functions of the anniversary contain four aspects:First, bearing in mind the lessons of history, emphasizing the propaganda against the historical memory, national humiliation, peaceful experience;second, for political mobilization, it is able to mobilize the whole people to participate in the socialist construction, concentrate on the cause of reform and opening-up, and devote themselves to Chinese nation’ s great rejuve-nation;then, shaping the national image, it lays stress on China’ s contribution to the world’ s anti-fascist war, the mainstay role of the Chinese Communist Party in the Anti-Japanese War and the great spiritual wealth which formed in the war against Japan;last but not least, coordinating the relationship, like China and the world, the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Ma-cao, also between Communist Party and Kuomintang Party.%新中国成立后,政务院即确定每年的9月3日为抗日战争胜利纪念日。改革开放后,每当抗战胜利纪念日,尤其“逢十”纪念之期,国家和社会均会举行各式各样的纪念活动。这些活动主要有召开纪念大会或座谈会,发表社论或纪念文章,开展文化艺术活动等。抗战胜利纪念的社会功能包括:第一,铭记历史事实,宣传国耻记忆、抗争历史、和平经验;第二,进行政治动员,动员全国人民参与社会主义建设、投身改革开放事业、献力中

  3. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. HYDROLOGY, HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, COVINGTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA ORTHOIMAGERY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  7. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  8. Tabulated Transmissivity and Storage Properties of the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida and Parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Bellino, Jason C.

    2012-04-19

    A goal of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program is to assess the availability of fresh water within each of the principal aquifers in the United States with the greatest groundwater withdrawals. The Floridan aquifer system (FAS), which covers an area of approximately 100,000 square miles in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina, is one such principal aquifer, having the fifth largest groundwater withdrawals in the Nation, totaling 3.64 billion gallons per day in 2000. Compilation of FAS hydraulic properties is critical to the development and calibration of groundwater flow models that can be used to develop water budgets spatially and temporally, as well as to evaluate resource changes over time. Wells with aquifer test data were identified as Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA), Floridan aquifer system (FAS, Upper Floridan with some middle and/or Lower Floridan), or middle Floridan confining unit (MCU), based on the identification from the original database or report description, or comparison of the open interval of the well with previously published maps.This report consolidates aquifer hydraulic property data obtained from multiple databases and reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, various State agencies, and the Water Management Districts of Florida, that are compiled into tables to provide a single information source for transmissivity and storage properties of the FAS as of October 2011. Transmissivity calculated from aquifer pumping tests and specific-capacity data are included. Values for transmissivity and storage coefficients are intended for use in regional or sub regional groundwater flow models; thus, any tests (aquifer pumping tests and specific capacity data) that were conducted with packers or for open intervals less than 30 feet in length are excluded from the summary statistics and tables of this report, but are included in the database.The transmissivity distribution

  9. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  10. Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  11. Historical changes in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier-island chain and the roles of extreme storms, sea level, and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Barrier-island chains worldwide are undergoing substantial changes, and their futures remain uncertain. An historical analysis of a barrier-island chain in the north-central Gulf of Mexico shows that the Mississippi barriers are undergoing rapid systematic land loss and translocation associated with: (1) unequal lateral transfer of sand related to greater updrift erosion compared to downdrift deposition; (2) barrier narrowing resulting from simultaneous erosion of shores along the Gulf and Mississippi Sound; and (3) barrier segmentation related to storm breaching. Dauphin Island, Alabama, is also losing land for some of the same reasons as it gradually migrates landward. The principal causes of land loss are frequent intense storms, a relative rise in sea level, and a sediment-budget deficit. Considering the predicted trends for storms and sea level related to global warming, it is certain that the Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands will continue to lose land area at a rapid rate unless the trend of at least one causal factor reverses. Historical land-loss trends and engineering records show that progressive increases in land-loss rate correlate with nearly simultaneous deepening of channels dredged across the outer bars of the three tidal inlets maintained for deep-draft shipping. This correlation indicates that channel-maintenance activities along the MS-AL barriers have impacted the sediment budget by disrupting the alongshore sediment transport system and progressively reducing sand supply. Direct management of this causal factor can be accomplished by strategically placing dredged sediment where adjacent barrier-island shores will receive it for island nourishment and rebuilding.

  12. Single-Beam Bathymetry Data Collected in 2015 nearshore Dauphin Island, Alabama, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These data are in the North American Datum 1983 (NAD83) for horizontal component, and the North American Vertical Datum 1988 (NAVD88) with respect to GEOID12A, and Mean Low or Lower Water (MLLW) for the vertical components.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dauphin Island, Alabama is a barrier island located in the Gulf of Mexico that supports local residence, tourism, commercial infrastructure, and the historical Fort...

  13. Contributions of the National Institute of Nuclear Research to the advance of Science and Technology in Mexico. Commemorative edition 2010; Contribuciones del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares al avance de la ciencia y la tecnologia en Mexico. Edicion conmemorativa 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque M, G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Romero H, S.; Serment G, J. (ed.) [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    From the second decade of the X X century the applications of the nuclear energy have been important part of the scientific and technological patrimony in Mexico. Records exist with regard to the use of the radioisotopes and the radiations in our country in that time, and in a formal way until the year of 1950, in a process that culminates with the creation of the Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN. January 1, 1956). In January 12, 1972 were published the Organic Law that created to the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, being responsible for the works that the CNEN developed. The current Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) was constituted starting from the Regulation Law of the constitutional Article 27 in nuclear matter of January 26, 1979, abrogated and substituted by the Law in force of February 4, 1985. In this lapse they were undertaken multitude of projects with results and diverse achievements. From their creation, the mission of the ININ and the previous institutions has been to realize research in science and nuclear technology, to promote their peaceful uses and to diffuse the achieved advances, always searching for to link them to the economic, social, scientific and technological development of the country. In this occasion with the purpose of participating in the commemoration of the bicentennial of the independence and centennial of the Mexican revolution in our country, the ININ decided to publish this work, directed to a wide public, with the intention of providing a vision the most complete and appropriate possible of the activities in research and technology that it is carries out at the moment. This work also seeks to be a diffusion instrument of the tasks that they are carried out in the institute, in diverse subjects as: the basic research, the nuclear applications in the health, the agriculture and the industry, the studies on the contamination and the environment; the dosimetry; the radiological protection; as

  14. Archive of Digitized Analog Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected from the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida Shelf During Cruises Onboard the R/V Kit Jones, June 1990 and July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Jordan M.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Wiese, Dana S.; Flocks, James G.

    2009-01-01

    In June of 1990 and July of 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the shallow geologic framework of the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico, from Mississippi Sound to the Florida Panhandle. Work was done onboard the Mississippi Mineral Resources Institute R/V Kit Jones as part of a project to study coastal erosion and offshore sand resources. This report is part of a series to digitally archive the legacy analog data collected from the Mississippi-Alabama SHelf (MASH). The MASH data rescue project is a cooperative effort by the USGS and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). This report serves as an archive of high-resolution scanned Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images of the original boomer paper records, navigation files, trackline maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, cruise logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  15. Post-Hurricane Isaac coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands, September 2–3, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 2-3, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands aboard a Cessna 172 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Isaac data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2008 (central Louisiana barrier islands) and June 2011 (Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana), and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on

  16. Carrying Forward the Spirit of the 1911 Revolution, Creating an Atmosphere of Commemoration: The 1911 Revolution Museum [New] Architectural Design%营造纪念氛围展现首义精神——武汉辛亥革命博物馆(新馆)创作构思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓明; 郭雷; 李鸣宇

    2011-01-01

    辛亥革命是中国历史上具有深远影响和特殊政治意义的事件.辛亥革命博物馆(新馆)方案依其特有的历史、地理环境,进行了独特的设计构思:以展现首义精神为主线,强调纪念氛围的营造,塑造庄严肃穆的空间形象.%The 1911 Revolution had a profound effect and special political significance in Chinese History. The project of the 1911 Revolution Museum (New) was of a special design concept according to this special history and geographic conditions. It carried forward the spirit of the 1911 Revolution as the mainline, put emphasis upon the creation of an atmosphere of commemoration, and pursued the solemn and respectful image of space.

  17. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1982-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes not treated on site were temporarily stored before shipment for at sea incineration. In-situ fixation was carried out on corrosive, acidic, and heavy metal containing liquids. Liquid wastes were removed and eventually pumped into a pit where they were mixed with cement kiln dust. Drum stored wastes intended for landfilling were transported by front end loaders to the site. Heavy equipment operators were protected from exposure to dust by environmental cabs. Air and medical monitoring were performed on landfill, laboratory, and maintenance shop workers. Hard hats, goggles, and safety shoes were required at the landfill. Respirators and other protective equipment and clothing were available. The author concludes that the company management is concerned about the health and safety of the employees. An in depth survey is recommended.

  18. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)], E-mail: jhinck@usgs.gov; Norstrom, Ross J. [RJN Environmental, 1481 Forest Valley Drive, Ottawa, ON K1C 5P5 (Canada); Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E. [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area.

  19. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  20. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.