WorldWideScience

Sample records for huntington wildlife forest

  1. Controlling Factors of Long-Term Trends in Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations at Huntington Wildlife Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.03) from 2000 to 2013 in volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study aimed to investigate the climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors that influenced the decadal pattern in Hg wet deposition in upstate NY. In spring and summer, when Hg wet deposition was the strongest, significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 in spring; r2 = 0.58, p = 0.002 in summer) of Hg wet deposition with precipitation was found. Increases in precipitation during these seasons could offset the decreasing of Hg concentration in precipitation. Besides, springtime positive correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.02) between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index together with geopotential height and wind speed analysis indicated that large-scale dynamical forcing was likely an important factor influencing the long term trend in springtime Hg wet deposition at HWF. To further quantify the roles of meteorological and anthropogenic factors in Hg wet deposition, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed using an algorithm depicting state-of-the-art Hg chemistry mechanism and up-to-date Hg emission inventories evaluated with MDN and Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) measurement data. CMAQ simulations with a constant vs. realistic meteorological conditions for multiple warm seasons (including spring and summer) were used to characterize and quantify the impacts of inter-annual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation on Hg wet deposition. In addition, contributions to Hg wet deposition from decreases in anthropogenic emissions in NYS and nation-wide were quantified from

  2. Characterization of the Montane Huntington Wildlife Forest Ecosystem Using Machine Learning Approaches from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manqi

    Montane forests are susceptible to various stressors such as land use and climate change. Consequently, research on characterizing montane forest ecosystems should be conducted on a continuous basis for sustainable forest management. In this research, forest type mapping and change analysis, and biomass/carbon stock quantification were performed over a mountainous forest located in the central Adirondack Park, NY, by employing machine learning techniques at the plot level. Multi-temporal Landsat TM data were used to classify forest type cover and to detect forest cover changes for the past 20 years. Forest biomass and carbon stock quantification was then performed using full waveform LiDAR data collected in September 2011. Accuracies from the two case studies were in support of the versatility of machine learning approaches for forest and ecological investigation. Topographic characteristics affected the classification accuracy as well as the forest type change for the past 20 years. LiDAR-derived metrics, especially height-based ones, proved useful for quantifying biomass/carbon stock. Keywords: Landsat TM, full waveform LiDAR, forest classification, forest change analysis, biomass, carbon stock, machine learning

  3. Forest Management Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the refuge management objectives, forest description, forest...

  4. Forest Management Plan : Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  5. Forest Management Plan Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  6. Forest Management Plan : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Seney National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the management objectives, forest descriptions and silviculture of various...

  7. Forest Management Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  8. Wildlife and forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  9. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    The temperate climate, productive soils, and lush forests of the South support an abundant and diverse wildlife community. But these forests and the wildlife that inhabit them have never been stable. They have continually been molded by a variety of forces. Early, during the Pleistocene period, drastic periodic climatic shifts wrought wholesale changes to the nature...

  10. Forest Management Plan : Upper Mississippi River Wildlife & Fish Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the refuge management objectives, forest...

  11. Forest Management Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The forested areas of Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge (1,150 acres) are representative of a one to two mile wide band of oak-dominated forest that straddles much...

  12. Forest Bird Demographic Monitoring: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (Hakalau) is a critical stronghold for 3 endangered, 1 ESA candidate species, and 4 other endemic Hawaiian forest birds....

  13. Forest Management Plan Area 1 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objective on Area l at Erie National Wildlife Refuge is to increase forest diversity in order to benefit all indigenous species with primary...

  14. Forest Management Plan : Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This forest management plan for Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge covers treatments, cutting and burning schedules for compartments within the NWR.

  15. Forest Management Plan for Bayou Cocodrie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bayou Cocodrie NWR Forest Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing forest habitat for the resources of concern at Bayou...

  16. Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Hakalau Forest NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  17. Forest Management Plan for the Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish guidelines which will make the bestuse of available management techniques, to provide suitable forested habitatfor native...

  18. Forest Management Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The forest management plan outlines steps that will support the following refuge goals: 1) to provide habitat far nesting and migratory waterfowl, 2) to provide,...

  19. Forest Management Prescription : Compartment 9 : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Forest Management Prescription for Compartment 9 of Mingo NWR. It provides a description of the compartment, management objectives, proposed management...

  20. Forest Management Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This chapter consists of two sections. Section 1 pertains to the general management of the forest and will 11 be updated as new inventory data is obtained. Section 2...

  1. Forest Management Plan James River National Wildlife Refuge 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Forest Management Plan is a long term (80 year) document presents the specific silviculture prescriptions to transform the maximum amount of habitat within the...

  2. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Forest Habitat Management Plan, December 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest...

  3. Klamath Forest, National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Forest NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  4. Forest Management Plan: Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Horicon National Wildlife Refuge consists of 20,979 acres of which 15,573 acres is march and 5,406 acres is upland. The majority of the woodlots on the refuge...

  5. Refuge Management Plan, Part III : Chapter 2 : Forest Management Plan : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tamarac NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  6. An Evaluation of White River National Wildlife Refuge's Forest Habitat Management Program : Review Team Report : July 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White River National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest...

  7. Forest habitat management prescription: Compartment #1: Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: FY '86

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge's forest habitat management prescription for compartment 1 is the first time this area has been entered under the new...

  8. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977. map also contains locations of know RCW trees in the compartment.

  9. Forest development in Southeast Alaska: Issues concerning the Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper provides an overview of forest development in southeast Alaska and examines the trends in FWS opportunities for affecting forest development decisions.

  10. Wildlife species composition in various forest types on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmana, C.; Manshur, A.; Rusdian, O.; Putro, H. R.; Hakim, F.; Ermyanyla, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sebuku is one of the small islands in South Kalimantan Provincehaving various forest types with high potential economic in mining sector. Based on it’s business permit, the island has been divided up into several mining concessions. So that biological diversity studies in this island is an interesting in order to serve biological baseline data if someday this island to be extractedfor mining. This research was conducted on 28th November to 5th December 2015 aims to explore wildlife species inhabit mangrove forest, beach forest, and lowland forest usinga rectangle transect (40 x 1000 meter) in each forest type. The results show there are 90 wildlife species identified in Sebuku Island. The beach forest has the highest wildlife species richness (36 species), while the area having the highest protected wildlife species isthe lowland forest. Mangrove forests generally have a lower wildlife species richness. Nevertheless, in Sebuku Island, can be found mangrove forest that have a quite high wildlife species richness (28 species, 50% protected). It is due to silt sedimentation in the estuary area, so that this area become feeding ground for shore and migratory birds.

  11. Assessment of Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Poba Reserved Forest, Dhemaji District, Assam (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswar Pegu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts from 1971-2013 in Poba Reserved Forest is presented here. Data collection included interview, records of forest department and participant observation. There is an increasing trend of human-wildlife conflict in Poba RF. Encroachment for agricultural expansion, frequent venturing into forests to collect minor forest products and livestock grazing are major causes of conflicts. Most cases of conflict occurred in forests and crop fields suggesting encroachment and venturing into animal habitat exposed human to conflict with wildlife. Pearson's correlation at 0.01 level of significance showed positive correlation between wildlife injured/killed and livestock killed/injured (0.819411 and wildlife injured/killed and property damaged (0.658009 but negative correlation between wildlife injured/killed and crop damaged (-0.04104. Crop raiding by wildlife caused considerable damage to crops and property resulting in food insecurity and economic loss to farmers; farmers also suffered economic loss due to livestock lifting by prey animals. Long years of exposure to crop and property loss and risk to life are associated with negative attitude towards wildlife. The present report will be useful in understanding the nature of conflicts and help local forest department in initiating appropriate conservation measures in Poba RF

  12. Anthropogenic disturbances and status of forest and wildlife in the dry deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandra Prakash Kala; Yogesh Dubey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The advent of modern forces and the changes in socioeconomic patterns of forest dwellers have increased the pressures on the forests.In order to mitigate such pressures and also to protect the forests and wildlife the model of protected aress networks has shifted and enhanced such pressures in the unprotected natural forests due to several reasons.Being a low profile category of protected status and continuous human settlements,the present study highlights the case of dry deciduous forests of Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh state of India.The major objectives of this study were to quantify the status of forests and wildlife and also to determine the extent of anthropogenic disturbances faced by the dry deciduous forests of central India.Transect and silent drive count methods were used for sampling wildlife and quadrat method was used for sampling vegetation.Besides,the local uses of various forest produces were also studied in view of understanding the people dependency on forests.The forest vegetation,in the study area,was predominated by Shorea robusta,which had Madhuca indica,Diospyrus melanoxylon and Buchnania lanzan as the major companion species.The forest had either the high girth class mature tree species or the saplings.The low vegetation cover and density were due to the high anthropogenic pressures mainly in the form of heavy livestock grazing and collection of ethnobotanically important species.The study though reveals that the area is not rich in wildlife and the forest is fragmented,the area still supports some important species,which include many rare and endangered plants and animals.The findings of this study have been discussed in view of the management and conservation of the forest and wildlife in the dry deciduous forests.

  13. The impact of civil war on forest wildlife in West Africa: Mammals in Gola Forest, Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsell, J.A.; Klop, E.; Siaka, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Human conflicts may sometimes benefit wildlife by depopulating wilderness areas but there is evidence from Africa that the impacts tend to be negative. The forested states of West Africa have experienced much recent human conflict but there have been no assessments of impacts on the wildlife. We con

  14. Neotropical dry forest wildlife water hole use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected wildlife species diurnal use of a natural water hole (QD and an artificial water hole (AW were studied during 1990 dry season at Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. In total, 919 individuals (six mammal and one game bird species consumed water from QD, while 713 individuals (four mammal species consumed water from AW. Estimated daily water consumption by selected wildlife species was 29.7 l at QD and 27.3 l at AW. Estimated 24-h water consumed by all wildlife species or evaporated was 44.6 l at QD and 41.1 l at AW. This resulted from summing: a water consumed by studied species, b estimated 24-hour water consumed by other wildlife (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l and c daily water evaporation (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.10 l. During a 120-day dry season, AW required about 4 932 l of water from the park administration. Management implications for neotropical dry forest water holes are discussed.Se estudió el uso diurno de un ojo de agua natural (QD y otro artificial (AW a finales de la época seca de 1990 en el Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. En total 919 individuos (seis especies de mamíferos y una de ave cinegética consumieron agua de QD y 713 individuos (cuatro especies de mamíferos de AQ. Se estimó que en un dia, las especies de vida silvestre estudiados tomaron 29.7 l y 27.3 l de agua de QD y AW, respectivamente. El total de agua consumido o evaporado de cada ojo de agua durante 24-horas fue estimado en 44.6 l en QD y 41.1 l en AW, con base en: a agua bebida durante 12 h por las especies seleccionadas, b agua bebida por todos los otros individuos durante 24 h (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l y c evaporación diaria (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.01 l. Para abastecer AW durante una epoca seca de 120 días, la administración del parque debe proveer 4 932 l de agua. Se discute las implicaciones de manejo en las regiones de bosque seco neotropical.

  15. BAT OCCURRENCE RELATIVE TO SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS INTENDED TO YIELD DESIRED FOREST CONDITIONS FOR PRIORITY WILDLIFE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Silviculture in bottomland hardwood forests has been advocated by land managers of public conservation lands within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley to improve...

  16. [Forest management and timber sales on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains plans, maps, data tables, and journal articles related to forest management and timber sales on Clarence Cannon NWR and the surrounding area....

  17. An Evaluation of Felsenthal and Overflow National Wildlife Refuge's Forest Habitat Management Program's : Review Team Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report describes and evaluates Felsenthal and Overflow NWR's forest habitat management practices. Topics include general refuge information, silviculture...

  18. Diversity of vertebrates in wildlife water-impoundments on the Chippewa National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Donald Rakstad; Kathy Brosdahl

    1983-01-01

    Gives an annotated list of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians in 1978 and 1979 in forested wetlands of northern Minnesota. Describes habitat references of vertebrates, relative abundance of bird species, and general management recommendations for wildlife.

  19. Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge Forest Stand Conditons and Habitat Management Recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains compartment level forest inventory of mature hardwood trees and the assoicated cruise data. Summary data at the compartment level is presented. In...

  20. The Fort Valley Experimental Forest, ponderosa pine, and wildlife habitat research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Patton

    2008-01-01

    Wildlife research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest began with studies to determine how to control damage by wildlife and livestock to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) reproduction and tree growth. Studies on birds, small mammals, and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) browsing were initiated in the early 1930s and 1940s but...

  1. The Fort Valley Experimental Forest, ponderosa pine, and wildlife habitat research (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Patton

    2008-01-01

    Wildlife research at the Fort Valley Experimental Forest began with studies to determine how to control damage by wildlife and livestock to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) reproduction and tree growth. Studies on birds, small mammals, and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) browsing were initiated in the early 1930s and 1940s but these were short term efforts to develop...

  2. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  3. Survey of invasive ants at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey for invasive ants at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island, during 2009–2010 to evaluate potential threats to native arthropod communities and food webs. The focal area of the survey was the upper portion of the Hakalau Unit of the refuge, where native forest was being restored in abandoned cattle pastures. This area, between 1575 and 1940 m elevations, contained much alien kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), but koa (Acacia koa) trees and other native species that were planted in the past 20 years were rapidly filling in the pasture. We surveyed for ants at predetermined points along roads, fences, and corridors of planted koa. Sampling methods primarily consisted of hand searching and pitfall traps, but bait cards were used additionally in some instances. Our results indicated that a single species, Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, was widespread across the upper portion of the refuge. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi seemed absent, or at least rare, in areas of tall, dense grass. Due to the undulating topography of the area, however, the dense grass cover was interspersed with outcroppings of exposed, gravelly soil. Presumably due to warming by the sun, many of the outcropped habitats supported colonies of C. kagutsuchi. We did not detect ants in the old-growth forest below the abandoned pastures, presumably because microhabitat conditions under the forest canopy were unsuitable. Although ecological impacts of C. kagutsuchi have not been reported, they may be limited by the small size of the ant, the relatively small size of colonies, and the apparent preference of the ant for disturbed areas that are dominated by alien species. Notably, our survey of Keanakolu-Mana Road between the Observatory Road (John A. Burns Way) and the town of Waimea detected a population of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) approximately 5.1 km north of the Maulua Section of the refuge. We also surveyed for ants on the Kona Forest Unit of the refuge

  4. Proposal: Bat occurrence relative to silvicultural treatments intended to yield Desired Forest Conditions for priority wildlife species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We propose to conduct an initial assessment of bat occurrence within bottomland forests on National Wildlife Refuges relative to silvicultural treatments prescribed...

  5. Forest Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the timber management program at Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are: 1) protecting and preserving the unique and outstanding ecosystem...

  6. Wildlife conservation in fragmented tropical forests: A case of South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish. Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Rohitkumar. Patel

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents findings on, and implications for, wildlife conservation in the tropical forests in Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in the North East India. A companion volume presented the findings on forest fragmentation due to practice of slash and burn agriculture in the region. Both of the volumes summarize work completed over more than a decade on...

  7. Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes wildlife observations on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  8. Forest inventory: Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narolski, Steven W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area.

  9. Forest Management Plan Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan will be geared mainly toward habitat management of refuge woodlands to benefit and/or protect the endangered Bald Eagle and the Delmarva...

  10. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Virgin timber stood on St. Vincent Island until the early forties when sold by the estate of Dr. Pierce. Other timber cuts were made during the period I960 through...

  11. Forest Habitat Management Plan For Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines which will strive to make the best use of available management techniques to provide suitable habitat for native...

  12. FOREST GUARD: A complete safety for Wildlife using Mobile Agents and Sensor Clouds in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Tetarave

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With growing human population and search for new habitus and unsustainable use of natural resources, over exploitation of forests and wildlife is taking place world over. This is resulting in drastic decline in the number of essential flora and fauna. We propose a complete safe guard model named Forest Guard, for saving wildlife from human as well as their own collisions. This model will not guard them directly; rather it will help in collecting vital information about their real-time condition and will alert the institutional mechanisms to take corrective initiatives. The paper mentions this indirect support in the form of wireless sensor networks (WSN. In WSN, our proposed model uses mobile agents (MAs for handling huge area communication and injecting them for different guarding issues of different species of wildlife. A novel concept of Virtual Sensor Cloud (VSC is being discussed to trace different group of endangered wild animals such as Tigers, Lions, Elephants, etc.

  13. Nocturnal insect availability in bottomland hardwood forests managed for wildlife in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine Ketzler,; Christopher Comer,; Twedt, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Silviculture used to alter forest structure and thereby enhance wildlife habitat has been advocated for bottomland hardwood forest management on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Although some songbirds respond positively to these management actions to attain desired forest conditions for wildlife, the response of other species, is largely unknown. Nocturnal insects are a primary prey base for bats, thereby influencing trophic interactions within hardwood forests. To better understand how silviculture influences insect availability for bats, we conducted vegetation surveys and sampled insect biomass within silviculturally treated bottomland hardwood forest stands. We used passive blacklight traps to capture nocturnal flying insects in 64 treated and 64 untreated reference stands, located on 15 public conservation areas in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Dead wood and silvicultural treatments were positively associated with greater biomass of macro-Lepidoptera, macro-Coleoptera, and all insect taxa combined. Biomass of micro-Lepidoptera was negatively associated with silvicultural treatment but comprised only a small proportion of total biomass. Understanding the response of nocturnal insects to wildlife-forestry silviculture provides insight for prescribed silvicultural management affecting bat species.

  14. Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

  15. Landscape Metric Modeling - a Technique for Forest Disturbance Assessment in Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin Jose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest degradation are associated and progressive processes result in the anthropogenic stress, climate change, and conversion of the forest area into a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pasture, and degraded habitat. The present study addresses forest degradation assessment of landscape using landscape metrics. Geospatial techniques including GIS, remote sensing and fragstat methods are powerful tools in the assessment of forest degradation. The present study is carried out in Shendurney wildlife sanctuary located in the mega biodiversity hot spot of Western ghats, Kerala. A large extent of forest is affected by degradation in this region leading to depletion of forest biodiversity. For conservation of forest biodiversity and implementation of conservation strategies, forest degradation assessment of habitat destruction area is important. Two types of data are used in the study i.e. spatial and non-spatial data. Non-spatial data include both anthropogenic stress and climate data. The study shows that the disturbance index value ranges from 2.5 to 7.5 which has been reclassified into four disturbance zones as low disturbed, medium disturbed, high disturbed and very high disturbed. The analysis would play a key role in the formulation and implementation of forest conservation and management strategies.

  16. Rapid Ecological Assessment Methods for Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service Midwest Region - Survey Protocol Framework: First Edition (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting Inventories of forests at multiple stations within a region. During 2010 and 2011, six refuges of the...

  17. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Summary Tables & Figures: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following are summary tables and figures associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Seney...

  18. 2013 Field Report For: Bat Occurrence Relative to Silvicultural Treatments Intended to Yield Desired Forest Conditions for Priority Wildlife Species in Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Draft report describes acoustically sampling for bats and estimation of flying insect biomass within various hardwood forests stand condictions of the MAV. Efforts...

  19. Assessment of visible vegetation injury and forest health at Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, after Hurricane Hugo

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The forests and upland communities of the CRNWR have changed dramatically between 1988 and 1992. Although both the extent and magnitude of pollution-like...

  20. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  1. Can you manage wildlife in alienated lands? Tenure conflicts in protected forests in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadebo J. Osemeobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the protected forests in Nigeria were forcefully reserved without the consent of indigenous landowners. With increase in population lands outside reservation areas are in short supply to meet legitimate needs of the people. The study investigates how wildlife management has thrived amidst land use conflicts. Data were derived through a cross-sectional survey. Results of data analyses indicated that: (i wildlife cannot be successfully managed and sustained in alienated forestlands; and (ii conflict in protected forest management cannot be resolved at moment. New forms of ownership and people oriented right-based management that accounts for the culture and traditions of the people should be put in place by the Ministries of Environment.

  2. A review of the role of active remote sensing and data fusion for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Vogeler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit maps of wildlife habitat relationships have proven to be valuable tools for conservation and management applications including evaluating how and which species may be impacted by large scale climate change, ongoing fragmentation of habitat, and local land-use practices. Studies have turned to remote sensing datasets as a way to characterize vegetation for the examination of habitat selection and for mapping realized relationships across the landscape. Potentially one of the more difficult habitat types to try to characterize with remote sensing are the vertically and horizontally complex forest systems. Characterizing this complexity is needed to explore which aspects may represent driving and/or limiting factors for wildlife species. Active remote sensing data from lidar and radar sensors has thus caught the attention of the forest wildlife research and management community in its potential to represent three dimensional habitat features. The purpose of this review was to examine the applications of active remote sensing for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat studies through a keyword search within Web of Science. We present commonly used active remote sensing metrics and methods, discuss recent advances in characterizing aspects of forest habitat, and provide suggestions for future research in the area of new remote sensing data/techniques that could benefit forest wildlife studies that are currently not represented or may be underutilized within the wildlife literature. We also highlight the potential value in data fusion of active and passive sensor data for representing multiple dimensions and scales of forest habitat. While the use of remote sensing has increased in recent years within wildlife habitat studies, continued communication between the remote sensing, forest management, and wildlife communities is vital to ensure appropriate data sources and methods are understood and utilized, and so that creators of

  3. The seasonality of butterflies in a semi-evergreen forest: Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning 3.7 years on the butterflies of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary GWS (21km2, a semi-evergreen forest, in Jorhat District of Assam, northeastern India revealed 211 species of butterflies belonging to 115 genera including 19 papilionids and seven ‘rare’ and ‘very rare’ species as per Evans list of the Indian sub-continent (Great Blue Mime Papilio paradoxa telearchus; Brown Forest BobScobura woolletti; Snowy Angle Darpa pteria dealbatahas; Constable Dichorragia nesimachus; Grey Baron Euthalia anosia anosia; Sylhet Oakblue Arhopala silhetensis; Branded Yamfly Yasoda tripunctata. The butterflies showed a strong seasonality pattern in this forest with only one significant peak during the post monsoon (September-October when 118 species were in flight inside the forest which slowly declined to 92 species in November-December. Another peak (102 species was visible after winter from March to April. Species composition showed least similarity between pre-monsoon (March-May and post-monsoon (October-November seasons. The number of papilionid species were greater from July to December as compared from January to June. The findings of this study suggest that the pattern of seasonality in a semi-evergreen forest in northeastern India is distinct from that of the sub-tropical lowland forest in the Himalaya. Favourable logistics and rich diversity in GWS points to its rich potential in promoting ‘butterfly inclusive ecotourism’ in this remnant forest.

  4. Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the wildlife resources of the Site. Wildlife populations inhabiting the Hanford Site are monitored in order to measure the status and condition of the populations and assess effects of Hanford operations.

  5. Managing heart rot in live trees for wildlife habitat in young-growth forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; Robin L. Mulvey

    2014-01-01

    Stem decays of living trees, known also as heart rots, are essential elements of wildlife habitat, especially for cavity-nesting birds and mammals. Stem decays are common features of old-growth forests of coastal Alaska, but are generally absent in young, managed forests. We offer several strategies for maintaining or restoring fungal stem decay in these managed...

  6. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia

    2011-01-01

    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...

  7. Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... President of the Florida Society of Neurology (FSN). Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Huntington's Disease Read more Latest Health News Read more Health ...

  8. Learning about Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouse Models Of Huntington's Disease 1998 News Release Learning About Huntington's Disease What do we know about ... and treatment information. Hosted by the Dolan DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Huntington's Outreach ...

  9. Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Non-coniferous vegetation, including herbs, shrubs, and broad-leaved trees, makes a vital contribution to ecosystem function and diversity in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. However, forest management has largely been indifferent or detrimental to shrubs and trees that have low commercial value, in spite of a paradigm shift towards more holistic management in recent decades. Forest management practices that are detrimental to broad-leaved trees and shrubs are likely to decrease habitat diversity for wildlife, but the number of species that may be affected has not previously been enumerated. I reviewed life history accounts for forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species and derived a list of 78 species in Oregon and Washington that are associated with non-coniferous vegetation. The diversity of direct and indirect food resources provided was the primary functional basis for associations of most species with non-coniferous vegetation. Thus, a diversity of herbs and broad-leaved trees and shrubs provides the foundation for food webs that contribute to diversity at multiple trophic levels in Pacific Northwest conifer forests. Given the number of species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in conifer-dominated forests, maintaining habitats that support diverse plant communities, particularly broad-leaved trees and shrubs, will be an important component of management strategies intended to foster biodiversity. Silvicultural practices such as modified planting densities, and pre-commercial and commercial thinning, can be used to control stand density in order to favor the development of understory herbs, shrubs, and a diversity of tree species within managed stands. Allowing shrubs and hardwood trees to develop and persist in early seral stands by curtailing vegetation control also would benefit many species associated with non-coniferous vegetation.

  10. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  11. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  12. Ecology and phytosociology of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Narasimha Murthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the species composition, abundance, density and community structure of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated from the 81 sample plots laid at random covering the entire sanctuary area. A total of 177 Angiosperms of species were enumerated from the sampled quadrats.  The species present as per preponderance are herbs 71, trees 55, climbers 33, and shrubs 18.  The species diversity indices indicate the following facts: Shannon-Weiner index as 4.15, Simpson index value as 0.91, Margalef’s species richness index as 5.20, density of trees above 10 cm GBH class as 470 individuals per hectare.  The total basal area of the tree species was 17.7m² ha-1.  These statistics along with the composition of the forest, and information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  

  13. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  14. Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex Forest Habitat Management Plan - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 established a clear legislative mission of wildlife conservation for national wildlife refuges. Theodore...

  15. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the Western United States: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Evelyn L. Bull; Jane L. Hayes; Barbara C. Wales

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes available information on the effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments on terrestrial wildlife and invertebrates in dry coniferous forest types in the West. We focused on thinning and/or prescribed fire studies in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii),...

  16. Effects of ungulate management on vegetation at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Jeffrey, J.J.; Pratt, L.W.; Ball, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    We compiled and analysed data from 1987-2004 on vegetation monitoring during feral ungulate management at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai'i All areas in the study had previously been used by ungulates, but cattle (Bos taurus) were removed and feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations were reduced during the study period. We monitored six line-intercept transects, three in previously high ungulate use areas and three in previously low ungulate use areas. We measured nine cover categories with the line-intercept method: native ferns; native woody plants; bryophytes; lichens; alien grasses; alien herbs; litter; exposed soil; and coarse woody debris. Vegetation surveys were repeated four times over a 16-year period. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong increase in native fern cover and slight decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil. Mean cover of native plants was generally higher in locations that were formerly lightly grazed, while alien grass and herb cover was generally higher in areas that were heavily grazed, although these effects were not statistically significant. These responses may represent early serai processes in forest regeneration following the reduction of feral ungulate populations. In contrast to many other Hawaiian forests which have become invaded by alien grasses and herbs after ungulate removal, HFNWR has not experienced this effect.

  17. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  18. New distribution record of the Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti Hume, 1873, (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae in Purna Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenis R. Patel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution of the endemic forest owlet Heteroglaux Blewitti in India. Its presence has been always dubious in the past in Gujarat. Earlier surveys failed to confirm its occurrence in Gujarat. We present the photographic evidence of the forest owlet from the Purna Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat. Two individuals were observed in the same locality. This record presents the first record of Forest owlet from northernmost Western Ghats. A species targeted study is recommended to generate information for the conservation of this threatened species in its range in Gujarat.

  19. An appraisal of the fitness consequences of forest disturbance for wildlife using habitat selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, James; Fortin, Daniel; Leblanc, Mélanie-Louise; Bélanger, Louis

    2010-09-01

    Isodar theory can help to unveil the fitness consequences of habitat disturbance for wildlife through an evaluation of adaptive habitat selection using patterns of animal abundance in adjacent habitats. By incorporating measures of disturbance intensity or variations in resource availability into fitness-density functions, we can evaluate the functional form of isodars expected under different disturbance-fitness relationships. Using this framework, we investigated how a gradient of forest harvesting disturbance and differences in resource availability influenced habitat quality for snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) using pairs of logged and uncut boreal forest. Isodars for both species had positive intercepts, indicating reductions to maximum potential fitness in logged stands. Habitat selection by hares depended on both conspecific density and differences in canopy cover between harvested and uncut stands. Fitness-density curves for hares in logged stands were predicted to shift from diverging to converging with those in uncut forest across a gradient of high to low disturbance intensity. Selection for uncut forests thus became less pronounced with increasing population size at low levels of logging disturbance. Voles responded to differences in moss cover between habitats which reflected moisture availability. Lower moss cover in harvested stands either reduced maximum potential fitness or increased the relative rate of decline in fitness with density. Differences in vole densities between harvested and uncut stands were predicted, however, to diminish as populations increased. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for density-dependent behaviors when evaluating how changing habitat conditions influence animal distribution.

  20. Psychopathology in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Erik van

    2010-01-01

    Dit proefschrift begint met een overzichtsartikel van oorspronkelijke onderzoek naar psychopathologie bij mutatiedragers voor de ziekte van Huntington. Aansluitend worden de resultaten van een cohortstudie naar de aanwezigheid en ernst van psychopathologie bij mensen met de ziekte van Huntington in

  1. Psychopathology in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Erik van

    2010-01-01

    Dit proefschrift begint met een overzichtsartikel van oorspronkelijke onderzoek naar psychopathologie bij mutatiedragers voor de ziekte van Huntington. Aansluitend worden de resultaten van een cohortstudie naar de aanwezigheid en ernst van psychopathologie bij mensen met de ziekte van Huntington in

  2. Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

  3. Survey of Plant Communities and Use by White-tailed Deer of Woody Plants in Two Forests at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the present research project is to develop and implement a protocol for short- and long-term monitoring of forest plant communities on National...

  4. Huntington's disease phenocopy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Edward J; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2007-12-01

    Patients presenting with features of Huntington's disease but lacking the causative genetic expansion can be challenging diagnostically. The differential diagnosis of such Huntington's disease phenocopy syndromes has not recently been reviewed. Cohort studies have established the relative frequencies of known Huntington's disease phenocopy syndromes, whereas newly described ones have been characterized genetically, clinically, radiologically and pathologically. About 1% of suspected Huntington's disease cases emerge as phenocopy syndromes. Such syndromes are clinically important in their own right but may also shed light on the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease produces a range of clinical phenotypes, and the range of syndromes that may be responsible for Huntington's disease phenocopies is correspondingly wide. Cohort studies have established that, while the majority of phenocopy patients remain undiagnosed, in those patients where a genetic diagnosis is reached the commonest causes are SCA17, Huntington's disease-like syndrome 2 (HDL2), familial prion disease and Friedreich's ataxia. We review the features of the reported genetic causes of Huntington's disease phenocopy syndromes, including HDL1-3, SCA17, familial prion disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, chorea-acanthocytosis and iron-accumulation disorders. We present an evidence-based framework for the genetic testing of Huntington's disease phenocopy cases.

  5. Natural regeneration dynamics of three dry deciduous forest species in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve, Nicaragua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guillermo Castro Marín; Mulualem Tigabu; Benigno González Rivas; Per Christer Odén

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the natural regeneration of three dry forest species, Lysiloma divaricatum (Jacq.), Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) and Lonchocarpus minimiflorus (Donn. Sm.) over a three-year period and to analyze heterogeneity of regeneration in relationship to topographic slope and incidence of light in Chacocente Wildlife Reserve in Nicaragua. Permanent sample plots were established in 2001, and all individuals with height as low as 10 cm and diameter as large as 10 cm were recorded for three consecutive years from 2001 to 2003. The results show that the density of naturally regenerated individuals varied significantly among species, as well as over time. L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea had higher densities compared with L. divaricatum, and the net change in population density was slightly positive for T. ochracea only. Regeneration was more abundant in the gentle and steep slopes under partial exposure of the crown to sunlight, thus resulting in aggregated pattern of distribution, especially for L. minimiflorus and T. ochracea. We concluded that natural regeneration alone is not sufficient to maintain the desired number of stocks of these species, and an immediate restoration measure should be taken to assist the natural regeneration process.

  6. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL; Prem Lal UNIYAL; Ajay Ballabh BHATT

    2010-01-01

    Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp.) was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.). Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha) and high importance value index (89.68) was found in Q. ...

  7. Efficacy of feral pig removals at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Jeffrey, John J.; Ball, Donna; Babich, Lev

    2006-01-01

    We compiled and analyzed data from 1987–2004 on feral pig (Sus scrofa) management and monitoring activities at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai`i. These data included annual surveys of feral pig and cattle (Bos taurus) activity, the number of feral ungulates removed from closed management units, age and reproductive status from necropsies, and vegetation surveys repeated 4 times over a 16 year period. We found an essentially even sex ratio within the feral pig population and within age classes, although males lived to 60 months while females lived to only 48 months. The pregnancy rate was 23.5%, and lactation rate was 8.3%, regardless of season and age, but lactation peaked in April-June. Reproductive rates also increased with age, peaking at 2–4 years in females. We reconstructed the standing population within a closed unit to examine demographic processes. We estimated that annual removal in excess of approximately 41–43% would be necessary to affect a population decline. We examined annual feral pig activity surveys and found a strong and sustained decline in pig sign after 1997 relative to unmanaged areas. We related the standing population to feral pig activity surveys to build a predictive model of feral pig density, and then applied this model to other management units. We evaluated control methods and found snaring to be more efficient than staff or public hunting. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong temporal increase in cover of native ferns, and marginally non-significant decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil.

  8. Populations of domesticated cattle and buffalo in the Western Forest Complex of Thailand and their possible impacts on the wildlife community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Srikosamatara, Sompod

    2009-03-01

    The Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) of Thailand is comprised of many protected areas and has one of the highest wildlife populations in the country. Populations of wildlife in the WEFCOM have decreased dramatically over recent years. Rapid economic development has resulted in the conversion of forest into agricultural and pastoral land, which has directly and indirectly impacted the wildlife community. This research aimed to evaluate populations of domesticated cattle (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the WEFCOM and their possible impacts on the wildlife community. Domesticated cattle and buffalo keepers from 1561 (or 3.3%) of houses in and near WEFCOM were interviewed. The average number of animals per household was 15.6 cattle and 8.5 buffalo. Most villagers released domesticated cattle and buffalo to forage in the protected areas. This tended to have a high impact on the wildlife community in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and Tungyai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary. The least impacted areas were Luam Khlong Ngu National Park, Thong Pha Phum National Park and Chaleam Ratanakosin National Park. With a high risk to the wildlife community, law enforcement should be used in combination with a certain level of co-management with local communities.

  9. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  10. Application of remote sensing and geographical information system in mapping forest fire risk zone at Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S V; Somashekar, R K

    2010-11-01

    Fire is the most spectacular natural disturbance that affects the forest ecosystem composition and diversity. Fire has a devastating effect on the landscape and its impact is felt at every level of the ecosystem and it is possible to map forest fire risk zone and thereby minimize the frequency of fire. There is a need for supranational approaches that analyze wide scenarios of factors involved and global fire effects. Fires can be monitored and analyzed over large areas in a timely and cost effective manner by using satellite imagery. Also Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used effectively to demarcate the fire risk zone map. Bhadra wildlife Sanctuary located in Kamataka, India was selected for this study. Vegetation, slope, distance from roads, settlements parameters were derived for a study area using topographic maps and field information. The Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS)-based forest fire risk model of the study area appeared to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites. The temporal satellite data from 1989 to2006 have been analyzed to map the burnt areas. These classes were weighted according to their influence on forest fire. Four categories of fire risk regions such as Low, Moderate, High and Very high fire intensity zones were identified. It is predicted that around 10.31% of the area falls undermoderate risk zone.

  11. 76 FR 29782 - Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... lava tubes and lava tube skylights. We announce our decision and the availability of the FONSI for the... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  12. Fungi Regeneration Following Prescribed Forest Burns and Fungi Species List for the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted during the summer of 1995 as a special project. Other assigned work took precedent. Also, the summer proved to be one of the driest in New...

  13. Forest Management Plan Sugar Lake Area and Seneca Unit Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary timber management objective is to provide and improve the existing habitat for all indigenous species with primary consideration on migratory birds...

  14. Carbon isotope ratios in logged and unlogged boreal forests: Examination of the potential for determining wildlife habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Robert

    1996-03-01

    Due to assimilation of recycled CO2 from litter decomposition and photosynthetic changes in carbon fractionation at low light levels, the foliage at the base of a forest is often more depleted in13C compared to that exposed to the atmosphere in either the canopy or in open clearings. This is referred to as the canopy effect. African research has indicated that these habitat differences in foliar δ13C can be substantial enough to affect the carbon isotope ratios of resident fauna. Previous work documenting a 30-year chronology on moose teeth from Isle Royale National Park indicated a progressive depletion in13C and suggested that this could be due to forest regrowth following extensive burning. The present study examined the assumption implicit in this hypothesis that foliar δ13C varies between open and closed boreal forest sites. I found a marginal canopy effect of 2‰ δ13C difference between upper canopy and ground flora for a forest in northwestern Ontario and an average difference of 1.2‰ in under- and mid-story vegetation between closed forests and open clear-cuts. Because of these small differences, the utility of carbon isotope analysis in quantifying temporally integrated exploitation of deforested habitats will be low for northern boreal locations. In denser forests, such as those in the tropics or western North American where the canopy effect can be expected to be much greater, δ13C analysis may still offer some promise for determining selection by wildlife of disturbed habitats.

  15. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  16. Teaching change to local youth: Plant phenology, climate change and citizen science at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, C. M.; Laursen, S. C.; Phifer, C.; Giardina, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Plant phenology is a powerful indicator of how climate change affects native ecosystems, and also provides an experiential outdoor learning opportunity for promoting youth conservation education and awareness. We developed a youth conservation education curriculum, including both classroom and field components, for local middle and high school students from Hawaii. The curriculum is focused on linking plant phenology and climate change, with emphasis on ecologically and culturally important native trees and birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), on the Island of Hawaii. In this curriculum, students: (i) visit Hakalau Forest NWR to learn about the ecology of native ecosystems, including natural disturbance regimes and the general concept of change in forest ecosystems; (ii) learn about human-induced climate change and its potential impact on native species; and (iii) collect plant phenology measurements and publish these data on the USA National Phenology Network website. This youth conservation education curriculum represents a close collaboration between Hakalau Forest NWR; the Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR; the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; the USDA Forest Service; and Imi Pono no Ka Aina, an environmental education and outreach program for the Three Mountain Alliance Watershed Partnership. In the Winter and Spring of 2011-2012, we developed classroom and field portions of the curriculum. In the Spring and Summer of 2012, we recruited four groups of participants, with a total of ~40 students, who visited the refuge to participate in the curriculum. Preliminary phenology observations based upon ~4 months of measurements show low to medium levels of flowering, fruiting and leaf flush. However, the real science value of this program will come over years to decades of accumulated student activity. From this, we anticipate the emergence of a unique tropical montane forest dataset on plant

  17. Strip thinning young hardwood forests: multi-functional management for wood, wildlife, and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin

    2016-01-01

    Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successional forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling and sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lack of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...

  18. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, Klamath Forest, and Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  19. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, and Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  20. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, and Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  1. [The Henry E. Huntington Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Terry

    The biographical sketch of Henry E. Huntington includes a description of the establishment of the Huntington Library and the purpose and scope of its collection. Although this is a free and public library, its use is restricted to qualified scholars having legitimate research needs. Photographic techniques were developed at the Huntington Library…

  2. Managing fish and wildlife habitat in the face of climate change: USDA Forest Service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; Curtis H. Flather; Erin Uloth; Hugh D. Safford; David A. Cleaves

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal scope of environmental change anticipated during the next century as a result of climate change presents unprecedented challenges for fish and wildlife management. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007) suggested impacts from climate change on natural systems will be more grave than earlier...

  3. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Forest Community Analysis: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using relative basal area (%) by species of the 112 plots sampled across 11 stands at Seney NWR as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment (Corace et al. 2011), we...

  4. Dynamics and ecological consequences of the 2013−2014 koa moth outbreak at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Paxton, Eben; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Foote, David

    2014-01-01

    A massive outbreak of the koa moth (Geometridea: Scotorythra paludicola) defoliated more than a third of the koa (Acacia koa) forest on Hawai‘i Island during 2013−2014. This was the largest koa moth outbreak ever recorded and the first on the island since 1953. The outbreak spread to sites distributed widely around the island between 800−2,000 m elevation and in wet rainforest to dry woodland habitats. We monitored the outbreak at two windward forest sites (Laupāhoehoe and Saddle Road Kīpuka) and one leeward forest site (Kona), and we studied the dynamics of the outbreak and its impacts on the forest ecosystem at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, our higher elevation windward site. Study sites at Hakalau included two stands of koa that were planted (reforestation stands) in former cattle pastureland about 20 years earlier and two stands of koa that were dominated by ‘ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and that were naturally recovering from cattle grazing (forest stands). We observed one outbreak at Hakalau, multiple outbreaks at the two other windward sites, but no outbreak at the leeward site. Caterpillars at Hakalau reached peak estimated abundances of more than 250,000 per tree and 18,000,000 per hectare, and they removed between 64−93% of the koa canopy in managed forest stands. Defoliation was more extensive in naturally recovering forest, where ‘ōhi‘a dominated and koa was less abundant, compared to the planted stands, where koa density was high. Koa trees were still growing new foliage six months after being defoliated, and leaves were produced in greater proportion to phyllodes, especially by small koa (≤ 8 cm dbh) and by larger trees in forest stands, where light levels may have remained relatively low after defoliation due to the high cover of ‘ōhi‘a. Small branches of many trees apparently died, and canopy regrowth was absent or low in 9% of koa trees and seedlings, which indicates the likely level of mortality. Between 2

  5. [Wildlife damage mitigation in agricultural crops in a Bolivian montane forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Eddy; Pacheco, Luis F

    2014-12-01

    Wildlife is often blamed for causing damage to human activities, including agricultural practices and the result may be a conflict between human interests and species conservation. A formal assessment of the magnitude of damage is necessary to adequately conduct management practices and an assessment of the efficiency of different management practices is necessary to enable managers to mitigate the conflict with rural people. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural management practices and controlled hunting in reducing damage to subsistence annual crops at the Cotapata National Park and Natural Area of Integrated Management. The design included seven fields with modified agricultural practices, four fields subjected to control hunting, and five fields held as controls. We registered cultivar type, density, frequency of visiting species to the field, crops lost to wildlife, species responsible for damage, and crop biomass. Most frequent species in the fields were Dasyprocta punctata and Dasypus novemcinctus. Hunted plots were visited 1.6 times more frequently than agriculturally managed plots. Crop lost to wildlife averaged 7.28% at agriculturally managed plots, 4.59% in plots subjected to hunting, and 27.61% in control plots. Species mainly responsible for damage were Pecari tajacu, D. punctata, and Sapajus apella. We concluded that both management strategies were effective to reduce damage by >50% as compared to unmanaged crop plots.

  6. Diversity of soil fungi in dry deciduous forest of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats of southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar P.Banakar; B.Thippeswamy; B.V.Thirumalesh; K.J.Naveenkumar

    2012-01-01

    We assessed soil fungal diversity in the dry deciduous forest of a Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary of the Western Ghats (210.31 m a.s.(l).; N 13°44′ and E75°37′).Soil samples were collected by random mixed sampling during winter (November,2008),summer (March,2009) and monsoon (August,2009) seasons,and physico-chemical parameters were recorded.During winter,summer,and monsoon seasons,49,45 and 49of fungal species belongs to 20,18 and 19 of genera were isolated,respectively.Isolated soil fungi were mainly of the Mitosporic fungi,followed by Zygomycotina,Ascomycotina,Oomycotina and Coelomycetes.Indices of diversity,dominance and fisher alpha during winter,summer and monsoon seasons were 3.756,3.638 and 3.738 (H′),0.9737,0.9694and 0.9726 (1-D) and 18.84,29.83 and 19.46 (α),respectivelv.Spearman's (r) correlation coefficient of fungal population with physicochemical parameters of soils showed significantly positive and negative correlations (p<0.01) during winter,summer and monsoon seasons.Physico-chemical soil parameters played an important role in the occurrence,diversity,distribution,and relative abundance of fungal species in the tropical dry deciduous forest soil.

  7. Fire Management Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The resource objectives of this unit are: 1) Protect wildlife habitat by reducing the fuel loading of forest stands. 2) Maintain forest openings for wildlife by...

  8. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Robichaud

    2009-06-01

    upheavals during the Vietnam War. Clearly, "shifting cultivation" is not equivalent to shifting populations. The extent of cleared forest in NNT has remained almost entirely within a swidden-forest mosaic whose boundaries date back at least to the 1960s. Second, the last 20 years have seen an explosion in wildlife trade in the region, particularly of animals valued in traditional medicine. Income earned from wildlife trade may have allowed NNT's residents to purchase rice to feed growing populations, instead of clearing more forest to grow it. The situation presents a dilemma for conservationists - attempts to control local wildlife trade could push NNT's villagers to clear more forest swiddens, and vice versa. Controlling both simultaneously would probably have a negative impact on villagers' standard of living. As wildlife trade is a greater threat to NNT's biodiversity values than local systems of rotational swidden, management should focus first on reducing wildlife trade. In any case, forest conservation (and villagers' welfare will benefit more from alleviation of of NNT's human population growth than control of its traditional agriculture; it was primarily a shift in demography, not in agricultural practices, that precipitated the post-war period of forest loss. Finally, attempts to reduce local access to swidden land should come only after better understanding of the current swidden systems is achieved, and proven alternatives have been established.

  9. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. A. Curi; Paschoal,A. M. O.; Massara,R. L.; SANTOS, H. A.; Guimarães,M.P.; M. Passamani; Chiarello,A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitologi...

  10. NORTHWOODS Wildlife Habitat Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. Several electronic file formats of NORTHWOODS data base and documentation are available on floppy disks for microcomputers.

  11. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, Klamath Forest, and Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  12. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, Klamath Forest, and Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuges: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Klamath Basin NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  14. 36 CFR 241.23 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska § 241.23 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a) The taking of fish and wildlife by hunting, trapping,...

  15. Compatibility Determination [Public Use on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determinations for wildlife observation and photography, interpretation and environmental education, hunting, fishing, forest management (timber sales...

  16. Annual Habitat Work Plan Seatuck National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines management activities that include forest protection, grassland management, wetland restoration, wildlife nesting structures, invasive vegetation...

  17. Clinical neurogenetics: huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Yvette M

    2013-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of abnormal movements (typically chorea), cognitive impairment, and psychiatric problems. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4 and causes progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extrastriatal structures. Genetic testing has been available since 1993 to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for presymptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. This review covers HD signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology; current genetic testing issues; and current and future treatment strategies.

  18. Huntington's disease presenting as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie

    2010-08-01

    We present the clinical, electrophysiological and molecular genetic findings of a 58-year-old male with genetically confirmed Huntington\\'s disease (HD) and concurrent clinically definite ALS by El Escorial criteria. The patient presented with asymmetric upper limb amyotrophy and weakness, and subsequently developed chorea and cognitive change. Genetic testing confirmed the presence of expanded trinucleotide repeats in huntingtin, consistent with a diagnosis of Huntington\\'s disease. This case confirms the rare coexistence of Huntington\\'s disease and motor neuron degeneration.

  19. What is HD - Huntington's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person less able to work at their customary level and less functional in their regular activities ... not is intensely personal and there is no "right" answer. The Huntington's Disease Society of America recommends ...

  20. Stages of Huntington's Disease (HD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person less able to work at their customary level and less functional in their regular activities ... not is intensely personal and there is no "right" answer. The Huntington's Disease Society of America recommends ...

  1. Natural history of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Darwin, Kristin; Nichols, Paige; Brocht, Alicia F D; Biglan, Kevin M; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the natural history of Huntington disease will inform patients and clinicians on the disease course and researchers on the design of clinical trials. To determine the longitudinal change in clinical features among individuals with Huntington disease compared with controls. Prospective, longitudinal cohort study at 44 research sites in Australia (n = 2), Canada (n =4), and the United States (n = 38). Three hundred thirty-four individuals with clinically manifest Huntington disease who had at least 3 years of annually accrued longitudinal data and 142 controls consisting of caregivers and spouses who had no genetic risk of Huntington disease. Change in movement, cognition, behavior, and function as measured by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and vital signs. Total motor score worsened by 3.0 points (95% CI, 2.5-3.4) per year and chorea worsened by 0.3 point per year (95% CI, 0.1-0.5). Cognition declined by 0.7 point (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per year on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Behavior, as measured by the product of frequency and severity score on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, worsened by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.0-1.2). Total functional capacity declined by 0.6 point per year (95% CI, 0.5-0.7). Compared with controls, baseline body mass index was lower in those with Huntington disease (25.8 vs 28.8; P Huntington disease all declined in a monotonic manner. These data quantify the natural history of the disease and may inform the design of trials aimed at reducing its burden. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00313495.

  2. Valuing conservation benefits of disease control in wildlife: A choice experiment approach to bovine tuberculosis management in New Zealand's native forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Nugent, Graham; Rutherford, Paul

    2017-03-15

    We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum. Possums are also major pests that threaten indigenous forest biodiversity, and so extensive possum control for TB mitigation also incidental benefits conservation, but the extent and public value of this benefit has yet to be quantified. We conducted a choice experiment survey of the NZ public in an effort to value the native forest biodiversity benefits of TB-related possum control. We find strong public support for conservation outcomes consequent to TB-possum control in public native forests. The public place substantial value on the most observable biodiversity benefits of TB possum control, such as improved forest canopies and presence of native birds. The benefits, costs and values of TB-possum control are discussed in relation to the future directives of NZ's TB control programme, which is headed toward first regional and then national level disease eradication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Huntington's disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, Derek; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disease. This incurable illness is characterized by a triad of a movement disorder, cognitive decline and psychiatric manifestations. Although most patients with HD have disease onset in the adult years, a small but significant proportion present with pediatric HD. It has been long known that patients with early-onset HD commonly exhibit prominent parkinsonism, known as the Westphal variant of HD. However, even among patients with pediatric HD there are differential clinical features depending on the age of onset, with younger patients frequently presenting diagnostic challenges. In his chapter, the characteristics of patients with childhood- and adolescence-onset HD are discussed, focusing on the differential clinical features that can aid the clinical reach a correct diagnosis, the indications and rational use of genetic testing and the currently available options for symptomatic treatment.

  4. Vegetation map for the Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex on the island of Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.

    2017-01-01

    This vegetation map was produced to serve as an updated habitat base for management of natural resources of the Hakalau Forest Unit (HFU) of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge) on the island of Hawai‘i. The map is based on a vegetation map originally produced as part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Hawai‘i Forest Bird Survey to depict the distribution, structure, and composition of plant communities on the island of Hawai‘i as they existed in 1977. The current map has been updated to represent current conditions of plant communities in the HFU, based on WorldView 2 imagery taken in 2012 and very-high-resolution imagery collected by Pictometry International from 2010 to 2014. Thirty-one detailed plant communities are identified on this map, and fourteen of these units are found within the boundaries of HFU. Additionally, the mapped units can be displayed as five tree canopy cover units, three moisture zones units, eight dominant tree species units, and four habitat status units by choosing the various fields to group the units from the map attribute table. This updated map will provide a foundation for the refinement and tracking of management actions on the Refuge for the near future, particularly as the habitats in this area are subject to projected climate change.

  5. Wetland Habitats for Wildlife of the Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews wildlife that use these three general wetland habitats; shallow water wetlands, forested wetlands and emergent wetlands. Wildlife discussed are...

  6. Proposals for 12 additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System : Part 15 : Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is one of the Presidential Transmittals proposing additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System. This particular transmittal focuses on the...

  7. Risk factors for gastrointestinal parasite infections of dogs living around protected areas of the Atlantic Forest: implications for human and wildlife health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. A. Curi

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation, 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans were found in feces samples from dogs. The most prevalent were the nematode Ancylostoma (47% followed by Toxocara (18% and Trichuris (8%. Other less prevalent (<2% parasites found were Capillaria, Ascaridia, Spirocerca, Taeniidae, Acantocephala, Ascaris, Dipylidium caninum, Toxascaris, and the protozoans Cystoisospora and Eimeria. Mixed infections were found in 36% of samples, mostly by Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Previous deworming had no association with infections, meaning that this preventive measure is being incorrectly performed by owners. Regarding risk factors, dogs younger than one year were more likely to be infected with Toxocara, and purebred dogs with Trichuris. The number of cats in the households was positively associated with Trichuris infection, while male dogs and low body scores were associated with mixed infections. The lack of associations with dog free-ranging behavior and access to forest or villages indicates that infections are mostly acquired around the households. The results highlight the risk of zoonotic and wildlife parasite infections from dogs and the need for monitoring and controlling parasites of domestic animals in human-wildlife interface areas.

  8. Models and form factors for stand volume estimation in natural forest ecosystems: a case study of Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KGWS),Bahraich District, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.J Adekunle; K.N.Nair; A.K.Srivastava; N.K.Singh

    2013-01-01

    In view of the difficulties in stand volume estimation in natural forests,we derived real form factors and models for volume estimation in these types of forest ecosystems,using Katamiaghat Wildlife Sanctuary as a case study.Tree growth data were obtained for all trees (dbh >10 cm) in 4 plots (25 × 25 m) randomly located in each of three strata selected in the forest.The form factor calculated for the stand was 0.42 and a range of 0.42-0.57 was estimated for selected species (density >10).The parameters of model variables were consistent with general growth trends of trees and each was statistically significant.There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the observed and predicted volumes for all models and there was very high correlation between observed and predicted volumes.The output of the performance statistics and the logical signs of the regression coefficients of the models demonstrated that they are useful for volume estimation with minimal error.Plotting the biases with respect to considerable regressor variables showed no meaningful and evident trend of bias values along with the independent variables.This showed that the models did not violate regression assumptions and there were no heteroscedacity or multiculnarity problems.We recommend use of the form factors and models in this ecosystem and in similar ones for stand and tree volume estimation.

  9. Hunting Apprenticeship as Indigenous Form of Education for Sustainable Conservation of Wildlife in Mau Forest of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronoh, T. K.; Makori, G.; Ayub, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mau Forest, the home of the majority of the Ogiek people is located in the Rift Valley Province and straddles Kericho, Nakuru, Narok and Bomet districts. Traditionally, the Ogiek as hunter-gatherers have distinctive histories of interaction with the natural environment. Over the years, the Ogiek have inhabited in the Mau Forest with little impact…

  10. Thinning impacts on the resilience of wildlife habitat quality under climate change in coniferous forests of western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. Neill; Klaus J. Puettmann; Adrian. Ares

    2013-01-01

    To understand the impacts of overstory density reductions on resilience of forest ecosystems (i.e., the capacity of an ecosystem to maintain desired ecosystem functions in a fl uctuating environment), we examined overstory basal area and understory vegetation cover and richness collected 6 years after thinning in seven 40- to 60-year-old forests dominated by Douglas-fi...

  11. Treatment of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited progressive neurological disease characterized by chorea, an involuntary brief movement that tends to flow between body regions. HD is typically diagnosed based on clinical findings in the setting of a family history and may be confirmed with genetic testing. Predictive testing is available to family members at risk, but only experienced clinicians should perform the counseling and testing. Multiple areas of the brain degenerate, mainly involving the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Although pharmacotherapies theoretically target these neurotransmitters, few well-conducted trials for symptomatic interventions have yielded positive results and current treatments have focused on the motor aspects of HD. Tetrabenazine is a dopamine-depleting agent that may be one of the more effective agents for reducing chorea, although it has a risk of potentially serious adverse effects. Some newer neuroleptic agents, such as olanzapine and aripiprazole, may have adequate efficacy with a more favorable adverse effect profile than older neuroleptic agents for treating chorea and psychosis. There are no current treatments to change the course of HD, but education and symptomatic therapies can be effective tools for clinicians to use with patients and families affected by HD.

  12. Dopamine and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Laetitia C; Garas, Shady N; Garas, Shaady N; Drouin-Ouellet, Janelle; Mason, Sarah L; Stott, Simon R; Barker, Roger A

    2015-04-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is defined by a combination of motor, cognitive and psychiatric features. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated an important role for the dopamine (DA) system in HD with dopaminergic dysfunction at the level of both DA release and DA receptors. It is, therefore, not surprising that the drug treatments most commonly used in HD are anti-dopaminergic agents. Their use is based primarily on the belief that the characteristic motor impairments are a result of overactivation of the central dopaminergic pathways. While this is a useful starting place, it is clear that the behavior of the central dopaminergic pathways is not fully understood in this condition and may change as a function of disease stage. In addition, how abnormalities in dopaminergic systems may underlie some of the non-motor features of HD has also been poorly investigated and this is especially important given the greater burden these place on the patients' and families' quality of life. In this review, we discuss what is known about central dopaminergic pathways in HD and how this informs us about the mechanisms of action of the dopaminergic therapies used to treat it. By doing so, we will highlight some of the paradoxes that exist and how solving them may reveal new insights for improved treatment of this currently incurable condition, including the possibility that such drugs may even have effects on disease progression and pathogenesis.

  13. Huntington's Disease and Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2017-06-21

    Huntington's disease (HD) as an inherited neurodegenerative disorder leads to neuronal loss in striatum. Progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbance are the main clinical symptoms of the HD. This disease is caused by expansion of the CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin which encodes Huntingtin protein (Htt). Various cellular and molecular events play role in the pathology of HD. Mitochondria as important organelles play crucial roles in the most of neurodegenerative disorders like HD. Critical roles of the mitochondria in neurons are ATP generation, Ca(2+) buffering, ROS generation, and antioxidant activity. Neurons as high-demand energy cells closely related to function, maintenance, and dynamic of mitochondria. In the most neurological disorders, mitochondrial activities and dynamic are disrupted which associate with high ROS level, low ATP generation, and apoptosis. Accumulation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) during this disease may evoke mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review recent findings to support this hypothesis that mHtt could cause mitochondrial defects. In addition, by focusing normal huntingtin functions in neurons, we purpose mitochondria and Huntingtin association in normal condition. Moreover, mHtt affects various cellular signaling which ends up to mitochondrial biogenesis. So, it could be a potential candidate to decline ATP level in HD. We conclude how mitochondrial biogenesis plays a central role in the neuronal survival and activity and how mHtt affects mitochondrial trafficking, maintenance, integrity, function, dynamics, and hemostasis and makes neurons vulnerable to degeneration in HD.

  14. Neuroimaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2014-06-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide CAG sequence in huntingtin gene (HTT) on chromosome 4. HD manifests with chorea, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Although advances in genetics allow identification of individuals carrying the HD gene, much is still unknown about the mechanisms underlying the development of overt clinical symptoms and the transitional period between premanifestation and manifestation of the disease. HD has no cure and patients rely only in symptomatic treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that are able to monitor disease progression and assess the development and efficacy of novel disease modifying drugs. Over the past years, neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have provided important advances in our understanding of HD. MRI provides information about structural and functional organization of the brain, while PET can detect molecular changes in the brain. MRI and PET are able to detect changes in the brains of HD gene carriers years ahead of the manifestation of the disease and have also proved to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique has been validated as an optimal biomarker. An integrative multimodal imaging approach, which combines different MRI and PET techniques, could be recommended for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive therapies in HD. In this article we review the current neuroimaging literature in HD.

  15. Forest and wildlife habitat analysis using remote sensing and geographic information systems. M.S. Thesis, 26 May 1992 Abstract Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, Maria

    1995-01-01

    Forest and wildlife habitat analyses were conducted at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Central Cascade Mountains of Oregon using remotely sensed data and a geographic information system (GIS). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to determine forest successional stages, and to analyze the structure of both old and young conifer forests. Two successional stage maps were developed. One was developed from six TM spectral bands alone, and the second was developed from six TM spectral bands and a relative sun incidence band. Including the sun incidence band in the classification improved the mapping accuracy in the two youngest successional stages, but did not improve overall accuracy or accuracy of the two oldest successional stages. Mean spectral values for old-growth and mature stands were compared in seven TM bands and seven band transformations. Differences between mature and old-growth successional stages were greatest for the band ratio of TM 4/5 (P = 0.00005) and the multiband transformation of wetness (P = 0.00003). The age of young conifer stands had the highest correlation to TM 4/5 values (r = 0.9559) of any of the TM band or band transformations used. TM 4/5 ratio values of poorly regenerated conifer stands were significantly different from well regenerated conifer stands after age 15 (P = 0.0000). TM 4/5 was named a 'Successional Stage Index' (SSI) because of its ability to distinguish forest successional stages. The forest successional stage map was used as input into a vertebrate richness model using GIS. The three variables of (1) successional stage, (2) elevation, and (3) site moisture were used in the GIS to predict the spatial occurrence of small mammal, amphibian, and reptile species based on primary and secondary habitat requirements. These occurrence or habitat maps were overlayed to tally the predicted number of vertebrate at any given point in the study area. Overall, sixty-three and sixty-seven percent of the model

  16. 75 FR 52546 - Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai`i County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... draft vision statements. The public comments we received throughout the planning process were considered... toward the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and... photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and update the CCPs at least...

  17. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  18. Huntington Disease in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Xu; Zhi-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to review the major differences of Huntington disease (HD) in Asian population from those in the Caucasian population.Data Sources:Data cited in this review were obtained from PubMed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 1994 to 2014.All the papers were written in English or Chinese languages,with the terms of Asia/Asian,HD,genotype,epidemiology,phenotype,and treatment used for the literature search.Study Selection:From the PubMed database,we included the articles and reviews which contained the HD patients' data from Asian countries.From the CNKI,we excluded the papers which were not original research.Due to the language's restrictions,those data published in other languages were not included.Results:In total,50 papers were cited in this review,authors of which were from the mainland of China,Japan,India,Thailand,Taiwan (China),Korea,and western countries.Conclusions:The lower epidemiology in Asians can be partly explained by the less cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats,different haplotypes,and CCG polymorphisms.For the physicians,atypical clinical profiles such as the initial symptom of ataxia,movement abnormalities of Parkinsonism,dystonia,or tics need to be paid more attention to and suggest gene testing if necessary.Moreover,some pathogenesis studies may help progress some new advanced treatments.The clinicians in Asian especially in China should promote the usage of genetic testing and put more effects in rehabilitation,palliative care,and offer comfort of patients and their families.The unified HD rating scale also needs to be popularized in Asia to assist in evaluating the progression of HD.

  19. Construction of a geographic information system for wildlife refuge planning: Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Working cooperatively with the USFWS, the University of Minnesota Department of Forest Resources has been compiling geo-referenced data for each national wildlife...

  20. Status of Water Quality Based on the Physico-Chemical Assessment on River Water at Wildlife Sanctuary Sibuti Mangrove Forest, Miri Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seca Gandaseca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mangrove forest is a component of wetlands that has been recognized as one of the most productive ecosystem in the tropic. Rapid development and other land uses in the mangrove areas over the years had negatively affected the ecological functions and its ecosystem. Study was carried out on river water quality at Sibuti Wildlife Sanctuary, Miri based on the physicochemical properties. Approach: A total of 72 water samples were collected from 12 stations or sampling points from Sungai Sibuti (SS and its tributary, a man-made canal called Sungai Parit Scheme (SPS at Sibuti Wildlife Sanctuary Miri, Sarawak in the month of June, August and October 2010. In situ data measurement such as temperature, conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity were taken and labeled. Analysis for parameter such as ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were conducted in the laboratory. Both in situ and ex situ data were measured and analyzed according to the Standards Methods APHA, 2005. Results for each water quality parameters are summarized as follows, temperature range (29.3-32.8°C, pH range (6.02-8.07, DO range (2.76-4.7 mg L-1, conductivity (0.805-96.1 µS cm-1, TSS range (0.00119-0.4361 mg L-1, turbidity (10.2-15.3 NTU, BOD range (5.21-6.66 mg L-1, COD (7.5-25 and ammoniacal nitrogen (0.1-0.31 mg L-1. Results: Based on Water Quality Index (WQI and Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS by the Department of Environment Malaysia, river water of SPS and SS fall under Class II. Conclusion: The water quality status of river water at Sibuti Wildlife Sanctuary Mangrove Forest, Miri Sarawak is under category class II or good water quality status. All water quality parameters in this study are found to be in class I and II (good water quality except for the BOD and DO which indicate fairer and moderate river water quality status.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction and Huntington disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a chronic autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease. The gene coding Huntingtin has been identified, but the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are still not fully understood. This paper reviews the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of HD.

  2. Is Huntington's disease a tauopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratuze, Maud; Cisbani, Giulia; Cicchetti, Francesca; Planel, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Tauopathies are a subclass of neurodegenerative diseases typified by the deposition of abnormal microtubule-associated tau protein within the cerebral tissue. Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and some fronto-temporal dementias are examples of the extended family of tauopathies. In the last decades, intermittent reports of cerebral tau pathology in individuals afflicted with Huntington's disease-an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that manifests by severe motor, cognitive and psychiatric problems in adulthood-have also begun to surface. These observations remained anecdotal until recently when a series of publications brought forward compelling evidence that this monogenic disorder may, too, be a tauopathy. Collectively, these studies reported that: (i) patients with Huntington's disease present aggregated tau inclusions within various structures of the brain; (ii) tau haplotype influences the cognitive function of Huntington's disease patients; and (iii) that the genetic product of the disease, the mutant huntingtin protein, could alter tau splicing, phosphorylation, oligomerization and subcellular localization. Here, we review the past and current evidence in favour of the postulate that Huntington's disease is a new member of the family of tauopathies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, S; Klaffke, S; Bandmann, O

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are both model diseases. Parkinson's disease is the most common of several akinetic-rigid syndromes and Huntington's disease is only one of an ever growing number of trinucleotide repeat disorders. Molecular genetic studies and subsequent molecular biological studies have provided fascinating new insights into the pathogenesis of both disorders and there is now real hope for disease modifying treatment in the not too distant future for patients with Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease. PMID:16024878

  4. Neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, S M; Klaffke, S; Bandmann, O

    2005-08-01

    Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are both model diseases. Parkinson's disease is the most common of several akinetic-rigid syndromes and Huntington's disease is only one of an ever growing number of trinucleotide repeat disorders. Molecular genetic studies and subsequent molecular biological studies have provided fascinating new insights into the pathogenesis of both disorders and there is now real hope for disease modifying treatment in the not too distant future for patients with Parkinson's disease or Huntington's disease.

  5. Huntington's disease presenting as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Julie; Ali, Elfatih; Pender, Niall P; Molloy, Fiona; Hennessy, Michael; Walsh, Ronan J; Hardiman, Orla

    2010-08-01

    We present the clinical, electrophysiological and molecular genetic findings of a 58-year-old male with genetically confirmed Huntington's disease (HD) and concurrent clinically definite ALS by El Escorial criteria. The patient presented with asymmetric upper limb amyotrophy and weakness, and subsequently developed chorea and cognitive change. Genetic testing confirmed the presence of expanded trinucleotide repeats in huntingtin, consistent with a diagnosis of Huntington's disease. This case confirms the rare coexistence of Huntington's disease and motor neuron degeneration.

  6. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) The taking of wildlife, except by authorized hunting and trapping activities conducted in accordance...

  7. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed.

  8. Cortical myoclonus in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P D; Bhatia, K P; Brown, P; Davis, M B; Pires, M; Quinn, N P; Luthert, P; Honovar, M; O'Brien, M D; Marsden, C D

    1994-11-01

    We describe three patients with Huntington's disease, from two families, in whom myoclonus was the predominant clinical feature. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in two cases and by DNA analysis in all three. These patients all presented before the age of 30 years and were the offspring of affected fathers. Neurophysiological studies documented generalised and multifocal action myoclonus of cortical origin that was strikingly stimulus sensitive, without enlargement of the cortical somatosensory evoked potential. The myoclonus improved with piracetam therapy in one patient and a combination of sodium valproate and clonazepam in the other two. Cortical reflex myoclonus is a rare but disabling component of the complex movement disorder of Huntington's disease, which may lead to substantial diagnostic difficulties.

  9. Molecular Imaging of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Borsò, Elisa; Mannironi, Antonio; Mansi, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    The onset and the clinical progression of Huntington Disease (HD) is influenced by several events prompted by a genetic mutation that affects several organs tissues including different regions of the brain. In the last decades years, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) helped to deepen the knowledge of neurodegenerative mechanisms that guide to clinical symptoms. Brain imaging with PET represents a tool to investigate the physiopathology occurring in the brain and it has been used to predict the age of onset of the disease and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of new drugs. This article reviews the contribution of PET and MRI in the research field on Huntington's disease, focusing in particular on some most relevant achievements that have helped recognize the molecular changes, the clinical symptoms and evolution of the disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1988-1993, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Antipsychotic drugs in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unti, E; Mazzucchi, S; Palermo, G; Bonuccelli, U; Ceravolo, R

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this review is to overview the pharmacological features of neuroleptics experienced in the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms. Despite a large number of case reports, randomized controlled trials (RCT) and drug comparison studies are lacking. Areas covered: After evaluating current guidelines and clinical unmet needs we searched PubMed for the term 'Huntington's disease' cross referenced with the terms 'Antipsychotic drugs' 'Neuroleptic drugs' and single drug specific names. Expert commentary: In clinical practice antipsychotics represent the first choice in the management of chorea in the presence of psychiatric symptoms, when poor compliance is suspected or when there is an increased risk of adverse events due to tetrabenazine. Antipsychotics are considered valid strategies, with the second generation preferred to reduce extrapyramidal adverse events, however they may cause more metabolic side effects. In the future 'dopamine stabilizers', such as pridopidine, could replace antipsychotics modulating dopamine transmission.

  11. Neuropsychiatric Burden in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Ricardo Augusto; Botturi, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Prunas, Cecilia; Lucchiari, Claudio; Zugno, Elisa; Caletti, Elisabetta

    2017-06-16

    Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape). Psychiatric conditions were classified into two main categories: affective and nonaffective disorders/symptoms; and anxiety and neuropsychiatric features such as apathy and irritability. Though the literature is extensive, it is not always convergent, probably due to the high heterogeneity of methods used. We summarize main papers for pathology and sample size, in order to present a synoptic vision of the argument. Since the association between Huntington's disease and psychiatric symptoms was demonstrated, we argue that the prevalent and more invalidating psychiatric components should be recognized as early as possible during the disease course in order to best address psychopharmacological therapy, improve quality of life, and also reduce burden on caregivers.

  12. 36 CFR 293.10 - Jurisdiction over wildlife and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction over wildlife... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.10 Jurisdiction over wildlife and fish. Nothing in the... States with respect to wildlife and fish in the National Forests....

  13. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  14. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, and Clear Lake in California, Upper Klamath and Klamath Forest in Oregon: January - April, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  15. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, and Clear Lake in California, Upper Klamath and Klamath Forest in Oregon: January - April, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Narrative report: January - April, 1961: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath, and Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuges, California and Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, and Clear Lake in California, Upper Klamath and Klamath Forest in Oregon: September - December, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by...

  18. Narrative report: May - August, 1961: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, Clear Lake, Upper Klamath and Klamath Forest National Wildlife Refuges, California and Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake*, Lower Klamath*, and Clear Lake* in California, Upper Klamath* and Klamath Forest* in Oregon: 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake*, Lower Klamath*, and Clear Lake* in California, Upper Klamath* and Klamath Forest* in Oregon: 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Narrative report: Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges: Tule Lake, Lower Klamath, and Clear Lake in California, Upper Klamath and Klamath Forest in Oregon: 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Huntington's disease: review and anesthetic case management.

    OpenAIRE

    Cangemi, C. F.; Miller, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited progressive autosomal disease that affects the basal ganglia. Symptoms appear later in life and manifest as progressive mental deterioration and involuntary choreiform movements. Patients with Huntington's disease develop a progressive but variable dementia. Dysphagia, the most significant related motor symptom, hinders nutrition intake and places the patient at risk for aspiration. The combination of involuntary choreoathetoid movements, depress...

  3. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D; Naarding, Paul; Stor, T; Kremer, H P H

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic

  4. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D.; Naarding, P.; Stor, T.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic

  5. Drug-induced hyperthermia in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, D.; Naarding, P.; Stor, T.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Until now, only three patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) have been reported in the literature. We describe four cases with advanced stage Huntington's disease who within a period of one year developed drug-induced hyperthermia, either the neuroleptic m

  6. Apathy is not depression in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, Paul; Janzing, Joost G E; Eling, Paul; van der Werf, Sieberen; Kremer, Berry

    2009-01-01

    Apathy and depression are common neuropsychiatric features of Huntington's disease. The authors studied a group of 34 Huntington's disease patients. In addition to the conventional classification according to DSM-IV criteria of depression, emphasis was put on a dimensional approach using scores on

  7. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community.

  8. 湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物分布现状及保护对策%Wildlife Distribution and Conservation Strategy in Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜二虎; Schindele Werner; 包源; 栾慎强; 戴振华

    2014-01-01

    The Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province has rich wildlife resources,of which Ardei-dae birds are representative.Based on the composition,distribution and habitats of the wildlife in Huay-anxi State Forest Farm,we suggest firstly the rare species and Ardeidae birds should be taken as the key species,secondly conservation of the key species and their habitats enhanced,thirdly the farm divided into protection area,conservation area and production area according to the distribution of the key species and different measures taken in different divisions,and finally sustainable forest management methods used to reduce disturbance to wildlife and their habitats in forest management in Huayanxi State Forest Farm.%湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物丰富,尤其鹭科鸟类是林场的代表性动物。根据花岩溪林场野生动物组成、分布状况及栖息地特点,建议:将珍稀野生动物及鹭科鸟类作为关键物种,加强关键物种及其栖息地的保护;将林场划分为保护区域、保持区域和生产区域进行经营管理;采用可持续的森林经营技术,减少对野生动物及栖息地的干扰破坏。

  9. Huntington's disease: clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ken; Aminoff, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Huntington's disease is a devastating disorder with no known cure. The disease results from an expanded sequence of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene and leads to a movement disorder with associated cognitive and systemic deficits. Huntington's disease is diagnosed by genetic testing and disease progression can be followed with a variety of imaging modalities. The accumulation of aggregated huntingtin with associated striatal degeneration is evident at autopsy. The pathophysiology of Huntington's disease remains unknown, although protein aggregation, excitotoxicity, deficits in energy metabolism, transcriptional dysregulation and apoptosis may all be involved. Current pharmacologic therapy for Huntington's disease is limited and exclusively symptomatic. However, the disease is being heavily researched, and a wide range of disease-modifying therapies is currently under development. The efficacy of these therapies is being evaluated in transgenic models of Huntington's disease and in preliminary clinical trials.

  10. A Timber Management Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. A history and...

  11. Annual Habitat Work Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management activities outlined in this plan include forest protection, grassland management, and wetland restoration, wildlife nesting structures and restoring...

  12. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Prescribed Fire Plan : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Prescribed Fire Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan, by aiding the forest...

  13. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. Two types...

  14. 36 CFR 261.8 - Fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish and wildlife. 261.8 Section 261.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.8 Fish and wildlife. The following are prohibited to the extent Federal...

  15. Huntington's Disease: An Immune Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats. Neuroinflammation is a typical feature of most neurodegenerative diseases that leads to an array of pathological changes within the affected areas in the brain. The neurodegeneration in HD is also caused by aberrant immune response in the presence of aggregated mutant huntingtin protein. The effects of immune activation in HD nervous system are a relatively unexplored area of research. This paper summarises immunological features associated with development and progression of HD.

  16. Huntington disease: pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayalu, Praveen; Albin, Roger L

    2015-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, culminating in death. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Even years before symptoms become overt, mutation carriers show subtle but progressive striatal and cerebral white matter atrophy by volumetric MRI. Although there is currently no direct treatment of HD, management options are available for several symptoms. A better understanding of HD pathogenesis, and more sophisticated clinical trials using newer biomarkers, may lead to meaningful treatments. This article reviews the current knowledge of HD pathogenesis and treatment.

  17. Psychiatric symptoms and CAG expansion in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.W.; Schmid, W.; Spiegel, R. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-16

    The mutation responsible for Huntington`s disease (HD) is an elongated CAG repeat in the coding region of the IT15 gene. A PCR-based test with high sensitivity and accuracy is now available to identify asymptomatic gene carriers and patients. An inverse correlation between CAG copy number and age at disease onset has been found in a large number of affected individuals. The influence of the CAG repeat expansion on other phenotypic manifestations, especially specific psychiatric symptoms has not been studied intensively. In order to elucidate this situation we investigated the relation between CAG copy number and distinct psychiatric phenotypes found in 79 HD-patients. None of the four differentiated categories (personality change, psychosis, depression, and nonspecific alterations) showed significant differences in respect to size of the CAG expansion. In addition, no influence of individual sex on psychiatric presentation could be found. On the other hand in patients with personality changes maternal transmission was significantly more frequent compared with all other groups. Therefore we suggest that clinical severity of psychiatric features in HD is not directly dependent on the size of the dynamic mutation involved. The complex pathogenetic mechanisms leading to psychiatric alterations are still unknown and thus genotyping does not provide information about expected psychiatric symptoms in HD gene carriers. 40 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. [Molecular therapeutic strategies for Huntington's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Michał; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Ball, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of genetic origin that still lacks an effective treatment. Recently, a number of new attempts have been undertaken to develop a successful molecular therapy for this incurable condition. The novel approaches employ, among others, some new methods to selectively silence the mutated gene or to neutralize its toxic protein product. This paper reviews all major strategies that are currently considered for molecular therapy of Huntington's disease while discussing their potential effectiveness regarding the treatment of both the Huntington's disease and a large group of related neurodegenerative disorders associated with abnormal protein aggregation.

  19. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  20. Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  1. Huntington's disease: review and anesthetic case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, C F; Miller, R J

    1998-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited progressive autosomal disease that affects the basal ganglia. Symptoms appear later in life and manifest as progressive mental deterioration and involuntary choreiform movements. Patients with Huntington's disease develop a progressive but variable dementia. Dysphagia, the most significant related motor symptom, hinders nutrition intake and places the patient at risk for aspiration. The combination of involuntary choreoathetoid movements, depression, and apathy leads to cachexia. Factors of considerable concern to the anesthesiologist who treats patients with Huntington's disease may include how to treat frail elderly people incapable of cooperation, how to treat patients suffering from malnourishment, and how to treat patients with an increased risk for aspiration or exaggerated responses to sodium thiopental and succinylcholine. The successful anesthetic management of a 65-yr-old woman with Huntington's disease who presented for full-mouth extractions is described.

  2. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Society of America Huntington's Disease Youth Organization Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech and Language Child Speech and Language Swallowing ...

  3. Wildlife Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik

    This report contains a progress report for the ph.d. project titled “Wildlife Communication”. The project focuses on investigating how signal processing and pattern recognition can be used to improve wildlife management in agriculture. Wildlife management systems used today experience habituation...

  4. Impaired mitochondrial trafficking in Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Orr, Adam L.; Li, Shihua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Impaired mitochondrial function has been well documented in Huntington?s disease. Mutant huntingtin is found to affect mitochondria via various mechanisms including the dysregulation of gene transcription and impairment of mitochondrial function or trafficking. The lengthy and highly branched neuronal processes constitute complex neural networks in which there is a large demand for mitochondria-generated energy. Thus, the impaired mitochondria trafficking in neuronal cells...

  5. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  6. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

    2013-10-11

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  7. Cholesterol metabolism in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; Hayden, Michael R

    2011-09-06

    The CNS is rich in cholesterol, which is essential for neuronal development and survival, synapse maturation, and optimal synaptic activity. Alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis are linked to neurodegeneration. Studies have demonstrated that Huntington disease (HD), a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, is associated with changes in cellular cholesterol metabolism. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies indicates that attenuated brain sterol synthesis and accumulation of cholesterol in neuronal membranes represent two distinct mechanisms occurring in the presence of mutant huntingtin that influence neuronal survival. Increased knowledge of how changes in intraneuronal cholesterol metabolism influence the pathogenesis of HD will provide insights into the potential application of brain cholesterol regulation as a therapeutic strategy for this devastating disease.

  8. Juvenile Huntington disease in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Parisi, Virginia; Etcheverry, José Luis; Sanguinetti, Ana; Cordi, Lorena; Binelli, Adrian; Persi, Gabriel; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of juvenile Huntington disease (JHD) and it frequency in an Argentinean cohort. Age at onset was defined as the age at which behavioral, cognitive, psychiatric or motor abnormalities suggestive of JHD were first reported. Clinical and genetic data were similar to other international series, however, in this context we identified the highest JHD frequency reported so far (19.72%; 14/71). Age at onset of JHD is challenging and still under discussion. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that clinical manifestations, other than the typical movement disorder, may anticipate age at onset of even many years. Analyses of JHD cohorts are required to explore it frequency in populations with different backgrounds to avoid an underestimation of this rare phenotype. Moreover, data from selected populations may open new pathways in therapeutic approaches and may explain new potential correlations between HD presentations and environmental or biological factors.

  9. Language impairment in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azambuja, Mariana Jardim; Radanovic, Marcia; Haddad, Mônica Santoro; Adda, Carla Cristina; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2012-06-01

    Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD) are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT). HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (poral comprehension (preading comprehension (p=0.034) and narrative writing (p<0.0001). There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively). Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  10. Huntington's disease: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Raymund AC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Huntington disease (HD is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by unwanted choreatic movements, behavioral and psychiatric disturbances and dementia. Prevalence in the Caucasian population is estimated at 1/10,000-1/20,000. Mean age at onset of symptoms is 30-50 years. In some cases symptoms start before the age of 20 years with behavior disturbances and learning difficulties at school (Juvenile Huntington's disease; JHD. The classic sign is chorea that gradually spreads to all muscles. All psychomotor processes become severely retarded. Patients experience psychiatric symptoms and cognitive decline. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by an elongated CAG repeat (36 repeats or more on the short arm of chromosome 4p16.3 in the Huntingtine gene. The longer the CAG repeat, the earlier the onset of disease. In cases of JHD the repeat often exceeds 55. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and signs in an individual with a parent with proven HD, and is confirmed by DNA determination. Pre-manifest diagnosis should only be performed by multidisciplinary teams in healthy at-risk adult individuals who want to know whether they carry the mutation or not. Differential diagnoses include other causes of chorea including general internal disorders or iatrogenic disorders. Phenocopies (clinically diagnosed cases of HD without the genetic mutation are observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation diagnosis with in vitro fertilization is offered in several countries. There is no cure. Management should be multidisciplinary and is based on treating symptoms with a view to improving quality of life. Chorea is treated with dopamine receptor blocking or depleting agents. Medication and non-medical care for depression and aggressive behavior may be required. The progression of the disease leads to a complete dependency in daily life, which

  11. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  12. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  13. Silencing Huntington's chorea: Is RNA Interference a Potential Cure?

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Gerlinde A.; Whishaw, Ian Q.; Afra Foroud; Nafisa M Jadavji

    2006-01-01

    In 1872, George Huntington described Huntington's disease as characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Huntington's disease is a dominant and autosomal mutation on chromosome 4 featuring the insertion of numerous CAG repeats. CAG codes for the amino acid, glutmanine that forms part of the Huntingtin protein (htt). Excess glutamine attachments make htt prone to accumulate in neurons. Three genes can be considered when developing therapies for Huntington's disease. They inc...

  14. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  15. 2004 progress report : Effects of ungulate browsing on post-fire recovery of riparian cottonwoods : Implications for management of riparian forests, Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Browsing pressure by ungulates may limit natural establishment of native cottonwood and willow stands, and fires, which have become more frequent on riparian lands...

  16. Lower Hatchie Forest Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  17. Hakalau Forest - Control of English Holly 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — English holly (Ilex aquafolia) was identified as a highest priority target invasive plant species in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (Hakalau) 2010...

  18. 50 CFR 35.8 - Forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forest management. 35.8 Section 35.8... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.8 Forest management. Forest management activities in a wilderness unit will be directed toward allowing...

  19. Exercise effects in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Sebastian; Petersen, Jens A; Ligon-Auer, Maria; Mueller, Sandro Manuel; Mihaylova, Violeta; Gehrig, Saskia M; Kana, Veronika; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Unterburger, Evelyn; Kägi, Georg; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Toigo, Marco; Jung, Hans H

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with symptoms across a wide range of neurological domains, including cognitive and motor dysfunction. There is still no causative treatment for HD but environmental factors such as passive lifestyle may modulate disease onset and progression. In humans, multidisciplinary rehabilitation has a positive impact on cognitive functions. However, a specific role for exercise as a component of an environmental enrichment effect has been difficult to demonstrate. We aimed at investigating whether endurance training (ET) stabilizes the progression of motor and cognitive dysfunction and ameliorates cardiovascular function in HD patients. Twelve male HD patients (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 7.1 years) and twelve male controls (49.1 ± 6.8 years) completed 26 weeks of endurance training. Before and after the training intervention, clinical assessments, exercise physiological tests, and a body composition measurement were conducted and a muscle biopsy was taken from M. vastus lateralis. To examine the natural course of the disease, HD patients were additionally assessed 6 months prior to ET. During the ET period, there was a motor deficit stabilization as indicated by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale motor section score in HD patients (baseline: 18.6 ± 9.2, pre-training: 26.0 ± 13.7, post-training: 26.8 ± 16.4). Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) significantly increased in HD patients (∆[Formula: see text] = +0.33 ± 0.28 l) and controls (∆[Formula: see text] = +0.29 ± 0.41 l). No adverse effects of the training intervention were reported. Our results confirm that HD patients are amenable to a specific exercise-induced therapeutic strategy indicated by an increased cardiovascular function and a stabilization of motor function.

  20. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.40 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a... regularly maintained public airports. (5) Persons transporting wildlife through park areas must...

  1. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This checklist is a comprehensive list of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge wildlife species. The checklist contains all wildlife species documented on the...

  2. 36 CFR 13.604 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife distance conditions. 13.604 Section 13.604 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 13.604 Wildlife distance conditions. (a) Approaching a bear or any large mammal within 50 yards...

  3. Biochemical aspects of Huntington's chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, T; Calderini, G; Consolazione, A; Riva, E; Algeri, S; Girotti, F; Spreafico, R; Branciforti, A; Dall'olio, A; Morselli, P L

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients affected by Huntington's chorea were divided into two groups, 'slow' and 'fast', according to IQ scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue scale, and scores on some motor performance tests. A possible correlation was looked for between some biochemical data (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) levels, plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), dopamine (DA) uptake by platelets), and clinical data (duration of illness, severity of symptoms, age of patients, IQ scores, 'slow' and 'fast' groups). The CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA levels were found to be significantly lowered in comparison with normal controls. DBH activity and DA uptake by platelets did not differ significantly from normal subjects. Treatment with haloperidol in all patients and with dipropylacetic acid in three patients did not appear to modify the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA concentrations, the plasma DBH activity, or the DA uptake. There were no significant differences in the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA contents between the two groups of patients, and there was no correlation between biochemical data and clinical features. PMID:143508

  4. Protein oxidation in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorolla, M Alba; Rodríguez-Colman, María José; Vall-llaura, Núria; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim; Cabiscol, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene, affecting initially the striatum and progressively the cortex. Oxidative stress, and consequent protein oxidation, has been described as important to disease progression. This review focuses on recent advances in the field, with a particular emphasis on the identified target proteins and the role that their oxidation has or might have in the pathophysiology of HD. Oxidation and the resulting inactivation and/or degradation of important proteins can explain the impairment of several metabolic pathways in HD. Oxidation of enzymes involved in ATP synthesis can account for the energy deficiency observed. Impairment of protein folding and degradation can be due to oxidation of several heat shock proteins and Valosin-containing protein. Oxidation of two enzymes involved in the vitamin B6 metabolism could result in decreased availability of pyridoxal phosphate, which is a necessary cofactor in transaminations, the kynurenine pathway and the synthesis of glutathione, GABA, dopamine and serotonin, all of which have a key role in HD pathology. In addition, protein oxidation often contributes to oxidative stress, aggravating the molecular damage inside the cell. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Error processing in Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Beste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD is a genetic disorder expressed by a degeneration of the basal ganglia inter alia accompanied with dopaminergic alterations. These dopaminergic alterations are related to genetic factors i.e., CAG-repeat expansion. The error (related negativity (Ne/ERN, a cognitive event-related potential related to performance monitoring, is generated in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and supposed to depend on the dopaminergic system. The Ne is reduced in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Due to a dopaminergic deficit in HD, a reduction of the Ne is also likely. Furthermore it is assumed that movement dysfunction emerges as a consequence of dysfunctional error-feedback processing. Since dopaminergic alterations are related to the CAG-repeat, a Ne reduction may furthermore also be related to the genetic disease load. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We assessed the error negativity (Ne in a speeded reaction task under consideration of the underlying genetic abnormalities. HD patients showed a specific reduction in the Ne, which suggests impaired error processing in these patients. Furthermore, the Ne was closely related to CAG-repeat expansion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The reduction of the Ne is likely to be an effect of the dopaminergic pathology. The result resembles findings in Parkinson's Disease. As such the Ne might be a measure for the integrity of striatal dopaminergic output function. The relation to the CAG-repeat expansion indicates that the Ne could serve as a gene-associated "cognitive" biomarker in HD.

  6. Predictive testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibben, Aad

    2007-04-30

    Worldwide, predictive testing for Huntington's disease has become an accepted clinical application that has allowed many individuals from HD-families to proceed with their life without the uncertainty of being at risk. International guidelines have extensively contributed to establishing counselling programmes of high quality, and have served as a model for other genetic disorders. Psychological follow-up studies have increased the insight into the far-reaching impact of test results for all individuals involved. Although the guidelines have served as a useful frame of reference, clinical experience has shown the importance of a case-by-case approach to do justice to the specific needs of the individual test candidate. Issues such as ambiguous test results, lack of awareness in a test candidate of early signs of the disease, non-compliance to the test protocol, or the test candidate's need for information on the relationship between age at onset and CAG-repeat require careful consideration. Receiving a test result is only one of the transition points in the life of an individual at risk; such result needs to be valued from a life-cycle perspective.

  7. Huntington's Disease and Striatal Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Emmanuel; Cahill, Emma; Martin, Elodie; Bonnet, Cecilia; Vanhoutte, Peter; Betuing, Sandrine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of polyglutamines (CAG). The main clinical manifestations of HD are chorea, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders. The transmission of HD is autosomal dominant with a complete penetrance. HD has a single genetic cause, a well-defined neuropathology, and informative pre-manifest genetic testing of the disease is available. Striatal atrophy begins as early as 15 years before disease onset and continues throughout the period of manifest illness. Therefore, patients could theoretically benefit from therapy at early stages of the disease. One important characteristic of HD is the striatal vulnerability to neurodegeneration, despite similar expression of the protein in other brain areas. Aggregation of the mutated Huntingtin (HTT), impaired axonal transport, excitotoxicity, transcriptional dysregulation as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, and energy deficits, are all part of the cellular events that underlie neuronal dysfunction and striatal death. Among these non-exclusive mechanisms, an alteration of striatal signaling is thought to orchestrate the downstream events involved in the cascade of striatal dysfunction.

  8. Therapeutic advances in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kathleen M; Fraint, Avram

    2015-09-15

    Huntington's disease is a rare hereditary degenerative disease with a wide variety of symptoms that encompass movement, cognition, and behavior. The genetic mutation that causes the disease has been known for more than 20 y, and animal models have illuminated a host of intracellular derangements that occur downstream of protein translation. A number of clinical trials targeting these metabolic consequences have failed to produce a single effective therapy, although clinical trials continue. New strategies targeting the protein at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification and aggregation engender new hope that a successful strategy will emerge, but there is much work ahead. Some of the clinical manifestations of the illness, particularly chorea, affective symptoms, and irritability, are amenable to palliative strategies, but physicians have a poor evidence base on which to select the best agents. Clinical trials since 2013 have dashed hopes that coenzyme Q10 or creatine might have disease-modifying properties but suggested other agents were safe or hinted at efficacy (cysteamine, selisistat, hydroxyquinoline) and could proceed into later-stage disease modification trials. The hunt for effective symptom relief suggested that pridopidine might be shown effective given the right outcome measure. This review summarizes recent progress in HD and highlights promising new strategies for slowing disease progression and relieving suffering in HD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Huntington's disease: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-08-17

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4. In Western populations HD has a prevalence of 10.6-13.7 individuals per 100,000. It is characterised by cognitive, motor and psychiatric disturbance. At the cellular level mutant huntingtin results in neuronal dysfunction and death through a number of mechanisms, including disruption of proteostasis, transcription and mitochondrial function and direct toxicity of the mutant protein. Early macroscopic changes are seen in the striatum with involvement of the cortex as the disease progresses. There are currently no disease modifying treatments therefore supportive and symptomatic management is the mainstay of treatment. In recent years there have been significant advances in understanding both the cellular pathology and the macroscopic structural brain changes that occur as the disease progresses. In the last decade there has been a large growth in potential therapeutic targets and clinical trials. Perhaps the most promising of these are the emerging therapies aimed at lowering levels of mutant huntingtin. Antisense oligonucleotide therapy is one such approach with clinical trials currently underway. This may bring us one step closer to treating and potentially preventing this devastating condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  11. Language impairment in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT. HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (p<0.0001, oral comprehension (p<0.0001, repetition (p<0.0001, oral agility (p<0.0001, reading comprehension (p=0.034 and narrative writing (p<0.0001. There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively. Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions.

  12. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  13. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  14. Development of biomarkers for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David W; Sturrock, Aaron; Leavitt, Blair R

    2011-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, for which there is no disease-modifying treatment. By use of predictive genetic testing, it is possible to identify individuals who carry the gene defect before the onset of symptoms, providing a window of opportunity for intervention aimed at preventing or delaying disease onset. However, without robust and practical measures of disease progression (ie, biomarkers), the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in this premanifest Huntington's disease population cannot be readily assessed. Current progress in the development of biomarkers might enable evaluation of disease progression in individuals at the premanifest stage of the disease; these biomarkers could be useful in defining endpoints in clinical trials in this population. Clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, and biochemical biomarkers are being investigated for their potential in clinical use and their value in the development of future treatments for patients with Huntington's disease.

  15. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  16. Maternal transmission in sporadic Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, A; Milà, M.; Castellví-Bel, S; Rosich, M; Jiménez, D; Badenas, C.; ESTIVILL, X.

    1997-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a (CAG)n repeat in the IT15 gene. Three per cent of cases are sporadic and in those in which family studies have been performed, the origin of the mutation was always paternal. The first sporadic case of Huntington's disease is presented in which a premutated maternal allele of 37 CAG repeats was transmitted expanded to the proband (43 CAG repeats). Molecular analysis of the IT15 gene is extrem...

  17. Pathogenic insights from Huntington's disease-like 2 and other Huntington's disease genocopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Russell L; Rudnicki, Dobrila D

    2016-12-01

    Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a rare, progressive, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that genetically, clinically, and pathologically closely resembles Huntington's disease. We review HDL2 pathogenic mechanisms and examine the implications of these mechanisms for Huntington's disease and related diseases. HDL2 is caused by a CTG/CAG repeat expansion in junctophilin-3. Available data from cell and animal models and human brain suggest that HDL2 is a complex disease in which transcripts and proteins expressed bidirectionally from the junctophilin-3 locus contribute to pathogenesis through both gain-and loss-of-function mechanisms. Recent advances indicate that the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease is equally complex, despite the emphasis on toxic gain-of-function properties of the mutant huntingtin protein. Studies examining in parallel the genetic, clinical, neuropathological, and mechanistic similarities between Huntington's disease and HDL2 have begun to identify points of convergence between the pathogenic pathways of the two diseases. Comparisons to other diseases that are phenotypically or genetically related to Huntington's disease and HDL2 will likely reveal additional common pathways. The ultimate goal is to identify shared therapeutic targets and eventually develop therapies that may, at least in part, be effective across multiple similar rare diseases, an essential approach given the scarcity of resources for basic and translational research.

  18. Auditing wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    B.K. Reilly; Y. Reillly

    2003-01-01

    Reilly B.K. and Y. Reilly. 2003. Auditing wildlife. Koedoe 46(2): 97–102. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458. Accountants and auditors are increasingly confronted with the problem of auditing wildlife populations on game ranches as their clients' asset base expands into this industry. This paper aims to provide guidelines on these actions based on case study data and research in the field of wildlife monitoring. Parties entering into dispute on numbers of animals on a property often resort to their au...

  19. Impaired motor speech performance in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodda, Sabine; Schlegel, Uwe; Hoffmann, Rainer; Saft, Carsten

    2014-04-01

    Dysarthria is a common symptom of Huntington's disease and has been reported, besides other features, to be characterized by alterations of speech rate and regularity. However, data on the specific pattern of motor speech impairment and their relationship to other motor and neuropsychological symptoms are sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and objectively analyse different speech parameters with special emphasis on the aspect of speech timing of connected speech and non-speech verbal utterances. 21 patients with manifest Huntington's disease and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls had to perform a reading task and several syllable repetition tasks. Computerized acoustic analysis of different variables for the measurement of speech rate and regularity generated a typical pattern of impaired motor speech performance with a reduction of speech rate, an increase of pauses and a marked disability to steadily repeat single syllables. Abnormalities of speech parameters were more pronounced in the subgroup of patients with Huntington's disease receiving antidopaminergic medication, but were also present in the drug-naïve patients. Speech rate related to connected speech and parameters of syllable repetition showed correlations to overall motor impairment, capacity of tapping in a quantitative motor assessment and some score of cognitive function. After these preliminary data, further investigations on patients in different stages of disease are warranted to survey if the analysis of speech and non-speech verbal utterances might be a helpful additional tool for the monitoring of functional disability in Huntington's disease.

  20. Destination and source memory in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Verny, C.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults

  1. Kas Huntington oli prohvet? / Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Simson Priit, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Autor käsitleb Samuel Huntingtoni teese ning leiab, et tegelikult Huntington ei pakkunud õigustust islamiriikide ründamisele, vaid pigem hoiatas tsivilisatsioonide siseasjusse sekkumise, tekkida võiva ahelreaktsiooni eest, kus üks tsivilisatsiooni liige tõmbab sõtta ka teise

  2. Wearable Sensors in Huntington Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Kelly L; Dowling, Ariel V; Stamler, David; Felong, Timothy J; Harris, Denzil A; Wong, Cynthia; Cai, Hang; Reilmann, Ralf; Little, Max A; Gwin, Joseph T; Biglan, Kevin M; Dorsey, E Ray

    2016-06-18

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is the principal means of assessing motor impairment in Huntington disease but is subjective and generally limited to in-clinic assessments. To evaluate the feasibility and ability of wearable sensors to measure motor impairment in individuals with Huntington disease in the clinic and at home. Participants with Huntington disease and controls were asked to wear five accelerometer-based sensors attached to the chest and each limb for standardized, in-clinic assessments and for one day at home. A second chest sensor was worn for six additional days at home. Gait measures were compared between controls, participants with Huntington disease, and participants with Huntington disease grouped by UHDRS total motor score using Cohen's d values. Fifteen individuals with Huntington disease and five controls completed the study. Sensor data were successfully captured from 18 of the 20 participants at home. In the clinic, the standard deviation of step time (time between consecutive steps) was increased in Huntington disease (p Huntington disease, and participants with Huntington disease grouped by motor impairment.

  3. Silencing Huntington's chorea: Is RNA Interference a Potential Cure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde A. Metz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1872, George Huntington described Huntington's disease as characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Huntington's disease is a dominant and autosomal mutation on chromosome 4 featuring the insertion of numerous CAG repeats. CAG codes for the amino acid, glutmanine that forms part of the Huntingtin protein (htt. Excess glutamine attachments make htt prone to accumulate in neurons. Three genes can be considered when developing therapies for Huntington's disease. They include targeting the symptoms of the disease, the progression of the disease and the cause of the disease. By using RNA interference (RNAi, the cause of the disease can be targeted. RNAi is a method that could potentially silence the formation of abnormal htt. This paper will discuss how RNAi could potentially cure Huntington's disease, by describing the genetic and proteinomic basis of Huntington's disease, the function of RNAi in Huntington's disease and the problems of benefits of RNAi. Preliminary work using RNAi in transgenic mice has shown a decrease in the behavioural expression of the mutant Huntington gene. There are several limitations associated with using RNAi as a gene therapy. For example, the effects of RNAi are short lived. A transposition system such as Sleeping Beauty can be used to increase the integration of the gene, however, for patients who currently have Huntington's disease, RNAi may potentially be used in combination with drugs or other treatments to target both symptoms and the underlying cause of Huntington's disease. This combination could eventually alleviate many painful symptoms associated with Huntington's disease and could even stop the progressive neurodegeneration of Huntington's disease. This review concludes that a substantial amount of new research is still necessary before RNAi is directly applicable to human patients with Huntington's disease.

  4. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  5. A Metabolic Study of Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nambron

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease patients have a number of peripheral manifestations suggestive of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. We, therefore, investigated a number of metabolic factors in a 24-hour study of Huntington's disease gene carriers (premanifest and moderate stage II/III and controls.Control (n = 15, premanifest (n = 14 and stage II/III (n = 13 participants were studied with blood sampling over a 24-hour period. A battery of clinical tests including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose distribution was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We quantified fasting baseline concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a, fatty acids, amino acids, lactate and osteokines. Leptin and ghrelin were quantified in fasting samples and after a standardised meal. We assessed glucose, insulin, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations during a prolonged oral glucose tolerance test.We found no highly significant differences in carbohydrate, protein or lipid metabolism markers between healthy controls, premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. For some markers (osteoprotegerin, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine and arginine there is a suggestion (p values between 0.02 and 0.05 that levels are higher in patients with premanifest HD, but not moderate HD. However, given the large number of statistical tests performed interpretation of these findings must be cautious.Contrary to previous studies that showed altered levels of metabolic markers in patients with Huntington's disease, our study did not demonstrate convincing evidence of abnormalities in any of the markers examined. Our analyses were restricted to Huntington's disease patients not taking neuroleptics, anti-depressants or other medication affecting metabolic pathways. Even with the modest sample sizes studied, the lack of highly significant results, despite many being tested, suggests that

  6. Ecology of Nesting Bald Eagles on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were censused in a boreal forest region on and near the 688,000 ha Kenai National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 1979....

  7. Spiders (Araneae) of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Washington County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes my identifications of spiders for graduate student Matthew Vander Haegen, College of Forest Resources, Department of Wildlife, University of...

  8. Environmental Assessment for Public Deer Hunting at James River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An excessively high deer population will conflict with any forest management program conducted at James River National Wildlife Refuge. To accomplish the objective...

  9. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  10. Hakalau Forest - Control of English Holly 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR (Hakalau) was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. Since establishment of the refuge there has been significant...

  11. Hakalau Forest - Control of English Holly 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR (Hakalau) was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. Since establishment of the refuge there has been significant...

  12. Molecular diagnostic analysis for Huntington's disease: a prospective evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, J C; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1995-01-01

    The availability of mutation analysis for the CAG repeat expansion associated with Huntington's disease has prompted clinicians in various specialties to request testing of samples from patients displaying clinical features that might be attributable to Huntington's disease. A series of 38 cases presenting with clinical features thought possibly to be due to Huntington's disease were analysed prospectively. In 53% of such cases presenting initially with chorea and 62.5% with psychiatric sympt...

  13. Normal CAG and CCG repeats in the Huntington`s disease genes of Parkinson`s disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Barton, D.E. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    The clinical features of Parkinson`s disease, particularly rigidity and bradykinesia and occasionally tremor, are seen in juvenile-onset Huntington`s disease. Therefore, the CAG and CCG repeats in the Huntington`s disease gene were investigated in 45 Parkinson`s disease patients and compared to 40 control individuals. All of the Parkinson`s disease chromosomes fell within the normal size ranges. In addition, the distributions of the two repeats in the Parkinson`s disease patients did not differ significantly from those of the control population. Therefore, abnormalities of these trinucleotide repeats in the Huntington`s disease gene are not likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson`s disease. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Mingo NWR outlines procedures for monitoring the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of the species of wildlife...

  15. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wildlife Inventory Plan is the guideline employed to obtain useful parameters related to the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of wildlife...

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Malheur NWR summarizes Refuge objectives, policies on wildlife inventory procedures, biological habitat units, physical facility...

  17. An analysis of Ohio's forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Donald F. Dennis

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the current status and trends of the forest resources of Ohio. Topics include forest area, timber volume, biomass, timber products, and growth and removals. Forest area, volume, and growth and removals are projected through 2009. Discusses water, soil, minerals, fish, wildlife, and recreation as they relate to forest resources. Also...

  18. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research.

  19. Revisiting the neuropsychiatry of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lucio Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease classified under the choreas. Besides motor symptoms, HD is marked by cognitive and behavioral symptoms, impacting patients' functional capacity. The progression of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in parallel with neurodegeneration. The nature of these symptoms is very dynamic, and the major clinical challenges include executive dysfunction, apathy, depression and irritability. Herein, we provide a focused updated review on the cognitive and psychiatric features of HD.

  20. [Sporadic juvenile forms of Huntington's chorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, A P; Goncharov, V D; Burtianskii, D L; Zakhar'ev, Iu M

    1980-01-01

    Six patients with Huntington's chorea in the age of 15-24 years old, suffered from diffusive choreic hyperkynesis with slowly progressive dementia. The development of this disease in childhood and adolescence was atypical, as nobody in the family and in kin sufferred from it and it was difficult to diagnose the disease. Recognition of the disease was promoted by pneumoencephalography, electromyography and memory investigation.

  1. Biological Diversity of Created Forested Wetlands in Comparison to Reference Forested Wetlands in the Bay Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were surveyed at six created forested wetlands in central Maryland and at six adjacent reference forested wetlands during...

  2. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  3. Altered cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Dorsey, E Ray; Beck, Christopher A; Brenna, J Thomas; Shoulson, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities, cognitive decline, and involuntary movements that lead to a progressive decline in functional capacity, independence, and ultimately death. The pathophysiology of Huntington disease is linked to an expanded trinucleotide repeat of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) in the IT-15 gene on chromosome 4. There is no disease-modifying treatment for Huntington disease, and novel pathophysiological insights and therapeutic strategies are needed. Lipids are vital to the health of the central nervous system, and research in animals and humans has revealed that cholesterol metabolism is disrupted in Huntington disease. This lipid dysregulation has been linked to specific actions of the mutant huntingtin on sterol regulatory element binding proteins. This results in lower cholesterol levels in affected areas of the brain with evidence that this depletion is pathologic. Huntington disease is also associated with a pattern of insulin resistance characterized by a catabolic state resulting in weight loss and a lower body mass index than individuals without Huntington disease. Insulin resistance appears to act as a metabolic stressor attending disease progression. The fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been examined in clinical trials of Huntington disease patients. Drugs that combat the dysregulated lipid milieu in Huntington disease may help treat this perplexing and catastrophic genetic disease.

  4. Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

  5. Comprehension of Complex Discourse in Different Stages of Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Fors, Angelika; Stroberg, Sofia; Hartelius, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Huntington's disease not only affects motor speech control, but also may have an impact on the ability to produce and understand language in communication. Aims: The ability to comprehend basic and complex discourse was investigated in three different stages of Huntington's disease. Methods & Procedures: In this experimental group…

  6. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Stanley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  7. Examination of Huntington's disease in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingxia; Li, Xiaogai; Wu, Sanyun; Shen, Ji; Tu, Jiancheng

    2014-02-15

    We report brain imaging and genetic diagnosis in a family from Wuhan, China, with a history of Huntington's disease. Among 17 family members across three generations, four patients (II2, II6, III5, and III9) show typical Huntington's disease, involuntary dance-like movements. Magnetic resonance imaging found lateral ventricular atrophy in three members (II2, II6, and III5). Moreover, genetic analysis identified abnormally amplified CAG sequence repeats (> 40) in two members (III5 and III9). Among borderline cases, with clinical symptoms and brain imaging features of Huntington's disease, two cases were identified (II2 and II6), but shown by mutation analysis for CAG expansions in the important transcript 15 gene, to be non-Huntington's disease. Our findings suggest that clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease requires a combination of clinical symptoms, radiological changes, and genetic diagnosis.

  8. Communication and Huntington's Disease: Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups with Persons with Huntington's Disease, Family Members, and Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartelius, Lena; Jonsson, Maria; Rickeberg, Anneli; Laakso, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background: As an effect of the cognitive, emotional and motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease, communicative interaction is often dramatically changed. No study has previously included the subjective reports on this subject from individuals with Huntington's disease. Aims: To explore the qualitative aspects of how communication is…

  9. 3-NP-induced neurodegeneration studies in experimental models of Huntington's disease : apoptosis in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Johanna Catharina

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the possible role of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in Huntington's disease (HD). HD is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein leading to specific neostriatal neurodegeneration. The sequence of events that leads to this sele

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which

  11. Man-Made Wildlife Tourism Destination: The Visitors Perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Sun Fatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabah is blessed with natural forest habitats and rich with floras and faunas. Amongst its’ attraction is wildlife endemism. Lok Kawi Wildlife Park was established to provide an alternative wildlife tourism destination with its inhabitants from the wildlife species of Borneo. Since its opening in 2007, multitudes of tourists have visited the park. However, there has been no study to identify the visitor’s perspective on Lok Kawi Wildlife Park as man-made wildlife tourism destination. The study aims to assist the park’s management for the betterment of the park’s facilities and future development. A convenience sampling and a designed questionnaire was applied in this study, distributed after the visitors visited the park. The results showed that majority of the visitors were Malaysian and only a quarter were foreign visitors. Majority indicated that visiting the park is for recreational outing (holiday and only a few indicated that is an educational visit. Majority of the respondents knew the meaning of wildlife tourism and visiting the park’s is part of wildlife tourism. Most of the respondents came to know about the park’s existence through the local media and mostly agreed that the park indeed provide an authentic learning experience about wildlife, whilst creating wildlife conservation awareness.

  12. A Study of Pioneer Vegetation Communities along a power line clearing at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1960 a strip of forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center was clear-cut to establish a high tension power line. Almost all vegetation was removed and the...

  13. Snowshoe hare pellet counts: Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are a keystone herbivore in the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska, and are cyclical over an approximately 8 to 11 year period....

  14. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  15. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  16. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife distance conditions... Provisions § 13.920 Wildlife distance conditions. (a) Bears. The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 300 yards of a bear; or (2) Engaging in photography within 300 yards of a bear. (b) Other...

  17. The California Wildlife/Fish Habitat Relationship System

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Grenfell; Hal Salwasser; William F. Laudenslayer

    1982-01-01

    The California Wildlife/Fish Habitat Relationships (WFHR) System is an ongoing effort to apply our knowledge of wildlife habitat requirements to identify and explain the consequences of proposed land use activities, particularly those activities that affect vegetation. The U.S. Forest Service initiated the WFHR program in California in 1976 and has developed it for all...

  18. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  19. Altered Fractional Anisotropy in Early Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease best known for chorea. The disorder includes numerous other clinical features including mood disorder, eye movement abnormalities, cognitive disturbance, pendular knee reflexes, motor impersistence, and postural instability. We describe a mild case of HD early in the disease course with depression and subtle neurological manifestations. In addition, we review MRI and diffusion tensor imaging features in this patient. The bicaudate ratio, a measure of caudate atrophy, was increased. Fractional anisotropy values of the bilateral caudate and putamen were increased, signifying neurodegeneration of these structures in HD.

  20. Huntingtin processing in pathogenesis of Huntington disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghong QIN; Zhenlun GU

    2004-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the protein named huntingtin.The expansion of polyglutamine tract induces selective degeneration of striatal projection neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. The bio-hallmark of HD is the formation of intranuclear inclusions and cytoplasmic aggregates in association with other cellular proteins in vulnerable neurons. Accumulation of N-terminal mutant huntingtin in HD brains is prominent. These pathological features are related to protein misfolding and impairments in protein processing and degradation in neurons. This review focused on the role of proteases in huntingtin cleavage and degradation and the contribution of altered processing of mutant huntingtin to HD pathogenesis.

  1. Cystathionine γ-lyase deficiency mediates neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Sbodio, Juan I; Xu, Risheng; Vandiver, M Scott; Cha, Jiyoung Y; Snowman, Adele M; Snyder, Solomon H

    2014-05-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant disease associated with a mutation in the gene encoding huntingtin (Htt) leading to expanded polyglutamine repeats of mutant Htt (mHtt) that elicit oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and motor and behavioural changes. Huntington's disease is characterized by highly selective and profound damage to the corpus striatum, which regulates motor function. Striatal selectivity of Huntington's disease may reflect the striatally selective small G protein Rhes binding to mHtt and enhancing its neurotoxicity. Specific molecular mechanisms by which mHtt elicits neurodegeneration have been hard to determine. Here we show a major depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the biosynthetic enzyme for cysteine, in Huntington's disease tissues, which may mediate Huntington's disease pathophysiology. The defect occurs at the transcriptional level and seems to reflect influences of mHtt on specificity protein 1, a transcriptional activator for CSE. Consistent with the notion of loss of CSE as a pathogenic mechanism, supplementation with cysteine reverses abnormalities in cultures of Huntington's disease tissues and in intact mouse models of Huntington's disease, suggesting therapeutic potential.

  2. 36 CFR 13.490 - Closure to subsistence uses of fish and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of fish and wildlife. 13.490 Section 13.490 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... uses of fish and wildlife. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the Superintendent... uses of a particular fish or wildlife population only if necessary for reasons of public...

  3. 76 FR 61378 - Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... lagoon, salt marsh, natural and constructed freshwater wetlands, and mixed conifer forests. At 5.5- miles...

  4. Wildlife inventory plan [1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 as a refuge and breeding ground for migratory birds and other wildlife. While the refuge represents...

  5. Unawareness of motor phenoconversion in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Elizabeth A; Gunn, David G; Epping, Eric A; Loy, Clement T; Radford, Kylie; Griffith, Jane; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Paulsen, Jane S

    2013-09-24

    To determine whether Huntington disease (HD) mutation carriers have motor symptoms (complaints) when definite motor onset (motor phenoconversion) is diagnosed and document differences between the groups with and without unawareness of motor signs. We analyzed data from 550 HD mutation carriers participating in the multicenter PREDICT-HD Study followed through the HD prodrome. Data analysis included demographics, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Participant HD History of symptoms, self-report of progression, and cognitive, behavioral, and imaging measures. Unawareness was identified when no motor symptoms were self-reported but when definite motor HD was diagnosed. Of 38 (6.91%) with onset of motor HD, almost half (18/38 = 47.36%) had no motor symptoms despite signs of disease on the UHDRS motor rating and consistent with unawareness. A group with motor symptoms and signs was similar on a range of measures to the unaware group. Those with unawareness of HD signs reported less depression. Patients with symptoms had more striatal atrophy on imaging measures. Only half of the patients with newly diagnosed motor HD had motor symptoms. Unaware patients were less likely to be depressed. Self-report of symptoms may be inaccurate in HD at the earliest stage.

  6. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  7. 'Teenage Wildlife'

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Curatorial videotheque project for the exhibition 'Nothing in the World But Youth' at Turner Contemporary, Margate, 17 September 2011 – 8 January 2012\\ud Article included in exhibition catalogue for 'Nothing in the World But Youth' Turner Contemporary pp. 17-25 \\ud \\ud Accompanying catalogue Text:\\ud \\ud TEENAGE WILDLIFE\\ud “You're tearing me apart!...You say one thing, he says another, and everybody changes back again”. \\ud – James Dean as Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause (1955) directed b...

  8. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this inventory plan for Tetlin NWR is to provide a management tool for the measurement of progress in attaining wildlife population goals. This plan...

  9. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge wildlife checklist

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Checklist with habitat, season, and abundance codes for wildlife species at Ruby Lake NWR. Includes bird, mammal, amphibian, reptile, and fish species.

  10. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective at Shiawassee is to provide food and cover for migratory birds, with emphasis on waterfowl, during spring and fall migrations. A Wildlife...

  11. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  12. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Horicon NWR describes procedures for the following surveys: weekly aerial goose survey, migratory bird survey, breeding population...

  13. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan to obtain useful parameters related to the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of the species of wildlife inhabiting Necedah NWR. The...

  14. Proposal - Streamline forest data analysis on R4 refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to obtain software to streamline analysis of forested habitat inventories that use parameters from Desired Forest Condition. This would include data upload...

  15. Trees of Our National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  16. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Senthilkumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC situations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC, human-wild pig conflict (HPC, human-gaur conflict (HGC, and human-monkey conflict (HMC. A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers. Results: In general, the majority (61.70% of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77 among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00% of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70% drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs. Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation.

  17. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Mathialagan, P.; Manivannan, C.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.; Gomathinayagam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC) situations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC), human-wild pig conflict (HPC), human-gaur conflict (HGC), and human-monkey conflict (HMC). A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers. Results: In general, the majority (61.70%) of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77) among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00%) of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70%) drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs. Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation. PMID:27536037

  18. Association of Huntington's disease and schizophrenia-like psychosis in a Huntington's disease pedigree

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães João; Xavier Miguel; Corrêa Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to expansion of a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the short arm of chromosome 4. Clinical manifestations consist of a triad of choreic movements, cognitive decline and psychiatric syndromes starting in the fourth to fifth decade. Psychiatric manifestations vary and may precede motor and cognitive changes. Personality changes and depression occur most commonly. Paranoid schizophrenia-lik...

  19. O desenvolvimento político em Huntington e Fukuyama Huntington and Fukuyama on political development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Nóbrega de Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo contrasta as teses de Huntington e Fukuyama sobre desenvolvimento político. As obras analisadas, Ordem política nas sociedades em mudança e O fim da história, inscrevem-se entre duas conjunturas decisivas - 1968 e 1989. Huntington desmontou a equivalência entre desenvolvimento político e modernização e Fukuyama reafirmou a democracia como o destino de todos os países e, desse modo, como o fim da história. Nesta comparação, dois eixos se sobressaem: o contexto de produção das obras e a alternância entre os polos teóricos da democracia e da estabilidade. Procura-se demonstrar como, apesar de reinserir a democracia no desenvolvimento político, a instabilidade continua a ser um foco privilegiado de análise no pensamento de Fukuyama.The article contrasts the theories of Huntington and Fukuyama on political development. The analyzed works, Political order in changing societies and The end of history, fall between two decisive historical moments - in 1968 and 1989. Huntington disassembled the equivalence between political development and modernization; Fukuyama reaffirmed democracy as the destiny of all countries and, as such, it is the end of history. In this comparison, two axes call our attention: the production context of these works and the alternation between the theoreticals poles of democracy and stability. The article shows how, although reenters democracy in the political development theory, instablility remains a prime focus of analysis in Fukuyama's thought.

  20. Américo Negrette and Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Moscovich

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a historical review of the seminal clinical contribution of Professor Américo Negrette, a Venezuelan neurologist, to the evolution of scientific knowledge about Huntington's disease.

  1. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in preclinical Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Sijens, Paul E.; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2007-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a hereditary brain disease, causing progressive deterioration after a preclinical phase. The pathophysiology of early brain abnormalities around disease onset is largely unknown. Some preclinical mutation carriers (PMC) show structural or metabolic changes on brain imaging

  2. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Molón, L; Yáñez Sáez, R M; López-Ibor Alcocer, M I

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease with a prevalence of fewer than 10 cases per 10,000 inhabitants; the juvenile form is responsible for less than 10% of all cases. Huntington's disease belongs to the group known as "triad syndromes," which evolve with cognitive, motor and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Around 30% of patients debut with behavioral symptoms, which are a major challenge for management by patients, families, and caregivers. Huntington's disease (HD) is reviewed and a case of juvenile onset is reported in this article. The characteristics of juvenile-onset Huntington's disease (HD) differ from those of adult-onset HD, as chorea does not occur, although bradykinesia, dystonia, and signs of cerebellar disorder, such as rigidity, are present, frequently in association with convulsive episodes and psychotic manifestations.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Huntington disease-like syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21915. Citation on PubMed Wild EJ, Tabrizi SJ. Huntington's disease phenocopy syndromes. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007 Dec;20(6):681-7. Review. Citation on PubMed Reviewed : August 2008 Published : August ...

  4. Episodic Memory Decline in Huntington's Disease, A Binding Deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Fasotti, L.; Verny, C.; Allain, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by episodic memory deterioration. Objective: Our paper investigates the cognitive mechanisms that might underlie this decline. To this aim, we tested two executive hypotheses, the binding and the inhibition hypotheses. Methods: Fifteen HD patien

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Huntington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Huntington County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. O paradigma de Huntington e o realismo político Huntington's paradigm and political realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Novaes Chiappin

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Examina-se a proposta de Huntington de um novo paradigma da política internacional (centrado na idéia de "civilizações" em substituição ao paradigma do realismo. Demonstra-se que se trata, na realidade, de um subparadigma do realismo e, portanto, a ele subordinado. Aplica-se isso à mudança da concepção estratégica de "contenção", que passa a aplicar-se às civilizações não-ocidentais e não mais ao expansionismo soviético.Huntington's proposal of a new paradigm for international politics (focused on the idea of "civilizations", meant to replace the paradigm of realism, is examined. It is shown that the proposed new paradigm should in fact be viewed as as sub-paradigm of the realist one. In particular, it is pointed out that Huntington's proposal, in a realist vein, draws on the idea of "containment", which is now directed (instead of its former target, the soviet expansionism to non-Western civilizations.

  7. Subtle changes among presymptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease gene

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kirkwood; Siemers, E.; Hodes, M; Conneally, P; Christian, J.; Foroud, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the neurological and psychometric characteristics of presymptomatic gene carriers and non-gene carriers who are at risk for developing Huntington's disease so as to characterise early signs of disease and to identify markers of neurological function that could be used to assess the impact of experimental therapies on the progression of disease, even among those who are clinically presymptomatic.
METHODS—A sample of people at risk for Huntington's dis...

  8. Samuel Huntington, Clash of Civilizations: A Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yrd. Doç. Dr. Cengiz Kartýn

    2015-01-01

    Samuel Huntington's The Clash of Civilizations was written in 1993 by him. Study is a work containing the article and the responses to this article. Work is composed of two main parts. Makes the important point of this study is the process that began with the September 11 attacks by some strategists that is exactly the way towards a world where it is hidden in Huntington's fictionalized articulate.

  9. Linking SNPs to CAG repeat length in Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanzhao; Kennington, Lori A; Rosas, H Diana; Hersch, Steven; Cha, Jang-Ho; Zamore, Phillip D; Aronin, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing using small interfering RNAs targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising therapy for human trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Linking SNP identities to the two HTT alleles, normal and disease-causing, is a prerequisite for allele-specific RNA interference. Here we describe a method, SNP linkage by circularization (SLiC), to identify linkage between CAG repeat length and nucleotide identity of heterozygous SNPs using Huntington's disease patient peripheral blood samples.

  10. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  11. Levodopa responsive parkinsonism in an adult with Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, B.; Perlmutter, J

    1998-01-01

    A patient is reported on with Huntington's disease who, as an adult, first developed severe parkinsonism with bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability and festinating gait. His clinical signs were similar to those of the Westphal variant of Huntington's disease except that he also had resting tremor and a supranuclear gaze palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging showed caudate and putamen atrophy. Genetic analysis disclosed 49 triple CAG repeats in allele 1 and 17 in allele 2 ...

  12. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O;

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic...... eminences grown as free-floating roller-tube cultures can be successfully grafted in a rat Huntington model and that a clinical MR scanner offers a useful noninvasive tool for studying striatal graft development....

  13. [Olanzapine improves chorea in patients with Huntington's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; de Toledo, M; Puertas, I; Barón, M; Zurdo, M; Barcenilla, B

    The main treatment for choreatic movements associated to Huntington s disease are the neuroleptic drugs, however, its use causes long term troubles. We describe two patients with a predominantly choreic Huntington s disease, who experience improvement of choreatic movements after introduction of olanzapine to their treatment, being this drug well tolerated. The improvement of chorea suggests that olanzapine has a dopaminergic D2 receptors blocking action.

  14. 36 CFR 13.550 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife distance conditions. 13.550 Section 13.550 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Alagnak Wild River § 13.550...

  15. Protecting Delmarva Fox Squirrel Habitat from Gypsy Moth and Southern Pine Beetle at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 1992 and 1993, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service personnel conducted an inventory and analysis of the forested resources at...

  16. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  17. Plants and phytochemicals for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sunayna; Kumar, Puneet; Malik, Jai

    2013-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, including chorea and dystonia, emotional disturbances, memory, and weight loss. The medium spiny neurons of striatum and cortex are mainly effected in HD. Various hypotheses, including molecular genetics, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, metabolic dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Despite no treatment is available to fully stop the progression of the disease, there are treatments available to help control the chorea. The present review deals with brief pathophysiology of the disease, plants and phytochemicals that have shown beneficial effects against HD like symptoms. The literature for the current review was collected using various databases such as Science direct, Pubmed, Scopus, Sci-finder, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database with a defined search strategy.

  18. The choreography of neuroinflammation in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Andrea; Glass, Christopher K

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the concept of 'neuroinflammation' includes inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases, in which there is little or no infiltration of blood-derived immune cells into the brain. The roles of brain-resident and peripheral immune cells in these inflammatory settings are poorly understood, and it is unclear whether neuroinflammation results from immune reaction to neuronal dysfunction/degeneration, and/or represents cell-autonomous phenotypes of dysfunctional immune cells. Here, we review recent studies examining these questions in the context of Huntington's disease (HD), where mutant Huntingtin (HTT) is expressed in both neurons and glia. Insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in HD may provide a better understanding of inflammation in more complex neurodegenerative disorders, and of the contribution of the neuroinflammatory component to neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis.

  19. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  20. Huntington's Disease: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dean J; Renoir, Thibault; Gray, Laura J; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a tandem repeat disorder involving neurodegeneration and a complex combination of symptoms. These include psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits culminating in dementia, and the movement disorder epitomised by motor signs such as chorea. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion encoding an extended tract of the amino acid glutamine in the huntingtin protein. This polyglutamine expansion appears to induce a 'change of function', possibly a 'gain of function', in the huntingtin protein, which leads to various molecular and cellular cascades of pathogenesis. In the current review, we will briefly describe these broader aspects of HD pathogenesis, but will then focus on specific aspects where there are substantial bodies of experimental evidence, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glutamatergic dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we will review recent preclinical therapeutic approaches targeting some of these pathogenic pathways, their clinical implications and future directions.

  1. Huntington's Disease: Relationship Between Phenotype and Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Min; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease with the typical manifestations of involuntary movements, psychiatric and behavior disorders, and cognitive impairment. It is caused by the dynamic mutation in CAG triplet repeat number in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT) gene. The symptoms of HD especially the age at onset are related to the genetic characteristics, both the CAG triplet repeat and the modified factors. Here, we reviewed the recent advancement on the genotype-phenotype relationship of HD, mainly focus on the characteristics of different expanded CAG repeat number, genetic modifiers, and CCG repeat number in the 3' end of CAG triplet repeat and their effects on the phenotype. We also reviewed the special forms of HD (juvenile HD, atypical onset HD, and homozygous HD) and their phenotype-genotype correlations. The review will aid clinicians to predict the onset age and disease course of HD, give the genetic counseling, and accelerate research into the HD mechanism.

  2. Huntington's Disease: Calcium Dyshomeostasis and Pathology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobkova, Y A; Vigont, V A; Shalygin, A V; Kaznacheyeva, E V

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and mental impairment. At the molecular level, HD is caused by a mutation in the first exon of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein. The mutation results in an expanded polyglutamine tract at the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, causing the neurodegenerative pathology. Calcium dyshomeostasis is believed to be one of the main causes of the disease, which underlies the great interest in the problem among experts in molecular physiology. Recent studies have focused on the development of animal and insect HD models, as well as patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (HD-iPSCs), to simulate the disease's progression. Despite a sesquicentennial history of HD studies, the issues of diagnosis and manifestation of the disease have remained topical. The present review addresses these issues.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Lauren M; Wild, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is enriched in brain-derived components and represents an accessible and appealing means of interrogating the CNS milieu to study neurodegenerative diseases and identify biomarkers to facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Many such CSF biomarkers have been proposed for Huntington's disease (HD) but none has been validated for clinical trial use. Across many studies proposing dozens of biomarker candidates, there is a notable lack of statistical power, consistency, rigor and validation. Here we review proposed CSF biomarkers including neurotransmitters, transglutaminase activity, kynurenine pathway metabolites, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers, neuroendocrine markers, protein markers of neuronal death, proteomic approaches and mutant huntingtin protein itself. We reflect on the need for large-scale, standardized CSF collections with detailed phenotypic data to validate and qualify much-needed CSF biomarkers for clinical trial use in HD.

  4. Contribution of Neuroepigenetics to Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francelle, Laetitia; Lotz, Caroline; Outeiro, Tiago; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Merienne, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Unbalanced epigenetic regulation is thought to contribute to the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic disorder considered as a paradigm of epigenetic dysregulation. In this review, we attempt to address open questions regarding the role of epigenetic changes in HD, in the light of recent advances in neuroepigenetics. We particularly discuss studies using genome-wide scale approaches that provide insights into the relationship between epigenetic regulations, gene expression and neuronal activity in normal and diseased neurons, including HD neurons. We propose that cell-type specific techniques and 3D-based methods will advance knowledge of epigenome in the context of brain region vulnerability in neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic changes and of their consequences in neurodegenerative diseases is required to design therapeutic strategies more effective than current strategies based on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Researches in HD may play a driving role in this process.

  5. Neuronal Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Marta; Oliveros, Juan C; Naranjo, Jose R; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the N-terminal poly-glutamine tract of the huntingtin (Htt) protein is responsible for Huntington disease (HD). A large number of studies have explored the neuronal phenotype of HD, but the molecular aethiology of the disease is still very poorly understood. This has hampered the development of an appropriate therapeutical strategy to at least alleviate its symptoms. In this short review, we have focused our attention on the alteration of a specific cellular mechanism common to all HD models, either genetic or induced by treatment with 3-NPA, i.e. the cellular dyshomeostasis of Ca(2+). We have highlighted the direct and indirect (i.e. transcriptionally mediated) effects of mutated Htt on the maintenance of the intracellular Ca(2+) balance, the correct modulation of which is fundamental to cell survival and the disturbance of which plays a key role in the death of the cell.

  6. Implications of wetland management on mercury bioavailability and exposure to resident waterfowl, fish, and macrobenthic invertebrate populations at Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mingo National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) is a 21,592 acre, Mississippi delta swamp/marsh/ forest complex in southeast Missouri, which provides important habitat for...

  7. Dead and lying trees: essential for life in the forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    Twenty years after publication of a report on wildlife habitat in managed east-side forests, Pacific Northwest Research Station scientists Evelyn Bull, Catherine Parks, and Torolf Torgersen, are updating that report and discovering that the current direction for providing wildlife habitat on public forest lands does not reflect findings from research since 1979. More...

  8. Quantitative 7T phase imaging in premanifest Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, A C; Possin, K L; Satris, G; Johnson, E; Lupo, J M; Jakary, A; Wong, K; Kelley, D A C; Kang, G A; Sha, S J; Kramer, J H; Geschwind, M D; Nelson, S J; Hess, C P

    2014-09-01

    In vivo MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic studies have demonstrated elevated iron concentration and atrophy within the striatum of patients with Huntington disease, implicating neuronal loss and iron accumulation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder. We used 7T MR imaging to determine whether quantitative phase, a measurement that reflects both iron content and tissue microstructure, is altered in subjects with premanifest Huntington disease. Local field shift, calculated from 7T MR phase images, was quantified in 13 subjects with premanifest Huntington disease and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants underwent 3T and 7T MR imaging, including volumetric T1 and 7T gradient recalled-echo sequences. Local field shift maps were created from 7T phase data and registered to caudate ROIs automatically parcellated from the 3T T1 images. Huntington disease-specific disease burden and neurocognitive and motor evaluations were also performed and compared with local field shift. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease had smaller caudate volume and higher local field shift than controls. A significant correlation between these measurements was not detected, and prediction accuracy for disease state improved with inclusion of both variables. A positive correlation between local field shift and genetic disease burden was also found, and there was a trend toward significant correlations between local field shift and neurocognitive tests of working memory and executive function. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease exhibit differences in 7T MR imaging phase within the caudate nuclei that correlate with genetic disease burden and trend with neurocognitive assessments. Ultra-high-field MR imaging of quantitative phase may be a useful approach for monitoring neurodegeneration in premanifest Huntington disease. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Placebo effect characteristics observed in a single, international, longitudinal study in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubo, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Puerto, I. del; Yebenes, J.G. de; Arconada, O.F.; Gabriel y Galan, J.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classically, clinical trials are based on the placebo-control design. Our aim was to analyze the placebo effect in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Placebo data were obtained from an international, longitudinal, placebo-controlled trial for Huntington's disease (European Huntington's Disea

  10. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  11. Placebo effect characteristics observed in a single, international, longitudinal study in Huntington's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubo, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Puerto, I. del; Yebenes, J.G. de; Arconada, O.F.; Gabriel y Galan, J.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classically, clinical trials are based on the placebo-control design. Our aim was to analyze the placebo effect in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Placebo data were obtained from an international, longitudinal, placebo-controlled trial for Huntington's disease (European Huntington's

  12. Disease stage, but not sex, predicts depression and psychological distress in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Shimozaki, Steve

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety significantly affect morbidity in Huntington's disease. Mice. models of Huntington's disease have identified sex differences in mood-like behaviours that vary across disease lifespan, but this interaction has not previously been explored in humans with Huntington...

  13. Temporary wetlands of upland and floodplain forests on Noxubee NWR and Tombigbee NF

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Studies were conducted on 10 temporary wetlands from May 2001 - March 2006 on Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining sections of Tombigbee National Forest to...

  14. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Courtney A., E-mail: courtney.schultz@colostate.edu

    2012-01-15

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  15. Wildlife Inventory Plan : White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for White River National Wildlife Refuge describes the wildlife inventory process, procedure and costs. Target species include: black...

  16. Wildlife inventory plan, Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, King Salmon, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Becharof National Wildlife Refuge outlines the different projects and surveys that will help conserve fish and wildlife populations...

  17. Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Inventory Plan outlines the strategy, techniques and purpose of a wildlife inventory on the Refuge. Futhermore the...

  18. Amended wildlife inventory plan : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amended wildlife inventory plan for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge objectives, wildlife inventory procedures, and manpower and...

  19. Huntington's disease: from molecular pathogenesis to clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christopher A; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene, which encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein. Huntington's disease has served as a model for the study of other more common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders all share features including: delayed onset; selective neuronal vulnerability, despite widespread expression of disease-related proteins during the whole lifetime; abnormal protein processing and aggregation; and cellular toxic effects involving both cell autonomous and cell-cell interaction mechanisms. Pathogenic pathways of Huntington's disease are beginning to be unravelled, offering targets for treatments. Additionally, predictive genetic testing and findings of neuroimaging studies show that, as in some other neurodegenerative disorders, neurodegeneration in affected individuals begins many years before onset of diagnosable signs and symptoms of Huntington's disease, and it is accompanied by subtle cognitive, motor, and psychiatric changes (so-called prodromal disease). Thus, Huntington's disease is also emerging as a model for strategies to develop therapeutic interventions, not only to slow progression of manifest disease but also to delay, or ideally prevent, its onset.

  20. Investigational agents for the management of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    An inherited, chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder is Huntington's disease, characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. Predictive genetic testing allows earlier diagnosis and identification of gene carriers for Huntington's disease. These individuals are ideal candidates for testing of therapeutic interventions for disease modification. Areas covered: According to queries in Pubmed, Embase and clinical register databases, research and clinical studies emerge on symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies in Huntington's disease. This review discusses novel agents for symptomatic therapy and disease modification. They are currently in phase I and II of drug development Expert opinion: There are promising, safe and well tolerated compounds for amelioration of motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms, but their efficacy still needs to be proven in clinical trials. Deterioration of mutant huntingtin expression, antiapoptotic or cell death inhibition as disease modifying concepts was efficacious in models of Huntington's disease. However, the risk for clinical trial failures is high not only due to ineffectiveness of the tested agent. Negative study outcomes may also result from design misconceptions, underestimation of the heterogeneity of Huntington's disease, too short study durations and too small study cohorts.

  1. Wildlife inventory plan [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938, and presently contains 37,631 acres. The refuge marshes provide production, resting, and feeding habitat...

  2. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  3. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  4. Miscellaneous Wildlife Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of species donated to ADF&G and the Alaska Zoo from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge. Animals include sockeye salmon eggs, rainbow trout eggs,...

  5. Dismal Swamp Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conceived and constructed by nature the Great Swamp is the most gigantic filtration plant ever built; and more. To protect the health of the wildlife, for which-...

  6. Single sperm analysis of the trinucleotide repeat in the Huntington`s disease gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeflang, E.P.; Zhang, L.; Hubert, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Huntington`s disease (HD) is one of several genetic diseases caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion. The CAG repeat is very unstable, with size changes occurring in more than 80% of transmissions. The degree of instability of this repeat in the male germline can be determined by analysis of individual sperm cells. An easy and sensitive PCR assay has been developed to amplify this trinucleotide repeat region from single sperm using two rounds of PCR. As many as 90% of the single sperm show amplification for the HD repeat. The PCR product can be easily detected on an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. Single sperm samples from an HD patient with 18 and 49 repeats were studied. We observed size variations for the expanded alleles while the size of the normal allele in sperm is very consistent. We did not detect any significant bias in the amplification of normal alleles over the larger HD alleles. Our preliminary study supports the observation made by PCR of total sperm that instability of the HD trinucleotide repeat occurs in the germline. HD preimplantation diagnosis on single embryo blastomeres may also possible.

  7. 22 Years of predictive testing for Huntington's disease: the experience of the UK Huntington's Prediction Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Sheharyar S; Strong, Mark; Rosser, Elisabeth; Taverner, Nicola V; Glew, Ruth; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Clarke, Angus; Craufurd, David; Quarrell, Oliver W

    2016-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition. At-risk individuals have accessed predictive testing via direct mutation testing since 1993. The UK Huntington's Prediction Consortium has collected anonymised data on UK predictive tests, annually, from 1993 to 2014: 9407 predictive tests were performed across 23 UK centres. Where gender was recorded, 4077 participants were male (44.3%) and 5122 were female (55.7%). The median age of participants was 37 years. The most common reason for predictive testing was to reduce uncertainty (70.5%). Of the 8441 predictive tests on individuals at 50% prior risk, 4629 (54.8%) were reported as mutation negative and 3790 (44.9%) were mutation positive, with 22 (0.3%) in the database being uninterpretable. Using a prevalence figure of 12.3 × 10(-5), the cumulative uptake of predictive testing in the 50% at-risk UK population from 1994 to 2014 was estimated at 17.4% (95% CI: 16.9-18.0%). We present the largest study conducted on predictive testing in HD. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of individuals at risk of HD (>80%) have not undergone predictive testing. Future therapies in HD will likely target presymptomatic individuals; therefore, identifying the at-risk population whose gene status is unknown is of significant public health value.

  8. A study on the trinucleotide repeat associated with Huntington`s disease in the Chinese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing-wen Soong; Jih-tsuu Wang [Neurological Institute, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Analysis of the polymorphic (CAG)n repeat in the hungingtin gene in the chinese confirmed the presence of an expanded repeat on all Huntington`s disease chromosomes. Measurement of the specific CAG repeat sequence in 34 HD chromosomes from 15 unrelated families and 190 control chromosomes from the Chinese population showed a range from 9 to 29 repeats in normal subjects and 40 to 58 in affected subjects. The size distributions of normal and affected alleles did not overlap. A clear correlation bewteen early onset of symptoms and very high repeat number was seen, but the spread of the age-at-onset in the major repeat range producing characteristic HD it too wide to be of diagnostic value. There was also variability in the transmitted repeat size for both sexes in the HD size range. Maternal HD alleles showed a moderate instability with a preponderance of size decrease, while paternal HD alleles had a tendency to increase in repeat size on transmission, the degree of which appeared proportional to the initial size.

  9. The Frequency of Huntington Disease and Huntington Disease-Like 2 in the South African Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Fiona K; Krause, Amanda; Greenberg, L Jacquie

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has most recently been estimated to affect between 10.6 and 13.7 per 100,000 individuals in European populations. However, prevalence is known to differ geographically. In South Africa, the only published estimates are from a survey performed in the 1970s, an era when the disease was believed to be rare or absent in black individuals and molecular confirmation was absent. The disease phenotype in South Africa is currently attributable to mutations in both the huntington and junctophilin-3 genes, which underlie the well-known HD and the rarer HD-like 2 (HDL2) respectively. This study aimed at providing improved minimum estimates of disease frequency in South Africa, based on molecular genetic testing data. A review of all testing records for HD and HDL2 over a 20-year period was undertaken. HDL2 is virtually indistinguishable on clinical features, thus necessitating its inclusion. Based on molecular diagnostic records, minimum estimates of disease frequency are: 5.1, 2.1 and 0.25 (per 100,000 individuals) for the white, mixed ancestry and black population groups respectively. Although ascertainment remains incomplete, these minimum estimates suggest that disease frequencies are significantly higher than those previously reported in South Africa. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Association of Huntington's disease and schizophrenia-like psychosis in a Huntington's disease pedigree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães João

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to expansion of a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the short arm of chromosome 4. Clinical manifestations consist of a triad of choreic movements, cognitive decline and psychiatric syndromes starting in the fourth to fifth decade. Psychiatric manifestations vary and may precede motor and cognitive changes. Personality changes and depression occur most commonly. Paranoid schizophrenia-like symptoms occur in 6% to 25% of cases. Case report We describe a 55 year-old woman with an 8 yearlong history of behavioural changes, multi-thematic delusions and auditory hallucinations. History and mental state examination were suggestive of paranoid schizophrenia. Neurological examination revealed discrete, involuntary movements affecting her arms and trunk. Genotyping detected an expanded allele (43 trinucleotide repeats. A three-generation-long family history of chorea and schizophrenia-like psychosis was found. Conclusion HD-families have been reported in which schizophrenia-like syndromes emerged in all or most HD-affected members long before they developed extra-pyramidal or cognitive changes. This has been attributed to more than mere coincidence. We hypothesise that in these families the HD gene is transmitted along with a low load of small-effect "psychosis genes" which, in the presence of the severe cognitive changes of HD, manifest as a schizophrenia-like phenotype. Further research is needed in order to clarify the links between genetic loading and the emergence of psychotic symptoms in Huntington's disease.

  11. The prospect of wildlife tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYuan; ZHANGWei; TANGXiao-dong

    2004-01-01

    The paper extends an overview of the worldwided velopment of wildlife tourism, introduced the conception of wildlife tourism and its components, and analyzed the development of international wildlife tourism and its international trends. The sustainability of wildlife tourism, the protection of wildlife habitat, as well as the possible impacts of wildlife tourism development in China were discussed.

  12. Exclusion testing in pregnancy for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A; Quarrell, O W; Lazarou, L P; Meredith, A L; Harper, P S

    1990-01-01

    The results of DNA analysis are presented for a series of 90 couples, with one partner at 50% risk for Huntington's disease (HD), who were referred for exclusion testing in pregnancy over a three year period. Thirty-seven couples were studied in detail. The aims of the study were to evaluate attitudes towards prenatal testing, before pregnancy and afterwards, and the effectiveness of our counseling and methods of organising the service. Problems which could arise in relation to presymptomatic testing are documented. It is concluded that exclusion testing is a valuable form of prediction for some couples, particularly where family structure does not permit prediction for the person at risk. The need for intensive counselling was highlighted by the difficulties experienced by many couples in understanding how the test worked. Particular ethical and organisational problems may arise which require careful consideration beforehand and some recommendations are made. The proportion of couples who will continue to request exclusion testing as pre-symptomatic testing becomes more widely applicable remains unknown. PMID:2145437

  13. Cell-based technologies for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santoro Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal genetic disorder, which causes the progressive breakdown of neurons in the human brain. HD deteriorates human physical and mental abilities over time and has no cure. Stem cell-based technologies are promising novel treatments, and in HD, they aim to replace lost neurons and/or to prevent neural cell death. Herein we discuss the use of human fetal tissue (hFT, neural stem cells (NSCs of hFT origin or embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, in clinical and pre-clinical studies. The in vivo use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which are derived from non-neural tissues, will also be discussed. All these studies prove the potential of stem cells for transplantation therapy in HD, demonstrating cell grafting and the ability to differentiate into mature neurons, resulting in behavioral improvements. We claim that there are still many problems to overcome before these technologies become available for HD patient treatment, such as: a safety regarding the use of NSCs and pluripotent stem cells, which are potentially teratogenic; b safety regarding the transplantation procedure itself, which represents a risk and needs to be better studied; and finally c technical and ethical issues regarding cells of fetal and embryonic origin.

  14. Comprehension of prosody in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speedie, L J; Brake, N; Folstein, S E; Bowers, D; Heilman, K M

    1990-07-01

    Patients with Huntington's Disease (HD) who were without dementia were compared to unilateral stroke patients and controls as previously reported in 1983, to discover if they had a prosodic defect. Subjects were presented tape-recorded speech filtered sentences and asked to indicate the tone of voice as happy, sad or angry (affective prosody), or as a question, command or statement (propositional prosody). HD patients were impaired in comprehension of both types of prosody compared to controls but were not different from stroke patients. A second study compared early HD patients with at-risk siblings and spouse controls on comprehension of affective and propositional prosody, discrimination of both types of prosody, rhythm discrimination and tonal memory (Seashore tests). HD patients were impaired in both comprehension and discrimination of all types of prosody. HD patients were less accurate than at-risk patients on the tonal memory task but not on the rhythm discrimination task. These findings suggest compromise in ability to understand the more subtle prosodic aspects of communication which may contribute to social impairment of HD patients very early in the course of the disease.

  15. Hypothalamic-endocrine aspects in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersén, Asa; Björkqvist, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary and fatal disorder caused by an expanded CAG triplet repeat in the HD gene, resulting in a mutant form of the protein huntingtin. Wild-type and mutant huntingtin are expressed in most tissues of the body but the normal function of huntingtin is not fully known. In HD, the neuropathology is characterized by intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions of huntingtin aggregates, and cell death primarily in striatum and cerebral cortex. However, hypothalamic atrophy occurs at early stages of HD with loss of orexin- and somatostatin-containing cell populations. Several symptoms of HD such as sleep disturbances, alterations in circadian rhythm, and weight loss may be due to hypothalamic dysfunction. Endocrine changes including increased cortisol levels, reduced testosterone levels and increased prevalence of diabetes are found in HD patients. In HD mice, alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs as well as pancreatic beta-cell and adipocyte dysfunction. Increasing evidence points towards important pathology of the hypothalamus and the endocrine system in HD. As many neuroendocrine factors are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine, it is possible that their levels may reflect the disease state in the central nervous system. Investigating neuroendocrine changes in HD opens up the possibility of finding biomarkers to evaluate future therapies for HD, as well as of identifying novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

  16. DNA instability in replicating Huntington's disease lymphoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati Luigi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease (HD gene may display tissue-specific variability (e.g. triplet mosaicism in repeat length, the longest mutations involving mitotic (germ and glial cells and postmitotic (neurons cells. What contributes to the triplet mutability underlying the development of HD nevertheless remains unknown. We investigated whether, besides the increased DNA instability documented in postmitotic neurons, possible environmental and genetic mechanisms, related to cell replication, may concur to determine CAG repeat mutability. To test this hypothesis we used, as a model, cultured HD patients' lymphoblasts with various CAG repeat lengths. Results Although most lymphoblastoid cell lines (88% showed little or no repeat instability even after six or more months culture, in lymphoblasts with large expansion repeats beyond 60 CAG repeats the mutation size and triplet mosaicism always increased during replication, implying that the repeat mutability for highly expanded mutations may quantitatively depend on the triplet expansion size. None of the investigated genetic factors, potentially acting in cis to the mutation, significantly influence the repeat changes. Finally, in our experiments certain drugs controlled triplet expansion in two prone-to-expand HD cell lines carrying large CAG mutations. Conclusion Our data support quantitative evidence that the inherited CAG length of expanded alleles has a major influence on somatic repeat variation. The longest triplet expansions show wide somatic variations and may offer a mechanistic model to study triplet drug-controlled instability and genetic factors influencing it.

  17. Genetic diagnosis of Huntington's disease: cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Ting-ting; Wu Wei; Wan Qi; Cui Yu-gui; Liu Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficiency of the PCR combined DNA sequencing to ascertain CAG repeat size of Huntington's disease(HD)gene as for gene diagnosis of HD.Method:Three patients with HD were diagnosed genetically with the technology of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by assessing the CAG repeat size of HD gene.DNA sequencing then was used as verification test for HD gene.Results:Nine members of three nuclear families were included in this study,three patients were HD proband.In those families,CAG repeats of all spouse of propositus were in normal range.CAG repeats of all propositus and their descendants with the normal allele were in normal range,while CAG copy number of the other mobigenous allele was obviously abnormal.Conclusion:PCR combined DNA sequencing can be used to effectively ascertain CAG repeat of HD gene.CAG-repeat expansion mutations were accounted for 99% of HD cases,so HD can be accurately diagnosed by this method.

  18. Genetic Testing for Huntington's Disease in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M S; Nagai, Y; Popiel, H A; Fujikake, N; Okamoto, Y; Ahmed, M U; Islam, M A; Islam, M T; Ahmed, S; Rahman, K M; Uddin, M J; Dey, S K; Ahmed, Q; Hossain, M A; Jahan, N; Toda, T

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to find out Huntington's disease (HD) by genetic analysis from those presenting with parkinsonism in the Neurology department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. A sample of about 5ml blood was collected by veni puncture in EDTA tube with informed consent from 9 patients & 7 healthy individuals after approval of the institutional ethics committee for genetic study. The neurological disorder along with a complete history and physical findings were recorded in a prescribed questionnaire by the neurologists of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. Extraction of genomic DNA from the venous blood using FlexiGene DNA kit (Qiagen, Japan) was performed in Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The extracted DNA was stored and accumulated and then these DNA were sent to Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan for PCR and further analysis. PCR amplification of the CAG repeat in the 1T15 gene was performed with primers HD1 and HD3. HD PCR products revealed the DNA product of about 110bp (no. of CAG repeats=21) to 150bp (no. of CAG repeats=34) in both healthy individual and suspected PD patient DNA.

  19. Pridopidine for the treatment of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a rare dominantly-inherited neurodegenerative disease with motor, cognitive and behavioral manifestations. It results from an expanded unstable trinucleotide repeat in the coding region of the huntingtin gene. Treatment is symptomatic, but a poor evidence baseguides selection of therapeutic agents. Non-choreic derangements in voluntary movement contribute to overall motor disability and are poorly addressed by current therapies. Pridopidine is a novel agent in the dopidine class believed to have 'state dependent' effects at dopamine receptors, thus show promise in the treatment of these disorders of voluntary movement. This review discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pridopidine and reviews clinical trials supporting development of the drug for HD. This information was culled from literature searches for dopidines, pridopidine, and HD experimental therapeutics in PubMed and at http://www.clinicaltrials.org . There is a compelling need to discover new treatments for motor disability in HD, particularly for non-choreic motor symptoms. While pridopidine failed to achieve its primary efficacy outcomes in 2 large trials, reproducible effects on secondary motor outcomes have fueled an ongoing trial studying higher doses and more focused clinical endpoints. This and phase III trials will define define the utility of pridopidine for HD.

  20. Lessons Learned from the Transgenic Huntington's Disease Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Vlamings

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal inherited disorder leading to selective neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, there is no treatment to slow down or to stop the disease. There is also no therapy to effectively reduce the symptoms. In the investigation of novel therapies, different animal models of Huntington's disease, varying from insects to nonhuman primates, have been created and used. Few years ago, the first transgenic rat model of HD, carrying a truncated huntingtin cDNA fragment with 51 CAG repeats under control of the native rat huntingtin promoter, was introduced. We have been using this animal model in our research and review here our experience with the behavioural, neurophysiological, and histopathological phenotype of the transgenic Huntington's disease rats with relevant literature.

  1. Variation within the Huntington's disease gene influences normal brain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mühlau

    Full Text Available Genetics of the variability of normal and diseased brain structure largely remains to be elucidated. Expansions of certain trinucleotide repeats cause neurodegenerative disorders of which Huntington's disease constitutes the most common example. Here, we test the hypothesis that variation within the IT15 gene on chromosome 4, whose expansion causes Huntington's disease, influences normal human brain structure. In 278 normal subjects, we determined CAG repeat length within the IT15 gene on chromosome 4 and analyzed high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images by the use of voxel-based morphometry. We found an increase of GM with increasing long CAG repeat and its interaction with age within the pallidum, which is involved in Huntington's disease. Our study demonstrates that a certain trinucleotide repeat influences normal brain structure in humans. This result may have important implications for the understanding of both the healthy and diseased brain.

  2. Management Plan, Part 3 : Forestry Chapter : Annada District, Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, Delair Division, Gardner Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (Annada District) and Clarence Cannon NWR (Delair and Gardner Divisions) Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge...

  3. WILDLIFE HEALTH AND PUBLIC TRUST RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WILDLIFE RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J; Schuler, Krysten; Forstchen, Ann B; Wild, Margaret A; Siemer, William F

    2016-10-01

    A significant development in wildlife management is the mounting concern of wildlife professionals and the public about wildlife health and diseases. Concurrently, the wildlife profession is reexamining implications of managing wildlife populations as a public trust and the concomitant obligation to ensure the quality (i.e., health) and sustainability of wildlife. It is an opportune time to emphasize the importance of wildlife health, specifically to advocate for comprehensive and consistent integration of wildlife health in wildlife management. We summarize application of public trust ideas in wildlife population management in the US. We argue that wildlife health is essential to fulfilling public trust administration responsibilities with respect to wildlife, due to the central responsibility of trustees for ensuring the well-being of wildlife species (i.e., the core resources of the trust). Because both health of wildlife and risk perceptions regarding threats posed by wildlife disease to humans and domestic animals are issues of growing concern, managing wildlife disease and risk communication vis-à-vis wildlife health is critical to wildlife trust administration. We conclude that wildlife health professionals play a critical role in protecting the wildlife trust and that current conditions provide opportunities for important contributions by wildlife health professionals in wildlife management.

  4. Memorandum of Understanding between the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Alaska Department of Natural Resources , U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife : Chickaloon Flats Management Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chickaloon Flats, as per the attached legal description and map involving forty-eight thousand acres, more or less, are recognized by the agreement participants...

  5. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  6. Changes in avian disease and mosquito vector prevalence; A 15-year perceptive and assessment of future risk: Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mosquito-borne avian disease, avian malaria and avian pox, is a major limiting factor for Hawaiian forest birds. While native bird communities at Hakalau Forest NWR...

  7. Tetrabenazine is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tie-Shan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in Huntingtin protein (Htt. PolyQ expansion in Httexp causes selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN in HD patients. A number of previous studies suggested that dopamine signaling plays an important role in HD pathogenesis. A specific inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 tetrabenazine (TBZ has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of HD patients in the USA. TBZ acts by reducing dopaminergic input to the striatum. Results In previous studies we demonstrated that long-term feeding with TBZ (combined with L-Dopa alleviated the motor deficits and reduced the striatal neuronal loss in the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128 mice. To further investigate a potential beneficial effects of TBZ for HD treatment, we here repeated TBZ evaluation in YAC128 mice starting TBZ treatment at 2 months of age ("early" TBZ group and at 6 months of age ("late" TBZ group. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that both "early" and "late" TBZ treatments alleviated motor deficits and reduced striatal cell loss in YAC128 mice. In addition, we have been able to recapitulate and quantify depression-like symptoms in TBZ-treated mice, reminiscent of common side effects observed in HD patients taking TBZ. Conclusions Our results further support therapeutic value of TBZ for treatment of HD but also highlight the need to develop more specific dopamine antagonists which are less prone to side-effects.

  8. Everyday cognition in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K; Kim, Ji-In; Downing, Nancy; Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Deborah L; Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of daily functions affected by cognitive loss in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) is necessary in practice and clinical trials. We evaluated baseline and longitudinal sensitivity of the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales in prodromal HD and compared self- and companion-ratings. Everyday cognition was self-assessed by 850 participants with prodromal HD and 768 companions. We examined internal structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on baseline data. For longitudinal analysis, we stratified participants into Low, Medium, and High disease progression groups. We examined ECog scores for group differences and participant-and-companion differences using linear mixed effects regression (LMER). Comparison with the Total Functional Capacity (TFC) scale was made. CFA revealed good fit of a 5-factor model having a global factor (total score), and subfactors (subscales) of memory, language, visuospatial perception, and executive function. At study entry, participants and companions in the Medium and High groups reported significantly worsened everyday cognition as well as significant functional decline over time. Losses became more pronounced and participant and companion ratings diverged as individuals progressed. TFC showed significant functional loss over time in the High group but not in the Medium group. Disease progression is associated with reduced self- and companion-reported everyday cognition in prodromal HD participants who are less than 13 years to estimated motor onset. Our findings suggest companion ratings are more sensitive than participants' for detecting longitudinal change in daily cognitive function. ECog appears more sensitive to specific functional changes in the prodrome of HD than the TFC. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Vegetation and Wildlife in Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudiyono Sudiyono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the ecosystem functions through vegetation and wildlife indicators. Methods used are vegetation analysis and direct indirect method to count wildlife . Results show that the dominant type of land coverage in Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve is open secondary forest, where shrubs, rattan, and epiphytes dominated. This might lead to vulnerability of the site toward disturbance. Furthermore, it was indicated that this area still contains local wildlife species such as Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis. Eventhough land degradation has become a significant issue, the status of Gunung Ambang as nature reserve has limited restoration attempts both vegetatively and mechanically.

  10. An improved assay for the determination of Huntington`s disease allele size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, C.; Klinger, K.; Miller, G. [Intergrated Genetics, Framingham, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The hallmark of Huntington`s disease (HD) is the expansion of a polymorphic (CAG)n repeat. Several methods have been published describing PCR amplification of this region. Most of these assays require a complex PCR reaction mixture to amplify this GC-rich region. A consistent problem with trinucleotide repeat PCR amplification is the presence of a number of {open_quotes}stutter bands{close_quotes} which may be caused by primer or amplicon slippage during amplification or insufficient polymerase processivity. Most assays for HD arbitrarily select a particular band for diagnostic purposes. Without a clear choice for band selection such an arbitrary selection may result in inconsistent intra- or inter-laboratory findings. We present an improved protocol for the amplification of the HD trinucleotide repeat region. This method simplifies the PCR reaction buffer and results in a set of easily identifiable bands from which to determine allele size. HD alleles were identified by selecting bands of clearly greater signal intensity. Stutter banding was much reduced thus permitting easy identification of the most relevant PCR product. A second set of primers internal to the CCG polymorphism was used in selected samples to confirm allele size. The mechanism of action of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction is not clear. It may be possible that the minimal isostabilizing effect of N,N,N trimethylglycine at 2.5 M is significant enough to affect primer specificity. The use of N,N,N trimethylglycine in the PCR reaction facilitated identification of HD alleles and may be appropriate for use in other assays of this type.

  11. The Counselor and Genetic Disease: Huntington's Disease as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Nancy S.

    This speech offers a brief description of Huntington's Disease (HD): its causes, symptoms, and incidence. It then concentrates on the psychological problems of persons one of whose parents had the disease, and the role of the counselor in helping these humans cope with their fears about contacting it themselves. A relatively detailed case study is…

  12. Age, CAG repeat length, and clinical progression in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Mo, Alisa; Welsh, Claire S; Margolis, Russell L; Ross, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore the effect of CAG repeat length on the rate of clinical progression in patients with Huntington's disease. The dataset included records for 569 subjects followed prospectively at the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center. Participants were seen for a mean of 7.1 visits, with a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Subjects were evaluated using the Quantified Neurologic Examination and its Motor Impairment subscale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Huntington's disease Activities of Daily Living Scale. By itself, CAG repeat length showed a statistically significant but small effect on the progression of all clinical measures. Contrary to our previous expectations, controlling for age of onset increased the correlation between CAG repeat length and progression of all variables by 69% to 159%. Graphical models further supported the idea that individuals with smaller triplet expansions experience a more gradual decline. CAG repeat length becomes an important determinant of clinical prognosis when accounting for age of onset. This suggests that the aging process itself influences clinical outcomes in Huntington's disease. Inconsistent results in prior studies examining CAG repeat length and progression may indeed reflect a lack of age adjustment.

  13. Biological Markers of Cognition in Prodromal Huntington's Disease: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Kaplan, Richard F.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder, has historically been viewed as a degenerative movement disorder but it also includes psychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline. There has been a lack of consensus in the literature about whether or not cognitive signs can be detected in carriers before clinical…

  14. Huntington II Simulation Program-POLUT. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, L.; And Others

    This teacher's guide is written to accompany the Huntington II Simulation Program - POLUT. POLUT is a program written in BASIC which provides simulation of the interaction between water and waste. It creates a context within which the user can control specific variables which effect the quality of a water resource. The teacher's guide provides…

  15. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of ...

  16. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-12-05

    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  17. PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF HUNTINGTON DISEASE – CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Batta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huntington disease occurrs rarely, it can be encountered not only by neurologists and psychiatrists but also by other medical practitioners. Its characteristic features are involuntary movements, cognitive disorders and gradual development of dementia. Diagnosis is given on the basis of these clinical features, positive familial anamnesis, with the laboratory exclusion of other neuropsychiatric diseases and with the help of neuroimaging methods (in particular NMR. The disease can be only confirmed by means of genetic analysis.Patients and methods. In this article, four cases of patients with Huntington disease and diverse psychiatric disorders that were hospitalised at the psychiatric department of the Maribor General Hospital between October 2002 and March 2003 are described. All the patients fulfilled the valid criteria for the diagnosis of Huntington disease. However, they differed according to their accompanying psychiatric psychopathology, age and social problems.Conclusions. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to different psychiatric symptoms and clinical manifestations of Huntington disease that are often misleading in the diagnostic process. In addition, exigency of early diagnostics, guidelines for referrals to genetic testing and psychiatric monitoring of these patients are emphasised.

  18. Expression pattern of apoptosis-related markers in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, José C; Schipper, Ellis; de Boer-van Huizen, Roelie T; Verbeek, Marcel M; de Waal, Rob M W; Wesseling, Pieter; ten Donkelaar, Hans J; Kremer, Berry

    2005-01-01

    Inappropriate apoptosis has been implicated in the mechanism of neuronal death in Huntington's disease (HD). In this study, we report the expression of apoptotic markers in HD caudate nucleus (grades 1-4) and compare this with controls without neurological disease. Terminal transferase-mediated biot

  19. Hakalau Forest - Mechanical Control of Invasive Plants: Banana Poka and English Holly

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hakalau Forest NWR was established to conserve endangered forest birds and their habitats. The Refuge supports a diversity of native plants and birds, including 27...

  20. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following objectives for Agassiz NWR are described in this plan: (1) to provide waterfowl habitat for production and maintenance; (2) to provide suitable habitat...

  1. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Pungo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Major objectives of the refuge are to provide public recreation, and to maintain populations of species. A high level of management and inventory is assigned to the...

  2. Gap analysis for forest productivity research investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.D. Vance

    2010-01-01

    The US forest sector is in the midst of an era of transition and opportunity. Expectations that forests are managed to sustain wildlife, water, soil, and other environmental values are increasing as are certification systems and state and national initiatives designed to insure those expectations are met.

  3. Extension, cooperatives to hold 34th annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program in Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment will hold their 34th Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tour Programs starting Oct. 15.

  4. Extension, cooperatives to hold 33rd annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program, in collaboration with Virginia's natural resource agencies, companies, and associations, will hold their 33rdth Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours starting Sept. 24.

  5. 2015 Deer Spotlight Survey Report at Loess Bluffs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In past years white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing has caused considerable damage to the under-story of the bottomland forest areas located on the...

  6. 1984 Annual Project Report for Fishery Management Program at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hillside NWR was visited by John S. Forester, fishery management biologist, September 11-14, 1984. The purpose of the trip was to sample the one acre borrow ponds...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  8. Employing Real Time PCR for the Diagnosis of Huntington Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frouzandeh Mahjoubi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Huntington disease (HD is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by choreiform movement disturbances and dementia. The onset age of this disease is varied but usually is between the ages 40-50. Huntington's disease is caused by a triplet-repeat expansion in the IT15 gene (also known as huntingtin or HD which is located on chromosome 4p3.1. Since many clinical picture of HD are indistinguishable from other distinct genetic disorders molecular test such as PCR is the only way to confirm the disease. The aim of this study was to introduce a new and fast technique for the diagnosis of Huntington disease.Materials and Methods: Blood specimens were collected from individuals suspected for Huntington disease and also people with no symptoms and family history of this disease. DNAs were extracted according to standard protocol. Using conventional PCR, patient positive for Huntington disease were diagnosed. Then employing real time PCR on the basis of difference between melting temperature (Tm a new and fast diagnostic method was introduced.Results: Among 29 patients suspected to be HD only 8 HD patients were confirmed using PCR and real time PCR. The numbers of CAG repeat were between 42-50 and melting temperatures were between 89-92.Conclusion: The concept of using melting temperature in real time PCR protocol presented in here could be employed for the rapid diagnosis of the diseases caused by the increased in triple repeat sequences. It is fast, robust and has the potential use for the prenatal diagnosis.

  9. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  10. A travel cost analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Zawacki; Allan Marsinko; J. Michael Bowker

    2000-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustainable resource management in forestry has effectuated a demand for various nontimber values. Nonconsumptive wildlife recreation is an important nontimber service produced on forest and rangeland. Travel cost models and data from the 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation are used to estimate the demand...

  11. Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife and Habitat Management Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife and Habitat Management Review identifies several critical needs of the Refuge in order of a priority.

  12. Wildlife Management Objectives Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This provides an outline on the wildlife management objectives for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1961. Management is directed toward nesting and resting...

  13. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines wildlife monitoring guidelines for Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this plan are; 1) to standardize inventory...

  14. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill County, approximately 70...

  15. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge Including Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (Stillwater NWR) and Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (Stillwater WMA) are located in western Nevada within Churchill...

  16. Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges includes survey procedure forms that represent cost effective inventory of the...

  17. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes wildlife inventory in Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in 1983. This plan helps achieve refuge objectives by detailing the plan, purpose, and...

  18. Wildlife census plan: Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wildlife censuses will enable Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge Complex staff to determine how successful ongoing management programs are in relation to the various...

  19. Wildlife and Habitat Review : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife and Habitat review for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge discusses refuge establishment and management, future refuge management, the contribution...

  20. Wildlife management objectives : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of wildlife management objectives for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Management programs necessary to accomplish objectives, marsh...

  1. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  2. Targeting the Cholinergic System to Develop a Novel Therapy for Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gary X; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-12-15

    In this review, we outline the role of the cholinergic system in Huntington's disease, and briefly describe the dysfunction of cholinergic transmission, cholinergic neurons, cholinergic receptors and cholinergic survival factors observed in post-mortem human brains and animal models of Huntington's disease. We postulate how the dysfunctional cholinergic system can be targeted to develop novel therapies for Huntington's disease, and discuss the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  3. Crime in Huntington's disease: a study of registered offences among patients, relatives, and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P; Fenger, K; Bolwig, T; Sorensen, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Criminal behaviour has been described as a problem in Huntington's disease, but systematic studies including control groups have been missing. Based on information from Danish registries, rates and types of crime committed by patients with Huntington's disease, non-affected relatives, and controls were studied.
METHODS—99 males and 151 females with Huntington's disease were compared with 334 non-affected first degree relatives (134 men and 200 women) and to matche...

  4. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  5. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  6. Some problems of forest management of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patarkalashvili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the most important resource of our planet. The usefulness of forests is spread from commercial exploitation of them for timber and other products to maintenance of wildlife, ecological balance, prevention of soil erosion, etc. In achieving these goals the essential factor is the proper forest management. Forest management is a system of actions for supplying different products and services for society. In developed countries forest management tends to be elaborated and planned in order to achieve the objectives that are considered desirable for environment and economy. Forests are the most biologically diverse land ecosystems that can supply different products and services. The working of this system is influenced by the natural environment, climate, topography, soil, etc., and also by human action. Forests have been and are managed to obtain the traditional forest products: fire wood, fiber for paper, building timber etc. with little thinking for other products and services. Nevertheless, as a result from the development of ecology science and environmental awareness, management of forests for multiple use is becoming more common. Public concern regarding forest management have shifted from the extraction of timber for earning money for the economy, to the preservation of additional forest resources, including wildlife, soil and water conservation, recreation etc. Forests are the repositories of aesthetic, ethical cultural and religious values.

  7. Chapter 10: Avian community responses to forest thinning and prescribed surface fire, alone and in combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hurteau; Brett G. Dickson; Thomas D. Sisk; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service and other federal agencies treated more than 2.8 million ha of forested land between 2001 and 2003 under the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (USDA Forest Service 2004). Because many more areas across our landscape are slated for fuel reduction treatments, understanding how wildlife communities will respond is essential to conserving biodiversity...

  8. 75 FR 51238 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... the conference room of the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Building, 319 North Carbon Avenue...

  9. 76 FR 28416 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... in the conference room of the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, 319 North Carbonville Road, Price...

  10. 76 FR 4281 - Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Forest Service Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Manti-La Sal National Forest Resource Advisory Committee will... Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Building, 319 North Carbonville Road, Price, Utah. Written comments...

  11. Effects of the 1976 Seney National Wildlife Refuge wildfire on wildlife and wildlife habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 1976 a wildfire burned 260 square-km on the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  12. Wildlife Management Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Parker River National Wildlife Refuge provided an average of 1,411,000 duck use days during the 7-year period (1954-1960), with a high of 2,270,000 use days in...

  13. Massive wildlife project outlined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article on the Chase Lake Prairie Project that is centered on the Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Over the next 11 years the project aims to support 1.3...

  14. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  15. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  16. Future of America’s Forest and Rangelands: Forest Service 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife and fish, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, wilderness, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources. The outlook for U.S. resources is largely influenced by a set of scenarios...

  17. The development and use of best practices in forest watersheds using GIS and simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun

    1998-01-01

    Forest watersheds provide timber and water, wildlife and fisheries habitat, and recreational opportunities. However, not an entire watershed is equally suited for each activity. Steeper slopes may be better left forested and used for wildlife habitat, while more gentle slopes of the watershed could be used for timber production. Logging steep slopes can lead to soil...

  18. Family caregivers' views on coordination of care in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Collaboration between family caregivers and health professionals in specialised hospitals or community-based primary healthcare systems can be challenging. During the course of severe chronic disease, several health professionals might be involved at a given time, and the patient......'s illness may be unpredictable or not well understood by some of those involved in the treatment and care. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and expectations of family caregivers for persons with Huntington's disease concerning collaboration with healthcare professionals. METHODS......: To shed light on collaboration from the perspectives of family caregivers, we conducted an explorative, qualitative interview study with 15 adult participants experienced from caring for family members in all stages of Huntington's disease. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation, a cross...

  19. Psychodynamic theory and counseling in predictive testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassicker, Roslyn J

    2005-04-01

    This paper revisits psychodynamic theory, which can be applied in predictive testing counseling for Huntington's Disease (HD). Psychodynamic theory has developed from the work of Freud and places importance on early parent-child experiences. The nature of these relationships, or attachments are reflected in adult expectations and relationships. Two significant concepts, identification and fear of abandonment, have been developed and expounded by the psychodynamic theorist, Melanie Klein. The processes of identification and fear of abandonment can become evident in predictive testing counseling and are colored by the client's experience of growing up with a parent affected by Huntington's Disease. In reflecting on family-of-origin experiences, clients can also express implied expectations of the future, and future relationships. Case examples are given to illustrate the dynamic processes of identification and fear of abandonment which may present in the clinical setting. Counselor recognition of these processes can illuminate and inform counseling practice.

  20. Abnormalities in the tricarboxylic Acid cycle in Huntington disease and in a Huntington disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Nima N; Xu, Hui; Bonica, Joseph; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Cortes, Etty P; Park, Larry C; Arjomand, Jamshid; Gibson, Gary E

    2015-06-01

    Glucose metabolism is reduced in the brains of patients with Huntington disease (HD). The mechanisms underlying this deficit, its link to the pathology of the disease, and the vulnerability of the striatum in HD remain unknown. Abnormalities in some of the key mitochondrial enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, including the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, may contribute to these deficits. Here, activities for these enzymes and select protein levels were measured in human postmortem cortex and in striatum and cortex of an HD mouse model (Q175); mRNA levels encoding for these enzymes were also measured in the Q175 mouse cortex. The activities of PDHC and nearly all of the TCA cycle enzymes were dramatically lower (-50% to 90%) in humans than in mice. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase increased with HD in human (35%) and mouse (23%) cortex. No other changes were detected in the human HD cortex or mouse striatum. In Q175 cortex, there were increased activities of PDHC (+12%) and aconitase (+32%). Increased mRNA levels for succinyl thiokinase (+88%) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (+64%) suggested an upregulation of the TCA cycle. These patterns of change differ from those reported in other diseases, which may offer unique metabolic therapeutic opportunities for HD patients.

  1. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  2. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego-Balaguer, R; Couette, M; Dolbeau, G; Dürr, A; Youssov, K; Bachoud-Lévi, A-C

    2008-11-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage Huntington's disease patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the 20 age- and education-matched controls. Huntington's disease patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly

  3. Long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing in Huntington disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Marcela; Lejeune, Séverine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Lahlou-Laforêt, Khadija; Faudet, Anne; Cohen, David; Feingold, Josué; Durr, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Our study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease had two aims: the comparison of the psychological well-being and social adjustment of carriers and non-carriers of the mutation, and the identification of psychological determinants to improve care/support of testees. We performed a cross-sectional study of 351 persons who underwent presymptomatic testing. Those who had motor signs were excluded from the comparison of asymptomatic carrier and non-carriers. A struc...

  4. The structural involvement of the cingulate cortex in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola Z; Pedrick, Amy V; Say, Miranda J; Frost, Chris; Dar Santos, Rachelle; Coleman, Allison; Sturrock, Aaron; Craufurd, David; Stout, Julie C; Leavitt, Blair R; Barnes, Josephine; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I

    2011-08-01

    The impact of Huntington's disease neuropathology on the structure of the cingulate is uncertain, with evidence of both cortical enlargement and atrophy in this structure in early clinical disease. We sought to determine differences in cingulate volume between premanifest Huntington's disease and early Huntington's disease groups compared with controls using detailed manual measurements. Thirty controls, 30 subjects with premanifest Huntington's disease, and 30 subjects with early Huntington's disease were selected from the Vancouver site of the TRACK-HD study. Subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric assessment. The cingulate was manually delineated and subdivided into rostral, caudal, and posterior segments. Group differences in volume and associations with performance on 4 tasks thought to utilize cingulate function were examined, with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Cingulate volumes were, on average, 1.7 mL smaller in early Huntington's disease (P=.001) and 0.9 mL smaller in premanifest Huntington's disease (P=.1) compared with controls. Smaller volumes in subsections of the cingulate were associated with impaired recognition of negative emotions (P=.04), heightened depression (P=.009), and worse visual working memory performance (P=.01). There was no evidence of associations between volume and ability on a performance-monitoring task. This study disputes previous findings of enlargement of the cingulate cortex in Huntington's disease and instead suggests that the cingulate undergoes structural degeneration during early Huntington's disease with directionally consistent, nonsignificant differences seen in premanifest Huntington's disease. Cingulate atrophy may contribute to deficits in mood, emotional processing, and visual working memory in Huntington's disease.

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease with exclusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermon, Karen; De Rijcke, Martine; Lissens, Willy; De Vos, Anick; Platteau, Peter; Bonduelle, Maryse; Devroey, Paul; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2002-10-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant, late-onset disorder, for which the gene and the causative mutation have been known since 1993. Some at-risk patients choose for presymptomatic testing and can make reproductive choices accordingly. Others however, prefer not to know their carrier status, but may still wish to prevent the birth of a carrier child. For these patients, exclusion testing after prenatal sampling has been an option for many years. A disadvantage of this test is that unaffected pregnancies may be terminated if the parent at risk (50%) has not inherited the grandparental Huntington gene, leading to serious moral and ethical objections. As an alternative, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on embryos obtained in vitro may be proposed, after which only embryos free of risk are replaced. Embryos can then be selected, either by the amplification of the CAG repeat in the embryos without communicating results to the patients (ie non-disclosure testing), which brings its own practical and moral problems, or exclusion testing. We describe here the first PGD cycles for exclusion testing for Huntington's disease in five couples. Three couples have had at least one PGD cycle so far. One pregnancy ensued and a healthy female baby was delivered.

  6. iPSC-based drug screening for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningzhe; Bailus, Barbara J; Ring, Karen L; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by an expansion of the CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene. The disease generally manifests in middle age with both physical and mental symptoms. There are no effective treatments or cures and death usually occurs 10-20 years after initial symptoms. Since the original identification of the Huntington disease associated gene, in 1993, a variety of models have been created and used to advance our understanding of HD. The most recent advances have utilized stem cell models derived from HD-patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offering a variety of screening and model options that were not previously available. The discovery and advancement of technology to make human iPSCs has allowed for a more thorough characterization of human HD on a cellular and developmental level. The interaction between the genome editing and the stem cell fields promises to further expand the variety of HD cellular models available for researchers. In this review, we will discuss the history of Huntington's disease models, common screening assays, currently available models and future directions for modeling HD using iPSCs-derived from HD patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Informativeness of Early Huntington Disease Signs about Gene Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily; Eberly, Shirley W; Dorsey, E Ray; Kayson-Rubin, Elise; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira

    2015-01-01

    The cohort-level risk of Huntington disease (HD) is related to the age and symptom level of the cohort, but this relationship has not been made precise. To predict the evolving likelihood of carrying the Huntington disease (HD) gene for at-risk adults using age and sign level. Using data from adults with early signs and symptoms of HD linked to information on genetic status, we use Bayes' theorem to calculate the probability that an undiagnosed individual of a certain age and sign level has an expanded CAG repeat. Both age and sign levels have substantial influence on the likelihood of HD onset, and the probability of eventual diagnosis changes as those at risk age and exhibit (or fail to exhibit) symptoms. For example, our data suggest that in a cohort of individuals age 26 with a Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor score of 7-10 70% of them will carry the HD mutation. For individuals age 56, the same motor score suggests only a 40% chance of carrying the mutation. Early motor signs of HD, overall and the chorea subscore, were highly predictive of disease onset at any age. However, body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance scores were not as highly predictive. These results suggest that if researchers or clinicians are looking for early clues of HD, it may be more foretelling to look at motor rather than cognitive signs. Application of similar approaches could be used with other adult-onset genetic conditions.

  8. Contribution of imaging studies and neuro physiologic investigations to the diagnosis of Huntington`s chorea; L`imagerie medicale et les explorations neuro-physiologiques dans le diagnostic de la choree de Huntington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, J.M.; Turpin, J.CI. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 51 - Reims (France)

    1997-05-01

    Although Huntington`s disease was described in 1872, its diagnosis continues to rest on clinical grounds. Recently developed techniques for imaging the brain (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) or studying its function (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) have demonstrated only non specific abnormalities at the early stages of the disease, thus failing to improve the pre-symptomatic diagnosis. Neuro-physiologic investigations (evoked potentials, electromyogram, electroencephalogram) have been similarly unrewarding. Investigations are useful only as an laid to the differential diagnosis. Molecular biology technology is the only available tool for identifying high-risk individuals and establishing a definitive diagnosis of Huntington`s disease. (authors). 10 refs.

  9. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  10. Moving in three dimensions: effects of structural complexity on occurrence and activity of insectivorous bats in managed forest stands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Kirsten; Kaiser, Sonja; Böhm, Stefan; Nieschulze, Jens; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V

    2012-01-01

    1.  Forest management determines to a large degree the three‐dimensional arrangement of the vegetation in production forest systems and hence has an essential influence on habitat quality for wildlife...

  11. 75 FR 64617 - National Forest Products Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... conservation. Our Nation's forests provide us with clean water and air, wood, wildlife, recreation, and beauty...; and to produce raw materials like timber, fiber, and biomass. Earlier this year, I launched...

  12. FY11 - Forest Habitat Inventory Equipment for Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project procured data loggers for use throughout the Southeast Region by refuge forestry staff conducting strike team inventory and monitoring of forest...

  13. Collaboration and partnership in forest conservation: The role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    western .... reduction for socio-economic development faces challenges related to forest ..... In addition, 7.5% of the respondents heard of the laws and policies on local radio .... Most rural forestry projects, including wildlife reserves, have failed.

  14. Environmental Assessment of the Forest Habitat Management Plan Noxubee 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forest habitat management provides the single greatest opportunity to improve habitat conditions for the endangered red-cockated woodpecker (RCW), migratory birds,...

  15. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: 1 quantify...

  16. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: (1) quantify...

  17. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: (1) quantify...

  18. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: 1 quantify...

  19. A Multi-criterial Decision Support System for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Nute; Geneho Kim; Walter D. Potter; Mark J. Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Scott Thomasma; Deborah Bennett; Peter Kollasch

    1999-01-01

    We describe a research project that has as its goal development of a full-featured decision support system for managing forested land to satisfy multiple criteria represented as timber, wildlife, water, ecological, and wildlife objectives. The decision process proposed for what was originally conceived of as a Northeast Decision Model (NED) includes data acquisition,...

  20. Mexican Americans and the American Nation: A Response to Professor Huntington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican…

  1. PROBLEMS OF MODERNIZATION IN THE WORKS OF S. HUNTINGTON: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britikova E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interpretation of the mechanisms of modernization of the American scientist - Samuel Huntington, which sees modernization as a complex process with a very uncertain result. As a representative of the multilinear approach, Samuel Huntington proves the uniqueness of the modernization paths of each individual national system

  2. Huntington Disease: A Case Study of Early Onset Presenting as Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterhus, Pia; Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Wittkugel, Oliver; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by choreiform movement disturbances and dementia, usually with adult onset. The rare juvenile-onset Huntington disease differs from the adult phenotype. A case presenting twice, at age 10 with all the signs of a major depression and age 14 with mutism and…

  3. California's forest resources. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Preliminary Assessment was prepared in response to the California Forest Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977 (FRAPA). This Act was passed to improve the information base upon which State resource administrators formulate forest policy. The Act provides for this report and a full assessment by 1987 and at five year intervals thereafter. Information is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction to the forest resources assessment program; the forest area: a general description; classifications of the forest lands; the watersheds; forest lands and the air resource; fish and wildlife resources; the forested rangelands; the wilderness; forest lands as a recreation resource; the timber resource; wood energy; forest lands and the mineral, fossil fuels, and geothermal energy resources; mathematically modeling California's forest lands; vegetation mapping using remote sensing technology; important forest resources legislation; and, State and cooperative State/Federal forestry programs. Twelve indexes, a bibliography, and glossary are included. (JGB)

  4. Huntington disease and Huntington disease-like in a case series from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, R M; Souza, A F D; Furtado, G V; Gheno, T C; Silva, A L; Vargas, F R; Lima, M-A F D; Barsottini, O; Pedroso, J L; Godeiro, C; Salarini, D; Pereira, E T; Lin, K; Toralles, M-B; Saute, J A M; Rieder, C R; Quintas, M; Sequeiros, J; Alonso, I; Saraiva-Pereira, M L; Jardim, L B

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relative frequency of Huntington's disease (HD) and HD-like (HDL) disorders HDL1, HDL2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), SCA17, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian degeneration (DRPLA), benign hereditary chorea, neuroferritinopathy and chorea-acanthocytosis (CHAC), in a series of Brazilian families. Patients were recruited in seven centers if they or their relatives presented at least chorea, besides other findings. Molecular studies of HTT, ATXN2, TBP, ATN1, JPH3, FTL, NKX2-1/TITF1 and VPS13A genes were performed. A total of 104 families were ascertained from 2001 to 2012: 71 families from South, 25 from Southeast and 8 from Northeast Brazil. There were 93 HD, 4 HDL2 and 1 SCA2 families. Eleven of 104 index cases did not have a family history: 10 with HD. Clinical characteristics were similar between HD and non-HD cases. In HD, the median expanded (CAG)n (range) was 44 (40-81) units; R(2) between expanded HTT and age-at-onset (AO) was 0.55 (p=0.0001, Pearson). HDL2 was found in Rio de Janeiro (2 of 9 families) and Rio Grande do Sul states (2 of 68 families). We detected HD in 89.4%, HDL2 in 3.8% and SCA2 in 1% of 104 Brazilian families. There were no cases of HDL1, SCA17, DRPLA, neuroferritinopathy, benign hereditary chorea or CHAC. Only six families (5.8%) remained without diagnosis.

  5. History of the Wildlife Areas Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Wildlife Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife Management Area, John White Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a history of four management areas in Western New York: Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Management Area, Tonawanda Wildlife...

  6. Measurement of caudate nucleus area - a more accurate measurement for Huntington's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Abernethy, L.J. (Royal Infirmary, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Sellar, R.J. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1991-08-01

    Caudate nucleus atrophy occurs in Huntington's disease and methods of measuring this have been described using axial CT, but these are indirect and lack sensitivity. We measured caudate nucleus area (blind to the subjects' clinical state) in 30 subjects with or at risk of Huntington's disease, and in 100 normal age matched controls. Fifteen subjects with established symptomatic Huntington's disease, 3 with early symptoms, and 3 presymptomatic subjects (2 showing a high probability for the Huntington's disease gene on genetic testing, and one who has since developed symptoms) were correctly identified. Three normal (gene negative) family members were also correctly identified. Outcome is awaited in 6. CT caudate area measurement is simple and reproducible and we have found it to be a useful confirmatory test for Huntington's disease. (orig.).

  7. National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — When President Theodore Roosevelt made Florida's tiny Pelican Island a refuge for birds in 1903, he wrote the ¬first chapter of a great American conservation success...

  8. Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to standardize procedures to the extent that accurate and meaningful data will be obtained and recorded on a continuing basis at Bowdoin NWR...

  9. VT Wildlife Crossing Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) WCV describes the value of the Wildlife Habitat Suitability as it approaches the state highway system. This analysis was designed to use the...

  10. Clinical and counselling implications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashwood, A; Flinter, F

    2001-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that usually occurs in adult life. Individuals at risk can have a gene test before the onset of symptoms, and prenatal diagnosis is available. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for Huntington's disease is now available for couples in whom one partner has the gene for Huntington's disease. A licence to practise PGD is required from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, and there are several complex issues relating to PGD for Huntington's disease that require consideration. The partner of the Huntington's disease gene carrier should have a presymptomatic test to ensure accuracy in a PGD cycle. There should be a delay between blood sampling and testing for Huntington's disease to allow time for reflection and withdrawal from testing. All PGD treatment has an associated risk of misdiagnosis. If confirmatory prenatal testing is not undertaken after a successful PGD cycle, no confirmation of diagnosis will be obtained at birth. Guidelines indicate that individuals who are at risk cannot be tested before 18 years. There is concern over the ability of a child or adolescent to make an informed choice about testing before this age. Confirmatory testing at birth after PGD would be in direct contravention of these guidelines. In the UK, the law requires consideration of the welfare of children born after assisted conception treatment. Presenting symptoms of Huntington's disease may affect the parenting abilities of an affected individual. There is a need for an assessment of a patient's current Huntington's disease status and their planned provision of care of children if Huntington's disease affects parenting. It has been necessary to create a detailed working protocol for the management of PGD for Huntington's disease to address these issues.

  11. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  12. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  13. Wildlife crossings toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Many highways wind their way through excellent wildlife habitat. Florida’s highways slice through rare black bear habitat. Alaska struggles with moose-vehicle collisions. Grizzly bears in the northern Rockies are killed on highways or avoid crossing them, limiting them to smaller areas. Solutions are available, but the information is widely scattered. The Wildlife Crossings Toolkit gathers information in one location on proven solutions and lessons learned. Who can use the toolkit? Profession...

  14. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  15. Rapid Assessment for basal cavities on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge: Implications for Present and Future Bat Conservation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of mature forested areas on the refuge was done to examine trees with basal cavities for bats. Though the refuge supports many large diameter trees with basal...

  16. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  17. Revision and application of the LINKAGES model to simulate forest growth in central hardwood landscapes in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Dijak; Brice B. Hanberry; Jacob S. Fraser; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Frank R. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Context. Global climate change impacts forest growth and methods of modeling those impacts at the landscape scale are needed to forecast future forest species composition change and abundance. Changes in forest landscapes will affect ecosystem processes and services such as succession and disturbance, wildlife habitat, and production of forest...

  18. [Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Farallon National Wildlife Refuge, Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Farallon National Wildlife Refuge, and Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge outlines...

  19. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  20. Confronting the implications of wicked problems: changes needed in Sierra Nevada National Forest planning and problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Salwasser

    2004-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the fate of migratory deer in the Sierra Nevada was thought to be the major forest wildlife issue. Ten years later, agencies were building the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System to allow managers to integrate all terrestrial vertebrates with timber management in comprehensive National Forest planning. Another ten years after that, Tom...

  1. El trabajo interdisciplinar en la enfermedad de Huntington

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Hawrylak, María; Grau Rubio, Claudia; Hernández Lozano, David; Fernández Sastre, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Se argumenta la importancia del trabajo en equipo en la atención de las personas afectadas por la Enfermedad de Huntington y de sus familias, y se describen las principales funciones de los distintos profesionales que han de cubrir sus necesidades en cada una de las etapas de la enfermedad en función de las alteraciones y secuelas. Siguiendo esta premisa, se presenta el trabajo de intervención basado en la complementariedad de distintos profesionales que atienden y cuidan a las personas afect...

  2. ENFERMEDAD DE HUNTINGTON: MODELOS EXPERIMENTALES Y PERSPECTIVAS TERAPÉUTICAS

    OpenAIRE

    TERESA SERRANO SÁNCHEZ; LISETTE BLANCO LEZCANO; ROCÍO GARCÍA MINET; ESTEBAN ALBERTI AMADOR; IVÁN DÍAZ ARMESTO; NANCY PAVÓN FUENTE; LOURDES LORIGADOS PEDRE; MARÍA ELENA GONZÁLEZ FRAGUELA; JORGE FELIPE MONTERO LEÓN; LISIS MARTÍNEZ MARTÍ; MARÍA DE LOS ANGELES ROBINSON AGRAMONTE; LILIANA FRANCIS TURNER

    2011-01-01

    La enfermedad de Huntington (EH) es un trastorno degenerativo de Weiss de origen hereditario. Hasta el momento no existe un tratamiento efectivo para la enfermedad que inexorablemente después de transcurridos 15 a 20 años, evoluciona hacia incapa- cidad total o muerte. En este trabajo se revisan las características clínicas y morfológicas de la EH y los modelos experimentales más utilizados para su estudio tomando como fuente, artículos indexados en la base de datos Medline publicados en los ...

  3. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  4. Polyglutamine Aggregation in Huntington Disease: Does Structure Determine Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Guylaine; Djian, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited disease of the central nervous system. The mutational expansion of polyglutamine beyond a critical length produces a toxic gain of function in huntingtin and results in neuronal death. In the course of the disease, expanded huntingtin is proteolyzed, becomes abnormally folded, and accumulates in oligomers, fibrils, and microscopic inclusions. The aggregated forms of the expanded protein are structurally diverse. Structural heterogeneity may explain why polyglutamine-containing aggregates could paradoxically be either toxic or neuroprotective. When defined, the toxic structures could then specifically be targeted by prophylactic or therapeutic drugs aimed at inhibiting polyglutamine aggregation.

  5. Reduced gluconeogenesis and lactate clearance in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Signe M B; Campos, André

    2010-01-01

    We studied systemic and brain glucose and lactate metabolism in Huntington's disease (HD) patients in response to ergometer cycling. Following termination of exercise, blood glucose increased abruptly in control subjects, but no peak was seen in any of the HD patients (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 0.0 ± 0.2mM, P...... for gluconeogenesis in HD, possibly contributing to the clinical symptoms of HD. We propose that blood glucose concentration in the recovery from exercise can be applied as a liver function test in HD patients....

  6. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  7. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R C; Träger, Ulrike; Andre, Ralph; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  8. Mutant Huntingtin Does Not Affect the Intrinsic Phenotype of Human Huntington's Disease T Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R C Miller

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The peripheral innate immune system is dysregulated in Huntington's disease and may contribute to its pathogenesis. However, it is not clear whether or to what extent the adaptive immune system is also involved. Here, we carry out the first comprehensive investigation of human ex vivo T lymphocytes in Huntington's disease, focusing on the frequency of a range of T lymphocyte subsets, as well as analysis of proliferation, cytokine production and gene transcription. In contrast to the innate immune system, the intrinsic phenotype of T lymphocytes does not appear to be affected by the presence of mutant huntingtin, with Huntington's disease T lymphocytes exhibiting no significant functional differences compared to control cells. The transcriptional profile of T lymphocytes also does not appear to be significantly affected, suggesting that peripheral immune dysfunction in Huntington's disease is likely to be mediated primarily by the innate rather than the adaptive immune system. This study increases our understanding of the effects of Huntington's disease on peripheral tissues, while further demonstrating the differential effects of the mutant protein on different but related cell types. Finally, this study suggests that the potential use of novel therapeutics aimed at modulating the Huntington's disease innate immune system should not be extended to include the adaptive immune system.

  9. [Wildlife inventory plan : Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan describes methods for collecting migratory birds, upland birds, big game, predator, and small mammal surveys at Des Lacs National...

  10. Wildlife Inventory Plan Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this plan to determine how information is gathered for waterfowl and other wildlife species on the refuge. Other goals of this plan are 1) to...

  11. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Santee National Wildlife Refuge, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study of the Parasitology College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia....

  12. Wildlife Inventory Plan Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wildlife inventory procedures proposed in this plan will aid in accomplishing refuge objectives by enabling the refuge staff to arrive at a reasonable population...

  13. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Wapello District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of wildlife inventories is to provide sufficient data needed to manage the refuge toward its stated objectives, and to compile population data for...

  14. [Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge- Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan summarizes wildlife inventory procedures on the Brussels District of Mark Twain NWR. Objectives are: 1) to provide guidelines for conducting inventories...

  15. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Wildlife Inventory Plan : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the purpose and procedure to inventory the colonial waterbirds on the Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge. Species include American White...

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals for this Wildlife Inventory Plan for Minnesota Valley NWR are: (1) to provide as good a survey method as possible to estimate population levels of key...

  17. Wildlife Inventory Plan. Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Ortonville, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge's Wildlife Inventory Plan provides procedures for the following surveys; waterfowl populations, goose and duck production, cavity nesting ducks, marsh and...

  18. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines wildlife inventory procedures for Rice Lake NWR. Waterfowl inventories, breeding pair counts, brood counts, nest searches, weekly bird surveys,...

  19. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  20. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  1. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  2. Fishery management plan: Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office Wildlife...

  3. Presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a world wide survey. The World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Huntington's Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    World wide data on presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease using closely linked DNA markers show that 1479 persons at risk received completed test results up to the end of 1991. Testing has been carried out in 19 countries, with at least 88 centres involved, and numbers have levelled off after a peak in 1990. Only 5% of those at risk have been tested in six countries with the longest established programmes. Continued monitoring of international data will be of value in assessing the s...

  4. Collaborative multi-species monitoring in the Southern Rockies LCC: Impacts of forest restoration treatments on ponderosa pine ecosystems in Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project will expand the scope of forest restoration treatment monitoring for Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration projects in 3 key ways: 1) augment...

  5. Polymorphisms in the CAG repeat--a source of error in Huntington disease DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Fimmel, A; Fung, D; Trent, R J

    2000-12-01

    Five of 400 patients (1.3%), referred for Huntington disease DNA testing, demonstrated a single allele on CAG alone, but two alleles when the CAG + CCG repeats were measured. The PCR assay failed to detect one allele in the CAG alone assay because of single-base silent polymorphisms in the penultimate or the last CAG repeat. The region around and within the CAG repeat sequence in the Huntington disease gene is a hot-spot for DNA polymorphisms, which can occur in up to 1% of subjects tested for Huntington disease. These polymorphisms may interfere with amplification by PCR, and so have the potential to produce a diagnostic error.

  6. Blackwater National Wildlife Complex: Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Susquehanna National Wildlife Refuge, Martin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Presymptomatic diagnosis in Huntington's disease: the Mexican experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Maria Elisa; Ochoa, Adriana; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Rodríguez, Yaneth; Chávez, Mireya; Boll, Catherine; Yescas, Petra; Macías, Rosario; Rasmussen, Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder, for which there is no effective treatment. Predictive testing (PT) for this illness began in 1986 and by 1993 it became more precise after cloning of the gene and the discovery of a CAG repeat expansion as the underlying cause. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the implementation and results of a PT program in a group of at-risk Mexican individuals with 12 years of follow-up. Our PT program conforms to the guidelines proposed by the International Huntington Association and the HD Working group of the World Federation of Neurology. Seventy-five individuals requested the testing, four of them did not fulfill the inclusion criteria, and five abandoned the program voluntarily before receiving the test results. Therefore, 66 results were delivered to 41 noncarriers and 25 mutation carriers. We did not have any catastrophic event, but 4 individuals with normal results and 11 mutation carriers were depressed. Even if this is a small sample, it is the first report of PT in a Latin-American population in which we have been faced with the same problems referred to in larger series.

  8. Pluripotent Stem Cells Models for Huntington's Disease: Prospects and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard L. Carter; Anthony W.S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cellular models have shown great promise in the study of a number of neurological disorders.Several advantages of using a stem cell model include the potential for cells to derive disease relevant neuronal cell types,providing a system for researchers to monitor disease progression during neurogenesis,along with serving as a platform for drug discovery.A number of stem cell derived models have been employed to establish in vitro research models of Huntington's disease that can be used to investigate cellular pathology and screen for drug and cell-based therapies.Although some progress has been made,there are a number of challenges and limitations that must be overcome before the true potential of this research strategy is achieved,In this article we review current stem cell models that have been reported,as well as discuss the issues that impair these studies.We also highlight the prospective application of Huntington's disease stem cell models in the development of novel therapeutic strategies and advancement of personalized medicine.

  9. Progress in studies of gene therapy for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Fan-ying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a kind of inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement problems, cognitive decline and psychiatry disturbance. HD is caused by mutation in gene IT -15 involving the expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG repeat encoding glutamine, which leads to abnormal conformation of huntingtin (Htt protein and finally emerge cytotoxic functions. Currently, HD remains a fatal untreatable disease. Gene therapy for HD discussed in this review is under preclinical studies. Silencing of mutant IT-15 via RNA interference (RNAi or antisense oligonucleotide (ASO has shown some effectiveness in mouse model studies. Increasing the clearance of mutant Htt protein could be achieved by viral-mediated delivery of anti-Htt intrabodies (iAbs or induction of autophagy, and beneficial results have been observed. Ectopic expression of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, mediated either by viral vectors or transplantation of genetically modified cells, has also been proved to be effective. Other gene-modifying methods aiming at correction of transcriptional dysregulation by histone modification, activation of endogenous neural stem cells, and normalization of calcium signaling and mitochondrial function, are also under intensive research. Gene therapy for Huntington's disease is promising, yet a long way remains from preclinical studies to clinical trials.

  10. Clinical diagnosis and management in early Huntington's disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefer J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Schiefer,1,* Cornelius J Werner,1,* Kathrin Reetz1,2 1Euregional Huntington Center, 2Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA – Translational Brain Medicine, Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This review focuses on clinical diagnosis and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic options in early stages of the autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD. The available literature has been reviewed for motor, cognitive, and psychiatric alterations, which are the three major symptom domains of this devastating progressive disease. From a clinical point of view, one has to be aware that the HD phenotype can vary highly across individuals and during the course of the disease. Also, symptoms in juvenile HD can differ substantially from those with adult-onset of HD. Although there is no cure of HD and management is limited, motor and psychiatric symptoms often respond to pharmacotherapy, and nonpharmacological approaches as well as supportive care are essential. International treatment recommendations based on study results, critical statements, and expert opinions have been included. This review is restricted to symptomatic and supportive approaches since all attempts to establish a cure for the disease or modifying therapies have failed so far. Keywords: Neurodegeneration, clinical picture, early symptoms, therapy, treatment

  11. Ethical considerations of genetic presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Pekar, Alicia; Sikula, Andrew; Lurie, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to determine if there is adequate ethical justification for presymptomatic genetic testing on potential Huntington's disease patients. Huntington's disease is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by midlife onset which consists of cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration. Although genetic testing has traditionally been guided by the principle of autonomy, severe psychological consequences such as depression, anxiety, survival guilt, and suicide have complicated the ethical issue of providing a presymptomatic yet definitive diagnosis for an incurable disease. An analysis of available articles yielded inconclusive findings, namely due to insufficient evidence, self-selection bias of test participants, or lack of a longitudinal design. Additional results indicated psychological distress is not solely associated with test result, but rather with individual characteristics including, but not limited to, psychological history, test motivation, level of preparation, social support, and age. In the interest of upholding the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, it is recommended that medical professionals follow strict protocol, provide extensive counseling, and employ vigilance when assessing at-risk individuals for HD presymptomatic test eligibility to ensure psychological well-being.

  12. Comprehensive care in Huntington's disease: a physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Martha A

    2007-04-30

    Huntington's disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with wide-ranging effects on affected individuals and their families. Until a cure is found for the disease, patients and their families will continue to need care over years, even generations. The ideal care for HD is provided by a team, led by a physician, with input from rehabilitation therapists, nurses, psychologists, genetic counselors, social workers, and other health care providers. The goals of care are to maximize the quality of life at all points through the course of the disease, in part by anticipating problems that are likely to arise at the next stage of the illness. We describe below an approach to comprehensive care, and introduce the concept of the "Huntington disease molecule", in which the patient, in the center, is surrounded by a shell of immediate and extended family members, with bonds extended in multiple directions to provider who can give appropriate medical care, education, crisis management, research opportunities, address family issues, maximize function, and prepare for the future.

  13. Deep brain stimulation in Huntington's disease: assessment of potential targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayur; Deogaonkar, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that has very few effective therapeutic interventions. Since the disease has a defined neural circuitry abnormality, neuromodulation could be an option. Case reports, original research, and animal model studies were selected from the databases of Medline and PubMed. All related studies published up to July 2014 were included in this review. The following search terms were used: "Deep brain stimulation," "DBS," "thalamotomy," "pallidal stimulation," and "Huntington's Disease," "HD," "chorea," or "hyperkinetic movement disorders." This review examines potential nodes in the HD circuitry that could be modulated using deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. With rapid evolution of imaging and ability to reach difficult targets in the brain with refined DBS technology, some phenotypes of HD could potentially be treated with DBS in the near future. Further clinical studies are warranted to validate the efficacy of neuromodulation and to determine the most optimal target for HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional impairment of precerebral arteries in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Jan; Cankar, Ksenija; Pretnar, Janja; Zaletel, Marjan; Kobal, Lucijan; Teran, Natasa; Melik, Ziva

    2017-01-15

    Cardiovascular pathology of Huntington disease (HD) appears to be complex; while microvascular dysfunction seems to appear early, deaths from cardiomyopathy and stroke might occur in the late phase of HD. Our study evaluated global risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), structure and function of precerebral arteries in 41 HD subjects and 41 matched controls. HD subjects were divided into groups by the United Huntington disease rating scale (presymptomatic-PHD, early-EHD, midstage-MHD and late-LHD). CHD risk factors assessment and Doppler examination of precerebral arteries were performed, including measurements of the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and parameters indicating local carotid artery distensibility (stiffness index β, pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elasticity module and carotid artery compliance). In the HD and controls we identified a comparable number of non-obstructive plaques (50% lumen narrowing) were found. There was significantly increased IMT in MHD. In PHD and EHD the parameters of arterial stiffness were significantly higher and the carotid artery compliance was significantly lower. Our results reveal functional vascular pathology in PHD, EHD, and MHD. Precerebral arteries dysfunction in HD therefore appears to be mostly functional and in agreement with recently described autonomic nervous system changes in HD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and genetic data of Huntington disease in Moroccan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouche, Ahmed; Regragui, Wafaa; Lamghari, Hind; Khaldi, Khadija; Birouk, Nazha; Lytim, Safaa; Bellamine, Soufiane; Kriouile, Yamna; Bouslam, Naima; Haddou, El Hachmia Ait Ben; Faris, Mustapha Alaoui; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) occurs worldwide with prevalence varying from 0.1 to 10/100,000 depending of the ethnic origin. Since no data is available in the Maghreb population, the aim of this study is to describe clinical and genetic characteristics of Huntington patients of Moroccan origin. Clinical and genetics data of 21 consecutive patients recruited from 2009 to 2014 from the outpatient clinic of six medical centers were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Twenty one patients from 17 families were diagnosed positive for the IT15 gene CAG expansion. Clinical symptoms were predominantly motor (19/21). Twelve patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders, and 11 patients had cognitive disorders essentially of memory impairment. Analysis of genetic results showed that 5 patients had reduced penetrant (RP) alleles and 16 had fully penetrant (FP) alleles. The mean CAG repeat length in patients with RP alleles was 38.4 ± 0.54, and 45.37 ± 8.30 in FP alleles. The age of onset and the size of the CAG repeat length showed significant inverse correlation (p <0.001, r = -0.754). Clinical and genetic data of Moroccan patients are similar to those of Caucasian populations previously reported in the literature.

  16. Landscape perspective on energy forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaerbaeck, Erik; Becht, Peter [SLU, Dept. of Landscape Planning, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However, if the benefits of energy crops as elements of the landscape are added, the socio-economic value could be substantial. Such landscape benefits include increasing biodiversity in the arable landscape, wind-shelter against soil erosion and snow, shelter for wildlife, the reduction of nitrogen leaching, views of the landscape and aesthetic considerations, and recovery of the organic soil component of arable land. An interesting question is whether or not energy forests grown on arable land are profitable from a socio-economic point of view when considering a more holistic evaluation of all the largely beneficial impacts of energy forests. (Author)

  17. A preliminary test of an ecological classification system for the Oconee National Forest using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Richard D. Rightmyer; Erika M. Mavity; Samuel G. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    An ecological classification system (ECS) has been developed for use in evaluating management, conservation and restoration options for forest and wildlife resources on the Oconee National Forest. Our study was the initial evaluation of the ECS to determine if the units at each level differed in potential productivity. We used loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  18. Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Project WILD's new high school curriculum, "Science and Civics: Sustaining Wildlife", is designed to serve as a guide for involving students in environmental action projects aimed at benefitting the local wildlife found in a community. It involves young people in decisions affecting people, wildlife, and their shared habitat in the community. The…

  19. Forest sustainability: an approach to definition and assessment at the landscape level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus

    1997-01-01

    Forest sustainability is a concept for the desired condition of forest ecosystems all over the world. The essential aspects of sustainable forests differ tremendously, however, among peoples of the world. Parks and wilderness areas, wildlife preserves, watershed protection areas, multiple-use forestry, and short-rotation tree farming all are sustainable, from some...

  20. Tropical forests and fragmentation: A case of South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce Marcot; Rohitkumar Patel

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an ecological assessment of tropical forests at stand and landscape levels to provide knowledge, tools and, indicators to evaluate specific diversity patterns and related ecological processes happening in these tropical forest conditions; and for monitoring landscape changes for managing forest and wildlife resources of Jhum (shifting cultivation)...

  1. Bird response to future climate and forest management focused on mitigating climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaymi J. LeBrun; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Jacob S. Fraser; Hong S. He; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2016-01-01

    Context. Global temperatures are projected to increase and affect forests and wildlife populations. Forest management can potentially mitigate climateinduced changes through promoting carbon sequestration, forest resilience, and facilitated change. Objectives. We modeled direct and indirect effects of climate change on avian...

  2. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  3. Forecasting long-term acorn production with and without oak decline using forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Chad E. Keyser; Leah C. Rathburn; Anita K. Rose; Todd M. Fearer; Henry W. McNab

    2013-01-01

    Acorns are important as wildlife food and for oak regeneration, but production is highly variable, posing a challenge to forest managers targeting acorn production levels. Forest managers need tools to predict acorn production capability tailored to individual landscapes and forest management scenarios, adjusting for oak mortality and stand development over time. We...

  4. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge and Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major thrust of wildlife inventory on the refuges is towardscensusing waterfowl. During the spring and fall waterfowl, baldeagle and cormorant use is based...

  5. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fallon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fallon, Stillwater and Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuges are located in northwest Nevada and are administered by the refuge administrative office in Fallon,...

  6. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fallon National Wildlife refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather conditions for the year were near normal and had no significant effect on refuge outputs or operations. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area was plagued with...

  7. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife populations across the United States are benefiting from improved wildlife management techniques. However, these benefits also create new challenges including overpopulation, disease, increased winter kill, and forage degradation. These issues have become the challenges for natural resource managers and landowners. Specifically, elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Gunnison River Valley of Colorado are growing and causing increased resource damage on public and private lands. On public lands elk threaten sage grouse habitat and compete with domestic livestock for available forage; on private lands they diminish available livestock forage. Management of elk and elk habitat in this area is a shared responsibility of the NPS (Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park and Curecanti National Recreation Area), BLM (Uncompahgre Field Office), USFS (Gunnison National Forest), and the CDOW (Colorado Division of Wildlife). All of these agencies participate in this research and adaptive management project.

  8. Chemicals and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Springer, P.F.

    1958-01-01

    Short paper that reviews some of the facts about effects of insecticides on wildlife and states principles that should be followed for maximum safety in treatment. These principles include minimal doses, good ground-to-plane control to avoid overdoses, and least possible pollution of water areas.

  9. Digital bedrock geologic map of parts of the Huntington, Richmond, Bolton and Waterbury quadrangles, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG95-9A Thompson, PJ�and Thompson, TB, 1995, Digital bedrock geologic map of parts of the Huntington, Richmond, Bolton and Waterbury quadrangles,...

  10. Recent Trends in Detection of Huntingtin and Preclinical Models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Neelima; Das, Nandita G; Das, Sudip K

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by neuronal cell death in the brain. Molecular biology techniques to detect and quantify huntingtin protein in biological samples involve fluorescence imaging, western blotting, and PCR. Modified cell lines are widely used as models for Huntington's disease for preclinical screening of drugs to study their ability to suppress the expression of huntingtin. Although worm and fly species have been experimented on as models for Huntington's disease, the most successful animal models have been reported to be primates. This review critically analyses the molecular biology techniques for detection and quantitation of huntingtin and evaluates the various animal species for use as models for Huntington's disease.

  11. The Current Status of Neural Grafting in the Treatment of Huntington's Disease. A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wijeyekoon, Ruwani; Barker, Roger A

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating, fatal, autosomal dominant condition in which the abnormal gene codes for a mutant form of huntingtin that causes widespread neuronal dysfunction and death...

  12. Hypothalamic Alterations in Huntington's Disease Patients : Comparison with Genetic Rodent Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wamelen, D.J.; Aziz, N A; Roos, R A C; Swaab, D F

    2014-01-01

    Unintended weight loss, sleep and circadian disturbances and autonomic dysfunction are prevalent features of Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat sequence in the HTT gene. These features form a substantial contributi

  13. 77 FR 51064 - Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Huntington Foam LLC, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated May 21, 2012, the State...

  14. The role of tau in the pathological process and clinical expression of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuono, Romina; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; de Silva, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    -mortem brain samples from patients with Huntington's disease (n = 16) compared to cases with a known tauopathy and healthy controls. Next, we undertook a genotype-phenotype analysis of a large cohort of patients with Huntington's disease (n = 960) with a particular focus on cognitive decline. We report...... not only on the tau pathology in the Huntington's disease brain but also the association between genetic variation in tau gene and the clinical expression and progression of the disease. We found extensive pathological inclusions containing abnormally phosphorylated tau protein that co-localized in some...... instances with mutant HTT. We confirmed this related to the disease process rather than age, by showing it is also present in two patients with young-onset Huntington's disease (26 and 40 years old at death). In addition we demonstrate that tau oligomers (suggested to be the most likely neurotoxic tau...

  15. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease : A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odish, Omar F F; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Hosseini, Hadi; Van Den Bogaard, Simon J A; Roos, Raymund A C; Leemans, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To longitudinally investigate the connectome in different stages of Huntington's disease (HD) by applying graph theoretical analysis to diffusion MRI data. Experimental design We constructed weighted structural networks and calculated their topological properties. Twenty-two prem

  16. Evaluation of tetrathiomolybdate in the R6/2 model of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallaksen-Greene, Sara J; Janiszewska, Anita; Benton, Kasha; Hou, Guoqing; Dick, Robert; Brewer, George J; Albin, Roger L

    2009-03-06

    Huntington disease is an uncommon autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein. The proximate mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration are unknown. Copper ions may play a role in Huntington disease by promoting oligomerization of expanded polyglutamine repeat protein fragments. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate is a copper complexing agent with demonstrated tolerability and efficacy in another neurodegenerative disorder, Wilson disease. We evaluated ammonium tetrathiomolybdate in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate treatment delayed the onset of motor dysfunction in R6/2 mice. There was a trend towards reduced striatal degeneration, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate in this model. Given its known tolerability in humans with neurodegeneration, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate could be considered as a candidate for clinical trials in Huntington disease.

  17. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  18. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...

  19. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  20. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources;...